DUAL ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING SCHEMES FOR DICOM IMAGES

A PROJECT REPORT submitted by MANJARI TYAGI(091237) PALLAVI JAIN(091310) TAPAS TRIVEDI(091324) UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF DR.SHISHIR KUMAR (HOD CSE)

May-2013 submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology IN
Department of Computer Science & Engineering

Department of Computer Science & Engineering JAYPEE UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, AB ROAD, RAGHOGARH, DT. GUNA-473226 MP, INDIA

JAYPEE UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
A.B. ROAD, P.B. No. 1, RAGHOGARH, DIST: GUNA (M.P.) INDIA. Phone: 07544 267051, 267310 - 14 Fax: 07544 267011 Website: www.juet.ac.in

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the work titled ―Dual Adaptive Watermarking for DICOM images” submitted by ―Manjari Tyagi (091237)”, ―Pallavi Jain (091310)‖, and ―Tapas Trivedi(091324)‖ in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science of Jaypee University of Engineering & Technology, Guna has been carried out under my supervision. This work has not been submitted partially or wholly to any other University or Institute for the award of this or any other degree or diploma.

Signature of Supervisor (Dr. Shishir Kumar ) Sr. Lecturer Date:
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We are extremely grateful and remain indebted to our guide Dr. Shishir Kumar(HOD) for being a source of inspiration and for his constant support in the Design, Implementation and Evaluation of the project. We are thankful to him for his constant constructive criticism and invaluable suggestions, which benefited us a lot while developing the project on ―DUAL ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING FOR BIOMEDICAL IMAGES”. He has been a constant source of inspiration and motivation for hard work. He has been very co-operative throughout this project work. Through this column, it would be our utmost pleasure to express our warm thanks to him for their encouragement, co-operation and consent without which we mightn‘t be able to accomplish this project. We also express our gratitude to Mr. Puneet Pandey for providing us the infrastructure to carry out the project and to all staff members who were directly and indirectly instrument in enabling us to stay committed for the project.

Manjari Tyagi [091237]

Pallavi Jain [091310]

Tapas Trivedi [091324]
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We also employ a proposed scheme under which we highlight the regions of interest and non-interest in an image. iii . These objectives are obtained by watermarking in medical images. that aids in localization of values in an image. The digital form of medical images have a lot of advantages over its analog form such as ease in storage and transmission. and then apply attacks on them to ascertain their quality of robustness and imperceptibility. In this project we will mainly deal with the DWT(Discrete Wavelet Transform) for watermarking of biomedical images. It is also important to detect modifications on the image. and also try to improve upon the same by proposing an improved scheme. leading to greater security than normal spatial domain based transforms.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In ―Dual Adaptive Watermarking for Biomedical Images‖ we mainly deal with the watermarking procedures currently being carried out in the field of biomedical images. It is a method for decomposing an image into 4 subbands of varying frequencies. This composite image. the original scheme and the proposed scheme by comparing the state of the images after applying the attacks stated. We will then compare the results of both. is tested by applying several image processing and geometrical distortion attacks. energy compaction and also decorrelation of values. We firstly employ a conventional DWT based watermarking scheme on a set of biomedical images. and apply separate watermarks based on their desired requirements. Medical images in digital form must be stored in a secured environment to preserve patient privacy.

3.3..18 iv . Spatial Domain Techniques…………………………………………….iii 1.2..1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………... Watermark Embedding Techniques……………………………………………. 1.. Requirements of Watermarking……………………………………………………..1. Authentication and Tracing……………………………………………………………. 1.3..1..11 1.1..3. 1.5. Watermarking Medical Applications……………………………………………………….7 Comparison Process………………………………………………………….13 Contourlet Domain Techniques………………………………………………13 2.3.3.6..4.3....2..3.3... Bio-Medical Image Watermarking……………………………………………………………….3...3...6.. Structure of a Digital Watermark………………………………. Digital Images………………………………………………………………………..5.…17 2.………...7. Principle of Watermarking……………………………………………………………….3..2...4.TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE..3.2. 1...8. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. Case Studies on Watermarking for Bio-medical Images……………………………………18 2..1..3. 1..8 1.3.4.1.3.3.…..2.3.1 1.3.3.1 1.....2..3.6 Watermark Generation………………………………………………………….. Digital Image Watermarking………………………………………………………….. Attacks on Watermarks……………………………………………………………..1 1.3. Types of Watermarking………………………………………………………………..4...15 2. Applications of Watermarking……………………………………………………..7 1..3.2.10 1... Formats of images………………………………………………………………………2 1.3.9 1.12 Transform Domain Techniques……………………………………………….4 1.3.……………….………..6 1... Types of Images………………………………………………………………………….3.…...…5 1.ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………..3. Introduction………………………………………………………………………….……….8. Watermark Insertion………………………………………………………….... Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….. 1.7 Watermark Extraction……………………………………………………………7 Decoding Process……………………………………………………………….…..1...8.4 1.……………………………………………………………………….14 2.….12 1..……………………….1 1.....2. Security and Medical Information…………………………………………………………..i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………..3.8. 1.6 Encoding Process……………………………………………………………….…15 2..

.4 Watermarking in Contourlet Domain………………………………………………………….4.. Requirements for Medical Image Watermarking……………………………………………19 2.1 Implementation tools and pre-requisites…………………………………………….2.4.... Watermarking in Transform Domain…………………………………………………………25 3..5.19 2.5..…….19 2...………………………………………………….5.25 3.33 3.1.2.1.. Integrity Control………………………………………………………………………..33 3.19 2..20 3..1.5.1.21 3.24 3. Adaptive Watermarking………………………………………………………………..2.5.5.34 4.2..5 Structured Comparison (SC)……………………………………………………………....5.3.………………………………………………………..3.2 Algorithms Implemented………………….34 3.7 Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC)………………………………………………….37 4..1 Embedding……………………………………………………………………….5 Test Standards………………………………………………………………………………….…….22 3.37 4.6 Bit Error Rate (BER)…………………………………………………………….5...5... EPR Diffusion………………………………………………………………………….34 3.2....35 4..5. General Watermarking System………………………………………………………………. Insertion of Watermark…………………………………………………………………22 3.2.36 4.1. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)…………………………………………………….2 Extraction……………………………………………………………………………37 v .2.2 Structured Similarity Measure (SSIM)………………………………………….37 4. Reversible Watermarking……………………………………………………………. Authentication…………………………………………………………………………...2....1.2.33 3....….....5.33 3..3 Luminance Comparison (LC)………. Defining Regions of Interest and Regions of Insertion……………………………….26 3.3.5.31 3.5.1 Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)…………………………………………………….5. Design and Implementation………….……..3.19 2.………………………………………………….3. Dual Watermarking Scheme……………………………………………………………20 2.5. Watermarking in Spatial Domain…………………………………………………………….6..4 Contrast Comparison (CC)………………………………………………………………34 3..2.. Singular Value Decomposition…………………………………………………………28 3.. Related Studies……………………………………………………………………………………..22 3..1.2...…………………………………………………...3. Basic DWT Algorithm………..18 2. Extraction of Watermark………………………………………………………………. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)…………………………………………………..

38 4...4 Extraction from Region of Non Interest……………………………………………39 4.40 4.2 Embedding in Region of Non Interest………………………………………….45 5.…..1 Appendix A : Attacks done on images…………………………………………………47 5...2.2...……41 5 Conclusion and Appendices………………………………………………………………………...2...53 vi ..………38 4.3.2.2.2..2.39 4.52 PERSONAL DETAILS………………………………………………………………………….……40 4.2... DWT Dual and Adaptive Algorithm………….3...……......1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………....48 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………..2.2.…46 5...2 Table showing comparison of NCC values of original to proposed scheme…….…..38 4.2..2 Appendix B : Extracting Region of Interest and Region of Non-Interest………….50 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………...3.2.. Attacks to test Robustness and Imperceptibility…………………………………….47 5.3 Extraction from Region of Interest……………………………………….…..4.....……………………………..2 Appendices………………………………………………………………………………….1 Table showing comparison of PSNR values of original to proposed scheme………….1 Embedding in Region of Interest…………………………………………………...

1 Fig 2. before.1 Fig 3.3 Fig.6 Fig 3.3 Fig 3.8 Fig 1.1.1.1.2 Fig 3.4 Fig 3.2 Fig 3.LIST OF FIGURES Fig1.6 Fig1.1.2 Fig.5 Fig1.7 Fig3.8 Fig 4.10 Fig 2. and after watermarking procedure Region of Interest and non-Interest vii .1.2 Fig 5.9 Fig 1.7 Fig.1 Fig 4.1 File formats Watrmark Embedding Watermark Extraction Principle of watermarking Watermark Embedder (Encoder) Simple Decoding Process Comparing Process Primary requirements of Watermarking Algorithms Watermark Attacks Types of Watermarking Example of Medical image tampering Security Tools Embedding and extraction of watermark DCT Implementation Flowchart DWT Implementation DWT hybrid watermark embedding(using SVD) DWT watermark extraction block schematic SVD based watermark Embedding Block Diagram SVD based watermark Extracting Block Diagram Contourlet Domain embedding and extraction block schematic Implementation of pure DWT algorithm (non-adaptive) Region of interest and non-interest.5 Fig 3.4 Fig.1 Fig.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION viii .

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). computed radiography (CR) and so forth. 4. Continuous tone images are generally natural images which are not having any sharp edges. DICOM Image : DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) is a standard for handling. These elements are referred as picture elements.Tone Image : In continuous. 1. either 0 (for black) or 1(for white). 3. It is the international standard for medical images and related information (ISO 12052). 2.1 Types of Images 1. any pixel can have any of n values between 0 to n-1 where n is the maximum number of bits required to represent any pixel value. 5. Gray-Scale Image : In Gray Scale Image. Continuous. When ‗x‘. each having a particular location and value. There can be 2n shades of Gray. in these equipments images with patient data in DICOM format can be stored on different types of storage media such as CD or DVD.2. With the increasing use of internet and appearance of new system such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).like Image : These types of images consist of uniform areas. text have sharp and well-defined edges and therefore vary in contrast from the rest of the background. DIGITAL IMAGES A digital image is composed of a number of elements. Bi-level Image : This is the black and white image having only two values. 1. Discrete – Tone Image : These are generally graphical or synthetic images.1. The adjacent areas have different colours. storing. These images are called artificial images.tone images. Insurance companies. it is very hard to distinguish the difference between the adjacent pixel values. 6. Pixels is term used to denote elements of a digital image. image elements and pixels. Watermarking can be used as a solution. and transmitting information in medical imaging.y) where ‗x‘ and ‗y‘ are spatial coordinates and the amplitude of ‗f‘ at any pair of coordinates is called the intensity or the gray level of the image at that point. protecting medical images against this threat is necessary.e. It defines the formats for medical images that can be exchanged with the data and quality necessary for clinical use. Images in digital imaging equipments can be printed on films or papers. Any pixel in such images can be represented by either a single large image (Gray-scale) or by three components (in the case of a colour image). For eyes. lines. These types of images have sharp edges and no blurring effect. and 1 . hospitals and patients may want to change this data for various reasons. having uniform colors.2. medical images are produced from a wide variety of digital imaging equipments. A digital image can be represented naturally as a matrix. DICOM is implemented in almost every radiology. the adjacent pixel values differ just by one or few units. Therefore. Moreover. ‗y‘ a nd the amplitude values of ‗f‘ are all finite and discrete. It includes a file format definition and a network communications protocol. such as computed tomography (CT). Each pixel in such type of image requires only one bit for representation i. the usability of digital form of medical images has been increased . A image can be defined as a two-dimensional function f(x. Cartoon. cardiology imaging.1. Artificial objects. the image is known a Digital Image. INTRODUCTION In the recent years. printing.

Feature of PNG is transparency for 24 bit RGB images.1 TIFF is a very flexible format that can be lossless or lossy. From the emergency department. JPG works by analyzing images and discarding kinds of information that the eye is least likely to notice. DICOM is one of the most widely deployed healthcare messaging standards in the world. DICOM is the standard that makes medical imaging work — for doctors and for patients. so the image is recovered exactly. With tens of thousands of imaging devices in use.3 GIF creates a table of up to 256 colors from a pool of 16 million.2. Sometimes the GIF uses the nearest color to represent each pixel. In practice.). allowing the replacement of X-ray film with a fully digital workflow. it is a factor of three of four smaller than TIFF files of the same image. 1.2.2. and increasingly in devices in other medical domains such as ophthalmology and dentistry. true color image. Consequently. CT.4 JPEG is optimized for photographs and similar continuous tone images that contain many colors.2. DICOM has enabled advanced medical imaging applications that have ―changed the face of clinical medicine‖. and sometimes it uses ―error diffusion‖ to ad just the color of nearby pixels to correct for the error in each pixel. to cardiac stress testing. 2 . The compression is exactly reversible.2. to breast cancer detection. Since its first publication in 1993. 1. For a rich.2. file sizes are quite big. GIF may ―lose‖ 99. There are literally billions of DICOM images currently in use for clinical care. it looks for patterns in the image that it can use to compress file size. It can achieve astounding compression ratios even while maintaining very high image quality. 1. Though lossless.2. It is very good for web graphics. 1.2 Formats of images 1. If the image has a fewer than 256 colors. etc. GIF is ―lossless‖ only for images with 256 colors or less. And TIF is the most versatile.2. in contrast with common TIFF usage.2.5 RAW is an image output option available on some digital cameras. When the image contains many colors. Most graphics programs that use TIFF do not compression. The disadvantage is that there is a different RAW format for each manufacturer. DICOM has revolutionized the practice of radiology. TIFF is used almost exclusively as a lossless image storage format that uses no compression at all. However. software that creates the GIF uses any of several algorithms to approximate the colors in the image with the limited palette of 256 colors available.radiotherapy device (X-ray.2 PNG is also lossless storage format. GIF can render the image exactly. 1.998% of the colors.2. Thus. Better algorithms search the image to find an optimum set of 256 colors. MRI. It stores information as 24 bit color. and so you have to use the manufacturer‘s software to view thw images. except that web pages don't show TIF files. PNG is slightly slower to read or write.2. Much as the Internet has become the platform for new consumer information applications. ultrasound.

1. the advantage is their simplicity and wide acceptance in Windows programs.2. Fig1. Typically.1 File formats 3 . There is really no reason to ever use this fomat. hence they are large.6 BMP is an uncompressed proprietary format invented by Microsoft.2. The BMP file format (Windows bitmap) handles graphics files within the Microsoft Windows OS. BMP files are uncompressed.

The concept of digital watermarking is driven by the need to caption. robustness to common signal transformations and resistance to tampering have become important considerations. Encryption protects content during the transmission of the data. since the envisioned applications were not concerned with signal distortions or intentional tampering that might remove a watermark. allow multiple watermarks to be added and that the decoder be scalable. Two complimentary techniques are encryption and watermarking. and control copyrights for digital media including images and video. and to trace illegal copies of the work. However as watermarks are increasingly used for purposes of copyright control. support a sufficient data rate commensurate with the application. Digital representations of copyrighted material such as movies offer many advantages. Recently there has been significant interest in watermarking. However the fact that an unlimited number of perfect copies can be illegally produced is a serious threat to the rights of content owners. There are several properties that a watermark must exhibit.3. There are several approaches that address these issues. can be used later to identify the owner of the work. and authentication. 4 . Thus the goal of a watermark is to always remain present in the data. A number of technologies are being developed to provide protection from illegal copying. to authenticate the content. Watermarking can be used for owner identification. The latter purpose is somewhat different from those of copyright control and the characteristics thereof may be different. The signal. especially if the watermark is to survive lossy compression. robust to common distortions of the signal. Researchers have recently recognized the importance of perceptual modeling and the need to embed a signal in perceptually significant regions of an image. This is primarily motivated by a need to provide copyright protection to digital content such as audio. Watermarking compliments encryption by embedding a signal directly into the data. to determine whether the data has been altered in any manner from its original form. However this requirement conflicts with the need for the watermark to be imperceptible.1 Introduction Digital watermarking is the process of inserting a digital signal or pattern (indicative of the owner of the content) into digital content. The early emphasis was on hiding data.1.3 DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING 1. known as a watermark. fingerprinting. for broadcast monitoring to determine royalty payments. These include that it must be difficult to notice. images and video. Early work in the same identified redundant properties of an image or its encoding that can be modified to encode watermarking information. to identify the buyer of the content. resistant to malicious attempts to remove the watermark. to identify the content owner.

3 Watermark Extraction 1.3 Principle of Watermarking In general.1. Both images and audio data can carry watermarks. A digital watermark can be detected as shown in the following illustration. A digital watermark is not provided as a separate file or a link. Fig.3.2 Watrmark Embedding The material that contains a digital watermark is called a carrier.3. Fig. It is information that is directly embedded in the carrier file. Kowa‘s SteganoSign is one of these software packages.1.2 Structure of a digital watermark The structure of a digital watermark is shown in the following figures. Therefore. Special software is needed to embed and detect such digital watermarks. any watermarking algorithm consists of three parts: • The watermark (payload) • The encoder (marking insertion/embedding algorithm) • The decoder and comparator (verification or extraction or detection algorithm) 5 .1. the digital watermark cannot be identified by simply viewing the carrier image containing it.

it can be a bit stream or also an encrypted bit stream etc. sometimes a ternary picture .1. The watermark generation process varies with the owner. 6 .Fig.1.3. sometimes a binary picture . The verification algorithm authenticates the object determining both the owner and the integrity of the object.2 Watermark Generation: Each owner has a unique watermark or an owner can also put different watermarks in different objects the marking algorithm incorporates the watermark into the object. The watermark can be a logo picture. The encryption may be in the form of a hash function or encryption using a secret key .3.1 Watermark insertion: Watermark insertion involves watermark generation and encoding process Fig.3.3.5 Watermark Embedder (Encoder) 1.4 Principle of watermarking 1.

In one process the presence of the original unwatermarked data is required and other where blind decoding is possible. a watermark can be extracted in its exact form. First the watermark or payload is extracted in the decoding process and then the authenticity is established in the comparing process. It is 1 if there is a match i. The comparator is basically a correlator. Fig.3.3. A decoder function takes the test data (the test data can be a watermarked or un-watermarked and possibly corrupted) whose ownership is to be determined and recovers the payload.4 Watermark Extraction: Extraction is achieved in two steps.3.e. we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image.5 Decoding Process: The decoding process can be itself performed in two different ways.6 Simple Decoding Process 1. For this purpose either the original data is compressed or redundancy in digital content is explored to make space for the payload. 1.3. fig.3. a procedure we call watermark detection. 1. Depending on the way the watermark is inserted and depending on the nature of the watermarking algorithm.7 show the two processes.3.3. A watermark is detectable or extractable to be useful . The payload signal and the original host signal now together occupy space. In this process the extracted payload and the original payload are passed through a comparator.3.e. The comparator output C is the compared with a threshold and a binary output decision generated. In other cases. Depending on the comparator output it can be determined if the data is authentic or not. a procedure we call watermark extraction. 7 .8 illustrates the comparing function.6 Comparison Process: The extracted payload is compared with the original payload (i. It should be noted that watermark extraction can prove ownership whereas watermark detection can only verify ownership .3 Encoding Process: In the encoding process both the original data and the payload data are passed through the encoding function. the method used can involve very distinct approaches. C >= δ and 0 otherwise.1. which was previously occupied only by the host signal.1.6 and Fig. the payload that was initially embedded) by a comparator function and a binary output decision is generated. In some watermarking schemes. Fig1. If the comparator output is greater than equal to a threshold then the data is authentic else it is not authentic.1.1.

Non-perceptibility It means that the brought bit sample of the watermark does not produce perceptible changes acoustically or optically.4. the watermark can still be detected and demonstrate a good quality. A perfect non-perceptible bit sample is present if data material marked with watermark and the original cannot be distinguished from each other.7 Comparing Process 1. Undeletable The watermarking must be hard to remove or even unable to remove by any attackers. and common operations. One of measurement technique could be the amount of time. After modifications. Complexity Complexity describes the cost to detect and encode the watermark information. Digital watermarks must fulfil the following requirements. It is a good design to make watermarking algorithm and procedure as complex as possible. fragility. Robustness It may not be possible without knowledge of the watermark algorithm or secret key to remove the watermark or to make it illegible. In general. Robustness means the resistance ability of the watermark against the watermark attacks or modifications made to the original file. and the complexity of the watermarking method. Non-detectable It is always true that brought watermark information in data material is non-detectable if it is consistent with the origin data. Requirements of Watermarking Digital watermarks can be measured on the basis of certain characteristics and properties that depend on the type of vapplication. the coexistence with other watermarks. complexity. rotation. robustness. the survival of common distortions and resistance to malicious attacks.3. resizing. and other restrictions. file compression.Fig. 8 . data payload. tamper resistance.1. they are described as fidelity. the capacity of bit information. These characteristics and properties include the difficulties of notice.

2 Authentication: Sometimes the ownership of the contents has to be verified.4 Content Labeling: Watermarks can be used to give more information about the cover object. Every fingerprint will be unique to the owner.3.8. 1.6 Digital Fingerprinting: This is a process used to detect the owner of the content. Primary requirements of Watermarking Algorithms 1. 1.5. If the fragile watermark is degraded in any way then we can say that the image or document in question has been tampered. credit cards are all examples of documents which require authentication.5. copyright protection becomes a very important issue.3. With tons of images being exchanged over insecure networks every day. 9 .5. It especially helps the advertising companies to see if their advertisements appeared for the right duration or not. 1.5.3.5.5 Applications of watermarking 1. Watermarking an image will prevent redistribution of copyrighted images.3. A trade-off has to be taken between the above-mentioned criteria for an optimal watermarking application.5 Tamper Detection: Fragile watermarks can be used to detect tampering in an image. 1.Capacity Capacity refers to the amount of information that can be stored in a data source. This process is named content labeling.3 Broadcast Monitoring: As the name suggests broadcast monitoring is used to verify the programs broadcasted on TV or radio.1 Copyright Protection: This is by far the most prominent application of watermarks.3. ATM cards. Fig 1. Unambiguous The extracted watermark is equivalent to the embedded watermark.3.5.3. ID cards. 1. This can be done by embedding a watermark and providing the owner with a private key which gives him an access to the message.

scaling and cropping.3. Color reduction.1.7 Content protection: In this process the content stamped with a visible watermark that is very difficult to remove so that it can be publicly and freely distributed . Dithering distortion. 10 .9 Watermark attacks A watermarked image is likely to be subjected to certain manipulations.3.  Forgery: A Number of authorized recipients of the image should not be able to collude to form a copy of watermarked image with the valid embedded watermark of a person not in the group with an intention of framing a 3rd party. filtering. 1. translation.6 Attacks on watermarks Fig 1. Requantization. some intentional such as compression and transmission noise and some intentional such as cropping. Resampling. Linear filtering such as high pass and low pass filtering. Non-linear filtering such as median filtering. Local exchange of pixels    Printing and Rescanning Watermarking of watermarked image (rewatermarking) Collusion: A Number of authorized recipients of the image should not be able to come together (collude) and like the differently watermarked copies to generate an un-watermarked copy of the image (by averaging all the watermarked images). Geometric Distortions: Geometric distortions are specific to images and videos and include such operations as rotation. Recompression. They are summarized below :    Lossy Compression: Many compression schemes like JPEG and MPEG can potentially degrade the data‘s quality through irretrievable loss of data. Common Signal Processing Operations: They include the followings. Addition of a constant offset to the pixel values. etc. Addition of Gaussian and Non Gaussian noise.5.

There are various attacks. 1. This is by far the most important requirement of a watermark. unintentional (cropping.10 Types of watermarking Invisible Watermarks The watermark is embedded into the image in such a way that it cannot be perceived by human eye. It is used to protect the image authentication and prevent it from being copied.7 Types of Watermarking Fig 1. IBM attack: It should not be possible to produce a fake original that also performs as well as the original and also results in the extraction of the watermark as claimed by the holder of the fake original. Invisible watermark can be further divided into three types: i.3. Robust Watermarks Invisible watermark cannot be manipulated without disturbing the host signal. compression. So. All applications where security is the main issue use robust watermarks. A watermark is said to be fragile if the information hidden within the host data is lost or irremediably altered as soon as any modification is applied to 11 . the embedded watermark should be such that it is invariant to various such attacks. Fragile Watermarks They are designed with very low robustness. ii. They are used to check the integrity of objects. They are designed to resist any manipulations that may be encountered. scaling) and unintentional attacks which are aimed at destroying the watermark.

which operate by discarding perceptually insignificant data. Such a loss of information may be global. set of manipulations. Watermarks hidden within perceptually insignificant data are likely not to survive compression. Semi-fragile Watermarks Watermark is semi-fragile if it survives a limited well specified. to a major extent. This is the case of data labeling for improved actual retrieval. In this case the watermark needs to be robust against lossy coding.3. iii. The recovery of the information content within the data demonstrates authentic un-tampered data. Spatial Domain Frequency Domain (Transform Domain) Contourlet Domain 1. c. use side information and/or original watermark for extraction of watermark. Usually data is archived in compressed format. The main application of fragile watermarking is data authentication. or local i. In some applications robustness is not a major requirement. only part of the watermark is damaged. or quality enhancement. b. so the watermark has to be embedded in this way. watermark security is one of the main challenges watermarking researches are facing with.e. no part of watermarking can be recovered. leaving the quality of the host document virtually intact. in which the hidden data is only needed to retrieve the host data from archive. and that the watermark is embedded prior to compression.1 Spatial Domain techniques These methods based on direct modification of the values of the image pixels. i. and thereby it can be discarded once the data has been correctly assessed. where watermark loss or alteration is taken as evidence that the data has been tampered with. Achieving watermark robustness.y)] 12 .e. therefore their application is done very easily. This is particularly evident in the case of lossy compression algorithms. watermarking algorithms can be classified as:    Non-Blind (Private) Use the original signal/image to extract the embedded Watermark. Spatial domain processes are expressed as G(x.y) = T [F(x. because they modify the color. and. Semi-Blind (Semi Private) Don‘t use the original signal. Robustness against signal distortion is better achieved if the watermark is placed in perceptually significant parts of the signal. Blind (Public or oblivious) Don‘t use original signal or side information for extraction of watermark. luminance or brightness values of a digital image pixels.8. mainly because the host signal is not intended to undergo any manipulations. 1. and requires minimal computational power. On the basis of method of extraction of watermark.the host signal.3.8 Watermark embedding Techniques a. but a very limited number of minor modifications such as moderate lossy compressions. Such methods are simple and computationally efficient.

G (x,y) : processed image F (x,y) : input image T : operator on F 1.3.8.2 Frequency Domain techniques These methods are based on the using of some invertible transformations like discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete fourier transform (DFT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) etc. to the host image. Embedding of watermar is made by modifications of the transform coefiicients, accordingly to the watermark or its spectrum. 1.3.8.3 Contourlet Domain Techniques In the contourlet transform (CT), the Laplacian pyramid (LP) decomposes an image into a low-frequency (LF) subband and a high-frequency (HF) subband. The LF subband is created by filtering the original image with 2-D low-pass filter. However, the HF subband is created by subtracting the synthesized LF subband from the original image but not by 2-D high-pass filtering the original image. A contourlet-based image adaptive watermarking (CIAW) scheme, in which the watermark is embedded into the contourlet coefficients of the largest detail subbands of the image. The transform structure of the LP makes the embedded watermark spread out into all subbands likely in which the LF subbands are included when we reconstruct the watermarked image based on the watermarked contourlet coefficients. Since both the LF subbands and the HF subbands contain watermarking components, our watermarking scheme is expected to be robust against both the LF image processing and the HF image processing attacks.

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Chapter 2 Bio-Medical Images Watermarking

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2.1 INTRODUCTION
Digital information management in hospitals, HIS (Hospital Information System), and its special cases of RIS (Radiology Information System), PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) forms the information infrastructure of modern health care. Recently the advent of multimedia has boosted the potential of telemedicine applications ranging from teleconsulting, telediagnosis etc. to cooperative working session and telesurgery. These advances in information and communication technology provide in fact new ways to store, access and distribute medical data, and introduces new practices for the profession, as well as the patient themsleves by accessing to their own medical files. With these benefits there are concomitant risks for electronic patient records (EPR) and strictly personal documents circulating in open networks, and being accessible, e.g., via Internet. Thus it is a widely shared point of view that there is an urgent need for network level security measures and protocols in medical information.

Fig 2.1 Example of Medical image tampering
It is becoming easier and easier to tamper with digital image in ways that are difficult to detect. For example Fig2.1 shows two nearly identical images using readily available software (eg. Adobe Photoshop) the cyst was removed from the image by using the healing brush tool. It is difficult if not possible to tell which picture is the original and which has been tampered with. If this image were a critical piece of evidence in a legal case or police investigation, this form of tampering might pose a serious problem.

2.2 SECURITY AND MEDICAL INFORMATION
Medical information record of a patient is a complex of clinical examinations, diagnosis annotations, prescriptions, histological and other findings, and images in various modalities. In the digital format they are centered in the EPR (Electronic Patient Record). This information is gathered over years by a number of health professionals and used as well for different purposes (patient care but also clinical research, epidemiological studies or insurance companies). All patient records, electronic or not, linked to the medical secrecy, must be confidential. The digital handling of EPR on network requires a systematic content validation which is aimed at quality control: actuality (precise interest of the information at a given instant) and reliability (authentication of the origin and integrity). Security of medical information, derived from strict

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Once the images are in the open (plain-text form). Security Confidentiality Reliability Availibility Firewall Encryption Software Accreditation Access Control Integrity Authentication Firewall Access Control Antivirus Digital Signature Fig 2. gives rights to the patient and duties to the health professionals. cryptography is probably a very efficient tool. on the other hand. the information is not protected anymore. Finally. are inseparable from the document they are attached to. Breaking of the confidentiality implies that integrity and authenticity cannot be guaranteed. Although the damage to the diagnostic image quality is minimal. It can be claimed that. but due to errors in the manual entry of patient data. in the medical domain. but once the sensitive data is decrypted. and ii) Authentication: a proof that the information indeed belongs to the correct patient and is issued from the correct source. but are easily bypassed by hackers. Cipher text. specifically adapted to images. Furthermore the file headers are in the plain-text format and can be usurped by a pirate. Watermarking is made to introduce identifiers which. have access to the information. and availability. They may be seen as ultimate ramparts against usurpation and fabrication. Availability is the ability of an information system to be used by the entitled users in the normal scheduled conditions of access and exercise. a surprisingly large proportion of authenticity problems are not due to any intrusion. watermarking is an additional tool in the repertoire of security measures. Another similar LSB technique was developed in which the image carrier authenticates the origin of the 16 . The number of studies in the literature dedicated to watermarking is not very expensive. the major threat is the violation of the access rights and of the daily logs by the intruder. in the normally scheduled conditions. unless protected by error correction facility. One of the earliest techniques involved insertion of an encrypted version of the EPR in the LSB of the gray levels of medical-image levels. For storage and transmission. by construction. Confidentiality means that only the entitled users.2 Security Tools Security tools also have their limits. firewalls provide a certain level of isolation between the intra-net and Internet. which can be used to thwart certain attacks. i) Integrity: the information has not been modified by non-authorized people. the limitations and fragility of LSB watermarking can be catastrophic. This imposes three mandatory characteristics: confidentiality. reliability. Reliability has two aspects. Regarding the information system access.ethics and legislatives rules. is very sensitive to bit errors occurring during storage and transmission.

secure modalities (firewalls. Invisibility of the mark Capacity (expressed in bit per host pixel) Secrecy to unauthorized persons Robustness to attempts to suppress the mark These demands also exist in the medical domain but additional constraints are added.3 WATERMARKING MEDICAL APPLICATIONS To address the specific application needs of watermarking in the context of biomedical images. distance learning and several applications dealing with database consulting. accredited software) will be rare and the end-terminals will not be secured. which is the verification that the image is intact. the basic constraints of medical images being taken as additional guidelines for selecting the watermarking method. 3. In this case the demand is very close from the desiderata of image watermarking as expressed for e-commerce or multimedia applications over open networks. Under these conditions. which is the verification that the image really is what the user supposes it is. 2. one family of applications covers the transmission of medical documents over public networks. the diagnosis report and the doctor‘s seals. security problems may only arise from either malicious attempts to break the security protocol. 4. Within the medical domain there are two extremities that may be experimented and a large variety of intermediary cases which may be more or less interpolated from these cases. and other information that just makes the image more useful or easier to use.transmission (hospital). the protocols will probably be heterogeneous. the three main objectives foreseen are: 1. in that it has not been modified in an unauthorized manner. Integrity Control. 3. Transmissions are done most of the time without loss and specific workstations with adequate protocols and software may be available for handling local security problems. annotations. The usual constraints of watermarking are: 1. Under these circumstances we find watermarking solutions very similar to the many developed in other domains of image communication. Authenticity. or human negligence or mistakes. Attention is given to the trusted header by watermarking the root part in the image data. remote or collaborative telediagnosis or telesurgery. 17 . like in telemedicine. Data Hiding for the purpose of inserting metadata. 2. within the hospital network and under the complete security system. The images will face transmission errors and lossy compressions. 2. and the message to be embedded is composed of an ECG record. very different problems will be faced. At one extremity. On the other extremity.

and transmitted to the different services in charge of further considerations or treatments. The automatic handling of the watermark and the resume by authorized workstations is an additional security for the documents and may allow for instance the practice of reversible watermarking.4 CASE STUDIES ON WATERMARKING FOR BIOMEDICAL IMAGES 2. These mechanisms not only will tell the medical persons whether the document is the same as the original one. some mechanisms should be introduced to guarantee the integrity of the document. 18 . it guarantees that no error of falsification has been committed in the simultaneous processing of the image and the resume.2. These transformations are recorded in a historical resume that is attached to the image as metadata along with the patient references and the acquisition data. The decision could then be taken to consider the document is valuable or not. their location and importance.4.2 EPR Diffusion If the EPR is kept by the patient.1 Authentication and Tracing Medical images may go through several services and receive different processing and annotations. The resume file attached to the image or the image header will be the prime identifier. If a watermark is introduced in the image carrying an identifier also present in the resume. If non reversible watermarking is used. 2. or distributed on several sites. incremental marks may hold track of the different services that handled the document. but also if some differences exist. As the checking of the watermark may be heavy. it is probably not likely that it is done every time the image is displayed. In this scenario the watermark is the ultimate security proof most of the time ignored by the system.4. which is only used when important security issues arrive. and the control of the adequacy between the image and the resume or header be made when necessary for instance before entering the documents in a database or before a diagnosis or when a conflict happens.

It has been shown that judicious alterations such as those occurring in image compression do not interfere with the diagnosis ability.5. as the original captured image often must undergo certain processing. 2. Thus it must be decided which version of the image.3 Integrity Control There is a need to prove that the images. to be more useful to the radiologist. 2. Medical data is more demanding in quality but less prone to degradations.2. in that it is often not allowed to alter in any way the bit field representing the image. For example to increase capacity and robustness. specifically content-based integrity control are still open to discussion. Therefore in time. However keeping the meta-data of the image in a separate header file is prone to forgeries or clumsy practices.5. have preserved their integrity. It also constrains to have dedicated routines to automatically suppress and introduce the mark in order to prevent the transmission of unprotected documents. on which the diagnoses or any insurance claims are based. is taken as the reference for integrity control. provided its level does not disturb the radiologist. whether the pristine sensor output or the processed and standardized image at a certain stage by the radiologist. Hence tens of bits per Megabits of data is achievable within the medical constraints. one can allow the watermarking signal to be somewhat perceptible.5.4 Authentication A critical requirement in patient records is to authenticate the different parts of the EPR. as compared to multimedia content. This limits significantly the capacity and the number of possible methods. like enhancement and contrast stretching. 2. while bringing out imperceptible alterations in the pixels will creep into the medical field as well. 19 . One must define the ―start point‖ of integrity. An important issue here is that how much information can be embedded. the DICOM solution to radiology images). Thus alternatives.1 Reversible Watermarking Medical tradition is very strict with the quality of biomedical images. in that the original pixel values must be exactly recovered. The integrity control based on the exact preservation of all the bit planes of the image may be unnecessarily strict.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR MEDICAL IMAGE WATERMARKING 2.5.g. One could be more tolerant in the regions of non interest as they do not contribute to the diagnosis.2 Defining Regions of Interest and Regions of Insertion The watermark protects the regions of interest while being inserted in the rest of the image plane. An alternative would be to embed all such information into the image data itself. the attitude demanding strict preservation of the images as a number field will be relaxed. Thus watermark insertion methods that use the whole image. Thus the watermark must be reversible. More often the image is identified by an attached file or a header that carries all the needed information (e. in particular the images. Another possible scheme is to have both the DICOM header in a separate file and embed the digest of the same information in the image.

we hide the patient‘s digital signature or identification code in RONI for the purpose of origin authentication. by hiding patient‘s information in ROI. both authentication and confidentiality are achieved and gives a permanent link between the patient and medical data. The embedding strength is more or less proportional to the value of energy to have better robustness and transparency in this method.5 Dual Watermarking Scheme We use a dual watermarking scheme to enhance confidentiality and authentication. 20 . Because the energy distribution is an important characteristic for digital image processing. 2. In signature watermarking.Another variant application is MRI where the watermarking must satisfy the critical requirement that any arbitrary 2-D slice extracted from this volume. In caption watermarking. we use a model that employs this parameter for determining the adaptive quantization parameter. We focus on two types of watermark hiding. invisibility and robustness.5.5.6 Adaptive watermarking To achieve better performance in terms of perceptually. 2. we use adaptive quantization parameters for data hiding. even with the unknown slicing angle must provide sufficient authentication evidence on the patient.

Chapter 3 Related studies 21 .

y). The secret key uses to generate watermark and watermark embedding location more.2 WATERMARKING IN SPATIAL DOMAIN 3. total (N/8. Then. i. 3. the inverse spread spectrum approach is then adopted to obtain a watermarked image. A block is denoted by the location of its starting pixel (x. However. Next. a host image (original image) directly embeds watermark in spatial domain or is transformed into frequency domain through the well-known spread spectrum approach. It employs the inverse operations or uses the mathematical or statistical characteristic to extract the embedded watermark.2. Fig 3.1 GENERAL WATERMARKING SYSTEM First.e. The watermark extraction applies the similar operations in embedding processes. all such blocks are arranged in ascending order based on their variance values.1 Embedding and extraction of watermark 3.1 The cover image is partitioned into non-overlapping squares of size (8X8) pixels. The watermark is embedded using a specific well-designed algorithm based on mathematical or statistical model. coefficients are passed through a perceptual analysis block that determines how strong of the watermark in embedding algorithm so that the resulting watermarked image is imperceptible. Watermark detection decides whether an image has been watermarked and the watermark exists or not. DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) or DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform). the algorithms using transform domain offer more robust than directly embedding watermark into spatial domain.3. If the cover image is of size (NXN).2.1. DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform). The variance of a block of size (mXn) is denoted by: 22 . If the coefficients in frequency domain.1 Insertion of Watermark A block based spatial domain algorithm is used to hide copyright mark (invisible logo) in the homogenous regions of the cover image exploiting average brightness.N/8) number of such blocks are obtained for watermark insertion.

1. This pseudorandom number is generated using ‖Linear Feedback Shift Register‖.Thistwo level map later modified as multi level image. 3. A two level map of size (N/8 X N/8) is constructed based on the location of homogenous blocks in the cover image assigning each homogeneous block of the cover image by value ‘1‘ while all other blocks by value ‘0‘. 3. Before insertion.1. such as mean gray value. The blocks having small variance values may be called as homogenous blocks and. Users may choose the value of T1 and T2 and also the proper bit plane by checking the degradation in the image quality affected by the insertion of the logo. the ‘closeness‘ of T1 and T2 to ‘0‘ and‘255‘ respectively. the smallness in variance values depends on the characteristics of image to be watermarked. is relative. Now one pixel from L1 replaces a particular bit (preferably Least Significant Bit planes) in bit plane representation of A for each homogenous block. The pseudo random number in the present case is of length 256 and the spatially dispersed watermark data thus obtained is denoted by L1.2. If the watermark symbol is a (NXN) binary image. the binary watermark is spatially dispersed using a chaotic system called‖torus automorphism‖. Let for one such block this average value and its integer part are denoted by A and Ai respectively.4: The choice of lower order MSB plane (say 3rd or higher from the bottom plane) may result in more robust watermarking at the cost of greater visual distortion of the cover image. is used for extraction of watermark pixels.Is the statistical average value of the block. For a block of low variance (homogenous zone) higher bit plane may be chosen provided that the mean gray level value of the block is either less than T2 or greater than T1 where T1 and T2 are certain pre-specified threshold values which should preferably be close to ‘0‘ (minimum) and close to ‘255‘ (maximum).2. Further bit manipulation is done to minimize this 23 . 3. A multilevel secret image is constructed by inserting the value of bit position selected for different homogenous block located in the ‘1‘ position of the secret image. desired blocks of the cover image are selected and statistical average value of these blocks are used for watermark insertion.1. of course. Basically. However.3 From the two level image formed in step 2. the torus automorphism is a kind of image independent permutation done by using pseudo random number of suitable length. only N2 homogenous blocks are sufficient to insert one watermark pixel in each homogenous block.2 One watermark pixel is inserted in each homogenous block. also called as secret image (s). The bit plane selection is also governed by global characteristics of the cover image besides the local property of candidate block. This positional information as gray value of the secret image helps to extract watermark pixel from the proper bit position of the mean gray value of the block. The selection of particular bit in bit plane representation may be determined based on the characteristics (busyness /smoothness of regions) of the block.2. and is strongly image dependent.

The process effectively changes those mean gray values of the blocks that have been used in watermark insertion. Larger size of spatial mask such as (7X7) is used to adjust suitably the gray values of all pixels of the block. Hence from the secret image the mean gray value of the blocks of the watermarked image/distorted watermarked image is calculated and watermark pixel is extracted. The use of spatial mask reduces visual distortion on and average fifty percent times. The watermarked image under inspection with or without external attacks is partitioned into non-overlapping block of size 8x8 pixels.A quantitative estimation for the quality of extracted watermark image with reference to the original watermark may be expressed as normalized cross correlation Maximum value of NCC is unity. Implementation is done by estimating the tendency of possible change in mean gray value after the attack like mean filtering.2 Extraction of Watermark The extraction of watermark requires the secret image(s) and the key (k) used for spatial dispersion of the watermark image. 3.2. Now from the secret image. position of the homogenous blocks are selected and gray value of the secret image indicates the corresponding bit position in mean gray values where watermark pixel was inserted. This completes watermark extraction process .aberration and to counter the effect of smoothing that may cause possible loss of embedded information. The spatially dispersed watermark image thus obtained is once again permuted using the same key (k) (pseudo random number) and watermark in original form is thus obtained. 24 .

The typical algorithm steps are: 1) Segment the image into non-overlapping blocks of 8x8. the process is analogous. separating the spectral regions according to their energy. The watermark hidden in the higher frequency band might be discarded after a lossy compression. only the transform is applied to each block separately. 4) Apply coefficient selection criteria. It can be applied globally or in blocks. 25 . The formulae for DCT transform and inverse DCT transform are given as follows: The human eyes are more sensitive to noise in lower-frequency band than higher frequency. When applied in blocks. the watermark is always embedded in the lower-band range of the host image that transformed by DCT is perfect selection. Therefore. 5) Embed watermark by modifying the selected coefficients 6) Apply inverse DCT transform on each block.3 WATERMARKING IN TRANSFORM DOMAIN 3. When applied globally. the transform is applied to all parts of the image. 3) Apply some block selection criteria. 2) Apply forward DCT to each of these blocks. The energy of natural image is concentrated in the lower frequency range.3.3.1 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) The DCT makes a spectral analysis of the signal and orders the spectral regions from high to low energy.

the watermark can be embedded in the other three sub bands to maintain better image quality.2 DCT Implementation Flowchart 3. and HH at level 1 in the DWT domain.3 DWT Implementation 26 .3. HL. and HH represent the finest scale wavelet coefficients and LL stands for the coarse-level coefficients. LH. where LH. Fig 3.Fig 3. Since human eyes are much more sensitive to the low frequency part (the LL sub band).2 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) The DWT can be implemented as a multistage transformation. The LL sub band can further be decomposed to obtain another level of decomposition. An image is decomposed into four sub bands denoted LL. The decomposition process continues on the LL sub band until the desired number of levels determined by the application is reached. HL.

Step 4. Pseudo random sequence is generated using a secret key and combined with the duplicated watermark to increase robustness. After extracting the final watermark. The binary image is scaled to the size of original host image and then duplicated. apply the discrete wavelet Transform up to 3 rd level. Fig 3. Same secret key used in the embedding process enables to generate the random sequence. Step 3. which produce a total of 9 bands of wavelet coefficients. compares it with the original watermark.For a given Ν×Ν watermarked image.WATERMARK EMBEDDING ALGORITHM Step 1. The middle frequency sub-bands HL and LH from 2nd level of wavelet decomposition are used to get 3rd level decomposition. Finally. 27 . Finally. The middle frequency sub-bands HL and LH from 2nd level of wavelet decomposition are used to get 3rd level decomposition. Step 2. The resultant watermark is then embedded into the middle frequency sub-bands of host image. which produce a total of 9 bands wavelet coefficients. apply the discrete wavelet Transform up to 3 rd level. the watermark is extracted from the selected wavelet coefficients. Step 6. For a given Ν×Ν image. Step 3. Step 4. Step 5. inverse DWT is performed to produce the watermarked image. Step 2. Step 5.4 DWT hybrid watermark embedding(using SVD) WATERMARK EXTRACTION ALGORITHM Step 1. Step 7. to find the any attacks happened in the original data. The watermark of size M×M is converted into binary pattern.

. a matrix can be decomposed into three matrices that are the same size as the original matrix. respectively. A‘ is the reconstructed matrix after the inverse SVD transformation. at the cost of the DWT compared to DCT schemes. In SVD transformation. 3. As a result. this matrix can be transformed into three components.3 SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION (SVD) SVD is one of a number of effective numerical analysis tools used to analyze matrices. Each watermark bit is embedded in various frequency bands and the information of the watermark bit is spread throughout large spatial regions. improvements in its performance can still be obtained by viewing the image watermarking problem as an optimization problem. Given a real n · n matrix A. However. the watermarking technique is robust to attacks in both frequency and time domains.3.5 DWT watermark extraction block schematic The DWT technique provides better imperceptibility and higher robustness against attacks. However. at the cost of the DWT compared to DCT schemes.Fig 3. and the D component is an n x n diagonal matrix with larger singular value entries. Each watermark bit is embedded in various frequency bands and the information of the watermark bit is spread throughout large spatial regions. such that where the U and V components are n x n real unitary matrices with small singular values. As a result. The DWT technique provides better imperceptibility and higher robustness against attacks. improvements in its performance can still be obtained by viewing the image watermarking problem as an optimization problem. 28 . D and V. the watermarking technique is robust to attacks in both frequency and time domains. . U.

Singular values contain intrinsic algebraic image properties.Z.Q/4 + Z. 1) + 5Q/4 . After that.Using SVD in digital image processing has some advantages: i. 1) . Step 6. Perform the inverse of the SVD transformation to reconstruct the Watermarked image. SVD Based Watermarking In 2002. 1) = D(1. Extract the largest coefficient D(1. To extract an embedded watermark.Z. D(1. 1) = D(1. Let Z = D(1. Thus. D‘(1. iii. Otherwise. Sun et al. 1) modify to D‘(1. the embedded watermark was not greatly affected. Otherwise. D(1. if Z < Q/4. Step 2. The watermark embedding and extracting procedures can be described as follows: The watermark embedding procedure: Step 1. 1) modify to D‘(1. Partition the host image into blocks. the watermark was extracted. Step 3.. D‘(1. 1) = D(1. 1) = D(1. For an embedded watermark bit valued of 0. Step 5. In the embedding procedure. Because the largest coefficients in the D component can resist general image processing. Perform SVD transformation. 29 . the quality of the watermarked image quality can be maintained. if Z < 3Q/4. the quality of the watermarked image can be determined by the quantization. 1) from each D component and quantize it by using a predefined quantization coefficient Q. the inverse of the SVD transformation was performed to reconstruct the watermarked image. The D component with a diagonal matrix was explored. Also. Step 4. 1) + 3Q/4 . 2002). The size of the matrices from SVD transformation is not fixed and can be a square or a rectangle. After that. the SVD transformation was employed and the largest coefficients in the D component were examined. Singular values in a digital image are less affected if general image processing is performed. For an embedded watermark bit valued of 1. The modification was determined by the quantization mechanism. iv. 1)modQ. 1) + Q/4 .Z. proposed an SVD and quantization-based watermarking scheme (Sun et al. ii. the largest coefficients in D component were modified and used to embed a watermark.

the extracted watermark has a bit value of 0.Host image Block Partition SVD Transformation Detect D component Quantize D component Modify D component according to value of watermark bit value Inverse SVD Transformation Watermarked image Fig 3. 1) from each D component and quantize it by using the predefined quantization coefficient Q. If Z < Q/2. Extract the largest coefficient D‘(1. Step 2. the extracted watermark has a bit value of 1. Perform SVD transformation. Step 3.7 SVD based watermark Extracting Block Diagram 30 . Step 4. Let Z = D‘(1. Otherwise.6 SVD based watermark Embedding Block Diagram The watermark extracting procedure: Step 1. 1)modQ. Partition the watermarked image into blocks. Watermarked image Block Partition SVD Transformation Detect D component Quantize D component Examine D component Extracted watermark Fig 3.

1]). and then we define a rectangle of which the left corner has coordinates (t. In view of the robustness.. Using singular value decomposition (SVD). and the function floor represents the round off operation. the Laplacian pyramid decomposes an image into a low frequency subband into a high frequency subband. the singular value vectors of each block A are computed. It makes use of the Laplacian pyramid decomposition (LPD) for the multiresolution representation of the image. i=1.4 WATERMARKING IN CONTOURLET DOMAIN The contourlet transform. which provides a flexible multiresolution representation for 2D signals. the adaptive quantization step value δi is computed as follows. Watermark is reshaped to binary vector (W={w1. this domain can conform to DICOM images as well. By the singular values of each block Ai. Nsi= ||S|| + 1 is computed (where ||·|| represents the Euclidean norm) and quantized by adaptive quantization step di that represents the quantization level as follows: 31 . For each vector we select l = min(L). the top and bottom edges of the image are recorded too.wk E [0. After this. Discrete contourlet transform is able to capture the directional edges and contours superior to DWT.M. EMBEDDING PROCESS IL is divided into non-overlapping blocks Ai of size b x b. For each row of the image.2. t = min(T) and b = max(B).3. Even though other transform domains only conform to grayscale images.. 3. a directional decomposition is performed on every band-pass image using directional filter banks (DFB). is a relatively new image decomposition scheme. For an image of dimensions MxN.w3.l) and the bottom right one is (b. the left and right edges of the image are recorded. similarly for each column of the image. which is our area of work. The energy value of each block Ai is computer according to: For each block Ai. for embedding and W is embedded into I L in contourlet domain. lowpass subband of decomposed IO. r = max(R).….w2. Where δo is the basic quantization step that is different in ROI and RONI and served as a secret key. we choose IL.….wk}. 2.r). For more invisibility the embed process can be done in the detail subbands. In the contourlet transform. The contourlet transform is unequaled since the number of directional bands could be indicated by the user at any resolution. the left and right edges of the image form two vectors L and R of size M. the image is represented as a set of directional subbands at multiple scales. where M is the number of the blocks. Before the embedding process the following preprocessing steps are carried out: 1. and the upper and lower edge of the image construct two vectors T and B of size N. Finally.

and basic quantization step (δo). The watermarked image is converted into the contourlet domain and the lowpass subband I L ‗is selected for extraction. the watermarked block is obtained. At first IL ‗ is divided into non-overlapped blocks Ai of size b X b. the modified singular values are computed as follows: Using these modified singular values.Finally using the value . 32 .i=1. EXTRACTION PROCESS For watermark extraction. we require only the size of the binary vector (W).2.…M where M is the size of the blocks. Then is computed and quantized by adaptive quantization step that is computed similar to embedding process.

5. it is expressed as: SSIM compares the similarity in luminance (LC).5.3 Luminance Comparison (LC) Luminance comparison is a function of corresponding blocks‘ mean intensity and is given by 33 .1 Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) is used frequently as an objective image quality metric. 3.Fig3. PSNR uses peak power of the original image and the mean squared value of the error signal. PSNR is expressed as follows: 3.8 Contourlet Domain embedding and extraction block schematic 3. for regions.5. contrast (CC). but it does not consider characteristics of the human visual system (HVS). b.5 TEST STANDARDS 3. This metric is ideal for testing the similarities in medical images because It focuses on local rather than global image similarity. It is poor at comparing different watermarking methods.and l are = 1and are used to weight the importance of each of the three components. Mathematically. but provides a simple indicator for quantifying the similarity between original and watermarked images.2 Structured Similarity Measure (SSIM) The second measure used in this paper is structural similarity measure (SSIM) index. and structure (SC) of image regions for each pair of corresponding blocks. which is a region-based numerical metric that places more emphasis on the HVS than PSNR. a.

j) and V‘(i.5.5. 3.5 Structured Comparison The structured comparison is given as the correlation coefficient and is given by: Where CIoIo‘ is the correlation coefficient between the two regions and c3 is constant.j) are the original and extracted logos and M1. Where V(i. where wi and wi‘ are the original and recovered EPR vectors respectively.4 Contrast Comparison Contrast comparison is a function of corresponding blocks‘ standard deviation and is expressed as 3. 3.5. 3.7 Normalized Cross Correlation It is also calculated to quantitatively analyze the likeness of the extracted watermark and the original watermark (logo) in signature watermark. M2 are the size of the logo image 34 .5. BER is fo und to be zero. In the lack of adverse attacks.Where μIo and μIo‘ are the mean values of regions respectively and c1 is a constant.6 Bit Error Rate (BER) We use BER to calculate the difference between the recovered EPR data and the original EPR data.

Chapter 4 Design and Implementation 35 .

tif‖ 36 . examine a region of pixels. We can perform image enhancement. and tomographic. image deblurring. Test Images: ―11. Image Processing Toolbox supports a diverse set of image types. gigapixel resolution. analyze shapes and textures.tif‖ ―1. detect and measure features.tif‖ ―juet_logo. geometric transformations.tif‖ ―9. embedded ICC profile. feature detection. Many toolbox functions are multithreaded to take advantage of multicore and multiprocessor computers. The image processing toolbox provided inbuilt into the software provides a wide variety of tools to exploit. we also required a rich repository of DICOM images and other grayscale biomedical images to work with. noise reduction. Graphical tools let us explore an image. adjust the contrast. create contours or histograms. Besides the toolbox. image segmentation. The same is maintained at personal systems for convenience (over 50 images). and manipulate regions of interest (ROIs). including high dynamic range. and adjust color balance. and image registration.1 IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS AND PRE-REQUISITES We are using MATLAB version 2008b as our platform for working on our project.4. With toolbox algorithms we can restore degraded images.

4.1 BASIC DWT ALGORITHM 4. Read Watermark Logo. Check for imperceptibility of the final watermarked image obtained above against the original image by evaluating the PSNR values between them for various values of embedding strength (alpha) 4.HL and HH subbands. 5. Apply 1-level DWT to cover image and watermark obtained in step 1 & 2 to obtain LL. 7. Apply IDWT on above components to obtain extracted watermark. Read Cover Image. 2.LH. 3.2.1 EMBEDDING 1.2. Fig 4.1.2 ALGORITHMS IMPLEMENTED 4. Check for consistency of extracted watermark by applying evaluation parameters (PSNR.2. 3.1. 2. 4.1 Implementation of pure DWT algorithm (non-adaptive) 37 .2 EXTRACTION 1. Apply DWT to watermarked image to obtain extraction subbands Obtain subband of watermark by using the extraction subband obtained above and the value of alpha ascertained previously. 6. Take alpha value (non adaptive method) Applyling the alpha value for each subband separately Apply inverse DWT to obtain final watermarked image. 4.NCC) against it.

2. 2. Obtain the embedding strength using the standard deviation of all values in the RONI Apply the watermark to every subband separately in LL. 7. Apply inverse DWT to obtain the watermarked image. 4.2 DWT DUAL AND ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM 4. 7. containing watermarks of different quality in ROI and RONI. 5. 8. Obtain the binary mask BW for the ROI by setting the pixels inside the region of interest to 1 and those outside the region to 0. 38 . Read the cover image and watermark logo. 6. 6. 4.3 0. 3. Select n points from the current axes and return x and y coordinates in the column vectors x and y.7426 81. Apply the watermark to every subband separately including LH.LH. by copying intensities into the region specified by the user.2.9469 92. Obtain the embedding strength(alpha) using the mean from all values in the ROI.5 0.2.HL and HH subband.7155 83. We check the robustness and imperceptibility qualities of the images obtained using NCC and PSNR parameters. Apply DWT on the original and the watermark image to obtain subbands for both.2 EMBEDDING IN REGION OF NON INTEREST (RONI) 1. To obtain the final watermarked image. 2.4836 86. 3. 4.8158 Table 4.1 0. we replace the intensity values of this said image with intensities of watermarked images of ROI and RONI at their respective positions.1 EMBEDDING IN REGION OF INTEREST (ROI) 1. Apply 1-level DWT to both cover and watermark images to obtain subbands for both.4 0. Extract the region of interest from the original image using the mask obtained above.1 Variation of PSNR with embedding strength(non adaptive) 4. Apply 1-level inverse DWT to obtain the watermarked image for RONI region.7426 80. 5.HL and HH subband.2 0.2. Read the watermark image.ALPHA 0.2.6 PSNR 105.

Using the matrix obtained from algorithm 4. before. and after watermarking procedure 39 .2 obtain the subbands of the watermarked image embedded in RONI region.2.2. Obtain extracted ROI watermark by applying 1-level inverse DWT to the subbands obtained above.2.3 EXTRACTION FROM ROI 1.2. 2. 3.2. 2. extract the subbands of the image using 1-level DWT Using the value of alpha obtained in algorithm 4.4.1. Fig 4.2. 4.2 extract the subbands of the image using 1-level DWT Using the value of alpha obtained in algorithm 4.2.2. obtain the subbands of the watermark image embedded in ROI region.2. Obtain extracted RONI watermark by applying 1-level inverse DWT to the subbands obtained above. Using the matrix obtained from algorithm 4.4 EXTRACTION FROM RONI 1.1.2 Region of interest and non-interest. 3.2.2.2.

1959 Compression (15%) 58.3411 0.1.0448 0.6858 93.7878 Compression (75%) 59.8108 Sharpening 92.0578 0.2.2.3518 0.3527 0.3477 0.2.1 and 4.1018 0. and use the value of alpha obtained from RONI to obtain PSNR values for the original scheme.0964 0.5353 96.1 TABLE SHOWING COMPARISION OF PSNR VALUES OF ORIGINAL AND PROPOSED SCHEME We obtain the adaptive values of alpha from algorithms 4.0513 Gaussian Blur 92.5213 94. we have a precise comparison of values where the images used and embedding strength employed is same in both the schemes.4.1245 94.0482 0.0473 0.7127 96.0344 Standard Blur 92. This way.5642 Compression (50%) 59.3381 0. to check for improvements / degradations.4837 94.3.0746 0.3 ATTACKS TO TEST ROBUSTNESS AND IMPERCEPTIBILITY QUALITIES A total of five attacks (and one compression test) have been used to determine the robustness and imperceptibility qualities of our proposed scheme.4738 Motion Blurring 92.7738 94.0953 0.4576 95. 4.8947 40 .0616 0.3399 0. the corresponding values of NCC and PSNR are recorded and compared with the original DWT scheme.3356 0. After applying each attack.7187 PSNR(PROPOSED) 96. ATTACK Salt and Pepper ALPHA VALUES 0.8507 Compression (25%) 58.1.3540 0.3534 PSNR (ORIGINAL) 92.

0964 0. We have applied each attack on the watermarked image.3.3381 0.3411 0. we can evaluate the effect of each attack on the extracted watermark.9128 0. and then recorded NCC values for both the extracted ROI watermark as well as the RONI watermark. and then extracted the watermarks in ROI and RONI from this attacked image. This way.9512 41 .7274 Salt and Pepper 0.0953 0.6153 0.5927 0. ATTACK ALPHA VALUES (ROI AND RONI) NCC (ORIGINAL) FIGURES (ROI AND RONI EXTRACTED WATERMARKS) NCC (PROPOSED) 0. as compared to the original scheme.2 TABLE SHOWING COMPARISON OF NCC VALUES OF ORIGINAL AND PROPOSED SCHEME We applied each attack separately.9128 Motion Blurring 0.4.

4170 0.6174 0.0448 0.9113 Standard Blurring 0.0473 0.9442 0.3540 0.3527 0.0616 0.9445 0.9631 Gaussian Blur 0.3356 0.8707 Sharpening 0.9398 0.0.8956 42 .

000 0.1018 0.3399 0.8106 Compression (50%) 1.000 0.3518 0.0578 0.0.6878 Compression (75%) 1.4205 0.7693 Compression (25%) 1.4837 43 .0746 0.000 0.4112 0.3477 0.

8381 Compression (15%) 1.3534 0.0482 0.0.000 0.4277 44 .

Chapter 5 Conclusion 45 .

46 . and robust against noise attacks than other transform domains.5.1 CONCLUSION ―Dual Adaptive Watermarking for Bio-medical images‖ is a new watermarking method for DICOM images (various types) based on using different embedding strength for ROI and RONI in order to not affect the interpretation by medical specialists. The algorithm will use an automatically selection for ROI and embed the watermark in the singular values of contourlet subbands that makes the algorithm more efficient. The watermarked image can still conform to the DICOM format.

The default value of len is 9 and theta is 0.'lossy'.0. sigma) It returns a rotationally symmetric Gaussian lowpass filter of size hsize with standard deviation sigma (positive). imshow(blurred) A5: GAUSSIAN BLURRING h = fspecial('gaussian'. with an angle of theta degrees in a counterclockwise direction. H = fspecial('motion'.jpg'.02).1 APPENDIX A : ATTACKS DONE ON IMAGES A1: COMPRESSION ATTACK The most used image compression is definitely JPEG. radius) It returns a circular averaging filter (pillbox) within the square matrix of side 2*radius+1. hsize. H = fspecial('disk'. once convolved with an image.'salt & pepper'.'extracted_DWT. In MATLAB.tif’. the image should be created from a matrix and be reread: imwrite(wc_image.’MotionBlur_DWT. A = imnoise(A. imshow(MotionBlur) A4: STANDARD BLURRING h = fspecial('disk'. blurred = imfilter(wc_image. A2: SALT AND PEPPER ATTACK We can add a variety of noises into an image using the imnoise command in MATLAB.jpg’).tif’.’tif’).2 APPENDICES 5.’tif’). meaning a horizontal motion of 9 pixels.2.'replicate').75).’Blurred_DWT.'Mode'. theta) It returns a filter to approximate. 47 . imwrite(blurred. or it can be a scalar. A = imread (‘extracted_DWT.'replicate').10).H.5.45). imshow(A). the linear motion of a camera by len pixels. for compressing an image to different quality factors.20. imwrite(MotionBlur. A3: MOTION BLURRING Motion blurring can be achieved through the following code that is inbuilt into MATLAB: h = fspecial('motion'. hsize can be a vector specifying the number of rows and columns in h.'Quality'. A = imread('Watermarked_DWT. in which case h is a square matrix.H. MotionBlur = imfilter(wc_image. The default radius is 5. len.tif').

c]=ginput(4).3).....3..0..j)==1 out1(i.. [r. ROI and RONI. BW=roipoly(a. image(im2uint8(out1)). clc.Printing original image.. sharpened = imfilter(wc_image.. a=im2double(imread('11.. imshow(sharpened) 5.... else out1(i... alpha controls the shape of the Laplacian and must be in the range 0.2 APPENDIX B : EXTRACTING REGION OF INTEREST AND NON-INTEREST The following MATLAB code demonstrates how to select a region of interest from an image.. %. The default value for alpha is 0.. title('Original image'). subplot(1..% for i= 1 : R for j = 1 : C if BW(i.Extracting RONI. imwrite(sharpened. Code: H = fspecial('unsharp'..3.r... end end end %.2. alpha) It returns a 3-by-3 unsharp contrast enhancement filter.....tif’....... title('ROI')..5).A6: STANDARD SHARPENING h = fspecial('unsharp'.j).'replicate')... clear all.. imshow(a).j).0 to 1. else out2(i.j)==1 out2(i..2..H. [R C]=size(BW)...j)=0. image(a).3...’tif’)...tif')).... end end end %..c)..j)=a(i.....Extracting ROI.2). 48 .% for i= 1 : R for j = 1 : C if BW(i.% subplot(1. title('RONI')..1)....j)=a(i. subplot(1.’sharpened_DWT.0. image(im2uint8(out2))... close all.j)=0.

1 Region of Interest and non-Interest 49 .Fig 5.

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PERSONAL DETAILS NAME MANJARI TYAGI ENROLMENT NUMBER 091237 PHOTOGRAPH PALLAVI JAIN 091310 TAPAS TRIVEDI 091324 53 .

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