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Sustainable Alternatives of Water Supply for the Mining Industry: Wastewater Re Use v/s Seawater Supply Alternativas Sustentables

de Suministro de Agua para la Industria Minera: Re uso de Agua Servidas v/s Suministro de agua de mar Comit del Investigacin Encuentro de Tecnologa de

Bloque de Medio Ambiente / Infraestructura: Agua y Energa Authors: Rubn Muoz (*), MSc. Water Supply Specialist, Hatch Mark Waer, PhD. Senior Water Resource Consultant, Hatch Maria Teresa Ramirez Senior Water Consultant, Hatch * Principal author: rmunoz@hatch.cl
Hatch, Avda. El Bosque Norte 500, Las Condes, Santiago, 7550092 Chile Tel: +56 22 430 2600, Fax: +56 22 430 2699 E-mail: hatch@hatch.cl

agua mar (agua de mar y agua desalada); discusin de resultados de un anlisis multicriterio que permitir identificar diferencias; ventajas y desventajas del punto de vista tcnico-econmico, ambiental-social de las alternativas no convencionales de suministro de agua. El resultado evidencia las ventajas y desventajas de cada alternativa, sin embargo ambas son factibles de utilizar para propsito de suministro de agua industrial para minera. Cada alternativa debe ser evaluada en el contexto del proyecto minero individuo teniendo en cuenta los objetivos y limitaciones.

Summary Water efficiency in mineral processing has been improving in the last few years by the introduction of new technologies / optimizations in the water recovery and tailings systems, resulting in a reduction of the unitary consumption of fresh water by the mining industry. However, the aggregate water demand of the global mining industry has been increasing, mainly by new mining investment in the regions. In addition, the increases in water demand of other stakeholders: communities, agriculture and other productive sectors, have resulted in vulnerability of the conventional fresh water resources: surface and groundwater, especially in water-scarce zones. In this context, water security can be compromised, which will result in an increase of social pressures on water resources and possible resistance to new mining investments. One possible solution is the use of non-conventional water resources, such as reclaimed wastewater, for the mining industry. This represents a new attractive alternative to analyze, because it could alleviate water stress on the river basins and release fresh water resources to other stakeholders, thus allowing the mining companies to accomplish sustainability goals; comply with international standards and facilitate social license to operate new mining projects. This article presents: the discussion and evaluation of the non-conventional water resources; the discussion of the results of a multicriteria analysis which allows understanding and evaluating the differences; advantages and disadvantages from the technical-economical, social and environmental point of view of the non conventional water supply options: re use of municipal waste water as compared to seawater supply and its two sub options: raw seawater and desalinated seawater. The results show that there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, but that use of non-conventional water resources is a viable option for mining companies. Each alternative must be evaluated in the context of the individual mining project considering goals and limitations.

Resumen El uso eficiente del agua en procesos metalrgicos ha logrado disminuir la demanda unitaria de agua fresca, principalmente debido a introduccin de tecnologas/optimizaciones en el sistema de recuperacin de agua y espesamiento de relaves. Sin embargo, la demanda agregada total de agua de la industria global minera se ha incrementado, principalmente por el afloramiento de nuevas inversiones en la regin. Adicionalmente, el aumento en la demanda de agua de otros actores: comunidades, agricultura y otros sectores productivos han incrementado el estrs hdrico, haciendo mucho ms vulnerables las fuentes convencionales de recurso hdrico: agua superficial y subterrnea, especialmente en zonas de escasez hdrica. En este contexto, la seguridad hdrica para todos los actores se ve comprometida, lo que incrementar presiones sociales por el recurso hdrico y posible resistencia hacia nuevas inversiones mineras. Debido a lo anterior, el uso de fuentes no convencionales para suministro de la industria minera se ha vuelto una alternativa muy atractiva de analizar, puesto que esta iniciativa permite aliviar el estrs hdrico de las cuencas y liberar recursos de agua fresca para otros actores, lo que permite cumplir con: objetivos y estrategias de sustentabilidad de las compaas; normativas internacionales y facilitar la obtencin de la licencia social para operar de los nuevos proyectos mineros. Este artculo presentar: una discusin de las alternativas de suministro de aguas no convencionales: agua servida municipal tratada y

Introduction IWRM is the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems and the environment (2). As it can be seen from the figure 1, the IWRM framework consider that mining water demand is just a part of the global system, where the water policy and management must to ensure water for all: water for people (water supply and waste water); water for food (agriculture); water for nature (environment and land conservation) and water for industry and other uses. IWRM promote democratic participation in governance, considering the interconnection of the nature of hydrological resources with the different sectors (2), which approach is a huge challenge because of the predominant management in the past was sector-by-sector. (3) defined that water governance refers to the range of political, social, economic, and administrative systems that are in place to allocate, develop and manage water resources and the delivery of water services for a society. Traditionally, in the past each sector solved their water needs without a multisectorial approach, which resulting in failed and crisis of water governance.

Global policies are challenging an integrated use of water resource in order to promote coordinated and sustainable management development. In this context, Sustainable Integrated Water Supply System (SIWSS) (1) it has been proposed as part of the Integrated Water Resource Management IWRM framework (see figure 2), whose final goal is to integrate stakeholders in order to reach holistic management using a perspective that takes into account all sectors of the industry, government and community, developing strategies to ensuring water for all. The water resource considered for SIWSS is seawater, which has been recently considered one of the alternative sustainable options for plant operation process for the mining industry. In addition, this paper will present other water resource options: municipal waste water re use. This global awareness of water shortage is evidenced in the current global framework, led by the United Nations and the World Bank, which are demanding a multi-disciplinary, sustainable and participative water development process. The mining industry, in order to flourish, must be part of this requirement not just to live up to international and global promises, but also to obtain support from the financial sector (Equator principles, IFC) (1).

SURFACE WATER

GROUNDWATER

Policy and legal framework Management instruments Infrastructure Water Supply and Wastewater

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
Water & Agriculture Water & Environment
Water for Other Uses

SEAWATER
MINING INDUSTRY

Institutional framework

WATER EFFLUENTS -Water treatment -Re uses

WATER DEMAND -Processing -Others uses

WATER RECOVERY -Tailings -Re -uses -Recirculation

Figure 1 Integrated Management Source: Adapted from GWP, TEC Paper 4 (2000)

According to (4) water governance should be open, transparent, participative, accountable, effective, coherent, efficient, communicative, equitable, integrative by promoting integrated water resource management IWRM, sustainable and ethical. In practices, the water governance has been difficult to implement successfully, due to several factors such as the capacity of the government to control and measure water demands of all sectors, restriction of water resources, limitations due the local water legal framework and lack of multisectorial and participative water processes. According to (4) currently latin america region is under the water governability crisis resulting from five major factors; lack of integrated planning of water use; the generally dispersed and uncoordinated agencies of the state, NGOs, local governments, the intellectual community, and the multilateral, bilateral, and international agencies who interfere with water planning; the lack of a transparent and effective institutions for arbitrating conflicts over water use; the emphasis on certain management instruments, often imported concepts, over carefully thought through instruments that may fit the local conditions better; and a lack of perceptions of what is actually necessary to effectively govern water. Nowadays, the industry especially the mining industry is in a period of growth of the new investment, where green field projects are demanding water resources. In particular in Chile, the water demand for copper mining industry is 3 estimated to reach a peak of 167 million m /year for 2016. Due to the water scarcity in the northern region of Chile, where mining operation are located, this amount is neither available from groundwater nor surface water. Similar to Chile, in Per, the mining industry has increased the water demands, where even the complexities of the problems are large due to the proximity of local community in the mining operations. Non-conventional water resource represents a suitable and reliable option for the water supply of the mining projects and in many cases is being discharged without any treatment whatsoever, causing detrimental effects to the environment. Wastewater re-use has been applied in trade-off studies for water supply for municipalities in USA and Australia (5) and elsewhere. For the mining industry there have been some applications where the wastewater generated at the mine site has, at a small scale, been used as process water, however nowadays the challenge is to study greater scale waste water re-use projects as an option for the supply of process water to large, and especially new mining projects.

Pilot testing of mineral processes has been performed with wastewater, and the literature has shown there are important water quality implications in the mineral recovery. A high quality of wastewater is necessary for use in mineral processing. This paper will introduce important considerations to be evaluated when considering wastewater as process water for the mining industry. On the other hand, from the seawater supply, either desalinated or raw seawater has been used for the mining industry, where also mineral pilot testing has been used to support decision making to analyze the implications of water quality on the mineral extraction process. Risk assessment of the integrated water project has provided evidence about the overall consequences of the seawater or desalinated water use by considering the implications in: water use in the process plant; potable and waste water at the mine site; tailings and water recovery. When integrated analysis is performed the global cost and risk assessment are much easier to clarify and support decision making. The final definition whether the supply is seawater or desalinated will not only be determined by the cost of the water supply system, it must also integrate and enhance the entire mining process operation.

1. Objectives
The objectives of this paper are: to present nonconventional water supply options for water supply to the mining industry; analyze the state of art by supporting with literature and project examples the usage of the non-conventional sources; comparing the three different options (non-conventional, raw seawater and desalinated seawater); and conclude about the challenges of the new mining projects regarding the water supply reliability. Finally the objective of this initiative is to minimize/reduce or even avoid water related conflicts.

2. Discussion
The following sub chapter will describe in further detail the background of necessity or motivation to promote the non-conventional water supply options for mining. Then, a multicriteria analysis is will be developed and demonstrated to assess in the differences and preferences, advantages and disadvantages of each option, where the increase in the water supply options represents a excellent tool to reach sustainability goals and compromises of the mining companies.

2.1 Current Water Situation: Conflicts in Peru and Chile

Water

Mining drives the Peruvian and Chilean economies; actually the contribution of mining for Peru and Chile represents 63% and 66%, respectively, of their exports (6). Water conflicts have been evidenced in Peru, with social resistance to mining investment resulting in delay, suspension, and even abandonment of the mining projects (7). In Chile, there is a similar situation to Peru, with one example in the third Region, which is a critical area in terms of water scarcity, where the agriculture sector is in conflict with the mining industry for water resources. The Chilean government along with international scientific alliances (8) have been working recently to develop integrated water management in the Copiap and Atacama basins in order to predict future water demand of all the stakeholders and analyze water resources availability. According to (9) in Peru there are diverse and delicate social conflicts among water users and stakeholders, resulting from the lack of mechanisms for conflict-resolution and the lack of appropriate institutional arrangements for peoples and grass-roots organizations participation. In fact, (10) reported about a survey carried out in 2004, in 11 of the 24 departments of Peru, concluding that water use conflicts have been increasing alarmingly in Peru, (10) identified 85 different water use conflicts. Due to the reason explained earlier, private initiatives by the mining companies in Chile and Per have started their conceptual studies analyzing seawater or desalinated water as options, where large water infrastructure projects and huge investment; including desalination plants and pipelines are under study now, which represents a huge challenge to reach the sustainability goals. This article will also include the option of municipal water re-use in large scale operations to include additional non- conventional water supply options. 2.2 Wastewater re use Water reclamation is the treatment of wastewater to make it reusable with definable treatment reliability and meeting water quality criteria (11). There are large water re-use projects in further development. One example is The Western Corridor Recycled Water Projects (WCRWP) in Australia, where Hatch has undertaken design and delivery of The Luggage Point Advanced Water Treatment Plant (LPAWTP), along with two other similar plants designed by other firms, that uses state of the art technologies to improve the water quality of secondary treated sewage for re-use as potable water and industrial cooling water. LPAWTP includes flow equalization, pretreatment (coagulation and clarification for phosphate and

turbidity removal), micro-filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation (hydrogen peroxide and UV dosing) and final stabilization of the water (remineralization) together with residual solids handling facilities (sludge thickening and dewatering). The WCRWP main objectives are: ensure power supply by ensuring high quality cooling water availability; mitigate drought effects on communal water supplies; minimize environmental impacts by reusing almost all of Brisbane and Ipswichs treated wastewater; and contribute to sustainable development in the region to meet future industrial and population growth, without depleting local fresh water reservoirs. 2.1 Wastewater re use for mining Wastewater re-use (WWR) for the mining industry requires mineral testing protocols; waste water pilot plant; mineral process pilot circuits; waste water samples using different process configurations to define the correct water quality that meets the mineral processing requirement as well as material selections to convey water. The testing stage often takes between 2 to 3 months to accumulate sufficient data to support the decision making process regarding the water quality definition.

Figure 2 Luggage point advanced treatment plant (LPAWTP)-Hatch project

water

Actually, literature citations (12); (13); (14); (15) all have shown evidence that organics have an important influence in the copper mineral processing, where the effect of total organic carbon (TOC) has a direct effects on the flotation process. The wastewater treatment can even incorporate advance water treatment unit process configurations to achieve higher removal of TOC. Additionally, pipeline materials, pumps and valve materials are water quality dependent. Therefore the process technology selection must include the 4

water quality that also can incorporate corrosion control (organic and inorganic corrosion). The process technology selection might vary depending on the particular characteristics of the water re-use project; including odor control treatment if the plant is located near to the community. In some critical cases the treatment facilities might be entirely enclosed with air extraction and odor treatment. Conventional waste water treatment configurations that mainly reduce BOD; certain degree of nutrients removal; TSS among other parameters are sometimes not enough to serve the mineral recovery process. In some cases, the process selection might include conventional tertiary WWT such as coagulation; flocculation; clarification; filtration and disinfection, or advanced processes such as membrane filtration, reverse osmosis (at a much lower operating cost than seawater RO), or advanced oxidation processes. Tertiary treatment processes will be required in cases where the water quality defined for the mining project indicates that conventional secondary wastewater treatment can not accomplish the target mineral recovery. This may be especially necessary in mineral processing that intends to use a high degree of internal water recycle. A pilot of the flotation circuits will be capable of studying the influence of each particular water quality parameter and analyze the results on the copper recovery. Some of the parameters that are of particular interest are sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfate. It is also required to perform the flotation testing using treated wastewater of different process configuration. Therefore wastewater pilot plants are needed in the feasibility stages. The water reuse project cost also is highly dependent on the sludge treatment and environmental standards that must be met. The operational cost is influenced significantly on the processes necessary for sludge disposal. In summary, the water re-use project consists of taking the wastewater from an existing wastewater plant (primary or secondary) with marine outfall diffusers for the effluent discharge to the sea, capture all the wastewater that is discharged, equalize the flow, pumping to a new wastewater treatment facility, which may include secondary, tertiary or even advanced treatment, a pumping station and pipeline to convey the treated water as industrial water to a reservoir located at the concentrator plant. When this has been

accomplished, the mining companies can abandon their use of fresh water resources. The footprint requirement for the WW plant varies depending on the process selection and the depending on the inclusion of tertiary treatment, it 2 3 might vary between 0.4-0.8 m /m /d. The investment cost of a wastewater treatment plant that includes tertiary treatment varies between 3 $1,100 to $2,500 US/m /d, where important influences in this cost are the odor control facilities to enclose all of the treatment processes, solids handling, and flow equalization. 2.1 Water Management in Mining Water management for mining requires improved measurements, water balance modeling, securing Water supply, analyzing multiple water source options and participative process to promote local community development. Water management strategies must focus on reach efficiency use of water; introducing technologies to continue improve water accounting, water quality monitoring which allows to reporting the water footprint of the mine operations. This water management is already in line with the framework of ICCM; therefore mining companies are focusing their efforts in their operations to accomplish with the corporative compromise of ICCMM. The water management policies for mining operations need to be site-specific, which means that each project must to adapt their needs and developing multisectorial and participative processes to promote the integrated water supply assuring water for all the stakeholders according to the water resources availability. According to Cochilco (16), the water balance allows to assessing the water needs and allows to provide corrective actions for reducing consumption and consider these practices in future plans. Some key aspects to guarantee the success of this management and that permit an integrated management of water resources are (16): Management and appropriate control of available water rights Have the proper instruments to measure water volumes on-line of inputs and outputs of unit processes to determine the water balance at the site. Construct indicators: in those activities identified as key it is necessary to have specific controls for controlling volumes and quality. The water management at mine site must to quantify and measure quality of the components 5

showed in the simplified figure 3 under a sustainable integrated water framework context IWRM. 2.2 Regulations limitations of WWR for mining In Per, the National authority of Water is the organism who will finally decide whether or not the waste water can be re used for other purposes based on water availability of the river basin where the waste water is discharged. Similar to Per, in Chile, due to the national framework regulation of water rights, some initiative of municipal water re use for mining applications have been failed due to the alteration of the water rights in rivers basins. Therefore, the reliable options of WWR are those plants that discharge wastewater to the sea.

which is beneficial to the environment. This initiative is expected to have a greater acceptance of the communities because of the elimination of waste water from the beaches and because mining companies can release freshwater resources currently under use (groundwater or surface water).

Figure 3 Water Management in Mining 2.3 Seawater Usage The use of waste water as resources to produce industrial water for mining purpose allows improving the situation of beaches, currently under discharged of waste water, preliminary pre treated, by reducing nutrients discharged into the sea, Seawater usage has been used to solve water scarcity in Middle East; Africa; Australia; America and more recently in South America. Seawater has been used for desalination process to produces 6

fresh water for potable and industrial usage. In addition, seawater has been used in traditional productive sectors such as Oil & Energy industry; where seawater is used for crude extractions in injections wells and for the cooling system in power plants. In these industries, large experience has been developed in material selection and corrosion control, where several standards NACE have been established.

to accomplish this contaminant illustrated in general in figure 4.

removal

is

Seawater has a higher corrosion potential where the effect of pipeline velocity is also a factor that influence in the corrosion rate. Microbial influenced corrosion MIC produced by bacteria and macro fouling might be a serious problem, because it can increase pipeline roughness and corrosion rate. The corrosion treatment recommended by (17) consists in oxygen scavenger and bacteria inactivation. An alternative to chemical treatment is the pipeline lining. Water Transport Materials selection should ensure project needs in terms of lifespan, reliability and system's availability. The use of corrosion resistant materials for pipes as stainless steel or coppernickel alloy is restricted by costs when pipeline length is significant. The use of polymeric materials turns in a convenient option when pumping pressure results acceptable for their use. In general, the following alternatives for pipeline protection have been implemented in several projects (1): -bare pipeline, with corrosion allowance. -pipeline coating: epoxy paint, fusion bonded epoxy FBE -HDPE lining -Cement mortar lining

Figure 4 seawater treatment (1) The seawater supply for mineral processing is much more recently. Mining operation in Chile using seawater in small and medium scale are: Minera Michilla, Minera las Luces, Mantos de la Luna, Planta Lipesed, Pampa Blanca and Minera Algorta; whereas Esperanza Mining is one example in large scale already in operation and Sierra Gorda (KGHM International) is another example in large scale currently under study. Batu Hijau in Indonesia is another example of large scale mineral processing plant already in operation using seawater. In Per, U.M Toquepala (Southern Peru Copper) is one example of seawater supply project. An Important consideration to use raw seawater is the consideration of the performance and results analysis of the mineral pilot testing (including flotation and molybdenum circuits). This test allows verifying the effect of the water quality on the copper and molybdenum recovery. It is important to understand the consequences not only in the seawater conveyance but also in the impact in the concentrator plant (materials for mechanical equipment, replacements, lifespan among others). Specific trade off analysis are required at the pre feasibility stage to define the suitable option (desalinated or seawater supply). Water Treatment The water treatment must be enable to remove suspended solids, bacteria inactivation and corrosion treatment. The water treatment required

Figure 5 Pipeline protection: Cement Mortar; FBE and HDPE liner The available options can be further study in trade off of pipeline protection and determine the best options in terms of life cycle cost LCC. The pumps materials for the desalinated case are normally carbon steel or even super duplex if the chloride content is higher or the oxygen content is higher, whereas for the seawater the standard materials are 254 SMO, which has a higher corrosion resistant for seawater applications. 2.4 Desalinated Usage The main motivation of the mining companies to include desalination as water supply option is to accomplish sustainability goals, mainly because 7

companies are aware of the water scarcity and the investment compromised in their operations; therefore mining companies wants to ensure a reliable water supply system, avoiding conflict with communities and other productive sectors by releasing fresh water resources for other uses. In Chile several desalination and pipelines projects of large capacity, between 600 l/s to 3200 l/s have been developed/constructed and some under further studies: Candelaria; El Morro; Escondida; Collahuasi; Codelco Radomiro Tomic; El Abra; Relincho; Quebrada Blanca entre otros. In Per: Cerro Lindo (Milpo); Quellaveco and some others projected to use desalinated seawater.

Conventional pre-treatment design consist in chlorination-coagulation/flocculation-clarification, multimedia filtration and cartridge filtration. The objective of pre-treatment is to meet stringent standards for membrane feed water quality, specified in terms of silt density index (SDI) (18). Membrane pre treatment is also a possible configuration. The RO process consists in numerous skids or train with horizontal pressure vessels containing 7-8 membrane elements in series, which allows removing the dissolved salt. A high pressure pump is installed in front of the skids to feed the membrane with the pre treated seawater. The high pressure is required to overcoming the osmotic pressure, generating a net driving pressure that allows producing desalinated seawater, which is captured and transported to the process of remineralisation to adapt the water quality for the client requirements. The pressurized concentrate stream is used to energy recovery, which is then ultimately disposed into the sea, where the concentrate salinity is diluted by the use of diffusers (1). The investment cost of the SWRO plant might vary 3/ between 1.000-1.200 US$/m d, where important influence is the water intake and outfall cost, where in the pacific coast it have been much more higher than the global reported values. The footprint required might also vary depending on the process selection technology: membrane pre treatment v/s conventional dual media filtration. The benchmarking indicates that the footprint required for a SWRO plant have a unitary value of around 2 3 1.6-3.2 m /m /d. Water Transport Desalinated seawater has a higher corrosion potential, which required remineralisation and corrosion treatment. One possible alternative for corrosion mitigation is design the water pipeline with a corrosion allowance with chemical corrosion treatment (1). One possible alternative to avoiding chemical treatment is the pipeline coating (FBE) and pipelines liners (HDPE, cement mortar, see Figure 3), which has some advantages related to diminishing the corrosion allowance and chemical consumption (1), which represents a operational cost reduction. Basically, the same pipeline protections presented for seawater are available (see figure 5).

Figure 6 Seawater Intake-Hatch project

Figure 7 Desalination Plant CandelariaHatch project Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) SWRO is a proven technology that in the recently years have been reduced the operational cost up to 3 0,5 US$/m . The process consists mainly in 4 steps, see figure 8: -Seawater intake and outfall -Pre Treatment -Reverse Osmosis RO -Post treatment or remineralisation

Figure 8 Conventional Pre-Treatment SWRO 2.5 Multi Criteria Analysis Multiple-criteria analysis (MCA) is used in this article to assessing in decision-making related to water supply options for mining use. Because there does not exist a solution that is applicable in every case, it is necessary to use key stakeholders to differentiate between alternatives. The stakeholders will include the client and their representatives, but may also include governmental staff, communal interests, and/or public interest groups. One example of MCA that may be useful for the mining industry, the sustainable Development Framework developed by the ICMM has been included as a reference (19).

Social & Communities


Land Use Water Supply Agricultural Interests Fishing Interests

Criteria Sub-Criteria Weight Weight 17%


10% 40% 35% 15%

Water security
Reliability of Supply Vulnerability

33%
75% 25%

Enviromental
Water Supplies Ocean Soil

16%
50% 20% 30%

Cost
CAPEX OPEX PV

33%
50% 20% 30%

Table 1: Multi Criteria Analysis Criteria, Sub criteria, and Weighting

Figure 9: Multi Criteria AnalysisCriteria, Sub criteria, and Weighting

Figure 10 Benefits Score

The model includes economic criteria such as Capex, Opex, and Net Present Value to be ranked along with the non-economic criteria and sub-criteria. A second model (20), called the Decision Management Model develops a benefit score from the ranking of the non-economic criteria and sub-criteria, and compares it to one or more economic criteria (Capex, Opex, or NPV), thus creating a Cost/Benefit ratio.

the clients preferences, or may be done by technical experts, depending on the technical nature of the ranking procedure. There is also flexibility about how to include economic criteria:

3. Conclusions
The results of this analysis show that a Multi Criteria Analysis framework can be developed to inform decision making in the selection of water sources for mining. All four of these water sources are currently in use in mining, and each project must perform its own decision making process to determine which is best in their case. However, it can be seen from this analysis, that either of the four options may be the most viable under certain weightings of criteria and subcriteria. The non conventional water resources are nowdays feasible and reliable water supply options and can solve real problems of water scarcity and water conflict in the region of sud America, including Per and Chile.

One of the functions of the definition workshop is to determine which of these models will be used. 2.6 Evaluation Criteria To illustrate the process of evaluation, criteria and subcriteria with their weightings were developed for a fictional plant as shown in Table 1. After this step, each of the alternatives was ranked for each of the subcriteria and the weightings were applied. Figure 9 graphically shows the contribution of each of the general criteria, while Figure 10 shows the contributions of each of the subcriteria. In practice, this analysis is normally performed in two stages: 1. define criteria, sub-criteria, and importance, and 2. Ranking of the alternatives. The first stage, or definition stage, is best performed in a workshop of stakeholders but the second stage, or ranking stage, may either also be performed in a workshop, as was done in this case, including criteria from ICCM to taking into account

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Rogers, Peter (2002) Water Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean, Inter American Development Bank, Washington D.C. (3) 10

Dourojeanni, A., (2001) Crisis de gobernabilidad en la Gestin del Agua, CEPAL, Santiago de Chile. (4) (Smith, T., 2011) Overcoming Challenges in Wastewater Reuse: A Case Study of San Antonio, Texas, Harvard University. (5) (ICMM, 2012) The role of mining in national economies. International Council on Mining and Metals. (6) www.minesandcommunities.org/article.php?a=856 (7) (DGA, 2012) Direccin General de Aguas DGA, sendas del Agua Junio 2012 / Ao 9 N1 (8) (Alegra, J). The Challenge of water resources management in Peru. (9). (Pereyra, C., 2005) La Gestin Local de Conflictos por el Agua, discussion document, IPROGA, Lima. (10) (Asano, T., et. al, 2007) Water Reuse: Issues, Technologies, and Applications (11).

(Waer, M.A. 2002) Decision Management in Process Selection, AWWA Satellite Teleconference Emerging Treatment Technologies, (20).

(Fisher, W, 1976). Utilization of Municipal Waste Water for Froth Flotation of copper and Molibdenum Sulphides. (12) (Sinche M., 2012) Effect of Organics in Water on the Flotation of Copper and Molibdenum Sulphide th Minerals. 9 international Mineral Processing Seminar (13) (Wenying L., 2011) Effect of Bacteria on the Flotation of Chalcopyrite. Proceeding Procemin th 2011, 8 international Mineral Processing Seminar (14) (Slatter K., 2009) Water Managment in Anglo Platinum Process Operations: Efect Of Water Quality on Process Operation. Abstracts of the International Mine Water Conference 19th 23rd Proceedings ISBN Number: 978-0-9802623-5-3 Pretoria, South Africa (15) Cochilco (2008) Chilean Cupper Commission. Best Practices and Efficient use of water in the mining industry. (16). (NACE, 2007) National Association of Corrosion Engineers, SP0499-2007 Standard Practice: Corrosion Control and Monitoring in Seawater Injection Systems (17). Bonneyl, V., Guey, L & Del Castillo, J. (2008) UF/MF Pre-treatment: the real benefits, Desalination 222 (2008) 5965 (18) (ICMM, 2012) International Council on Mining and Metals. http://www.icmm.com/. (19) 11