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1. The Author's Name The first part of a reference is the author's surname, followed by their initials. Sometimes the surname is given in CAPITALS or in bold print, but it is not necessary to do so. For example: Marshack, A . 1972. Upper Palaeolithic notation and symbol. Science. 178, 817828. If there are two or more names given, it means that the book or article has been written jointly, by several authors. The first name to appear is always the 'lead author', and it is this name that determines where the reference will appear in any alphabetical list. White, T.D. , Suwa, G. , Asfaw, B. 1999. Australopithecus ramidus, as new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature. 371, 306-312. Occasionally, if there are more than three co-authors, your tutor may truncate the name section after the lead author, adding the words et al. in italics. Et al. is short for the Latin phrase et alia and simply means and others. White, T.D. et al. 1999. Australopithecus ramidus, as new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature. 371, 306-312. 2. Year of Publication After the author's name comes the year in which the book or article was first published. Occasionally an author may have had two articles published in the same year. In this case, the convention is to use letters to distinguish the articles. You don't have to know the exactly when in the year each article was published, but once you have decided upon a sequence, you should stick to it. For instance: Foley, R. 1987a. Another Unique Species: Patterns in Human Evolutionary Ecology. London: Longman. Foley, R. 1987b. Hominid species and stone tool assemblages: how are they related?. Antiquity. 61, 380-392. 3. Title Following the year of publication, there follows the title of the article or chapter. Sometimes this is placed between inverted commas, but it is not necessary to do so. If the title belongs to a book - in other words the reference applies to the whole of a book, rather than just a chapter - then the title is treated as the 'source' (see below). Gamble, C. 1986. The Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe. Cambridge: University Press. 4. Source The next item of information tells you where to find the title. Broadly speaking, there are three options:

1. The title refers to an article in an academic journal, in which case the name of the journal should appear in italics after the title, as in the first example below. Gamble, C. 1991. The social context for European Palaeolithic art. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 57(1), 3-15. 2. The title refers to a chapter in a book, in which case the name of the book should appear in italics after the chapter title, as in the second example. Mellars, P . 1994. The Upper Palaeolithic revolution. In B. Cunliffe (ed/s.) The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory of Europe . Oxford: University Press, 42-78. You are likely to encounter is when the title refers to an edited volume; that is, a book that contains chapters written by several different authors. In this case, one or more editors have brought the chapters together and their names should appear with 'eds' in parentheses (brackets) after the book's title. 3. The title refers to a whole book, in which case, of course, the title of the book appears immediately after the date of publication, as in the third example below. Lawson, A.J. 1991. Cave Art. Aylesbury: Shire Archaeology. 5. Publication details For journals this is vital information. It contains the volume number and pages in which the article appears. But it is also important for books, where the city of publication and publisher should allow you to track down most books. The conventions vary and are different for journal and books, but the information you will require is normally given on the front cover or, more often, the title page of the publication: For journals, the volume number is usually given as a numeral (sometimes in bold print), followed by the issue number (if there is one), in brackets; Isaac, G. 1979. The food sharing behaviour of proto-human hominids. Scientific American. 238, 90-108. Bunn, H. , Kroll, J. , 1986. Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge.Current Anthropology. 27(5), 431-136. For books, the city or town of publication should be given, followed by the name of the publishing house. These two details should be separated by a colon (:). Stringer, C. 1993. In Search of the Neanderthals. London: Thames & Hudson. 6. Page Numbers Page numbers are only required for journal articles, where several articles will appear in each volume and the page numbers will help you locate the right one quickly, and in books where only a chapter is referred to. The usual convention is to give both the first and last page numbers, separated by a hyphen (-): Toth, N. 1984. The Olduwan reconsidered: A close look at early stone artifacts. Journal of Archaeological Science. 20, 101-120.

Stringer, C. 1984. The origin of anatomically modern humans in Western Europe. In F. Smith and F Spencer (ed/s.) The Origins of Moderns Humans. . New York: Liss, 51-136.

Web search
Increasingly a lot of information can be found on the World Wide Web (WWW). It is important not to forget to correctly reference any web resources you use in your written work. In general, the format is the same was with printed material, the only difference being:

You do not need to include the Year of Publication after the author's name (since web resources often do not include this information and are, in a sense, continually published). However, you must always include the year and date on which you accessed the resource. You should include the full URL (the website address).

In terms of formatting, the year the source was produced (if known) is usually placed after the title and source of the site. This is followed by the URL. The date (day, month and year) on which the source was accessed follows the URL and is usually placed in parentheses. Creswell Heritage Trust 2003. Virtually the Ice Age., (accessed 02-10-2003)

Books and Monographs

Accompanying the textbooks your tutor may also refer you to a number of more detailed books. Sometimes these are called monographs, because they deal with one subject in a great amount of detail. The thing to remember here is that monographs are usually highly technical publications aimed at professionals and that they assume a degree of familiarity with the subject material. In many cases you may find them too 'deep' unless you have done a wide amount of background reading. Don't be put off by this. Very often your tutor won't expect you to read the whole of the book but will refer you to specific pages or chapters. Always look carefully at your reading list for any additional instructions your tutor has given you. For instance, he/she may have added the phrase ' vide pp. 225-246' or 'esp. pp. 225-246' after the reference. This means 'look specifically at pages 225 to 246'.

Academic Journals
The vast majority of academic research now appears in academic journals. Initially, journals were the mouthpieces of the learned societies. One of the oldest such societies, the Society of Antiquaries of London , was founded in 1707 and gives a useful insight into how journals came about. The Society held weekly meetings at which members presented various findings to their colleagues (it still does). Since not all members were able to attend each meeting, the society arranged to publish the most useful contributions in a volume of papers each year. This journal was called Archaeologia,

or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, and the first volume was published in 1787. Thereafter, at least one volume has been published each year up to the present day. The story of Archaeologia, as it is now called, demonstrates three key features of modern academic journals. Firstly, they contain short essays or papers which, more often than not, pertain to a focused piece of research; that is, generally, they do not cover broad issues like books, but concentrate on detailed observations. Secondly, each journal is published periodically, either once a year (like the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society ), quarterly (like the Journal of Archaeological Science), or weekly (like Nature). This is why journals can also be known as periodicals. And thirdly, it explains why many of them have such peculiar titles! Indeed some are so cumbersome that researchers use acronyms. For instance, you may hear the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society referred to as 'PPS' or 'Proc. Prehist. Soc.'. When you are searching for journals or when you refer to them in your essays it is important to get these abbreviations right. During the twentieth century there was great increase in the number of academic journals due to the sheer amount of research that was being conducted. This was particularly the case in medical and biological sciences where there are literally hundreds of thousands of journals published each year. In archaeology there are over two thousand journals dedicated to the discipline. You can see a list of the major titles by going to the ARCHway website.

Edited Books
Another common source of information included on many reading lists are edited books or volumes. These are collections of essays, each by a different author, that have been gathered together in one book by an editor(s). In this respect, each chapter is similar in scope to a paper in a journal, although they will not be as current because the production time for an edited book is usually much longer than for a journal. The great benefit of an edited book from your point of view is that they cover one (or a select few) key issues from a number of different perspectives - each author may have a different viewpoint. This is very useful if you are looking to critically analyse, because you can often see how different authors arrive at different conclusions about the same question. There is a complication when searching for and referring to edited volumes. For the purposes of cataloguing your library will always use the editor's name. Indeed, it will be the editor's name that appears on the front of the book. This can be confusing because it may appear that the editor has written all the chapters in the book. But in fact, more often than not he/she may only have contributed one or two chapters (often the introduction and conclusion); the other chapters are by individual authors. So two rules apply: 1. when citing edited books in your essays, use the author's name and not the editor's 2. when searching for an edited book in the library, use the editor's name. Websites These days you can access a vast amount of information via the Internet. But be warned! Whilst there is definitely some good material out there, there is also a lot of rubbish too. Websites can provide fast, up-to-date information, but they can also propagate spurious, personal prejudices that have no place in academic study.

Your own department may have strict guidelines on how to use websites in your studies and you should always stick to these. But generally speaking it is all right to use a website as a source provided you: 1. check that the site is written and edited by a creditable academic or professional 2. that you always reference the site correctly 3. that you do not cut and paste large parts of a site into your work. The same rules apply to selecting and using web-based sources as apply to using textbook and journals. Locating Books and Journals Once you have selected your core reading from the reading list, it's time to hit the library. Or is it? In fact, there is still quite a bit of work you can do before your first trip to the library, but you'll need a computer. Most University Libraries now have their catalogues - the list of all the books that they hold, and where to find them - online. It's called an 'online catalogue', and it contains some extremely useful information about the books you have initially selected. For instance, most online catalogues will tell you:

Where a book is shelved (not only does this direct you to the book itself, it also gives you warning if a book is in an unusual place, for example in 'Short Loan', in another Library, or perhaps in the Library Store. All of these factors can effect how long it takes to get a book out, how long you can read it for and even where you can read it, so it's well worth checking these things out in advance. How many copies there are. If your tutor has added a book to your reading list, there will often be more than one copy in the library; if there is only one copy available beware - someone else may also be looking for the same book. Whether a book has already been taken out. If you can reserve a book, so it's ready for you to pick up when you need it.

Searching the Online catalogue Searching the Online Catalogue is relatively easy if you have had any experience of using search engines. If, however, this is new to you, you should contact your library or computer service; they will be able to provide you with some help. Here are some additional tips you might find useful: 1) In most systems you don't have to type in the full reference. Just the first few words of the title or the author's name will usually do. Bear in mind that searching by the author's name can be time-consuming, especially if there are a lot of other authors with the same surname. We used our library catalogue to search for this reference: White, R.K. 1986. Dark Caves, Bright Visions: Life in Ice Age Europe . New York: American Museum of Natural History. Here are our search results using the University of York library catalogue:

Search term White White, R White, Randall Dark Ice Age

Number 'Hits' 1251 50 2 244 28


Dark caves 1 In the example above, instead of typing in 'White', it would be quicker to use 'Dark caves'. 2) Journals. Bear in mind that while your library may stock a particular journal, it may not hold the full run of volumes. Quite often a library will only have a limited run of a journal (very early volumes may be missing, for instance) or a journal may be held intermittently with odd volumes missing. To avoid disappointment it is always best to check the precise run of a journal to ensure that the volume you want is held. Most online catalogues will allow you to do this. 3) E-Journals. Increasingly, libraries are opting to subscribe to an e-publishing service rather than stock hard copies of journals. E-journals and E-publishing are where the source material is held electronically and libraries pay a subscription to allow their users to access the digital version. Since the system for controlling access to E-Journals can be quite complex, it is best to consult your own library to see which E-publication systems they subscribe to and how to go about obtaining access. Be aware that you may have to register to get your own username and password to access some E-journals, so they may not be as 'instant' as you may think. Keeping a Record of your Search Once you have found the text you are looking for, it is very important that you make a full record of it before you go on to the next search. The most important things you'll need to know are:

Which shelf is it on? Always make a note of the shelf number of any book your might be interested in. It's much easier to do this early on, rather than constantly have to return to the catalogue every ten minutes. Writing the shelf number next to the reference in your reading list is a good idea, or you may prefer to make a new list of the references you are interested in. Is the book or journal number on loan to somebody else? Many online catalogues record this information. If someone else does have the book you need, you may be able to get it 'recalled' - but remember, it might take days or even weeks to come back, so once again plan well ahead. How many copies are there? Or, if you are looking for a particular volume of a journal, what is the Library's 'run' of that particular journal. At this stage, if you are basing your searches on your tutor's reading list, most

of the texts should be in the library. But later on, when you start broadening your searches, you may find that your library doesn't have a copy of the book you want, or that it only started to stock a journal after the volume you want was first issued. There are ways around both of these problems, but for now you should probably stick to what you can find in the library. The key point about searching the library catalogues is that you should do it well in advance. Distinguishing between different written styles If you have used your reading list and library catalogue effectively, you should now have a mix of journal articles, books, reports and websites from which to write your essay. The chances are some sources will be useful for the introduction, others for the various sections within your essay and still more for the discussion and conclusions. So the next thing you need to do is to review your sources, deciding which ones are useful for your essay and how you might use them. Different Types of Writing The first thing to realise is that not all of the literature you will have read is of the same calibre. Different types of information will be communicated in different formats. So this is your first clue to the purpose to which you can turn your reading. The table below shows some of the variations in four different types of publication: Type of Speed of Publicati Publicati Pros on on Potential Drawbacks Audience

Generally untested; results Academic Relatively Up to date; hot off the could be Professional Journal rapid press, cutting edge overturned next month Data usually covered in Professional great detail; all aspects Could be out of / general explored in depth. date reader Nothing overlooked Could contain May be bogus; Highly unpublished, novel flawed or variable insights or data misleading Accessible, understand easy May oversimplify to arguments, or General neglect conflicting public data





Newspape Rapid r

It can be a useful idea when first planning your essay or report to loosely divide up your reading or notes into these broad categories. In reality, most assignments you are likely to get at university will require you to work with a variety of publication types. How you use them is up to you, but here

are some examples of how different types of publication can be used in an essay:

Introduction. A good introduction provides a solid background to the topic. Sources for this information are likely to include your lecture notes, but may also be found in the introductory chapter of a well-respected book on the subject. Body of the assignment. More likely than not this will be probing your understanding of current issues, so journal articles and websites will be useful sources, providing you ensure they are accurate and up to date. Conclusions. Ideally a conclusion should not only summarize your arguments, but should also offer some insights into further research in the topic. A good source for ideas are newspapers and popular news magazines, which frequently report on conferences or speculate on future developments.

As with all academic writing, you should always use more than one source and acknowledge any sources you use to develop your ideas. Use your department's preferredreferencing system in the text and provide a full bibliography at the end of the work. Creating an Information 'Wish List' Once you have made a decision on which types of publication to use for the different sections of your essay or report you may face the problem of determining which sources to use. For instance, you may have read the introductions from four or five different books in preparation for writing your introduction. Do you use all of them? And if you elect to refer to just one or two, which ones should they be? A good way to evaluate your reading - and to make sure you don't read more than you have to on a topic - is to create an information 'wish list': 1. Before you start to read a new book or article ask yourself the question: what do I really want or need to learn from this source? Write your answer as a 'wish list' at the top of your notes. 2. Next, proceed to read the text as you would do normally, making notes as you go along. 3. When you have finished reading, look again at your 'wish list'. Are the answers contained in your notes? If not, the chances are the book or article hasn't fully addressed your needs. 4. Highlight those parts of your notes that have been useful, and repeat the process again with a different book or article, adjusting your 'wish list' accordingly. By going through this process you can achieve two important goals. Firstly, you will have ensured that you have covered all the questions you need to have answered. And secondly, you will have determined which sources, and which parts of each source, you should use to write the section. Different types of reading

It is a common misconception that there is 'only one way to read'. But if you think about it, do you really read everything in the same way. Take the two examples below, for instance: Example To be, or not Whether 'tis nobler The slings and Or to take arms And by opposing end them. Example B: MacDonalds University Bookshop Jazz Store 7.32 15.9 9 be--that in the arrows of against a to is the mind to outrageous sea of A: question: suffer fortune troubles

Clothing 19.0 0 315. 23 3.12 360. 66

Mobile Telephone Union Shop Total

While in Example A you may struggle to seek out the inner meaning, in Example B you are probably only interested in one or two details (or perhaps it's the other way around). Either way, you are using two very different styles of reading. In fact, there are as many as five types of reading that you could use at university, and the good news is that you probably already use most of them in some form or another:

Skim reading Narrative reading Proof reading Reading for content Reading for meaning

The trick in your studies is to match the type of reading to the type of material. Here's a brief description of each type of reading and some examples of the sort of academic material they are best suited to. At the end of this section you will have an opportunity to practice some of the different types. 1. Skim reading. This is probably the one alternative reading style that most people are familiar with. The eye jumps across the page, looking for specific words or phrases that it expects to find. Many of us skim read our bank statements, as in the example above, since we are looking for specific information. In academic terms, skim reading can be a useful tool

too. Some examples of where you can effectively skim read are: abstracts, contents pages, reading lists and indexes. 2. Narrative reading. If academics have a criticism of students' reading skills, it is probably that they tend to read too uncritically. This is what is meant by narrative reading. It's the type of reading you do when you are just following the plot of a novel; you don't look too deeply for meaning or contradictions in the text, you're mainly interested in the gist of what is happening. Some examples of where you can effectively use narrative reading are: general textbooks that provide a subject overview; the student handbook; newspapers; letters from home. 3. Proof Reading. Although this type of reading sounds boring, a few minutes spent in proper proof reading (rather than narrative reading, which is what many students think passes as proof reading), will pay real dividends when your work is marked. The idea is to pick up any mistakes you have made, so the trick is to read what you have written, rather than what you meant to write. The best way to do this is to have someone else read it; alternatively, try reading your work back to front, from the last paragraph through to the first sentence, or reading it out loud. You should proof read every piece of work you submit. 4. Reading for Content. Here you are interested in gaining information, so unlike narrative reading, you should have some idea of what it is you want to know. If the author is not furnishing this, stop reading! So key here, is before you even start to read, think to yourself: 'what am I expecting to gain from this?' If you prime your mind before like this, when you read through the text carefully, the relevant bits should leap out at you. This is probably the most frequent type of reading you'll do, in your first year, at least. You'll use it for the many articles, papers and books you need to read to complete your degree. 5. Reading for Meaning. You might not think that there's much difference between reading for content and reading for meaning, but read on - the two complement each other, and distinguishing between them can save you lots of time and effort. Reading for meaning is the deepest level of reading. Here you should already know the gist or context of the text (narrative/skim reading); you should probably also know much of the information it deals with (reading for content). What you are after then, are the fine nuances of the text; the things the author hasn't said, as much as the things he/she has included; the justifications and the doubts; the educated guesses and the clever deceptions. This is critical reading, and you'll need it to create the analytical arguments you use in your essays.