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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 28, NO.

3, AUGUST 2013

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Coordinated Optimal Design of Inverter Controllers in a Micro-Grid With Multiple Distributed Generation Units
Chengshan Wang, Yan Li, Student Member, IEEE, Ke Peng, Bowen Hong, Zhen Wu, and Chongbo Sun
AbstractFor a droop-controlled micro-grid, it is essential to design the droop coefcients for the inverter controllers in a rational way since they have great inuences on the operation characteristics of the system. In this paper, a novel approach based on matrix perturbation theory is proposed for the coordinated optimization of the droop coefcients in inverter controllers. Rigorous perturbation analysis is applied to the droop coefcients to identify their inuence on the system state matrix. Furthermore, the increments of the eigensolutions are obtained based on the matrix perturbation theory and are then utilized in the iterative parameter-optimization process. An eigenvalue-based objective function is proposed, aimed at ensuring the stability of the system, enhancing the damping characteristics, and maintaining the stability margin for a wide range of operating conditions. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach are tested via a low-voltage micro-grid prototype. Index TermsDistributed generation (DG), droop control, matrix perturbation, micro-grid, optimal design.

Coefcient of th Numbers of , .

droop control.

Constant matrices only related to Constant matrices only related to

. .

Constant matrices uncorrelated with any droop coefcient. Constant matrices uncorrelated with any droop coefcient. Objective function. Number of operation scenarios. Weight coefcient of the th operation scenario. Real and imaginary parts of the th eigenvalue in the th operation scenario. Damping ratio of the th eigenvalue in the th operation scenario. Given damping ratio threshold. Given real part threshold of eigenvalue. Weight coefcients of different parts in the objective function for the th operation scenario. Positive constants. I. INTRODUCTION

NOMENCLATURE Real asymmetric matrix. Positive denite matrix. th generalized eigenvalue. th generalized right eigenvector. Transpose of the th generalized left eigenvector. Kronecker sign. State variables. Algebraic variables. Control variables. Coefcient of th droop control.

Manuscript received May 12, 2012; revised October 15, 2012 and January 02, 2013; accepted February 02, 2013. Date of publication March 06, 2013; date of current version July 18, 2013. This work was supported in part by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under Grant 2009CB219700 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 51261130473. Paper no. TPWRS-00492-2012. The authors are with the Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 China (e-mail: cswang@tju.edu.cn; lyanse@tju.edu.cn; pkbest@tju.edu.cn; bowenhh@sina.com; wuzhen@tju. edu.cn; suncb@tju.edu.cn). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2245922

ICRO-GRID has attracted increasing attention as an effective means of integrating distributed generation (DG) units into the power systems [1][5]. A micro-grid is dened as an independent low- or medium-voltage distribution network comprising various DG units, energy-storage units, power-electronic interfaces, controllable loads, and monitoring and protection devices [1], [2]. A micro-grid can be operated in either grid-connected or islanded mode [1], [2]. In grid-connected mode, the control objective is to achieve power-ow regulation at the point of common coupling (PCC), which can be realized by the power control of DG inverters [3], [6]. In islanded mode, the control objective is to maintain the voltage amplitude and frequency of the micro-grid at acceptable levels while achieving reasonable

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power sharing. The control schemes for islanded operation can be classied into two main groups with regard to the use of intercommunication wires [3], [6][8]. The rst one is based on active load-sharing technique, such as centralized, masterslave, average load sharing, and circular chain control [6][8]. For these control schemes, critical intercommunication wires are needed among modules. The second one is mainly based on the droop method, in which intercommunication links are not required. Droop controllers, which emulate the conventional parallel operation characteristics of synchronous generators, are adopted as power sharing controllers for dispatchable DG units [5]. The droop strategy has attracted great attention in micro-grid operation because of its advantages. Considering that droop control strategy can be used in either grid-connected or islanded mode, transitions of control strategies for DG units are not needed when the operation mode of a micro-grid changes. In addition, not only the power between dispatchable DG units can be adjusted efciently [5], but also DG units can be located far away from each other to improve the geographic coverage of a micro-grid [3], [9]. Although the fast response of power electronic devices enables exible micro-grid control, their low-inertia interfaces make the micro-grid sensitive to disturbances [10]. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the stability of inverter-dominated micro-grid [10][13]. Previous research in [4] and [7] have shown that a large range of dynamic modes can be observed in a micro-grid. The reason for this is the timescale separation between different inverter control loops. These researches have also indicated that high-frequency modes are dominated by the current controllers and LCL lters, whereas low-frequency modes are dominated by the power controllers. Further analysis of participation factors has indicated that the dominant low-frequency modes are inuenced primarily by the active droop coefcient. power controller, particularly by the In [10][13], the impacts of droop coefcients on micro-grid stability were studied extensively from the viewpoints of limit cases, root locus, sensitivity analysis, and bifurcation theory. Previous works have demonstrated that, with relatively larger droop coefcients, the output power of droop-controlled DG units will be more sensitive to uctuations of frequency or voltage in a micro-grid. This contributes to a fast transient response and small frequency/voltage deviations. However, overlarge droop coefcients may cause overlimit power output or eventually lead to system instability. On the other hand, with relatively smaller droop coefcients, the output power of the DG units will be less sensitive to uctuations in frequency or voltage. It will worsen the transient response and will cause larger frequency/voltage deviations, which may exceed the regulated range. Therefore, it is essential to select proper droop coefcients to maintain system performance in disturbances. In previous work, the coordinated optimization process for droop coefcients requires to solve an eigenvalue problem repeatedly, which is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Furthermore, such a method poses difculties in studying the manner and degree of the parameters inuence on system dynamics [14], [15]. To overcome these limitations, a novel approach based on matrix perturbation theory is proposed for the

coordinated optimization of droop coefcients. As an efcient method for the calculation and reanalysis of eigensolutions, matrix perturbation theory aims to describe variations of a systems characteristics in small-signal stability under perturbations of structure parameters. Nowadays, it is widely used in electromagnetic problems, structure dynamics, automation control, and vibration problems [14][17]. Compared with other methods of solving eigenvalue problems, such as the QR algorithm, the matrix perturbation technique adopted in this paper possesses the following many advantages [14][17]. First, the eigensolutions can be easily obtained with satisfactory accuracy under a perturbation of control parameters. Therefore, there is no need to repeatedly solve the eigenvalue problem of the modied system. Second, the manner and degree of the droop coefcients inuence on the structure characteristics of the micro-grid can be investigated in detail through parameter perturbation analysis. Third, the modications of critical eigenvalues can be analyzed intuitively, simplifying analysis on parameter changes in parameter-optimization process. Last but not least, approximated sensitivities of eigensolutions can be provided as by products, enabling analysis on sensitivity and mode. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section II introduces the basic rst-order perturbation theory of eigensolutions.Section III describes a perturbation analysis of droop coefcients in DG inverters. Section IV presents the objective function and calculation owchart for the coordinated optimization process. Numerical examples are provided in Section V, which verify the proposed approach. Conclusions are drawn in Section VI. II. MATRIX PERTURBATION THEORY Consider the nite-dimensional matrix pair , assume that the generalized eigenvalue problem of complex modes is described as follows [15][17]: (1) and where conditions: satisfy the orthogonal normalization

(2) Theorem 1: If tiplicity [17]: (3) (4) (5) where , , and are the eigensolutions of the original , , and are the rst-order perturbations of system, , , are the second-order perturbations eigensolutions, of eigensolutions, and so on. Matrix perturbation analysis for is an eigenvalue of with the mul, the eigensolutions of the perturbed system are given in the following form [15],

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distinct eigenvalues and for multiple eigenvalues has been introduced in detail in [15][17]. Since the eigensolutions can be obtained with satisfactory accuracy by using the rst-order perturbations in this paper, the second-order and higher order perturbations items in (3)(5) can be omitted. Only distinct eigenvalues will be analyzed in the following numerical examples, so the perturbation theory for multiple eigenvalues is not introduced here. For further details, please refer to [15][17]. According to Theorem 1, substituting the eigensolutions of the perturbed system into (1), equating coefcients of the same power of , and combining with (2), the rst-order perturbations of distinct eigensolutions can be described as follows [15][17]: (6)

under perturbations of the droop coefcients. Note that all of the changed elements are linear functions of the droop coefcients. can be generally represented as Therefore, , , and

(11)

(12)

(13)

Using (11)(13), (7)

can be expressed as

(8) where in (6)(8).

(14)

where

, and

are given by (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20)

III. PERTURBATION ANALYSIS OF DROOP COEFFICIENTS In a micro-grid, the comprehensive analysis on DG units, inverters, load and network has shown that their mathematical models can be generally expressed in state equations and algebraic equations [18][20]. Therefore, a micro-grid with multiple DG units can be described by a set of differential and algebraic equations [18][20] (9) Rigorous physical analysis shows that is nonsingular. The small-signal stability feature of a micro-grid is governed by the eigenvalues of the state matrix (10) and are matrices of partial derivatives of state where variables, and and are matrices of partial derivatives of algebraic variables. In order to study the small-signal stability feature of a microgrid and to further reveal the manner and degree of the droop coefcients inuence on the state matrix, it is necessary to an. alyze the construction characteristics of the state matrix Detailed analysis shows that the elements of , , and in are implicit functions of the droop coefcients, whereas is uncorrelated with any droop coefcient [20]. Expressions of matrix elements indicate that only a few elements will change

In (14), it can be clearly observed that the state matrix is constructed in the form of a combination of droop coefcients, including its rst-order items, its second-order items, and the cross product items, excluding any other forms. This matrix structure is determined by the characteristics of the droop control system for DG inverters. In (14), when a perturbation is introduced in the droop coef, to and cients, , will change from , respectively. Accordingly, the state matrix will change to . Then, according to Theorem from 1, the increments of eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be calculated by the rst-order perturbations , , . The above analysis gives a fast direct solution for eigensolutions under perturbations in the droop coefcients. The approximated solutions to the perturbed eigenvalue problem can be computationally attractive, since the eigensolutions will be obtained with much less effort than that based on the conventional eigensolution methods such as QR algorithm. In addition to the fast computation characteristics, this approach can be easily combined with coordinated optimization of parameters.

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IV. COORDINATED OPTIMIZATION OF DROOP COEFFICIENTS A. Objective Function in Coordinated Optimization The eigenvalue-based objective function in

Fig. 1. Flowchart of the proposed parameter-optimization algorithm.

(21) is proposed to optimize the droop coefcients in the terms of small signal stability of a micro-grid under various operating of operation sceconditions. In (21), the weight coefcient nario will increase if the probability of the operation scenario is increased. consists of the following three parts. 1) represents the terms consisting of eigenvalues with a positive real part when the system is unstable. is given as follows: (22) is a quadratic function of , which ensures In (22), that the inuence of an eigenvalue with positive real part on is positively correlated with its real part. , an empirical parameter, has a relatively larger value, making play a and . more important role in than 2) represents the terms consisting of eigenvalues whose damping ratios are less than . is given as follows:

the State Matrix according to (14). Subsequently, Eigensolutions in the initial condition are solved by the QR algorithm, and the initial value of the Objective Function is calculated. Parameter-variation Threshold Settings is used to set the maximum variations of parameters in each iterative step. The method will be presented in Section V. Parameter Optimization solves the minimization problem with constraints by sequential quadratic programming (SQP) [21]. In order to use the SQP algorithm, the objective function is expanded as Taylor series at the previous step, which is shown as follows:

(25) and are Jacobin and Hessian where matrices of the droop coefcients at the previous step. The elements of the above matrices are all calculated based on the increments of eigensolutions obtained in Section III. Taking the in as an example, its expreselement sion is given in

In (23), is a quadratic function of , which ensures that the smaller damping ratio the eigenvalue has, the more critical role it plays in . is also an empirical parameter and is generally much smaller than in (22). 3) represents the terms consisting of eigenvalues with a real part larger than . is given as follows: (24) In (24), is a quadratic function of , which ensures that the smaller real part the eigenvalue has, the less important effect it has on . is similar to in (23). B. Parameter-Optimization Process The computational owchart of the coordinated optimization of droop coefcients is shown in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1, Modeling and Initialization includes micro-grid components modeling, power-ow calculation, state variables initialization, and determination of optimization iteration number. Matrix Perturbation Component Construction obtains the matrices according to (15)(20), which are used to obtain

(26) , , and and the weight coNote that the parameters are all functions of the droop coefefcients cients. Based on the Jacobin matrix obtained by the rst-order perturbations, the Hessian matrix can be calculated subsequently, and the SQP algorithm can be employed to seek the minimum value of the objective function. Then, with the optimized inand , Parameter Updating and Objective crements Value Updating are carried out.

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Fig. 3. Comparison of eigenvalues near the imaginary axis for the micro-grid.

Fig. 2. Benchmark low-voltage micro-grid network. Fig. 4. Changes of the critical eigenvalues during optimization.

The optimization process will be terminated when the value of the objective function is zero or the iteration number reaches the maximum allowable value. If one of these criteria is satised, then stop, or else go to Parameter-variation Threshold Settings. V. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES The 0.4-kV, 50-Hz micro-grid prototype shown in Fig. 2 is used to test and verify the proposed approach. Parameters of this micro-grid are provided in [22]. The testing system includes three categories of DG units, namely nondispatchable DG (Photovoltaic (PV) [23]), dispatchable DG (Micro-turbine (MT) [24]), and dispatchable distributed energy storage (Battery [25]). Among these DG units, all ve dispatchable units are operated with droop control as shown in the Appendix, whereas the three PV units are controlled via a maximum power point tracking strategy [23]. These DG units are integrated into the system through voltage source inverters. In this case, three typical operation scenarios are considered in the parameter-optimization process. Parameters for the inverter control loops, the objective function, and the three operation scenarios are presented in the Appendix. A. Analysis of Parameter Optimization 1) Analysis of the Optimization Process: According to the calculation owchart in Fig. 1, it is necessary to select a proper range for parameter perturbations initially. The comparison between exact and perturbation solutions under different conditions of perturbation shows that approximate eigenvalues will be obtained within a 10% relative error if the parameter perturbation is not larger than 10% [15]. Taking into account the calculation accuracy in the optimization process, 10% is chosen

Fig. 5. Objective value in the parameter optimization process.

in this case as the parameter-variation threshold in each iterative step. There are 135 state variables in the system. During the iterative process, only those eigenvalues which are dominated remarkably by the droop coefcients, i.e., the lower frequency modes need to be recalculated. Under the perturbation conditions discussed above, eigenvalues near the imaginary axis before and after optimization are shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 shows that, after optimization, the system becomes stable with the least damping ratio 0.1502 (larger than the given value ) and the largest real part of eigenvalue 0.1010 (smaller than the given value ). The most sensitive four eigenvalues during optimization are depicted in Fig. 4. It shows that great changes have taken place in eigenvalues , , , during optimization. and Fig. 5 depicts the change in the objective function. For a better expression, logarithm values are adopted for the axis, with the objective value at iteration 7 selected as the base of the logarithm function.

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TABLE I OPTIMIZATION RESULTS FOR DROOP COEFFICIENTS

Fig. 6. Solutions comparison between matrix perturbation and QR algorithm.

It can be seen that the objective values are relatively larger at the rst seven iterations. It is caused by the instability of the will not be equal to system. When the system is unstable, zero, leading to a large value of due to the relatively larger value of . This result validates the iterative process shown in Fig. 4 as well. With parameter optimization process, the testing is equal to zero automatically, system is stable. In this case, and the objective value is relatively smaller due to the smaller and . At the end of the optimization process, values of the objective value reaches zero which means that the system is stable, with the damping ratio and the stability margin satisfying the given requirements. Since the logarithm value of zero is negative innity which is difcult to express, a smaller value is used to replace the objective value in the end. The optimized droop coefcients are given in Table I. 2) Comparison Between Perturbed and Exact Eigensolutions: The solutions comparison between matrix perturbation and QR algorithm are shown in Fig. 6, which compares the during optimization process. It indicates that values of the perturbed solutions are approximately equal to the corresponding exact ones within accuracy limits. B. Simulation Verication for Coordinated Optimization Two typical simulation cases are provided to conrm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT/PowerFactory [26]. 1) Case1: Transition From Grid-Connected to Islanded Mode: The micro-grid will transit from grid-connected mode to islanded mode if any fault occurs in the main grid. In Case1, the simulation process is settled as follows. Circuit Breaker 1 in Fig. 2 is opened at 1 s, making the micro-grid transit from grid-connection mode to islanded mode. Then, Circuit Breaker 2 is opened at 3 s, leading to two submicrogrids. Fig. 7 shows the responses during these transitions.

Fig. 7. Output power of the DG units during mode transitions. (a) Active power response of the DG units. (b) Reactive power response of the DG units.

Simulation results show that, when the micro-grid is disconnected from the main grid at 1 s, the droop-controlled DG units adjust their output power in proportion to the optimized droop coefcients. In addition, the system gets to a steady state rapidly, within 0.3 s, realizing a seamless transition. Simulation results also show that there is redundant power in Microgrid1 when Circuit Breaker 2 is opened at 3 s. Therefore, Battery1 and MT1 in Microgrid1 will reduce their power output proportionally. And Battery2, Battery3, and MT2 in Microgrid2 will increase their power output due to the power shortage in the system. In Case1, the maximum of % overshoot in the transient response of bus voltage is 3.5900%, and the maximum of % overshoot in system frequency is 0.0837%. 2) Case2. Disturbances in the DG Units Output and Load Power: In islanded mode, the droop-controlled DG units balance the power in the micro-grid. The base case for this testing is same as that in Case 1. Here assume that the value of irradiance is increased by 15% at 6 s and the active and reactive power of Load1 and Load2 are increased by 20% at 8 s. Fig. 8 shows the output power of the DG units during these disturbances. Fig. 8 shows that stable power sharing performance can be obtained under various disturbances, regardless of whether the disturbance occurs in the outputs of the DG units or in the loads. Previous researches in [4], [27] have shown that a considerable amount of reactive power may be exchanged between DG units even though some changes occurred only in the active power. This was because of the presence of signicant resistance in the lines, and the selection of relatively small coefcients in the droop controller. In this case, the problem is solved effectively by the proper selection of droop coefcients. In Case2, the maximum of % overshoot in the transient response of bus

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Fig. 8. Output power of the DG units during disturbances. (a) Active power response of the DG units. (b) Reactive power response of the DG units.

voltage is 1.7089%, and the maximum of % overshoot in system frequency is 0.0382%. When the micro-grid offers power to the main grid, the same conclusions can be drawn from simulation results. C. Robustness Verication of Optimized Droop Coefcients To verify the applicability of the optimized droop coefcients, some operation tests are carried out in various operation scenarios of power exchanging at the PCC. The test process is same as Case1. Fig. 9 depicts the system frequency and the maximum/minimum voltage amplitude at the steady state after mode transition. Fig. 9 shows that, when the power is delivered from the main grid to the micro-grid, both the frequency and the minimum voltage amplitude at steady state will decrease as the delivered power is increased. On the other hand, when the power is delivered to the main grid, the frequency and the maximum voltage amplitude will increase as the power is increased. The delivered power will reach a limit when the deviations in frequency and voltage exceed the allowed range after mode transition [28]. is an example of operation limit, in The operation scenario which the voltage will exceed its deviation range if the delivered power keeps increasing. Additionally, increased power will aggravate the transient response, leading to the failure of seamless transition. With the optimized droop coefcients in this case, when the ratio of the active delivered power to the overall load is within the range ( 66.27%, 47.63%), and that of the reactive power to load is within ( 44.24%, 74.78%), seamless transition and stable operation of the micro-grid can be guaranteed. Such a result veries the robustness of the optimized droop coefcients to the change of the exchanging power between the micro-grid and the main grid.

Fig. 9. Frequency and voltage under various power conditions at the PCC. (a) Frequency of the micro-grid under various power conditions at the PCC. (b) Voltage of the micro-grid under various power conditions at the PCC.

VI. CONCLUSION An approach based on matrix perturbation for the coordinated optimization of droop coefcients in a micro-grid has been proposed in this paper. Parameter perturbation analysis is made on the droop coefcients to identify the manner and degree of parameters inuence on the state matrix. The increments of eigensolutions are then obtained based on the rst-order perturbation items. In the optimization process, a comprehensive objective function is proposed to ensure the stability of the system, to enhance the damping characteristics, and to maintain a stability margin for a wide range of operating conditions. The computational owchart is presented for the proposed optimization algorithm based on matrix perturbation. Numerical examples are performed using a benchmark low-voltage micro-grid. In the examples, the parameter-optimization process is analyzed in detail. And the time-domain simulations are carried out to illustrate the responses of the DG units during mode transitions and under disturbances. The robustness analysis of the optimized coefcients to the change of the exchanging power between the micro-grid and the main grid is presented as well. Theoretical analysis and evaluation results have conrmed the effectiveness of the optimization approach, the feasibility of the objective function, and the robustness of the optimized parameters. APPENDIX The droop control system for inverters adopted in this paper is shown in Fig. 10 [18], [20]. Parameters for the inverter control loops, the objective function, and the operation scenarios used in the numerical examples are given in Tables IIIV, respectively.

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REFERENCES
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Fig. 10. Schematic drawing of a typical droop control system for inverters.

TABLE II PARAMETERS FOR INVERTER CONTROLLERS IN THE MICRO-GRID

TABLE III PARAMETERS IN THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

TABLE IV POWER OF DG UNITS AND LOAD IN THE THREE OPERATION SCENARIOS

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Yan Li (S13) received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, in 2008, where she is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree. Her research is in the area of stability simulation and small signal analysis in distributed generation system.

Ke Peng received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China, in 2007. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at Tianjin University, Tianjin, China. His research is in the area of stability simulation for distributed generation system and wind power generation.

Bowen Hong received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Sichuan University, Sichuan, China, in 2008. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at Tianjin University, Tianjin, China. His research is in the area of distributed generation and micro-grid energy management system.

Zhen Wu received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, in 2009, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree. His research is in the area of stability simulation and micro-grid laboratory test system.

Chengshan Wang received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, in 1991. He is now a Professor with the School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China. His research is in the area of distribution system planning, distributed generation system analysis and simulation, and power system security analysis.

Chongbo Sun received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, in 2010, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree. His research is in the area of photovoltaic technology and steady-state analysis of distribution system.