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Networking

Introduction to networking A network is a group of interconnected systems that share services and interact through a communications link. So, for a network to exist there must be two or more individual systems with something to share, like data. And, in order for these individual systems to share, they must be connected through some type of physical pathway or transmission medium. Benefit of Networking Time saving Cost effective Sharing resources and information Types or Network Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is typically an arrangement of PCs in a relatively small area, such as a single office or building. Campus Area Network(CAN): CANs are a types of LAN that extends to include PCs and other devices in the buildings within an office park or campus setting. The building in a CAN is connected by cables or perhaps by wireless network. Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN is a network that interconnects two or more LANs over a large geographical area. The internet, which gets its name from the concept of internetworking, or the interconnection of networks, is actually a very large WAN. A more typical WAN, however, is network that connects a companys Dallas office LAN to the LAN at its headquarters settle. Metropolitan Area Network(MAN): A MAN is a variation of a WAN that interconnects LANs and PCs within a specific geographical area, such as a city or cluster of Campuses or office parks. Several cities.

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Networking

Networking Requirements A. Cables TP (twisted pairs) :- A type of communications transmission cable in which two individually insulated wires are twisted around each other to reduce induction (thus interference) from one wire to the other. The pair may be surrounded by a shield, insulating jacket or additional pairs of wires.

Co-axial:- It is a cable consisting of an inner conductor, surrounded by a tubular insulating layer typically made from a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which is then surrounded by another conductive layer (typically of fine woven wire for flexibility, or of a thin metallic foil), and then finally covered again with a thin insulating layer on the outside. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis. Coaxial cables are often used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals

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Networking

Optical fiber:- An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed.

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Networking

B. Adaptors Network interface card (NIC):- A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network. Personal computers and workstations on a local area network (LAN) typically contain a network interface card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet or Token Ring. Network interface cards provide a dedicated, full-time connection to a network. Most home and portable computers connect to the Internet through as-needed dial-up connection. The modem provides the connection interface to the Internet service provider. Modem: A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device.

C. Protocols TCP/IP Apple talk Net BEUT IPX/SPN D. Services Types of network A) LAN (Local Area Network) B) WAN (Wide Area Network)

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Networking

Category of Network A) Peer to Peer (Network Group) B) Client / Server (Domain and Work Group) Peer to Peer: Peer to Peer is that type of Networking in which all the computers are in the equal power. There is no dedicated server and no hierarchical structure. Work Group: - It is the logical grouping of the Network computers that share resources such as files, printers folders etc. Client server:- It is the standard model of Networking which contain hierarchical structure, It works in Domain environment Domain:- It is also a logical grouping of Network computers that share the central directory, Data base, User accounts, and security information for the Domain

Networking Devices

Switch: - On an Ethernet local area network (LAN), a switch determines from the physical device (Media Access Control or MAC) address in each incoming message frame which output port to forward it to and out of. In a wide area packet-switched network such as the Internet, a switch determines from the IP address in each packet which output port to use for the next part of its trip to the intended destination.

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Networking

Hub: - A hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. Router:- Router is the device which is used to facilitate communication between different networks. It examines the packet to travel. A router knows the entire path to all of the segments on the network by accessing information stored in the routing table.

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Networking

Network Topology What is a Topology? The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations

Main Types of Physical Topologies The following sections discuss the physical topologies used in networks and other related topics. 1. Linear Bus A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable. Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology.

Linear Bus topology

Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.

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Networking

Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.

2. Star A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it can also be used with coaxial cable or fiber optic cable.

Star topology Advantages of a Star Topology


Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

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Networking

Disadvantages of a Star Topology


Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.

The protocols used with star configurations are usually Ethernet or Local Talk. Token Ring uses a similar topology, called the star-wired ring.

3. Tree A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.

Tree topology Advantages of a Tree Topology


Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. Supported by several hardware and software venders.

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Networking

Disadvantages of a Tree Topology


Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

Considerations When Choosing a Topology: Money. A linear bus network may be the least expensive way to install a network; you do not have to purchase concentrators. Length of cable needed. The linear bus network uses shorter lengths of cable. Future growth. With a star topology, expanding a network is easily done by adding another concentrator. Cable type. The most common cable in schools is unshielded twisted pair, which is most often used with star topologies.

Summary Chart: Physical Topology Linear Bus Star Common Cable Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber Twisted Pair, Fiber Common Protocol Ethernet Talk Ethernet Talk Token Ring Ethernet Local Local

Star-Wired Ring Twisted Pair Tree Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber

TCP/IP utilities
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Networking

IP address:IP address is an unique address on the network which facilitate communication between different machine over network. It is important that no two machines on the same network have same IP. Subnet mask:It is the physical segment of the network which determine how many host and how many network ID are there in the IP address. Gateway:A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes.

Static and dynamic IP setting Static IP:- It is the process of assigning the IP address to the client manually going on each computers on the network. If there are say 100 computers in a network then in static IP addressing method it is required for the system administrator to manually configure the IP address on all the machines without duplication Advantages of static IP addressing No need of much effective skilled manpower Cost effective for small network Disadvantages of static IP addressing More chances of duplication of IP address Time consuming Administrator have to remember all the IP address on each machine

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Networking

How to assign static IP ? Go in Run Type command ncpa.cpl and the click ok Click the properties of Local Area Connection

In general Tab select Internet protocol(TCP/IP)and then click the properties

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Networking

Put the check on put the following IP address

Give IP, Subnet mask, Default gateway, DNS name and Alternate DNS name click on ok and ok OR Double click on network icon on the task bar In general Tab click on properties In general Tab select Internet protocol(TCP/IP)and then click the properties Put the check on put the following IP address Give IP, Subnet mask, Default gateway, DNS name and Alternate DNS name click on ok and ok

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Networking

DHCP:- "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an IP standard designed to reduce the complexity of administering IP address configurations." - Microsoft's definition. A DHCP server would be set up with the appropriate settings for a given network. Such settings would include a set of fundamental parameters such as the gateway, DNS, subnet masks, and a range of IP addresses. Using DHCP on a network means administrators don't need to configure these settings individually for each client on the network. The DHCP would automatically distribute them to the clients itself. .

The above diagram displays a simple structure consisting of a DHCP server and a number of client computers on a network. The DHCP Server itself contains an IP Address Database which holds all the IP addresses available for distribution. If the client (a member of the network with a Windows 2000 Professional/XP operating system, for example) has "obtain an IP address automatically" enabled in TCP/IP settings, then it is able to receive an IP address from the DHCP server. Advantages of DHCP It prevents duplication of IP address since the Ip are assigned automatically by DHCP server. It is not necessary to record the IP addresses that are assigned to the systems. It is easy to assign the IP address to all the clients in a large network since the administrative head is low.

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Networking

How to get Automatic IP from DHCP server? For Windows XP: Click on the Start button. Click on Control Panel. Click on the Network Connections icon. Right click on the Local Area Connection icon. Select Properties from the menu. Double click on the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) entry.

Configure as Follows:

Click Obtain an IP address automatically Click Obtain DNS server address automatically How to check weather the IP is static or automatic? Click on the Start button. Click on Control Panel. Click on the Network Connections icon. Right click on the Local Area Connection icon. Select Properties from the menu. Double click on the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) entry. Advanced... in the bottom right corner

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Networking

1. IP Settings tab You should see DHCP Enabled below the IP address column and blank below on Default Gateways. 2. DNS tab

In "DNS server addresses, in order to use:" you should see blank in the white box The following lines should be marked or checked: Append primary and connection specific DNS suffixes Append parent suffixes of the primary DNS suffix 3. WINS tab Below in WINS addresses, in order of use:, it should be a white box The following lines should be checked or marked: Enable LMHOSTS lookup Use NetBIOS setting from the DHCP server 4. Options tab Under Optional settings, Click on IP security and then click on Properties Make sure does not use IPSEC is marked then click OK Click on TCP/IP filtering and then click on Properties
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Networking

Make sure Enable TCP/IP Filtering (All adapters) is NOT marked and Permit All is marked on 3 columns. Then click OK. How to enable remote desktop? Go on my computer properties Click on remote tab Put the check on allow remote assistance

Click on ok Click on apply Click on ok How to access desktop of other computer? Go in run Type mstsc Click on ok
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Networking

Provide the IP of that computer which you want to access. By default you cannot copy, paste from remote desktop connection but if you wan to copy and paste from remote desktop connection then do this Go in run Type mstsc Click on options

Click on local resourses Put the check on disk drives Click on connect
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Networking

Backup
Back up is the utilities thorough which we can recover the last data which was lost accidentally or by any other cause. There are five types of backup 1. Normal Backup: It takes the backup of all the files and folders regardless of the archive bit. The archive bit is always cleared to indicate that all files have to be taken backup all the times. 2. Copy backup: It is similar to normal back up which takes the backup of all files and folders but the archives is not cleared. 3. Differential backup: It creates the backup for all the files and folders that are changed since the last backup. 4. Incremental backup: It creates the backup of all the files and folders that are changed since the most recent backup. 5. Daily backup: This back up is made on modification date. If the file is modified that day it is taken backup.
Description full backup A complete set of all files you wish to back up. Think of this as your 'reference set'. You only need perform a full backup occasionally. A backup of those files which have changed since the last backup of any type. Pros Provides a complete copy of all your data; makes it easy to locate files which need restoring. Cons Takes a long time and the most space on backup media; redundant backups created, as most files remain static.

incremental backup

Uses the lease time and space as only those files changed since the last backup are copied; lets you back up multiple versions of the same file.

Makes the job of restoring files fiddly, as you have to reinstall the last full backup first, then all subsequent incremental backups in the correct order;

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Networking also makes it hard to locate a particular file in the backup set. differential backup A backup of those files which have changes since the last full backup. Should be performed at regular intervals. Takes up less time and space than a full backup; provides for more efficient restoration than incremental backups. Redundant information stored, because each backup stores much of the same information plus the latest information added or created since the last full backup. Subsequent differential backups take longer and longer as more files are changed.

How to take the backup? Click on start click on programs Click on accessories Click on system tools Click on backup Then the wizard below will open

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Networking

Click on the advance mode Then the new wizard will open

Click on backup wizard [advanced] Click on next

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Networking

Select any one out of three options Click on next

Select the files and folders for which you want to take backup Click on next Select the place where you want to save the backup Click on next Click on finished How to restore the backup? Click on run Type ntbackup Click on restore wizard [advance] Click on next

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Networking

Select the backup file as shown in the above figure Click on next Click on finished

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