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Oracle Adaptive Access Managaer Device Identification Guide 10g Release (10.1.4.

5)

November 2008

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide, 10g (10.1.4.5.0) Copyright 2008, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

Contents
Overview ...................................................................................................................................4 What is Device Fingerprinting ...................................................................................................5 When is a device fingerprinted? ...............................................................................................6 Device Fingerprinting Flows at Login....................................................................................7 Device Fingerprinting Attributes ................................................................................................9 Secure Cookie and Browser Characteristics ........................................................................9 Flash Shared Object and Device Characteristics .................................................................9 IP Intelligence .......................................................................................................................9 Models.....................................................................................................................................11 Device Identification Models ...............................................................................................12 Rule Templates ..................................................................................................................13 Use Cases and False Positives ..............................................................................................15 Device Risk Gradient..........................................................................................................17 Device Identification FAQ .......................................................................................................18 Device Identification Models Reference..................................................................................19 201 Cookie enable check ................................................................................................20 202 Flash missing............................................................................................................20 203 Cookie missing .........................................................................................................21 204 Http header mismatch ..............................................................................................22 301 First time browser .....................................................................................................23 Device Identification Rules Reference ....................................................................................24 Cookies Match .................................................................................................................25 Header data match ..........................................................................................................25 Header data match percentage .......................................................................................26 Header data present ........................................................................................................26 Http Header data Browser match ....................................................................................27 Http Header data Browser upgrade .................................................................................27 Http Header data OS match ............................................................................................28 Http Header data OS upgrade .........................................................................................28 Is Cookie Valid.................................................................................................................29 Is Cookie empty...............................................................................................................29 Is Cookie from same device ............................................................................................30 Known header data match percentage............................................................................30

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

Overview
The purpose of this document is to provide an in-depth understanding of Oracle Adaptive Access Manager 's device fingerprinting technology. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager identifies devices based on combinations of the device ID tentacles; secure cookie, flash object, user agent string, browser characteristics, device hardware configuration, network characteristics, geo-location and historical context. The intelligent identification does not rely on any single tentacle so it can function on user devices not following strict specifications. This is especially important in consumer facing deployments. The device is identified using proprietary logic and a configurable set of nested models. This document lists some of the conditions that are used to identify the device. These conditions evaluate historical user behavior and cases where some tentacles are not available such as cookies, Flash. As well, the specialized models detect high-risk situations such as out-of-sync or manipulated cookies.

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

What is Device Fingerprinting


Oracle Adaptive Access Manager device fingerprinting is a mechanism to recognize the devices a customer uses to login whether it is a desktop computer, laptop computer or other web enabled device. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses dozens of attributes, including proprietary OTS (One Time Secure) cookies, flash objects and advanced Auto-Learning device identification logic, to fingerprint the device. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager's patent-pending fingerprinting process produces a fingerprint that is not vulnerable to replay attacks and does not have any logic on the client side where its vulnerable to exploit. The device identification is not merely a static list off attributes but a dynamic capture and evaluation of the specific combinations of attributes.
Fingerprinting Diagram
User Information Header information Geo-location Information Behavior Information

Auto-Learning IP information Single use cookie Flash information Flash shared object

Device Fingerprint

OAAM Contextual Data

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

When is a device fingerprinted?


A device is fingerprinted as soon as it hits the system, prior to any authentication attempt. This way the device identification information is available for risk evaluation at any runtime. Some common runtimes are pre-authentication, post-authentication and in-session/transaction. Generally the login page is embedded with a few lines of static html snippet code. The html snippet also has code to include a flash object and image tags to collect advanced device characteristics. The flash code internally makes a call to the application server thereby uploading the device characteristics. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager generates a unique Secure Cookie for each session and looks for the same cookie the next time any user logs in from the device. The cookie is only valid for that session on that particular device. The cookies are retrieved or set using the following mechanisms: Image tags - An image tag might be introduced in the login page, which makes a call to the server to get the image. This request sends the cookies from the browser, which is used for finger printing the device. The image tags could also be used to compute the network bandwidth and the processing speed of the device. These additional data points could also be used by Oracle Adaptive Access Manager to uniquely identify the network/computer device while authenticating the user. HTTP Requests - In cases where images are blocked, the cookies might be extracted from the login request itself. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses these different modes of collecting the cookies to overcome some technical difficulties imposed by browser or the security settings on the device.

The request from the flash client and image request need to be handled by the application server and passed on to the Oracle Adaptive Access Manager client code. This client code extracts the device characteristics from the request and calls the Oracle Adaptive Access Manager server. The Oracle Adaptive Access Manager client library is given with the source code. The customer can use it directly or customize it to suite their environment.

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

Device Fingerprinting Flows at Login

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

Device Fingerprinting Attributes


Secure Cookie and Browser Characteristics
As mentioned above, secure browser cookies are one of the mechanisms used to identify the device. The secure cookies are rotated every time the user logs in. The Secure Cookies are extracted from the HTTP request. Along with the secure cookie, the Oracle Adaptive Access Manager also extracts the Browser characteristics, like user agent, time zone, locale, etc. For additional characteristics that are used to create a unique fingerprint for the device, refer to the table below. Operating System Browser Operating System Version Patch Browser Version Patch level JavaScript Support Image Support

Flash Shared Object and Device Characteristics


Similar to Secure Cookie, Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses Flash Shared Objects to store rotating digital cookie and update it on each login request. The cookie is sent to the server using an HTTP request. Along with the cookie, the Flash movie also sends the device characteristics; such as does the computer have a microphone, audio, etc., thereby adding an additional granularity to the device ID. For additional characteristics, refer to the table below.

Hardware

Software

Screen DPI Screen color Screen resolution Has audio card Has printer support Has microphone Has audio encoder Supports Video Has MP3 encoder Can play streaming Audio Can play streaming Video Has Video encoder

IP Intelligence
The locations used by the device are stored in the Oracle Adaptive Access Manager database and used by the rules engine to identify anomalies in device behavior. This is especially useful in cases where cookies and/or Flash are disabled. Oracle Adaptive Access Managers method for device fingerprinting generates a one-time fingerprint for each user session which is unique to the individuals device and which is replaced upon each subsequent visit with another unique fingerprint. This ensures that a stolen fingerprint cookie cannot be reused for fraud. Some of the attributes collected to generate the location fingerprint are listed below: Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide
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IP address City, State, Country information and confidence factors Connection type Connection speed IP routing type ISP flag ASN Carrier name Top-level domain Second-level domain Registering organization A list of anonymizing proxies Hostnames and routers

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Models
Oracle Adaptive Access Manager includes robust risk models (containing pre-packaged rules) rd for security, business, workflow and 3 party data, which are evaluated by the system in real time. Oracle Adaptive Access Managers base models include many rules that use device rule templates.

Policy

Business Security Workflow

Fraud Monitoring Fraud Blocking Fraud Challenge System Registration Etc.

Other Model

Device ID Models

Rules

Rules

Rule Templates
User Device Location

USER: Account Status USER: Action Count USER: Challenge Failure USER: Question Failure Etc.

DEVICE: Max Users DEVICE: Secure Cookie Mismatch DEVICE: Max false Status DEVICE: Max Users Etc.

LOCATION: IP Max Users LOCATION: IP routing type LOCATION: In IP group LOCATION: In country group Etc.

Customizing the rules that come standard with the product and adding new rules require minimal effort on the part of the institution due to the intuitive rule template editor accessible in Oracle Adaptive Access Manager.

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Device Identification Models


To view the list of Device Identification models, choose Models from the Admin menu. Then, from the Models menu, select List Models. With the Device Identification item selected for the Model Run Time, click Run Query.

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Rule Templates
Rule templates form the foundation of all rules. Rule templates are created and edited via the Adaptive Risk Manager user interface. To view the list of rule templates, choose Rule Templates from the Admin menu. Then, from the Rule Templates menu, select List Rule Templates. With the All item selected for the Model Run Time, Policy Type, and Model Status, click Run Query.

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager offers pre-defined conditions with which to create rule templates that are used by all rules. These rule templates fall into the following categories: User Device Location In-session

Sample Rule Template

Some sample rules that use device-related templates include: Rule Device First Time Device multiple users Description Device used by user the first time Maximum users using the device for the past "x" seconds Conditions None 1.Maximum number of users allowed is 3** 2.Seconds elapsed is 600** Action Challenge User Challenge User Alert None Device multiple users

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Many failures from device

Many failed login attempts from device within the given time duration

1.Maximum number of unsuccessful attempts allowed is 4** 2.Seconds elapsed is 3600**

Challenge User

Alert Many Device Fails

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Use Cases and False Positives


Oracle Adaptive Access Managers fingerprinting technology does not solely rely on one tentacle. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses dozens of attributes to recognize and fingerprint the device you typically use to login, providing greater coverage for an institutions customer base. For example, in the case where certain elements are unavailable, the system can still provide robust security utilizing other objects (secure cookie, flash cookie, HTTP header, Real Media, QuickTime, etc.). Oracle Adaptive Access Managers secure 1 device fingerprinting technology allows for a higher non-repudiation in associating device with user and transaction, reducing false positives that other fingerprinting technologies cannot overcome currently. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager recognizes that institutions need solutions that are nonintrusive for their end users, making device identification increasingly crucial to all rules incorporating device fingerprinting. Consequently, Oracle Adaptive Access Managers fingerprinting technology takes into account the following different use cases and exceptions:

Use Cases New Device Use Cases


Both secure and flash cookies are enabled. Both secure and flash cookies are disabled. Secure cookies is enabled and flash is disabled Secure cookie is disabled and flash is enabled

Description
Both secure and flash cookies are missing. Flash request came through successfully. User has not used device from this location before Both secure and flash cookies are missing. Also, the flash request didnt come through successfully. Both secure and flash cookies are missing. But flash request came through successfully. Both secure and flash cookie came. Both secure and flash cookies are missing. Also, the flash request didnt come through successfully. Only secure cookie came through successfully. Only flash cookie came through successfully.

Device Recognized
Both secure and flash cookies are enabled. Both secure and flash cookies are disabled. Secure cookie is enabled and flash is disabled Secure cookie is disabled and flash is enabled

Valid Exceptions
Browser upgrade. Device upgrade. Browser and Device upgrade. Used different browser. Secure cookie is missing. User different browser. Both cookie and browser characteristics mismatch. Secure cookie out of sync and flash is in sync. Browser character mismatched Flash data mismatched Both browser and flash data mismatch Secure cookie is missing. Browser characteristics are mismatch. Flash cookie is matching. Flash data is a match (except browser). Secure cookie is mismatch. Browser characteristics are mismatch. Flash cookie is matching. Flash data is a match (except browser). Secure cookie is mismatch, but belonged to the same device.

Flash cookie out of sync and secure cookie is sync. Both secure cookie and flash are out of sync.

Flash cookie is a mismatch, but belonged to the same device. Both the cookies are mismatch, but they belonged to the same device

Non-repudiation = authentication that with high assurance can be asserted to be genuine, and that cannot subsequently be refuted.

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Other patterns
User uses multiple browsers and flash enabled. User uses multiple browsers, with cookie disabled and flash enabled. Family using same device Family using same account Family using same device, same account, different browsers Family using same device, different account, different browsers User who travels a lot with their laptop User who travels a lot, uses kiosk User who travels, uses laptop or kiosk User who travels, but using wireless card always User who travels, but uses public wifi with their laptop

These use one of the combinations of regular and exception patterns.

Fraudulent Cases
Stolen secure cookie and stolen flash cookie. With stolen browser characteristics and flash data. Stolen secure cookie and no flash request. With stolen browser characteristics. Stolen secure cookie and no flash request. Browser characteristic mismatches Cookie disabled and stolen flash cookie. With stolen browser characteristics and stolen flash data Cookie disabled and stolen flash cookie. With mismatch browser characteristics and stolen flash data Cookie disabled and stolen flash cookie. With mismatch browser characteristics and mismatch flash data Cookie disabled and flash request with no flash cookie. And stolen browser characteristics and stolen flash data. Secure cookie mismatches and belongs to another device

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Device Risk Gradient


These use cases help to define Oracle Adaptive Access Managers device risk gradient. The device risk gradient specifies the certainty of the device being identified. This is a standard pre-condition in all device type rules. For example, a device risk gradient of 0 is an exact match whereas a device gradient of 500 is a device with some unexpected by plausible variations from previous sessions, and a score of 1000 a device that has only minimal matching data to make an identification.

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Device Identification FAQ


1. What if secure cookies are deleted? Oracle Adaptive Access Managers fingerprinting technology does not solely rely on one tentacle. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses dozens of tentacles to recognize and fingerprint the device you typically use to login, providing greater coverage for an institutions customer base. If secure cookies are missing or disabled, Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses other elements such as flash object, HTTP headers, geo-location and user history for device identification. As well history of the device is used to see if the absence of a cookie is expected or an anomaly. 2. What if flash is not enabled? Oracle Adaptive Access Managers fingerprinting technology does not solely rely on one tentacle. Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses dozens of tentacles to recognize and fingerprint the device you typically use to login, providing greater coverage for an institutions customer base. If flash is not enabled, Oracle Adaptive Access Manager uses other elements such as secure cookie, HTTP headers, geo-location and user history for device identification. As well history of the device is used to see if the absence of a flash is expected or an anomaly. 3. How are device risk gradient scores determined? Device risk gradient scores are determined using Oracle Adaptive Access Managers proprietary algorithm and the device ID models. A device score is made up of many elements evaluated historically. Each element can have a range of values. These values are used to determine the device score. When a customer has the appropriate device scoring models deployed they can see these individual rule scores. The session holds the values that make up this score. 4. Why are there so many device ID models? Our team has created many device ID models to take into account the various use cases that weve learned through experience with our customers. By creating these device ID models, we have created a robust device identification mechanism and reduced false positives as a result. 5. Are device ID models configurable? Yes, device ID models are configurable. 6. Can we add new device ID models? If so, how? Yes, new device ID models can be added. We recommend that you work with our Professional Services team to create any new device ID models.

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Device Identification Models Reference


To view the list of Device Identification models, choose Models from the Admin menu. Then, from the Models menu, select List Models. With the Device Identification item selected for the Model Run Time, click Run Query.

The Device Identification Models provided are: 201 Cookie enable check 202 Flash missing 203 Cookie missing 204 Http header mismatch 205 Hdr mismatch No Flash 206 Hdr mismatch No SC 207 Device upgrade 208 Brwsr Device upgrade 209 SecureCookie mismatch 210 Same device DigCookie 211 out of sync cookie 301 First time browser 401 GeoCheck Flash Came SystemDeviceID

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201 Cookie enable check

202 Flash missing

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203 Cookie missing

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204 Http header mismatch

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301 First time browser

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Device Identification Rules Reference


To view the list of Device Identification rule templates, choose Rule Templates from the Admin menu. Then, from the Rule Templates menu, select List Rule Templates. With the Device Identification item selected for the Model Run Time, click Run Query.

The Device ID rule templates provided are: Cookies Match Header data match Header data match percentage Header data present Http Header data Browser match Http Header data Browser upgrade Http Header data OS match Http Header data OS upgrade Is Cookie Valid Is Cookie empty Is Cookie from same device Known header data match percentage

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Cookies Match

Header data match

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Header data match percentage

Header data present

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Http Header data Browser match

Http Header data Browser upgrade

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Http Header data OS match

Http Header data OS upgrade

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Is Cookie Valid

Is Cookie empty

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Is Cookie from same device

Known header data match percentage

EXAMPLE FRAUD USE CASES


Use Case #1 Insider Fraud: holistic risk evaluation

Dr. John Smith works at First Care hospital in San Francisco CA. He works day shift at the hospital most of the time and in the evenings he often catches up on paperwork from his home office. Unfortunately Dr. Smith is very forgetful and a little careless. He can never seem to remember his username and password to access the medial records and billing system so he has written them down on a post-it along with the URL of the application. At the end of his shift one night he accidentally leaves the post-it on one of the PCs in his office at the hospital. Its now 1:27 Am, the night shift. Jeff is a temp worker recently hired by the janitorial company responsible for the hospital. He is stuck working graveyard. He really hates his new job and he has an
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issue with doctors in general. Just this evening a doctor bumped into him and spilled coffee all over. Jeff is mopping the office that Dr. Smith shares with a group of other doctors. Tonight its quiet so nobody is using the office. Jeff is stewing about doctors and spilt coffee when he spots the post-it on the PC. He gets an idea; he could really mess with that doctor if he logged in and changed their password without them knowing it. Maybe its even the password of the doctor that spilt his coffee. First Care hospital has 137 PCs that are used for accessing the online records and billing system. These PCs are built and maintained with a single Windows XP image. IE is the only browser installed and it has cookies disabled. The Flash player is also not installed. Jeff enters Dr. Smiths username and password. OAAM determines that this situation is anomalous for Dr. Smith so a KBA challenge question is presented. Jeff answers the question three times incorrectly and locks out Dr. Smiths account. Jeff gets bored and goes looking for doughnuts in the break room. Jeff was prevented from accessing Dr. Smiths account because his behavior fell outside of what is ordinary for Dr. Smith. Specifically, the time at which the login attempt was occurring was suspect. Dr. Smith works the day shift unless he has to fill in for somebody. Even though he works at home in the evenings sometimes its rarely late at night. In addition to preventing the fraudulent login in real-time OAAM also captured the attempt in great detail for forensic investigation of the situation if required. This form of audit record is far more information than any application log could ever furnish. A compliance office could easily see not only that there was a failed login attempt but also why Jeff failed, where Jeff was, what device he was using and many other useful data points. As well, situations related to this one could easily be located in the investigation tool.
Variations: possible device risk gradient permutations of use case #1 hospital PC. The use case above is written to match row #1 below (both disabled). If everything in the use case were the same except for the cookies and Flash the results would be rows 2 4. OAAM learns what the normal composition of a device is over time. As long as the composition is consistent the risk is kept low. Cookies Enabled 1 2 3 4 Flash Enabled Device Risk Gradient Score First 3 Logins 4th Login Plus 800 (new device each time) 550 (first device ID used) 300 (first device ID used) 0 200 (first device ID used) 0 0 0

X X X X

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Current Situational Context

KBA Challenge

KBA Challenge

KBA Challenge

IF YES

IF YES

YES

Historical Context

Historical Context

User: jsmith Device ID: 84762678497 Usage: 26 last 30 days OS: Win XP Browser: IE 6.2 Language: en-US Cookie: no Flash: no Device ID: 65674534522 Usage: 12 last 30 days OS: Vista Home Browser: IE 7 Language: en-US Cookie: yes** Flash: yes**

User: jsmith IP: 123.54.78.32 Usage: 26 last 30 days IP: 45.67.23.54 Usage: 10 last 30 days IP: 76.111.43.1 Usage: 2 last 30 days

User: jsmith Time Bucket: 5:00 12:59 Usage: 24 last 30 days Time Bucket: 13:00 20:59 Usage: 14 last 30 days Time Bucket: 21:00 4:59 Usage: 0 last 30 days

Device Profile

Location Profile

Time Profile

Oracle Adaptive Access Manager Device Identification Guide

Historical Context

User ID: jsmith Device ID: 84762678497 OS: Win XP Browser: IE 6.2 Language: en-US Cookie: no Flash: no IP: 123.54.78.32 City: San Francisco State: CA Country: USA Connection: T1 Routing Type: Proxy Time: 1:27 am

Has jsmith used Device ID: 84762678497 less than 20% of the time in the last 30 days?

NO

Has jsmith used IP: 123.54.78.32 less than 5% of the time in the last 30 days?

NO

Has jsmith used Time Bucket: 21:00 4:59 less than 33% of the time in the last 30 days?

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