About the electric intensity of the isolated column.
of GT Fechner. Add to my well-known textbooks of physics I find everywhere stated that when isolated at both poles voltaic pile, an indifference point fall in the middle, that the intensity from there to both poles would progress to uniform and the intensity of both poles itself is the same. It is including in Gehler's Dictionary (Vol. IV p 832) and in the mathematical supplement to Baumgartner's theory of nature (p. 808) stated 1) . Meanwhile can easily show from the accepted fundamental laws of galvanic electricity, that this could only then be correct if the electrical capacity 2) (derivation sizes) both poles are equal to each other, and if both the pairs of plates in the column itself are equal to each other, or rather, have the same electrical capacity. Equally, experience teaches that in proportion as the electrical capacity of a pole against the other increases, its intensity decreases towards that of the latter.
In my own textbook of galvanism, which is on the translation of the Biot's textbook as the third part, page 42, the influence of the different capacities of the poles of the exact dependence of the intensity is indeed considered, but it is not derived, and at all the whole theory have been only insufficiently represented the isolated column.
In electric capacity of the body I understand that (relative) amount of electricity, which they set with the same electricity source at the same time in the same way in connection record (relative to an arbitrary unit).Known, this capacity depends partly on the size of the surface, and partly by the form, but not of the matter, the body, can also be enlarged by condensing particularly supervening causes. In the above, I will always put the electrical capacity of the surfaces simply proportional. The generally held case where they are not, by taking place because of the shape of local condensations of electricity (at the edges, corners, etc.), can easily be attributed to the above by adding, in substitution of capacities in the above formulas, all of these Make enlarged in proportion to the compression adopts and then multiplying the resulting intensity of the formulas for these posts with the compression ratio. The case of equal capacity of the poles to each other and the plate pairs with each other, come in experiments with a column not easy before, because upon examination of the intensity of a pole or a plate in the middle of the column (not wofern to the transmission through a test slices served) is , the capacity of that pole or the relevant approach plate by the electrometer, probably even the capacitor increases, from which circumstance it has also already explained quite adequately why the capacitor does not provide useful services for isolated pillars. It can not be without benefit accordingly to give the conditions prevailing here more detailed provisions. This can be easily deduced from the following sentences: 3)
deserves remark that only those at the touch below free electricity the panels
is considered not condensed on the contact surfaces, which, since the plates remain undivided, the phenomena does not enter into play. 1) The Gesammtquantitäten positive and negative electricity, respektiv to find the two plates of an electric motor itself, are equal to each other, which follows from its formation by decomposition of natural kinds of electricity, and at least in certain cases, it is easy to prove by experience. 2) The sum of the intensities on both disks, or if you are the negative sign of the intensity of negative electricity, their difference at all change their capacity remains a constant size.This sentence, although my knowledge of that is a lack of direct experimental probation is so well supported by the general agreement of all to be drawn from inferences with the experience that we believe it to be generally justified as safe enough and can hold 4) .
Interestingly enough, that this law proved himself to be the case where both plates of an electric motor at the same time with the ground (and in the same time relating to themselves) in conjunction. They are both equally good line through the ground-connection, so they give the capacitor equal to sharp swings, or is that of a weaker, which communicates through better management with the ground. So we have here a case of bodies which are permanently electrically charged regardless of non-isolation. If only one set of two metals with the ground connection, so its effect on sounds entirely. 3) The electricity developed on each plate can be spread in touch with her setconducting surfaces with uniform intensity over all. As it seemed to me that the latter proposition could be questioned even if not rather pick up the intensity with distance from the contact surface, so I made the following experiment in relation to it. A bead of double übersponnenem very thin copper wire multiplier having a length 16000-17000 par. Had foot was removed at both ends of silk, and the thus set an end piece with a zinc compound in that a very small Drahtendchen, only a few lines of length protrude from the zinc pieces remained. I liked now this, the contact point very close Endchen, or by a wire length of more than 16000 F. which is separate end the capacitor discharged, while I took the zinc with the hand, yet behaved the strength of the eruption in both cases very same. I have repeated this experiment at different times, with outstretched, then, of course, smaller wire lengths. Occasionally, I will mention here an observation that is perhaps not without interest, by showing how by means of the multiplier is able to make the distributive impact of electricity of a simple electric motor noticeable. A very thin wire multiplier of not quite 3000 F. length was wound with more than 3000 turns to a copper frame. Since the maker, had neglected to round off the edges on the bars of the frame belonging, I harbored, although he revealed the expected effect, but the concern, these edges of the frame could cut in some places in the silk coating of the wire, and thereby bring several points of the wire into one that debilitating effect, alien communication. To convince me thereof, I attached to one end of the wire a zinc
piece, and discharged, while the zinc was with the ground connection, the isolated held racks on condensing electroscope from the point that in the case of a communication of the frame with the wire, the frame would have negative electricity, which acquired the wire by touching the zinc share. In fact, a substantial negative deflection. I had therefore to behave the multiplier the supposedly thereby proven inconvenience, handle the whole wire, blunt the edges of the frame belonging and the same also with silk ties are so intertwine that the wire after but repeated winding no possible contact points more to the metal of could find frame. Nevertheless, joined repetition of the experiment, to my surprise, once again, the negative rash, which contrast with omission of the zinc piece was omitted entirely. Since the metallic contact of the wire and rack was made impossible, so could be justified, than the fact that the copper wire windings electrically directly made by contact with the zinc acted by distributing the parts of the frame to the success of this experiment in nothing else they were wound, and by the positive electricity remained bound to the entwined bodies, however, the negative was driven back into the free from the wire locations. That this explanation is the correct one, resulted partly from the circumstances of the experiment 5) , and partly from the fact that a different multiplier, with an even greater number of turns, the rack was also wrapped with silk, showed exactly the same behavior to an even greater degree while I and a few turns of thick übersponnenen could not see anything clear it with other multipliers. Finally I have also found the same in metallic tubes and cylinders with übersponnenem wire (makeshift electromagnetic experiments) were wrapped, again, so much so that the deflection produced by the secondary electricity noticeably (as far as one that is in accordance with the fluctuations of gold leaf can judge) had to be obtained with the same intensity through the primary, although never a major.
The rash disappeared, namely, when the frame while it was attached to the condenser, also stood with the ground connection, but because if he had dated from metallic communication of the frame with the wire, even the electric effect, according to the of note would ever notice, must continue to exist, since the zinc with the ground, and indeed deliberately through better management than the frame communicated. Also, the rash with insulated frame was considerably weaker than the one I received when I, even when of attached plate of zinc discharged the copper wire at the electric meter. One would think that even without the help of a copper condenser electricity Multiplikatorwulstes with attached zinc plate would be making noticeable, because if all coils are electrically negative, it seems, this large sum of electricity strong effects would be capable. Meanwhile, I have not succeeded by mounting such a bead on my so sensitive electrometer to prove this; disputed because the turns of a multiplier wire when they are wrapped together not absorb as much electricity, because of the repulsive power of electricity, as if the wire stretched would be. After this digression I return to the subject. First, I want to facilitate the overview of results, it then tell the resulting formulas, particularly its derivative. It is a regularly structured column: where etc., that which begins with copper, zinc
includes copper, zinc, moist conductor, copper, zinc. It consists of n pairs of plates with ( n - l) located between them moist conductors. The pole plates may have any capacity; otherwise but were all lying within the capacity of the column zinc plates are identical, just as all the copper plates, just as all wet head, but without mutual equality of capacity, such as the zinc- and copper plates, is assumed. The free intensity, which would take any disk if it would be with the other heterogeneous, connected with the same surface and shape to an electric motor will, = 1. It is Z , the capacity of the zinc plate, all it added dissipation sizes included in the calculation, C just as the the Kupferpolplatte, S the capacity of all other column (excluding the two pole plates). A = S + Z + C is the capacity of the whole column, I z , the intensity of the free Zinkpols, I c of the Kupferpols. Apply if we give the negative electricity, the negative sign, the following two equations:
×××××××××××××(1) Consequences are to: l) the capacity of the pole columns C and Z to the total capacity S of the other column members disappears, the intensity of the two poles equal to each other column, as well as the ratio of capacitances C , and Z may be arranged. 2) Conversely, if the capacities of the two pillars poles are so large that the total capacity of the remaining columns limbs disappears against any of them, so the intensities of the poles are inversely as their capacities. 3) The sum of the intensities of both poles (apart from the sign) remains, as well as the capacity of the poles may change, always = 2 n is common ground that this would still be the case even if you only so in both the ground could put connection that they do not yet communicated among themselves, provided that such communication does not in equilibrium, for which the above formulas are valid permits. However, they will still find their application in the case where the electricity of a metallic limb propagate through the whole column of the same to another, infinitely faster than can flow through the unifying leader, as he teach really well-known experimentally that the worse the head of the connecting poles of a column conductor in relation to the elements of the column itself, so as to come closer to the intensities of the columns where an isolated pole column. In the simple chain, which can be considered for application of the formulas (1) it as a reduced column on its polar plates, that condition will at closing through a wet head really take, because as there is no other moist conductor occurs between both poles, so can, in fact, the only electricity through the metallic members of the same breed almost infinitely faster to unite as by the damp wire through closing. In determining the intensity of the plates located between the poles we always want to start counting from Kupferpol so that the first copper plate of Kupferpol itself,
the first zinc plate the hot Kupferpol the adjacent zinc plate. The intensity of the m- th zinc plate hot I zm that the m -th copper plate I cm , then we have: I zm = I c + 2 m I zm = I c + 2 ( m - 1) ××××××××× (2) where not to forget that I c , di is negative, ie to take the intensity of the Kupferpols subtractive. In case of equal capacity both poles, where I c = - n , these formulas go over into: I zm = 2 m - n I cm = 2 ( m - 1) - n ××××××××× (3) which is in agreement with the usual information about the isolated column. It can be seen from the formulas (2) that what relationship might exist between the capacity of both poles, but the intensity difference from one plate to the same following always 2 remains (pending (see above) adopted unit), as in the case of equal capacity so that it always suffices to know the intensity of the poles and the number of plate pairs, in order to determine the intensity of all zwischenbefindlichen plates, the neutral point will always have to move from the center closer to the poles of a larger capacity and is determined by the value of m, which is obtained if in the formulas (2) l zm and I cm is zero. Actually, formulas (2) for trials without much meaning, if not about testing the intensity by means of an isolated test discs can be done, otherwise the capacity of the tested plate is increased by approach of the electrometer itself, while the previous formulas an equal capacity all pairs of plates, except the poles, presuppose. It would therefore be useful to specify the formulas for the case where a disk between the poles of a different capacity, as has the rest somewhere. Let us assume that the capacitance of the p- th zinc plate (calculated from the Kupferpol an) is the capacity of E was added (which E here, the p- th plate rightful itself, capacity not including) the intensity I zp the p- th zinc plate is given by: (4) In this formula, as in the following, expressed A total capacity of the column with the exclusion of e from, and S , the capacity of the column, with the exclusion of ( C + C + E ), d . hwith the exclusion of the poles and the added capacitance, so that, therefore, S here, as before = A - ( Z + C ). On the other hand, the capacity of e to p- th added copper plate, so you need to find their intensity to substitute in the previous formula only ( p - l) for p. By comparing the above formula (2) wherein the value of I c from (l) to substitute, one finds (by p = m sets), that the intensity of any disk in the column by the addition
of capacity eto her a weakening in the relationship between experiences, that is, that the new intensity to the former behaves like the earlier total capacity of the column to the new to e increased. However, not only the intensity of the p- th plate to which the addition of E occurs, thereby changes, but also the intensity of every other plate in the column and the pole itself In case the capacity of e to p- th plate of zinc is added, is hereby amended capacity of Poles: (5) (6) the capacity of the m- th column of the plate, but in (counted from at Kupferpol) is: (7) (8) If the capacity of E rather the p- th copper plate together, so you need only turn in previous four formulas ( p - l) for p to substitute. The order number m ' of the zinc plate, whereas the zero point of the column decreases as E to p- th zinc is added plate is: (9) Adding the expression of I c in (6) with the opposite sign to the expression of I z in (5), we obtain, with regard to the fact that S + C + Z = A , that how and where the capacity of a plate between the columns Poland changed, but the sum of the intensities of both poles (apart from the sign) always 2 s remains. Equally clear from the formulas (7) and (8) that the difference in intensity is the same from one plate to the next even now = second Substituting a column somewhere (at the p- th zinc plate) with the ground in conjunction, that makes you E is infinite, then it is (according to formula 5 and 6) as well as a shared one, the column into two non-isolated columns, which on noninsulated poles (the p- th plate) collide, and one of the ( n - p ) , the other from p consists plate pairs. The derivation of the above formulas take place in the following way: Consider first and foremost we are a simple electric motor which drives respectively the capacity C and Z, and the intensities I c and + I z have. Then we obtain, under the
assumption (as) remarked unit, by virtue of the first two, quoted phrases, the two equations: ZI z = - CI c I z - I c = 2, from which can be found: (A) (B) After these two formulas, we can calculate the intensity of the electricity which developed independently of each pair of plates in a column, by addition expected while the capacitance of each plate that part of the column through which to spread the electricity from the respective plate has . The intensity of the poles is then obtained by summing the intensity, which is developed independently with the intensities of pole plates, which move from the other plate pairs on the same pole through reconciliation. It will now be the success sought to this summation for the zinc pole, ie the zinc plate of the n- has tenPlattenpaars when a column of n pairs of plates with (n - l) is given located between moist conductors under the (so), established conditions and the letters have the meaning given there. The capacity that a plate pairs, ie together in itself, ie without taking into account other column members, plays a zinc or copper plate with associated wet head, hot a, so the total capacity of the column A = Z + C + ( n - 1) a and the capacity of the column, without the poles S = ( n - 1) a . In the n- th electric motor, the capacity of the zinc plate Z , that of the copper plate A - Z , because since propagated from it, the electricity through the whole of the rest of the column, this remaining part as to its capacity is considered to belong, when it is a question of determining the intensity, which get the plates of Zinkpols by their simple motorized touch.Substituting these capacities Z and A - Z respectively for Z and C in formula ( a ), we obtain thus an expression of the intensity, which receives the zinc pole plate by touching the adjacent copper plate: . Independently awakened to this, in the plate pair, but now add those intensity intensities which respektiv of zinc plate of the ( n - 1) th, ( n - 2) th .... (Usf) plate pair pass through reconciliation to the zinc pole. In order to determine this is to be considered that the capacity of the zinc in the ( n - 1) th electric motor or disc pairs Z + a , by now, the capacitance of the n- beizurechnen th electric motor, on which the transfer takes place, its capacity 's. Following the same principle, the capacity of the zinc in ( n - 2) th plate pairs Z + 2a , finally, the zinc in the first plate pairs Z + ( n - 1) a On the other hand, the capacity of the copper in the ( n - l) th electric motor A -
Z - a , in the (n - 2) th A - Z - 2 a , finally the first A - Z - ( n -l) a . Substituting these values in turn in formula (a), respectively for Z and C, so as to determine the intensities of the zinc plates of all individual plate pairs, which then add up due to transition to the zinc pole, it will be found that flow together on the Zinkpolplatte following intensities: virtue of its own electricity development . between ( n - l) th plate pairs passed over. between ( n - 2) th reconciled plate pairs. etc. 2 [ A - Z - ( n - 1) a ] transferred from the first disk pairs. The sum of these values is the following:
Since: 2 [1 +2 +3 .... ( n - 1)] = n ( n - 1), previous expression goes so that the value of I z are, with respect, that A = Z + C + ( n - 1) a and ( n -1) a = S , becomes: , which has the formula (1) for the zinc pole. By an analogous derivation, we find the corresponding formula for the Kupferpol. The derivation of the formula (4) which applies to the same capacity for any one drive is located between the poles, when added, can be done according to the following consideration. It is thought that all the column through the plate in question in two columns partiale divided so that this plate forms provide both the negative pole of one column as the positive pole of the other (or one of the pole concerned). It now determines the intensity of this board using the formulas (1) by being only considered as the pole of a Partialsäule, and all other Partialsäule expects to their capacity, then, by looking at it as the pole of the other Partialsäule, and now the first Partialsäule credited to their capacity. The difference between the two intensities, because they are of opposite nature, are the real intensity. After an analog Herleitungsweise I, because they do not want HReplace in the model without difficulty, but the presentation is awkward, and the formulas (5) are found to (9), the accuracy of any even slightly by making those can convince development. Since it is customary to use to test the intensity of the column of the condensing electroscope, by recognizing the same to the test plate but the capacity, and hence
intensity thereof is changed, it will not be superfluous to the application of the preceding formulas to this case yet to consider special. Let us imagine, for the zinc pole, according to the formula (l) the intensity
has become a condensing electroscope, which is taking place at the condensation capacity of C , has joined as a result, the intensity of Zinkpols (at the points where no condensation occurs) will be transferred to
where A denotes the capacity of the column even without the added capacitor. The capacitor (including electroscope) can be described as consisting of two parts, consider, on the capacity of a surface F, to which no condensation is held and a second of the capacitor G, represented by m- times in condensation mG passes. That being so K = F + mG, and the condensed intensity on the condensing surface . There is thus a maximum of the condensation, which then takes place when A + F against mG had, and this maximum by means of the capacitor to be obtained intensity is related to the intensity of which, carried out without addition of the capacitor, on the poles of the column; vanishes would = A : G, that is, as the capacity of the entire column without capacitor and electroscope, the capacity of the condensing surface of the condenser even without condensation. It is clear from this that only a very small capacitor surface and very strong condensing force grant for attachment to a pole of the isolated column's benefit. Since you In using the condensing electroscope, after charging, the same cut of the column and the condensation picks, after which the previously on the condensing surface Gcompacted electricity with the non-condensing surface F is used, so the intensity of the condensing find electroscope after this operation, the above expression actually still with multiply.
Finally, may still be considered a circumstance, let us all on the previous experimental studies that have been conducted over the column, in uncertainty. Spread the kinds of electricity in the state of equilibrium, as it took place in the unlocked column, just along the outward surface of the column, or to some extent between the contact surfaces of the wet discs and metal plates? Of course, the decision of this question must be based on the value of S in the above formulas, the most decided influence. I hope, by means of an electrometric device that I let myself ready to thereto to give a definite answer soon. Some preliminary experiments seem to indicate to me that only the outer surface is to be considered.