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About the subjective complementary colors,

of GT Fechner. About the subject of this paper is already so much has been written, and even more recently have several physicists (Lehot, plateau, Osann, Pohlmann; Chevreul 1) , the latter treatise but not come to my face) is the same adopted with such zeal that one might suspect the same is exhausted by now should show the following critical lighting that we have come through this new investigations more backward than forward in the same knowledge as a whole.

Lesot in Froriep Nat's no. 12 of the XXVIII. Band, or my Repertor. of Phys. II, p 228 - Plateau in this. Ann. XXXII, S 543, XXXVIII, 626 S (more detail in the first Abhandl. Ann et de chim de phys LVIII, p..339 ) - Osann in this. Ann. XXVII, p 694; XXXVII, p 287, XLII, p 72 - Pohlmann this. Ann. XXXVII, p 319

Apart from this, I believe that we rather than stand at all at the beginning at the end of our knowledge of the whole subject, and it is expected from a continuation of this essay, I will provide in the future, seen that until now not even the not-manoeuvrable elements that are important in a same theory, have been determined or even observed. I myself hope to share some useful posts in this UPHOLSTERY; far way to be able to exhaust the subject on my part. First section. On the question whether the so-called by the contrast colors are objective in nature. Prof. Osann thinks of those hitherto considered subjective in nature, complementary colors, which at the same time with other colors, in the same neighborhood, appear, called colors, to have demonstrated by the contrast that they are objective in nature. The repetition of his, presented in this UPHOLSTERY, experiments, however just lets me find the most decisive evidence to the contrary. If the reflection is in the manner specified by him in these annals, XXVII, pp. 694 a , lying on colored paper, white disk in a wrong hand made sheet of window glass looks, but without application of Pappschirmes, you see, in fact, the image the white disk with the complementary color nuances of the pad, but the trial judges as well as Prof. Osann admits in this form nothing about the subjective or objective nature of the complementary color, because the eye sees at the same time also the color of the paper with the mirror image of the white disk. By consultation of Pappschirmes after by Prof. Osann manner specified but the attempt would really opt for the completely objective nature, when really. even now - asProf . Osann claimed

that it was the case - the complementary color of the paper appeared on the mirror image of the white disk. Meanwhile, I gave this attempt after repeated recurrence following result: I also see through the hole in the Pappschirmes the mirrored on the glass panel painting of the white disc under the, VII, Volume XX p 695 stated, circumstances with incident direct sun light (which it is necessary if you ever want a certain tint of the picture can decide sure) clearly colored, but never otherwise than greenish or reddish, and regardless of the color of the underlying colored paper. Instead of saying, I see it either greenish or reddish, however, is more accurate to say I see both shades simultaneously in mixture alongside one another, but it can be all too easy for the eye more on one or the other coloring reflect 2) . This coloration due to the fact that, from the rear surface of greenish glass window (which Prof. Osannhas applied the same to me) reflected image from begreiflichem reason, even greenish. The light reflected at the front surface, white se picture will be reddish due to the contrast with this greenish image, and therefore it mixes the greenish with the Reddish not uniform, because the shadow points, which are always more or less available due to small irregularities of the paper , can not coincide completely with the two images. Where the image is now a shady, are the other its complementary light.

Operates with only one verbreitetem bright daylight, is displayed instead of rather indistinct reddish purple or violet, and this color is changing as little with the change of the base.

That this explanation is the correct one, is evident from the following experiments: Keeps to a very narrow strip of white paper with a bar of ordinary window glass, so it is the perceive quite separate from the back surface and the reflected from the front surface image of the same at a suitable position of the eye and paper, or at least the edges of the two images highly superimposed anticipation. As you can see because the picture what the back face is at its anticipatory parts clear greenish the picture what the front surface are clearly red. Similarly, access to Osann ' s experiments, the light-giving parts of both images above each other out in their shadows into it, and thus bring the mixture of green and red out what I've always seen in this experiment. If the way Professor Osann really, when he stepped back so far that the hole in the Pappschirmes seemed satisfied completely with the white disk, have not seen it, the complementary color of the pad, that experiment would still prove nothing, when Prof. Osann just before the mirror image of the colored backing had to seen (I myself, however after only greenish and reddish seen in this case), because the sensation of subjective complementary color, once it is produced in the eye, like still exists, even if its causal is removed, including the following remarkable Evidence will offer. But of course assured Prof. Osann that they also perceive the complementary color when you start equal to that seen in distance through the hole where no reflection of colored paper comes in the eye. Others may decide that contradiction between us. Certain it is that my eye for complementary colors of

subjective perception is so sensitive that his judgments probably some weight can be attached. Even have my hearers, with whom I repeated the experiment, just the same as I can find. The above-mentioned experiments on production of complementary colors by double reflection can do with equal success with others, as greenish-colored glasses, and choose those that are slightly more colored than normal window glass without it due to excessive coloring even to to swallow a lot of light, and thus to prevent the visibility of the rear image, so the phenomena are so conspicuous. The reflected image of the posterior surface of the document (all shady places of the back image so) it holds, for example, before such a glass with a paper publication so seems very nice and clean stained with the complementary color of the glass. If you hold against a black paper with white dots or trains on the glass so the screen appears reversed from the front surface reflected back the image train or colored points of the complementary color. They convinced themselves very well of this opposition, if one sticks a white piece of paper on which there are some black dots on a black paper, and, for example, reflected in a pale orange glass. If the blue image of the black dots on the top is so is also a blue ribbon at the picture of the white paper below visible from spilling over the edge of the blue image on the orange stems. All these attempts to win exceptional in beauty and clarity, and you get one of the best ways to generate complementary colors by contrast, if we allow the brightly colored glass occupy the back with mirror film 3) , thereby increasing the reflection of objective color of the background surface, thus also the appearance of subjective complementary colors on the front face exceptionally wins. It has so to say a twin spar for complementary colors at a mirror of this kind as bright objects for the same are particularly good: a needle, a narrow strip of white paper, as dark: the bars of the window cross with bright sky the background, very beautiful but a black sliver paper, glued on a bright window.

One can easily bring this assignment even if you amalganiert a strong piece of tin foil with mercury, and pushes the glass out. To make an attempt to prepare the same, you need only the colored glass plate on a mercury surface to apply. Poggendorff's Annal. Vol XLIV. Brings you such a mirror out at the opening of the shutter of a dark room, and raises means of the same image of the sun in the room, so you can show the appearance of these complementary colors to the double image of a greater number of listeners at the same time. Regarding amendments concerned, the Professor Osann of his earlier experiments in these Annals, Vol XXXVII, pp. 294, tells, they can just as little in favor of an objective nature of the colors by contrast, regarded as the earlier attempt, because in all these experiments, the color, the complement which occurs simultaneously to the eye is always present in either the reflective or the color of the glass, with which the attempt is made. They are just variations of the experiment without Pappschirm that proves nothing in itself, but not amendments of the trial, with Pappschirm.

Prof. Osann but cherishes the view that colored glasses, the addition of color to the front surface reflect light, which they pass through. This view, however, is different when my eye does not lie entirely, certainly wrong. His proof is as follows: "If you hold a colored glass against a black background, or you take a on one side blackened glass, and holding it in such a way that the colored side is the eye faces, and at the same time is, on which the light falls, one sees the glass or blackened on the back side colored complementary. " But I must absolutely deny the accuracy of this fact. Blacken one a colored, it was bright or dark-colored, glass along its entire rear surface with a black varnish, which the reflection is removed from this rear surface, the front surface appears at all almost entirely black in reflected light, but little significant, nuance which one perceives, is certainly one of the ordinary, not the complementary color of the glass. I here about not mistaken, proves the consistency of my audience about the nuances of such glass, which I presented to them without putting them in advance of its color accordingly.It was a bright green glass, which appeared deep black color after being berfirnissung. A light yellow glass appeared dark yellow brown after berfirnissung. If you hold a light colored glass instead of black it only against a black background, while you look at it in the reflected light, so stands out even the ordinary color of the glass with great certainty; disputed because here also reflected by the second surface light which has lost the double passage through the glass of the complementary rays by absorption, reaches the eye. The Osann 'cal information would be inexplicable if not to make the attempt at a kind, really (and very understandable) hervortrte the complementary color. Indeed, if only a stainblackens at the back of a brightly colored glass, you see, in fact, the black spot when viewed in reflected light, especially if you let the white light of an overcast sky are reflected in the fact clearly nuanced with the complementary color of the glass , preferably at the edges of the reason that now, to make the contrast with the actual color of the glass, which appears in the vicinity of the black spot claims. However, this complementary color disappears, so to obscure the radius of the black spot that from the actual color of the glass nothing is visible, as it is not perceived in very dark-colored glasses that show in the reflected light of any significant staining, because the eye going on here the sensation of contrast. An experiment in which one can fairly obvious convince the Ungrunde the Osann 'between views is the following: One on firnise one half of a brightly colored glass black, but leave the other free, and look in this glass of the mirror image of, a window strip of black paper glued. If you hold the glass so that the mirror image of the ungefirnisten surface is reflected back, you see, as stated, a nice double image, with complementary colors, but one caused by a slight modification in the slope of the glass that the mirror image varnished on the surface appears, then immediately one image, and at the same time both colors disappeared, it seems a pure black image in a pure white ground, namely the wofern Papierstreifchens a background of white sky is overcast. When I come through these trials by Osann to have refuted supponierte objective

complementary color of the color glasses on her first surface sufficiently think so I think it is not yet on the other hand for experimental decide whether they have the same color they show in transmitted light, at the first surface by diffusing reflection (except in the specular reflection nothing to offer contributes peculiar color of the body) to any significant degree. For though they be led Term ate the color of a blackened on the rear surface glass often probably recognize is able, it could still be due to the reflection from the back surface can not be completely eliminated by the black varnish, as the blackest body still reflect a non-negligible portion light, and so must of course light, which by virtue of two-time passage adopted by the glass its color, while narrow the reflected light from the first surface. I want to keep this in fact for the most probable because of that residue of staining which is still perceived by the black berfirnisung is, the more clearly, the brighter the glass, and very dark-colored glasses can itself without varnish nothing more identify by means of the color reflected light, they appear, put on black paper, as one might have also noticed the light, so black that you really can not guess their color. The view that one has to consider a priori on the subject is likely to be that transparent colored material appears at all colored in reflected light in the same way as they appear at the smallest thickness in the through. For here have the same absorption as you have reason to believe that the scattered light from the body, which are their color is only set back from a small depth, it is able to express it, which is expressed on the light passing through the first thin layer . The known effects of several colored liquids (litmus, sap green, etc) agree with this. Also, the experiments by which Prof. Osann generated through the colored glasses complementary colored shadows seeks to vindicate an objective nature, we have delivered in the repetition only evidence against such. To provide with convenience experiments on these shadows, I have the shutter of a dark room two square openings of 6 par-inch side, whose centers are at a distance of nearly 2 feet of each other, can be horizontally attached side by side, provided with joints at the top and lower edges to partly opaque slider to decrease or occlusion of the lumen, some color glasses can slide horizontally. In an opening to push a color glass one, the other is allowed to invade the daylight, and the latter reduced by the opaque slider so far to the complementary shades shown stained with the maximum intensity. One can always bring such formative meaning that the intensity of its color the color of the adjacent objective light intensity to yield nothing. Ever, this requires that the daily shelle opening is smaller than the colored. Not only coincides with this simple device, the appearance of the colored shadows exquisitely, some truly gorgeous out, but it can also by it in his power, by changing the size ratio of the two lumens, the ratio of the dark and staining intensity of both modify shadows hire experiments on the complementary colors by contrast with it, which are of the same importance for the theory, and to which I shall return in a future continuation of these investigations. I believe that a device of this type should be in every optical room. Where the locality such is not allowed to install, they would. In one, in a similar way as a camera obscura can attach furnished, black box Also, apart from the advantages that the device described here given for the easier

and safer amendment of the experiments, it deserves necessarily in preference to the usually applied where one is two candles in a dark room, one of which is covered with a color glass, partly because the light of the candle when it is not very intense, will greatly weakened by color glasses, but mainly because it is reddish yellow in itself and thereby the appearance complicated. In fact, when one lumen in the shutter with the opaque slider fully closes and an ordinary candle in the room is, the of her thrown, illuminated by the second, duly reduced, open lumens of daylight shadow appears even without application colors of glass (even at very overcast, no appreciable help directly supplying blue sky) beautiful blue, and also the shadow of the candle-lit yellow. You still covered also the day lumens with a blue glass, this phenomenon is exceedingly beautiful. But it covers reverse the opening with a pale reddish-yellow glass, so when the whole lumen is related to the coloring very unimpressive, but it reduces the covered with the yellow glass lumens more and more, the illuminated him shades now takes even a blue-green color on, which firstly proves that even in the case where both shade with black lights are illuminated, which can be a (strongly stained) appear the other colored complementary 4) , and secondly, that in this case the color of the candle able to outweigh that of the pale red-yellow glass. If one uses instead of pale red-yellow glass on a dark rotgelbes so then reverses the appearance by the now illuminated by the candle shade turns complementary.

More directly, you convince yourself of this interesting result, in the view still make even some attempts that I'm here, in that it closes one of two lumens with bright, the other with a dark glass of the same color.

The proof is the Professor Osann for the objective nature of the complementary shadow color is the (this Ann. XLII p. 73) that, when illuminated by the flame of the undyed light shade through a cardboard tube so considering that he alone is satisfies the field, the same is equally colored seen, as when seen without it. The trial itself is undoubtedly correct, but does not prove, what to prove, but in applying some modifications to the contrary. I guess after the colored shadows have already been created and viewed with the naked uge, the inwardly blackened cardboard tube from one eye (of course, the other must be closed) and set it to the complementary shades, I think also the color remain unchanged to see. But this is also the case if I color glass take away during continuing through vision of the opening or take leave, and even then, if the color glass with a very different, of itself almost complementary in relation to the first colored, reversed. Only if, after any change of this type, the tube is withdrawn from the eye, so that it can be affected by the new contrast, the shadow of a transition that is striking highly appears in the arrangements required by the new color glass, complementary color . This means there is an actual inclination of the complementary color, once it has been produced in mind, persist even after cessation of their Causal yet. Behaves quite differently colored lens shade. Namely one looks through the black

tube on this shadow and change the colors of glass so you can see the changes immediately to the corresponding change in color of the shadow. But it takes the color glass completely gone, so now through both openings of natural light, so goes the same moment the objective color under illumination currently in the complementary about 5) , which only a special case of those complementary colors, incidentally, of which the following section will be discussed.

This complementary color is now much less intense and much more volatile than that which appears when the colors during the opening is covered by seeing through the tube completely, with darkened Watched shadows. The following comparisons further.

've Cited herein attempts not only myself very often and repeatedly on different days with quite constant success, but also because of the eye-catching Boy, what they offer, and to be sure that it is not self-deception or a peculiarity of my visual organ while in Games should be, the same at different times from nine to ten other people, let size largely independent of each other, hire, where the meaning and intent of these experiments was largely unheard of. I left through the blackened tube for one or the other shade look, while I exchanged or removed, or (compare the experiments below) the color glass to the opening, the opening completely closed, and asked them about the type of color they perceive believed. A single one among them, the little susceptibility to subjective complementary colors also revealed in other experiments, stated the following: He could if he put the tube in front of the eye, ever perceive any legally certain coloration on complementary shade when it equal to those had previously appeared clearly , and the shadows seemed to him, as well as the color glass was changed while keeping the tube in front of the eye, gray, without speaking he dared, of a decided coloring. If on the other hand, he looked through the tube to the objective colored shade, so it seemed the same for removal of color glass (or complete closing of the opening) just to brighten or darken, though he clearly saw a complementary color. The details of all other voting against my own surprise with regard to both shade and most carefully in all respects consistent with those that I have recorded up to my own observations, and resembled nothing of amazement that some of the extreme when they when withdrawing (on complementary shade directed) tube transforms saw the color of her eyes suddenly, after I had the colors reversed glass before. No less conclusive against Osann , as everything stated above, it is that if you can already rather through the tube to the complementary shades, as we covered the opening with the colors of glass, it initially no longer get the impression of the complementary color is equal. On the contrary, if in this case, staining seen (which will be the case when incident not too much white light through the other opening or will have the same fully closed), it is the objective color of the color glass itself, which is the reason further from the following will result. One must incidentally all these experiments use a inwardly blackened tube,

otherwise the objective sunlight in the area of the observed shadow spot is the same no means duly held by the eye, but rather it easily happens that the lower end of the tube, especially something from the complementary shade maintained, reflected a strong reflection of, scattered from objects and walls of the dark room, objective color displays, and then the continuance of the complementary color in the shade being viewed through the tube has nothing remarkable anyway. By this repulse scattering experienced by the light colors in dark rooms, and thereby also to some extent must obtain the complementary colored shade (only that the subjective impression prevails), the following is prima facie explained by very abnormal appearance. After having looked at the complementary shade to the naked eye before you take the tube and look at it through the same, where is led ate the complementary term impression is still seem to persist. It now closes while this is taking, has the opening through which the light is incident, as does the persistence, of course he is much darker, once the objective color of the glass in with what the other opening is covered. That this coloring is really of objective quality (was imperceptibly dispersive reflexion of the light colors in the shadows inside, where it earlier due to overbidding by daylight herrhrend), results from the following modification of the trial. You cover it a both holes with a color glass and close the other completely. The simple shadow, what now are the colors of glass, still shows, both by my own judgment, as the judgment Mehrerer I asked about some of the, by the contrast with the surrounding colors of lighting required, nuance, though much less distinct, than when you allow a reasonable amount of daylight 6) . However, considering now that shadow through the blackened tube, he immediately takes significantly the ink of the color glass itself, and this is, as noted above, also be the case if you take the tube rather on the eye than one that opening covered with glass colors, you will also be seen during the Hinblicks on these shadows through the tube, the color of the lenses, so the other one covers the opening partly by the change in color of the shadow correctly. It carries this color quite the character of an objective. In one case, the view through the tube to the objective actually shadows, the colors opening closes completely, the color of the shadow is just as with the removal of the color glass in the complementary color on, of course under heavy obscuration.

This is explained very well the fact that no objective white light more finds itself in holding of daylight to which the decomposition into a subjective perceived and not perceived part could go on. The perceived color of rest can only come from the inner light generation in mind (see the next section) have originated. It is, as you can see, this way even the impression of objective color light that falls into scattered in the shadow outbid.

Prof. Osann refers to experiments with a monochromatic light (this Ann. Vol XLII p. 73), which should speak for the objective nature of complementary shadow

color. But these attempts have delivered to me only the other hand results from homogeneous illuminated by the yellow light shade generally unmistakably complementary (eg, green, red, though probably somewhat modified by yellow) of that color, covered with a glass colors, assumed, by which it was produced, though the yellow light rays not contained by the complementary nature of these coloring. As for the much-talked-blue shade arrives that we can often happen outdoors or in rooms under the influence of sky light and a second light, usually from a candle or the setting sun, arise, and Pohlmann asked made the special object of his treatise, as can not think of denying that this is also a Blue in the case where light illuminates the sky really blue one of two shadow me objective could have a share in his coloring, it even seems to understand this by itself. Another question is to what extent this objective Blue much is the appearance that his influence at all noticeable , and if not, regardless of the same, this coloration also arise from mere subjective education in the circumstances where they show themselves, could . In my view, Mr. Pohlmann the merit of his hard-working, and just right, albeit too little modified observations and experiments containing treatise thereby reducing that he draws general conclusions from these observations, as they admit, by thus without restriction wants to prove that "only a light kind, which was blue in itself, could produce such effects." A sorgfllige repetition and modification of his attempts has made me rather draw the conclusions: a) that under the influence of candlelight, or even a red-yellow light, it certainly did not require the involvement of an objective blue light, to cause the formation of the blue shadows and explain, and that really, when interacting candle light and sky light, the former the have predominant influence on the phenomenon. b) But that, however, as blue in the presence of an objectively red and yellow light, no need to create a blue and yellow shade, it reversed in the presence of objectively blue sky light and no red-yellow light needed any thing, to create both shadows. c) That all discussions and attempts Pohlmann's not prove what they are supposed to prove, with the exception of the single observation, which concerns the generation of blue and yellow shadows by illumination from different climes. First place, I must repeat that I have also received a very nice blue when I left illuminate the shadow that a candle in the dark room threw from that penetrates through an opening, daylight in very overcast conditions and even with dense snowfilled air . Hr. Pohlmann , however, investigated this, earlier made by Goethe to rebut throw by (XXXVII, p 328), he asserts, the gray of the overcast sky was basically but blue, because of the passage of the blue rays through clouds could not produce the same change. But if we supponierte this blue overcast sky but completely gray with direct observation appears, a priori, how can we expect him to contribute to the apparent blue shadow? One can certainly say: only by the contrast with the russet of candlelight is the blue clear: but it is indeed very reason to prove independent of this contrast effect of the blue, for if we take the contrast to help once, it need a

special blue not because of the contrast demonstrably yes (according to the experiments with the colors of glasses) is sufficient, even in the white light to bring to light the blue. That way, the sky is in fact appear gray and not blue (where the silver-white color seen through mist sun), but also (another shares is explained very well from the known property of the misty vapors, the white light not only undismantled pass after) undismantled on all sides to disperse where yes us the sky on the horizon appears much whitish, as to the zenith to.May it be that blue rays just like on a clear pass under an overcast sky to our eyes, so much diffused white light mixed with them but in the first case as in that the impression of the blue void it, and the presence of the same to the naked eye any matter is by now only delivers to the blue, which is contained in the white light anyway one, no longer eligible growth, so that what can not be done through the blue in white light alone, just as for little. our eye through which, the imperceptible growth of blue white light is increased can be made. Pohlmannitself uses (p. 329 of his treatise) lapsing of the effect of the blue in white light beigemengtem to explain why we at noon outdoors no see blue shadows, but then it asks the simple consequence of making even more of the action, the gray sky blue admixed law. As for the experiments Hr. Pohlmann's concerned, it is first and foremost an attempt, after which the shadow created by the light from the sky, composed of a candle is blue, even if it is through a blackened tube. considered 7) to assess to what I said about the insistence of the anticipated subjective impression in mind. Myself, he gave the following result: For a bright blue sky, I created a beautiful blue shade through an opening in the dark room (which I so far reduced until the blue emerged most clearly), and asked by one in the room candle.I now see through the blackened tube on the shade, after I had previously seen him with the naked eye, it seemed to me, however, still persist in accordance with the ancients, the blue.I took but the tube in front of the eye, while the candle was hidden, and pointed it at the now gray appearing, shadows cast by the opening so took this when I now uncovered the candle, instead of a blue rather an unmistakable red and yellow Nuance, which until I took the tube from the eye, or directed to the Community border between the two shadows, so that the eye could be affected by the red and yellow with direct light of the candle, turned to blue. The emergence of this russet explained according to the above notified of attempts by the (very pale greenish, bordered gray colored) walls of the room scattered reflected light of the candle. It has this attempt by the most direct that under these circumstances the objective Sky Blue has no part in the phenomenon, since both objective rather reddish yellow lights are actually here.

By a similar experiment also believes Eckermann Goethe in his famous talks with its subjective view of the generation of the blue of the shadows to have refuted, as we see, wrongly.

Even less conclusive following experiment is Pohlmann's (this Ann Vol XXXVII,

p.327).: generates one means of day-and candles light a blue and yellow shades next to each other and establishes held before the eye tube on the outline of the shadow, so that the whole area at the moment, where you can put out the light, yellow, half of the overlooked field of blue, the other half in the candle light flashes white, the whole area turns at the moment where you can extinguish the candle light, blue. - In fact, you could just as well prove that the atmosphere will bear an objectively red, yellow, green or any color at all to the colored shadow all over analogous experiments. If, namely, the attempt in the dark room, for example by means of a green glass (which replaced the candles) and daylight to that a green and red shadows fall next to each other, and considers both the border, then through a tube in moment when you take away or hidden, the whole, only half red, half green, red field to meet with the green glass, I tops against the daylight, then the entire field filled with green. Other lenses offer represents analog successes, depending on the circumstances of the brightness, but soon more soon always appear less clear in the observed manner. The success of these experiments can be explained with regard to the tests mentioned above by me so: I look through the tube on the border of green and red (or applying the candle: the yellow and blue) shadow, and now eliminated the green objective ( or yellow) light, as the complementary colored half seem to retain their color due to the inertia of the subjective sensation, the color of the colored lens in about half, but the complement is, just like the green color of a paper, if it is below the eye leaving, leaves her red complement to it. But to erase the daylight, so one half of the visual field appears now by the direct incidence of green as before, the other by the scattered from the walls etc it falling green, which now no longer goes out in daylight colored. Trying to Pohlmann , S. 327, as the full confirmation of his view notifies serving, can be explained by the purely subjective aspects of complementary afterimages. Not more than the previous experiments also demonstrates the, treasury found to repeat myself quite right, attempt (p. 335), after which the shadow that throws burning phosphorus, appears blue in illumination by daylight. Proving he is to be provided when the light appears white phosphorus than that of candles, hence the contrast with the yellow or russet could not be considered here. Only the light of the burning phosphorus is nothing less than white, and the best proof that superfluous enough yellow rays contained therein to produce a blue complement, is that when the whole darkened room two shadow that of a a wax candle, and the other is cast from burning phosphorus, the illuminated shadow of the former decidedly bluish, the latter appears yellowish, an attempt which I have several times repeated with equal success. The burning phosphorus rotgelbes there is even more light than the candle. One way, already seen with the naked eye, a yellow shade on the light of the burning phosphorus ( Pohlmann itself does not dare to call it almost white), and if it considers directly even white appears as an ordinary candle light, it follows yet entirely not that it really therefore contains relatively less yellow than that, and that the light coming from it objects must also appear less yellow when illuminated with ordinary candles. It occurs, for a case, as it seems hitherto neglected, fact into consideration, namely, that each color light when it is intense, makes an impression

on the eye, the white of the very approaches. It was very striking to me this for certain, in the continuation of these investigations communicated to detect attempts, where I looked at the sun directly through color glasses. Scarcely had to recognize the nuance of the glass in such a way in the sun, while this lively showed on the sun image, which was produced by the same glasses on a faced white board when I covered a small opening in the dark room with such a glass. . All these attempts I here against Mr. Pohlmann have mentioned prove now only that, when the sky light with candle light interacts, and the production of the blue shadow mainly from the latter, as the predominantly colored, goes out, however proves the experience Pohlmann's , which the production of yellow and blue shadows by illumination from different sides cardinal hits (page 338), rightly, that where there is an overriding yellow light is present, the objective of the blue sky itself can be a cause for generating a complementary shade.For observations on this point, the two openings in the loading of the dark room splendidly opportunity dar. If one side of the sky blue, the other is covered with whitish clouds, so is the shadow that the opening located on the former side illuminated, decided blue , the others decided yellow. Not without interest I have the changes in the color of the shadow track of which in the dark room, from day to day, depending on the changes of the sky, darboten, and always had to guess correctly to be held staining conditions on which side of the sky was more blue. By sufficient removal of the shade-capturing white board from the two openings (including my very long optical Rooms opportunity presents) was in general the equality of staining of both shadow restore, by then, how easy it is evident the rays noticeably from the same , just get two openings opposite sky area to the table. This also can be a blue and yellow shadows create that one light gloomy room lets in blue sky merely by a single round opening of a few square inches in it, namely, when the opening is located so that direct sun rays can pass through. You start this on a white board, they form a bright spot on the panel, with his zertreut reflected white light now illuminates the shadow that the same time penetrating through the opening blue sky light of some are one body, while the latter is light at the same time shade that is formed from the former light, illuminated. The illuminated by the white sun shade screen is yellow, the other blue. If there are two openings in the loading of a dark room at some distance from each other, vertically one above the other, anbrchte so would (judging by the trials of the same color glasses) probably even the different degrees of blue of the sky, which takes place at different levels, to make known to the uneven coloring of the shadows, and is perhaps to this circumstance, with concurrence of some other provisions of the colored shadows, with their pursuit, I'm still employed, can establish a cyanometer. In general, the color shade of the Chromometrie likely to be of importance. Direct experiments on this subject I have reserved for the result. Everything about the colors by the contrast with previous Discussed how one sees nothing what our knowledge of the same positive advanced, but only serves to make the unnecessarily crazy earlier position in which we found ourselves in relation to

that again. How little we are above the laws of this phenomenon even aware would also evident from the fact that until now has not yet explained why under certain circumstances by the contrast of the colors are not noticeably, among others, while other times with an objective force obtrude. Looking at a black or white paper (or in addition) color paper (or vice versa) in ordinary daylight, then you rarely perceive a clear staining by the contrast; why but that is a black shadow appears so unmistakably subjective complementary addition to a lens color. Also noted above by me complementary color phenomena, which are obtained by double reflection from the front and rear surface of a light colored glass, assert themselves with objective force, while a black or white stripe, lying on a colored paper, in an ordinary occupied glass mirror considered, as little as under direct observation tends to show a clear color appearance. This difference is due to the strong emphasis that the passage of the complementary colors, a certain ratio of the two lights is essential, and the apparatus of the two openings in the dark room is the best opportunity to make experiments about this. What emerges from such experiments, I will, along with other things belonging here, share in the continuation of this investigation. Casually may still following, be as I think of others not recorded until now, way to create a complementary subjective coloring, mentioned that grips very consistent and decided to place my eyes. If I slightly sideways turn a blind eye, so I created a double image of any consideration white object, so the image in the pressed eye (appears either the right or left, always red, the other is always green. From my listeners, which I had to repeat this experiment, several found the same; others might not notice it, as ever, the sensitivity to the subjective perception of colors is very different in different people, and, it seems, is not just a peculiarity of the strongest eyes.

Second section. On the declaration of complementary colors, which are produced by a given color perception. Both Lehot as plateau , as Osann have been carried out their experiments to the conclusion that the earlier explanation of these colors, which, according to their perception, by contrast, the same extended absence will the eye less sensitive by prolonged viewing of a color as susceptible to this be, inadequate. The first two observers substitute her view that these colors arise from an opposite conclusion, which the retina becomes voluntarily after the cessation of direct impressions. However, apart from the fact that one sees not right (not to the, ideas of emanation, nor the wave theory), to what extent complementary colors, a ratio of the opposition will have to each other, I also consider to experience reasons, the old view as yet for the more satisfactory . The tests, which are raised against it, and for the new view, are the following: 1) If, after a solid red field looked, the eyes of a black bottom turns, one sees a green field, but the color's Dusky attracts ( Lehot ). - The complementary color emerges not only when the paper is colored on a white ground, but if it is black and

the colored paper is pulled away after prolonged viewing. In the latter case, the complementary color is not displayed with the brightness as in the former, but always with such an intensity that it can be clearly perceived ( Osann ). In these experiments now, they say, where, after viewing the color spot, directed the eye on a black ground, so no white light coming into the eye, in which the subjective decomposition into a perceived and not perceived part might be right therefore must be (at least according plateau and Lehot develop independently), the complementary color in mind. Against this the following must be answered: We know of no black base, which would be able to throw back no white light. On the blackest body we can distinguish the bumps with ease yet, evidence for a non-uniform, repulse, which it has held. It also let the blackest surface that can gain, fall in dark room through a hole in the window shutter direct sunlight, it is the spot that this illuminated on the surface, appear lights without comparison, than the environment, which is not the could be the case if the black yet would be able to throw back a considerable amount of light. That one is so truly empowered that derive appearing on a black background-image from the subjective decomposition of him yet remitted white light, it is clear from the fact the you have his attention has not addressed that in the cited experiments, the afterimage really darker than the rest of the black ground appears as an indepth, nuanced with the complementary color black so that it so just so, as if the white light of what the black ground everywhere still throws back into low grade, at the site of the afterimage, really had lost a decisive share of light color rays. The reverse is the case when the observation of objective color spot was not, as before, geschhe on black, but white on before the eyes of him to set up on the black background. In this case, the complementary afterimage appears brighter than the black ground on which you look at it, which is very well explained by the previous view when one considers that the white base weaken the sensitivity for all of the color stain only for certain color rays must. 2) final proof for the newer view seems following fact: One sees the random colors perfectly in the most complete darkness, so even when no light rays are present which could cause the sensation of the complementary color ( plateau ). Plateau here refers to attempts where, after consideration of objective color, the eye closes or oriented in the completely darkened room, a dark room. In fact, the subjective afterimage shows here, usually not immediately clear from the closing of the eye, where, brought forth by the closure itself, restlessness , as well as a complication with the initial continuance of an objective impression to blur the eye the subjective afterimage or seems to pick up, but probably after the eye is held still for some time. I myself will add yet another to this experience, the same as Plateau's experiment seems to prove. You sit in the apertured charging dark room a monochromatic lamp 8) , tops the hole with a yellow glass, and watch for a while through this hole with eyes firmly fixed on it for the sky. The primary yellow color impression which

granted the yellow port calls a complementary violet forth, which really is, after rejection of the Loche, on a white board, which is standing in the dark room, only illuminated by the homogeneous yellow light, with perfect is clarity itself, even if it is now completely closes the hole in the store, that's not the yellow glass (colored nonhomogeneous) some strange light let through.

I used to quite simply a saucer full of cotton, which is rubbed thoroughly with saline and then moistened with alcohol. The yellow flame or admixed, foreign-rays are absorbed by a yellow glass. Is obtained with this apparatus a much larger amount of light than the air by means of a wick, which is often desirable in large weakness of this light.

To provide these experiences in their proper light, is necessary before to take a look at the subjective side of vision. It can not be denied that in mind also independent of external light influences the development of light, or rather can take place of the sensation of light. Each hit in the eye, where we see sparks fly, the pressure figures Purkinje's and so many other fantasies that we can produce by setting the closed eye in certain abnormal conditions, teach this 9) . Yeah with a little attention will be found even that when you close your eyes, it is also in a very dark room, with no way to interfere with the eye in its natural conditions, but neither an absolute nor uniform darkness in the same exists, but that the darkness or formless light dust light haze permeated as it shows, or at least in my mind there is plenty enough. Purkinje expressed here about significant way: it floating in the dark chaos of weak light, which can incidentally be grouped into manifold pieces. Common ground can not be assumed that in these cases an objective light matter in the eye is working, but the same organic energy or power of the eye, which, you usually against responding to the stimulus of the external lightagent, produces the sensation of normal vision or with this feeling even coincide, is also capable of some other way from the inside to be stimulated, so the appearance of the light-chaos calm in the closed eye teaches that it is stimulated to some degree of resistance itself. Each different color sensation now requires a different way of action or reaction of the eye, for when the eye perceives only with and through his reaction of light, this reaction can not be the same for the different sensations.

The presumption Osann's this Ann. Bd XXXXII p.74) that these phenomena are of the same origin as the Phosphorescenzerscheinungen by insolation want probably not be easy to agree with someone inclined.The other hand, speaking reasons seem to me to be very darzubieten of itself to the same need to find a discussion here.

That said, the behavior of the eye can be displayed as regards the formation of complementary colors: The retina we incompetent to the places where they had a

long experience a certain color impression or expressed a certain color reaction for some time afterwards to respond to the Causal these colors, whereas the more capable to express those color reactions as to which it was inactive in respect of which it has rested, incidentally, is the Causal, which aims to stimulate the eye for color, in or out of eye, thereby explains very well in line with the previous view, as capable in itself to light development, yes always some light evolving eye even when no external light is more penetrating in the same, but can develop the complementary colors. It is therefore on this view to share one eye selbsttig developed light (or rather one of Interior from excited sensation of light) on the appearance of complementary colors like to admit and have to admit, only one is this light development not only as a general caused by the previous have to consider primary impression, but found to be stable in the eye, and, depending on the organic assets to be only increased or decreased to the same development, strengthened or depleted by previous peace or strong objective coercion. In accordance with this is that even in the closed eye, appearing the complementary afterimage of a colored objects, one has seen on a black background darker than the rest of the bottom of the eye in the strongest terms. The phenomenon behaves just as if disassembled just as in this case, the inner light in a perceived and not perceived part, as the outward with an open mind. While the afterimage shows itself darkened, showing at the same time in the environment, a clarification, as it is usually not felt in the quiet eye closed, proving that the well-rested by previous observation of the black part of the retina at least in relative sensitivity for the inner light , or if you want to express it differently, has to ability to develop inner light, won 10) . I see in fact a not quite know how the new view, which seeks to explain the complementary colors by a mere positive development of light sensation after previous other light sensation and fatigue of the eye does not order to set a principle of explanation, could be expected in this experiment something other than just reversed a bright image in dark colors remaining basically the eye. The new view by the fact that white, viewed on black, does not reflect a white afterimage, set in contradiction with itself is, for if on consideration of a composite red, a green and consideration of a compound green a red self in the eye developed afterimage follows, as requested but probably the consequence to assume that a composition of red and green di white, giving as an afterimage, a composition of Green and Red, di and white, should, however, we perceive a dark afterimage (which according to the older view by fatigue of the eye for all the color rays is understandable). You can this service does not reply that red and green in her, connecting to White might express a peculiar inhibitory effect in regard to the independent development of their images on one another, because we see so otherwise, that the afterimage of a composite color always behave as a composition of the afterimages of the simple colors, but what White has over other colors composition ahead?

If you object to a white color, has considered taking on a black ground, is shown in the closed eye of the complementary afterimage for obvious reason, brighter than the rest of the bottom of the eye, which is in fact now tired of all

color rays.

Incidentally, it may well be added to these discussions, that in the complementary afterimages and the inner light of the eye portion of the phenomenon has even in cases where this is left open by the ability of the reaction against the inner and outer of the Causative light at the same time always grows and declines. Since the inner light, however, is always considerably weaker than the outer, which the bright day. granted, even if only by a black ground, as is common ground that at the complimentary colors which are generated in offnem eye in daylight, mainly to take into consideration. 3) If you have looked at a red object, and then his eyes focused on a yellow background, or if you have looked at a green object and the eyes focused on a blue ground, one is the former case, a beautiful yellowish green, the latter case a beautiful violet afterimage see, but the reason the former case there is no green, no red for the latter case provides complementary color that the eye must therefore be formed independently ( plateau in the Annal de et de chim phys T.LVIII p... 352). Any difficulty to explain this test to the older view, should vanish if some considered that all the colors we use, in addition to their peculiar colors of light also more or admixed less white light included, partly to the resistance present in the eye inner light takes consideration. The complementary color of the color patch, which arises from this, mixed with the peculiar color of the ground. 4) Consider a red box and a green box that are next to each other on a black ground, about l minute so that it turns around the second l (denoted by a black dot) center of one, then the other field considered. The after-image, which is apparent from the superposition of the two individual afterimages closes the eyes, appears 11) , black ( plateau , Annal. 386 de chim), et de phys T.LVIII p..

In addition to this (middle) Nachbilde found two others with the complementary colors of the fields colored, which stem from the fact that while a button is pinned and his image now is the axis point of the retina, the other box at the same time on one side of the retina throws his image.

From this experiment draws plateau to the conclusion that two subjective colors that are complementary to each other give, Black, what it is a proof that they really have an opposite nature as the objective colors when they are complementary, together give white . It stands to now that this attempt basically just another form of which is where to equal a composition has been considered from two complementary colors, namely white, and a dark afterimage gets what is understood by the old view of yourself. Direct the falsity of it plateau's conclusion that if one turns the color fields, resulting, Plateau's way to white, rather than black has considered reason, then the

image, which is apparent from the superposition of the two afterimages, brighter than the rest because of the eye is, in turn, is a direct consequence of the old view. 5) Consider a sufficiently long time a small piece of red paper on a black ground, and then set my eyes on a large piece of the same red paper so is the space that the image of the little paper assumes blackish appear without admixture of red, ( plateau ). Even Prof. Osann (these Annals, Vol XXXVII, p 292) has spoken out against the no less strange conclusion that the plateau for this to be completely correct trials draws, namely, that the subjective color impressions destroy the complementary objective impressions, and has the correct explanation where the test. The groundlessness of that circuit again shows the way the amendment of the experiment, where the piece of colored paper on white . instead on a black ground considered before the eye is directed to the same color base The subjective spot now appears whitish, instead of blackish. 6) When you have fixed a red box, and gaze up against a white ground turns, you see a gray box, but that small, just as big or bigger than the red box appears, depending on the white paper, which you look, closer to the eye, in the same or larger distances is the same as the red box. - We now put a round red box on a white ground, and after you have fixed it long with a single eye, this one closer eye of the red disc, one is on the latter, a second (smaller) red disk of far less see darker coloration, and this second disc will be the smaller, the more the eye of the first approaches. If, instead, the eye of the red disk to approach the same distance, we see that disc surrounded by a green edge ( Lehot ). First of stuff to discuss the experiment itself, yet little is interesting enough, and, as it seems known. It is undisputed that the reduction or enlargement, which experiences the subjective afterimage by approximation or removal of the ground on which you look at it from the eye, or the eye of reason, but apparently, it itself remains the same, but it covers the first case a relatively small, the second a relatively larger part of the image of the subsurface. The image of the substrate to which the eye plays a larger or smaller part of the retina and, depending on the approximation distance. By virtue of the deception of our judgment but that leaves the ground at different distances appear to us the same, we now relate the change in size to that actually unchanged permanent afterimage. Lehot now believes that if when approaching the red disk of the fixing eye, the smaller subjective disc on the same bright or whitish appearing as the objective edge, this could only be due that an independently developed in the eye complementary color for objective color to add and White to put it together, whereas under the previous view of the subjective color of the smaller disc rather would appear darker than the objective edge. But now everyone will easily convince you that it really appears as if the test with the red disc on black, on a white ground instead makes you, and you can see on closer inspection one easily, as easily explained according to the old view of both cases are the first in that the eye is merely tired in the area of image retention by the white for

all color rays in Nachbilde even for certain color rays, while in has rested the second case in the area of image retention for all colors rays in Nachbilde itself but is exhausted for certain. Incidentally I will remember even the following interesting fact here. If you look at a candle flame or any colored object, which is to provide an after-able from a greater distance than the obvious visual range, so the afterimage in the closed eye will then appear to be smaller than the object; greater contrast when this is from a smaller distance than the obvious visual distance, looked. So the closed eye judged the size changes experienced by the afterimage depending on the distance of the object, rather, as the open eye seem the changes in the apparent size of the object itself, because the objects are, by virtue of us have become a habit Association of the judgment with the sensation at different when looked at not too long intervals, always the same size to keep, though of course her picture in mind here occupies a different space. In the closed eye we miss the circumstances which guide our judgment in this case, and there remains only the sensation of space occupied by the image on the retina, where an involuntary comparison of its size takes place with the size that the image when viewing the object obtained from the apparent visual distance. 7) plateau thinks he can pull from his experiments the conclusion that can be objectively a color one oscillatory state of the retina occurring by the original feeling only continues to exist for a while, then of himself over into the complementary, which he is led Term ate an opposite state of retina attaches; these complementary sensation but not disappear by a continuous weakening, but with alternations of weakening and revival, so may go the oscillation itself to the re-entry of the original direct impression. This view I want to leave now before nor refuted as a whole, provided in the principal facts which lead to a very different view, will be contained only in the continuation of these experiments. In the meantime I will still notice the following: What, first and foremost to, but right from plateau arrives asserted, fact that the complementary afterimage of a color, or a black or white spot, during his time in the eye, gently several times alternately disappear and come forth again, as it stems from a , the nature of the phenomenon quite strange, off circumstance forth on which one has not been addressed his attention. Each movement of the eye or eyelids scheduled the afterimage to disappear, even a movement of the rest of the body, ever so Everything, it seems that disturbs the uniformity of the vascular and nervous influence on the eye. You can bring any not too intense afterimage white or black objects currently to disappear or diminish significantly if you are a single blow with the eyelids over his eyes away, or the eyes currently rapidly turns sideways, either with or without head movement, or lively nods his head, incidentally exactly again fixed immediately after each of these movements, the former position. Even if, at fewest possible moves gehaltenem eye a vivid shock to the arms or foot downwards or sideways does in the air, disappears or weakens the moment of impact the afterimage, but then revived in a short time at fixed gehaltenem eye. Even even gentle movements of the eye, which often occur involuntarily and unconsciously, and

are only recognized to the movement of the after-image across the field, already bring about such a disposition to the disappearance of the after-image. This disposition to the disappearance of the after-image through physical movements seen most in the bright or dark (wrongly mentioned by others, white or black, as they are rather chosen color) afterimages that, after consideration of black on white, or white on black arise in verbreitetem daylight, less (as it has always seemed to me at least) with those produced by viewing colored objects, although even with these, the influence of which is perceptible. The more it is now, I managed to get the eye when viewing an afterimage in complete peace and uniform tension, the more I see the appearance of the alternate disappearance and re-emergence of afterimages be mitigated. However, I do not ask to deny that I have seen in the afterimages that occur on black on the viewing of black on white, or white, even with all held motionless eye a clear disappearance and reappearance of the image at the same location of the ground more often: but who can be sure that not a stronger, flowing to the eye, wave of blood have the appearance of currently being destroyed? Moreover, sufficient if the eye only a certain amount of time is obtained by fixing voltage in the same place, then often the smallest , almost imperceptible movement of the eyelid, an imperceptible waving it, already out currently destroying the afterimage, and such small involuntary changes in the eye or believed, in fact, in the cases of accidental disappearance to be generally aware of, although I do not deny the possibility of self-deception here. Also, with closed eye perceives in a continuation of these investigations closer to me to be described and discussed so-called glare images that you, after having considered a light flame or other very bright object on a dark ground, and mainly on the continuation of the visual impression depend, apart voluntarily disappear often, but I have never seen this disappearance, as if the dazzling image of moving previously over the dark field of time (as it was moving from the same out), which implies a movement of the eye itself, and it is remarkable that when you start to deal with these experiments, it keeps hard to resist this movement, quite involuntarily, the eye turns and disappears the dazzling image, almost as if it verkrche under his eyebrows arch, but occurs in new fixation of the eye out again. For the observation of the different phases of this fact is very disturbing appearance. In continuation of these experiments, however, this drawback has been completely lost on me by itself, or perhaps in consequence of repeated strong effort to get fixed in the eye, the dazzling image now remains unmoved in mind are, and since this is the case, I have at my almost countless attempts so never noticed the disappearance of the same (except for the finite). By the way, is in this circumstance that the gentle involuntary rotations of the eye draw a disappearance of dazzling images to be a little difficult explaining Royal, for by violentvoluntary movements of the eye or body I bring dazzling images not as the disappearance (hardly weaken) been able as the weaker afterimages that you, the viewing of white or black objects seen on a white ground or black respectively, in verbreitetem daylight with open eye.

I will remember this occasion equal to yet another circumstance which may be the intensity of the images or glare images respectively of substantial influence. Consider, for example, a window frame against bright sky reason to. According to the conclusion of the eyes you will by virtue of the duration of the visual impression, the dark cross with bright discs still behold a short time, but soon it will turn into a bright cross with dark windows. Now if this is already beginning to move into obscurity (or even earlier), one pub currently the lively eyelids together, and then let them back quickly, or open the eyes also probably currently a little. At the moment of interaction Kneipens the phenomenon is completely obscure, but flash at the moment of easing the bright window-frame with renewed splendor, and one repeats the alternating co pubs and re slacking several times at short intervals in a row, the cross can be almost blindingly bright. You can also by this means in cases where the afterimage of the window Cross at the outset not clearly wants to show (as in the case of an excited little or little irritable eyes often) bring the same to light. With a little attention you will notice the way that the afterimage Although eclipsed during the assembly Kneipens, but does not disappear, and that in this case every time the cross dark, the windows appear bright, while the estate of the eyelids held the inverse relationship. In general, the luminosity is in these experiments, not pure white, the dark not pure black but color, a (long been known for dazzling images) color change to show how even the after-images of black and white objects, which, as I in the continuation of these investigations will seek to show results from the unequal behavior of the different color rays in the phenomenon of afterimages. In connection with the foregoing undisputed is also the following experience: If I had seen directly or through a color glass in the sun, and thereby resulting glare image was long gone in the calmly held eye, appeared but long afterwards each time at the moment, where I eyes closed, or when I opened it, but only a nondescript afterimage out again. I still have traces of this appearance days after I saw the sun, perceived. In all these cases it is not the movement of the eyes or eyelids in itself, of which the inlet or the change of appearance depending on, but the influence of changing light 12) . The proof of this is obtained by the fact that when one goes immediately to intuition of window cross into a dark room, then the interaction pubs and loss of eyelid loses its influence on the after all. Furthermore, if one considers (on previous observation of the window cross in bright rooms) in dark room your eyes open against the wall, and then turn allows light in the window shade by alternately opening and sealing a hole and prevents back, then at completely calm Eye of exchange specified in the appearance of the afterimage also show. This test is very striking, you can shape the window of such cross on the wall with almost equal vividness, as in bringing reality to appearance. Even in the bright room you can lively flash of Publication bring forth, that when you had initially covered their eyes with their hands, these are now leaving, so that the light shines through the closed, albeit quietly held, eyelids, but is Along the pubs and deterioration of the eyelids much more effective in my eye. These experiments will win in the future continuation of

this essay nor in other respects interest.


Even through the closed eyelids namely still seems a not inconsiderable proportion of light through the bars by combining reduces to the same.

The most interesting attempt to plateau in these annals (Vol. XXXII, p 550) to confirm its view of the oscillatory state of the retinal afterimages leads to the appearance, and Hr.Prof. Osann has not been able to reproduce (Vol. XXXVII S, 293) is, me and repeatedly succeeded without difficulty. But you will see in the future pursuit of these investigations that he still allows other explanations. Third section. On the amendments of the subjective afterimage of diversity of the ground on which the object is viewed. The previous thing has shown that a failure to account of the diversity that brings the nature of the ground in the appearance of the afterimage, has caused multiple fallacies. It has therefore seemed to me not superfluous to the creation of a safe induction to determine the actual in this UPHOLSTERY by a sufficient amendment of the experiments. As objects were small areas colored paper (eg green) in size from 1 / 2 to l inch square, square, rectangular or round, what the essence of the phenomenon does not amend. As a basic bow was white, black or colored paper. All observations were made in verbreitetem daylight. To obtain unmoved eye in the transition from primary impression to Nachbilde (which is incidentally insignificant in this class of subjective symptoms) was the fortified on a thread object quickly pulled away from the bottom when viewing the afterimage should be done against the same ground on which the object had been considered, or pushed towards another reason on the subject in the case. The phenomena described here are not the way to describe how they present themselves immediately after removal of the object, but they definitely do if the complementary idea has received a decided preponderance over the primary. In fact, because of the initial complication with the continuation of the primary impression (which I myself instead of from Plateauclaimed succession to take both induced think) appears the complementary afterimage immediately after removal of the object at the maximum of the intensity, but not until some time after so as to later, more intense lighting was objective color. That is why even if you have considered a stain on a black ground, which afterimage (considered on the same basis) only for a short time even brighter than the base, and is only gradually darker. The same teaches the already previously mentioned known attempt to fix the window where cross to close the eye. In the first moments you can still see the bright windows with dark cross, but they soon go into dark windows with light cross over.

Transitions are also in the subsequent compilation which, inexplicably remained unnoticed until now clearly colored afterimages, which is on a black background, or vice versa be obtained as white objects, one of which I will act in connection with other points in the future. I. Green object considered on a white ground. 1) afterimage on white bottom: red, brighter than the base; these covered with a clear green certificates. The darker the color object, the brighter, but also whitish, less colored afterimage. 2) afterimage on black bottom: red, brighter than the base, but much darker than when, as under no. considered l, which afterimage on a white ground, which you can convince well, if one half-image to black can fall to half white. The darker the green object, the brighter the red and whitish afterimage. A not very clear green light covers the black ground to the afterimage. 3) afterimage on green reason: off-white, brighter than the background; these of elevated green. 4) afterimage on red bottom: red, lively and brighter than the ground, but not whitish as under no. 3, where the coloration disappears, however, they in no. 4 makes a better impression. Green II object, viewed on a black ground. 1) afterimage on white bottom: red, darker than the base, the darker the brighter the object was. The reason for the after run well over green. 2) afterimage on black bottom: a deeper black with red shade, the brighter the object. The less indistinct dark ground overrun with green. 3) afterimage on green reason: blackish; very reason the green light and bright 4) afterimage on red reason: deep pure red, darker than the base, which appears crowded whitish. III. White object seen on green reason. 1) afterimage on white reason: blackish, appearing darker than the bright red background. This test is very striking because of the strong subjective coloring of the whole extent of the ground. When I put a little white paper fragment in the middle of a whole green sheet of paper, and the afterimage then let it fall to the center of an equally large white sheet of paper, the whole white sheet to the after-image appears bright red, and indeed across the entire surface evenly red except for a brighter gleam in the immediate vicinity of the afterimage, which is clearly so, the darker color was the objective. By the way, is this uniformity in the whole extent of the ground even in cases instead, where as the same becomes covered under I. and II, only with a less distinct colors glow. 2) afterimage on black bottom: green, darker than the base, which seems overrun with clear red. 3) afterimage on green reason: very pure green, darker than the base, which appears

crowded whitish. 4) afterimage on red reason: blackish, or if the red is very bright due to much admixed white, blackish, darker than the ground, the whole reason of very pure vibrant red One can, it seems, in this way the impression of a color without admixed, give white. IV black object viewed on green reason. 1) afterimage on white reason: blinding whitish, brighter than the background. This is strongly colored red, which also provides a very frappanten impression. 2) afterimage on black bottom, a very bright whitish in relation to reason, and the reason strong red overflow. 3) afterimage on green reason: a very bright whitish green, brighter than, blackish crowded, reason. 4) afterimage on red reason: whitish, lighter than the base, which appears very pure red. V. Green object considered on a red background. 1) afterimage on white bottom: red, green strongly basic. 2) afterimage on black bottom: red, overrun the base green. 3) afterimage on green reason: blackish or whitish, depending on the objective green was brighter or darker than the red primary objective in any case with a Nuance's Red, the reason is very pure green. 4) afterimage on red reason: pure red, lighter or darker than the base, which appears grayish or whitish crowded, depending on the objective green darker or lighter than was the reason on which it was considered. This attempt is also very suitable to gain the impression of pure colors. It is clear from this compilation: l) That the general subjective afterimage appears lighter or darker than the ground on which you look at it, depending on the object respectively darker than the ground on which one looks the same. To have a circumstance I do not remember found noticed, even though he (very clear at least to my eye), even at low attention and well, and 2) That at the afterimage at any time the complementary color of the afterimage, so the originally looked, developed constant falls in the perception. It is also based on this circumstance, the success of III. and IV Following these rules can be more easily predicted, as also in cases which are not included in the previous compilation, the phenomenon is present. For example, consider a green or red on white object, then the afterimage viewed on blue, respectively, red-blue or whitish appear shaded (by composition of the color of the image retention of the color of the surface) and the blue ground respektiv greenish or reddish . This complementary nuances of the reason for the afterimage is also in these

cases, where one looks at the afterimage of a color on a non-complementary colored bottom, often very clear and unmistakable, however, may also be imperceptible, if the reason is already approaching the question nuance. So I have it z . B.not been able to perceive when I saw a green object on black and then looked at the afterimage of blue or yellow.

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