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### Forces in Equilibrium

The principle of the forces in equilibrium states,

“ When forces act upon an object , the object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resulting force acting on the object is zero ( no net force acting upon it) ” When the equilibrium is reached, then the object is in two states, that is

• (i) remains stationary (if the object is

 stationary) (ii) moves at a constant velocity ( if the object is moving) Based on , F = ma atau a = F

m

When the equilibrium of forces

is achieved, then, F = 0

,

 hence a =0 Thus a = 0 , it means the

object remains stationary or moves at a constant velocity.

### Motion

Newton’s third law of motion states , “ To every action there is an equal but opposite direction”

### Examples Forces in Equilibrium

(a)

Weight = Normal reaction

(b)

Weight = Tension

(c)

Weight

(d)

Buoyant force =

Weight = Normal

reaction

(e)

Weight = Normal reaction

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Pulling force = Frictional force

(f)
Weight = Lifting force
Driving force = Dragging
force
(g)
Weight = Normal reaction
Engine thrust = Air
resistance +
Frictional
force
(h)

Buoyant force = Weight of load + Weight of helium gas

### Two Forces in Equilibrium

P
+
P
Q = 0
= - Q

Example 1

Figure shows a stationary wooden block of mass 2 kg resting on a table.

Calculate

• (a) the weight of the wooden block

• (b) the normal reaction

Solution

### Three Forces in Equilibrium

P
+
Q
+ R = 0

When three forces in equilibrium the triangle of forces in one direction (in order)

Example 2

The following figure shows a steel sphere of mass 12 kg suspended from a length of rope which is pulled to the side by a horizontal force of M. The tension of another rope is N.

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• (a) Draw a triangle of forces.

• (b) Calculate the value of (i)

M

(ii) N

Solution

In this method the tail of the first vector is joined to the tail of second vector and then draw a parallelogram. The diagonal represents the resultant force.

Triangle method:

In this method the tip of the first vector is joined to the tail of second

vector and then draw a line to complete the triangle. The third side represents the resultant force.

Terdapat dua kaedah menentukan

### Resultant force

Force is a vector quantity and hence it has magnitude and direction. Two or more forces which act on an object can be combined into a single force called the resultant force.

If two forces are in same line, vector addition is easy. We simply add the forces if both pull or push together; subtract them if one is in the opposite direction.

If they are at an angle, the resultant force can be determined by the triangle method and the parallelogram method.

Parallelogram method :

daya paduan yang bagi daya-daya tidak selari.

Example 3

Find the resultant force for the following figure:-

Solution :

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Example 4

The figure shows a trolley is pulled by two forces

What is the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force acting on the trolley.

Solution

Example 5

Figure shows a boat is pulled by two forces. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant force acting on the trolley.

Solution:

F x = F cos
F
= F sin
y
is an angle between the force
F to the horizontal line
the sign of the force depend on
the quadrant where the force ,
F is placed

For an object on a inclined plane, the weight,W of the object can be resolved into two components ;

• (i) parallel to inclined plane, A

(ii) perpendicular to inclined plane,B

### Resolution of forces

A force can be resolved into two components, that is, (i) the horizontal component, F x and (ii) the vertical component , F y

A = W sin B = W kos

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Example 6

Find the values of P x and P y for the following figures.

Solution:

Example 7

Figure shows a stationary wooden block of mass 50 g which is placed on a inclined plane that is at an angle of 40 o to the horizontal. What is the magnitude of the weight parallel to the inclined plane.

Solution

TUTORIAL
• 1 When the equilibrium is reached

an object

 A remains stationary B moves at a constant velocity C remains stationary or moves at a

constant velocity

• 2 Which of the following shows the

three forces 5N, 12N
equilibrium.
and
13 N

in

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• 3 Figure shows three forces F 1 , F 2

and F 3
acting at
a point.

Which of the following vector diagram represents the forces correctly?

• 4 Figure shows the forces 10 N, P and Q acting at a point in equilibrium.

What is the magnitude of the force, P ?

 A 5.0 N B 6.4 N C 8.7 N D 10.0 N E 12.7 N
• 5 Figure shows the three forces L , M and N acting on a point which are in equilibrium

O and

What is the tension , L?

 A 40 N B 30 N C 20 N D 10 N E 5 N
• 6 Figure shows a monkey hangs from the middle of a massless rope.

If the tension of each strings is 150 N, what is the mass of the monkey?

 A 5 kg B 10 kg C 15 kg D 20 kg E 30 kg
• 7 Figure shows three loads suspended from inelastic strings through two smooth pulleys.

If the three loads in equilibrium, what is the value of W ?

 A 8 N B 12 N C 16 N D 24 N E 32 N
• 8 Figure shows a lantern of mass 0.2 kg is suspended by a string that is joined two other strings.

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What is the tension in each string P and Q ?

 A 0.86 N B 1.00 N C 1.74 N D 2.00 N E 3.48 N
• 9 The figure shows three identical pictures are hang differently on a wall .

Which comparison is true about the tension of each strings in the arrangement of P ,Q and R?

 A Tension in P > Tension in Q > Tension in R B Tension in Q > Tension in P > Tension in R C Tension in P > Tension in R > Tension in Q D Tension in R > Tension in Q > Tension in P
• 10 Which of the following produces the largest resultant force?

• 11 Figure shows two forces 9 N and 12 N act at a point

O.

Which of the following figures show the resultant of two forces.

• 12 Figure shows two forces 3 N and

4 N which other.

are perpendicular each

What is the angle between the resultant force to the force of 4 N?

A

C

E

53.1 o

42.0

o

23.5

o

B

D

48.8

o

36.9

o

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• 13 Figure shows two forces 5 N and 4 N act at a point and make an angle of 60 o with each other.

What is the resultant force ?

 A 12.5 N B 9.2 N C 7. 8 N D 3.0 N E 1.5 N
• 14 Figure shows two forces F N respectively act at a point O and make an angle of 120 o with each other.

What is the resultant force?

 A ¼ F N B ½ F N C F N D ¾ F N E 2F N
• 15 Figure shows two lengths of cables, PQ and RQ are used to hold a flagpole upright. Each cable has a tension 1 000 N and makes and angle 60 o to the surface of the ground.

What is the magnitude of the resultant force acting on the ground?

A
217
N
B
433 N
C
560 N
D
866 N
E
1732 N
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Figure shows two forces 15 N and
10 N are applied
at a point O.
What is the resultant force?
A
9.5 N
B
10.2 N
C
10.6 N
D
11.8 N
E
12.4 N
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Based on the figure above , which of the following figures show the resultant of two forces

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• 18 Which of the following figures give the largest resultant force of three forces.

• 19 Figure shows four forces 3 N, 8 N, 8 N and 20 N acting at a point.

What is the resultant force acting at the point?

 A 5 N B 6 N C 8 N D 10 N E 13 N
• 20 Figure shows a trolley being pushed by a 15 N force on a floor.

What is the vertical component of the force?

 A 27.5 N B 12. 5 N C 9.5 N D 7.5 N E 4.5 N
• 21 Figure shows a gardener pushes a lawnmower with a force 500 N at an angle 60 o to the surface of the field.

What is the force pushing the lawnmower forward ?

.

 A 50 N B 125 N C 250 D 500 N E 1000 N
• 22 Figure shows a small carton of weight 50 N is placed on a inclined plane makes an angle 30 o to the horizontal .

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What is the value of F ?

 A 50 N B 25 N C 20 N D 10 N E 5 N
• 23 Figure shows a trolley of mass 2 kg being pulled by a 10 N force on a rough surface . The frictional force between the rough surface and the trolley is 2 N.

What is the acceleration of the trolley?

 A 0.5 ms -2 B 1.0 ms - 2 C 1.5 ms -2 D 3.0 ms -2 E 6.0 ms -2
• 24 Figure shows a toy car of mass 0.8 kg which is released from rest and is now moving down a smooth inclined plane. The inclined plane makes an angle of 50 o with the horizontal plane.

What is acceleration experienced by the toy car

 A 5.14 ms -2 B 6.13 ms -2 6.42 ms -2 D C 7.66 ms -2 E 8.00 ms -2

25 Figure(a) shows a situation in tug of war contest. The rope remains stationary at central line although the rope is pulled at opposite ends by both of teams. F 1 and F 2 are the forces acting at the rope.

Figure (a) Figure (b) shows a car is moving at an uniform velocity 20 ms -1 along a straight road. F 3 dan F 4 are the forces acting at the car.

Figure (b)

• (a) Name the force

 (i) F 1 ……………………………… …… (ii) F 4 ……………………………… …….
 (b) What is the magnitude of resultant force between (i) F 1 and F 2 ……………………………… …… (ii) F 3 and F 4 ……………………………… … .. (c) Based on your answers in (b)(i) and (b)(ii) also the informations in Figure(a) and Figure(b), relate the situations

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to deduce a relevant physics concept and hence name the concept.

………………………………………

…………

……………………………….……

………… ...

• (d) (i)

What will happen to

the motion is 8 000N ?

of the car if

F 3

…………………………………

……… .. Give one reason for

(ii)

(d)(i).

…………………………………

……… ..

26 Figure shows

a

cyclist

is

riding

along a road at a constant velocity.

The total of downward force acting

on

the

bicycle

and the

cyclist is

650 N. The normal reaction of the front tyre is 300 N and forward thrust is 200 N.

………………………………………

………………

• (c) What will happen when the forward thrust is increased?

……………………………………………

…………

• (d) Why the cyclist thrown forward when the bicycle runs over a stone.?

……………………………………………

…………

• (e) Explain why the cyclist can gets serious injuries if he falls into the road which the surface is very hard. ………………………………………

………………

……………………………………………

…………

……………………………………………

…………

• (a) Calculate the normal reaction ,P acting on the rear tyre .

• (b) Give one reason why the total resistance,Q

should be

200 N at that moment?

• 27 Figure shows a ball of mass 4kg suspended from a length of rope NO which is pulled by two ropes NP and NM.

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 (a) Draw a vector diagram to show the action of the forces. (b) Determine (i) the value of T (ii) the value of angle k (a) Determine the resultant force along x-axis (c) If the rope NO is cut , the time taken for the ball to reach the floor is 2.5 s . (i) What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches the floor? (b) Determine the resultant force

(ii) What is the height of the ball from the floor.

along y-axis

• (c) Determine the resultant force acting on the ship.

28 Figure shows a ship is pulled horizontally by two boats with two forces 6 kN and 10 kN.

29 Figure shows a man pulls a trolley full of groceries with a force 70 N

at an angle the floor.

20 o to the surface of

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• (a) What is

• (i) the horizontal component of the pulling force?

(ii) the vertical component of the pulling force?

• (b) If the total mass of the trolley and the groceries is 60 kg, determine

• (i) the acceleration of the

trolley

(ii) the force cause by

the

trolley and the groceries

only acting on floor.

(iii) the total force acting on the floor.

• (d) If the trolley is pushed by the man at a same angle as

the trolley is pulled ,

what is the total force

acting on the floor.

30 Figure show a sampan in river is pulled by a workman. The workman

pulls with a force of 400 N

and the

rope used make an angle 50 o with

the bank of the river.

• (a) What is the force pulling the sampan forward.

• (b) What is the force pulling the sampan to the bank?

• (c) (i)

If the length of the rope is

increased , how easier for the workman to pull the sampan forward?