Didactica II

Rosario Estrada

Agustina Tort Hugo Crespo Eliana Harriague

How to teach speaking
WHAT SPEAKERS DO PRODUCTION: It is part of daily life, we take it for granted. It is so natural that we forget how to achieve it. What is involved?  It takes place in real time  It´s linear  Spontaneity Example: a dialogue: Interpret and produce. CONCEPTUALIZATION AND FORMULATION: What we say has to be conceptualized and formulated ARTICULATION: What has been formulated, has to be articulated. Articulation involves the use of organs of speech to produce sounds. SELF MONITORING AND REPAIR: It is a process that happens concurrently with the stages of conceptualization, formulation and articulation. AUTOMATICITY: After all the above mentioned, comes the automaticity, in order to achieve some degree of fluency. FLUENCY: Factors: Speed Pausing Placement of pauses Length of run MANAGING TALK: a. Interaction b. Involves turn-taking c. Paralinguistic (gestures)

WHAT SPEAKERS KNOW:

SPEAKING IN ANOTHER LANGUAGE: A. Using recordings and transcripts in one of the ways of raising awareness: BASIC PROCEDURE:  Activate background knowledge. Difference between L1 and L2 The difference Speaking Both learnt in similar ways. What L2 speakers need to know: Sociocultural context Genre knowledge Speech acts Register Discourse Grammar Vocabulary Phonology D. Linguistic knowledge: Is the knowledge from the big picture to the fine print. Communication strategies: Help achieve strategic competence.Didactica II Rosario Estrada Agustina Tort Hugo Crespo Eliana Harriague a. Establish topic/context. Availability for use Implications for teachers: We as teachers need to integrate all of this features in our language so as to make our students aware of them and capable of developing and using them.  Check gist: general questions  Check register . Awareness raising: Involves at least 3 processes: Attention Noticing Understanding B. AWARENESS RAISING ACTIVITIES: A. Lack of fluency = Frustration B. b. Extralinguistic knowledge: Cultural knowledge that is independent of knowledge. Sociocultural knowledge. C.

counting. anticipation.Didactica II Rosario Estrada Agustina Tort Hugo Crespo Eliana Harriague  Check details. classifying)  Using live listening. (meaningful) APPROPRIATION ACTIVITIES: The process of achieving expertise in a skill has at least 3 stages: Awareness Appropriation Autonomy Drilling and chants Are contextualized. CRITERIA FOR SPEAKING TASKS: (For maximizing speakers´ opportunities)  Productivity  Purposefulness (clear outcome)  Interactivity  Challenge  Safety (they are challenged but they have to feel safe)  Authenticity (situations related to real life) FEEDBACK AND CORRECTION: The teacher should not intervene while students are speaking . Provides a means of gaining articulatory control over Language. reliability. Skills: Speed. accuracy. TOWARDS AUTONOMY: Autonomy has to do with the increased automaticity of language production. 100% comprehension of the text  Listen and read  Resolve doubts  Focus on language features (identifying.Difference between live listening and recording. more memorable than standard Drills. economy.

It is only achieved if learners can cope on their own in the real world) PLANNING AND ASSESSING SPEAKING: A placement test should be used for initial assessment To integrate speaking we need to balance accuracy and fluency TBL (is a good choice) . PRESENTATION AND TALKS: There are different types: Show and tell (answer questions about something that was shown) Did you read about…? (Previous reading) Academic presentations Stories. jokes and anecdotes Storytelling: main ingredient of casual conversations Practice skills and get to know each other Drama and role play stimulations Discussions and debates (the best discussions are the ones that arise spontaneously) Conversation and chat Outside class speaking (provides real autonomy.Didactica II Rosario Estrada Agustina Tort Hugo Crespo Eliana Harriague The teacher should focus on form but let students speak.

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