COUNTRY REPORT OF INDONESIA

I. Introduction 1. Abuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics may pose hazards for the life and cultural values of a nation that can weaken the national resilience, therefore, in order to prevent and eradicate the abuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics that harm and endanger the life of the public, the state and the nation, Law Number 22 Year 1997 regarding Narcotics regulating efforts for the eradication of criminal acts of Narcotics through criminal sanctions in the form of penalty, imprisonment, life sentence and capital punishment, has been amended. 2. In reality, criminal acts of Narcotics among the public indicate a trend that has increasingly become rampant both quantitatively and qualitatively with more various victims, especially among children, teenagers and young generation in general. Even criminal acts of Narcotics are no longer committed individually, but involving a lot of people collectively and constitute an organized syndicate with broad neworks who work in a orderly and very clandestine manner both at national and international level. 3. In order to enhance efforts for the prevention and eradication of criminal acts of Narcotics, Law No. 22 Year 1997 regarding Narcotics has been amended by Law Number 35 Year 2009 regarding Narcotics, this has been conducted to prevent the trend that has increasingly become rampant both quantitatively and qualitatively with more victims, especially among children, teenagers and young generation in general. 4. This Country Report is a general overview of the drug problem problem situation and national laws and regulations as well as relevant UN Conventions that have been enacted by Indonesia.

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that is. these days. BNN has established seaport and airport task forces since 2003. especially those who have links to the West Africa syndicate or other syndicates. China. the customs and excise has uncovered and indicated the smuggling of efedrine into Indonesia through airport. the seaport and airport task forces conducted interdiction wherein one of their members.II. Reports made by the authorities indicate that the ketamine found in the clandestine labs has been used in the making of ecstacy tablets. For the purpose of anticipating this matter. law enforcers have managed to uncover several clandestine psychotropic labs. who wants to enter Indonesia. Recently. Indonesia has also faced an increased number of misuses of ketamine. the West Africa syndicate has smuggled heroin mostly originating from the golden crescent moon region. Indonesia also has problems with heroin addicts/abusers. This situation indicates that Indonesia serves as an area that illicitly produces ATS. One of the factors causing illegal circulation of narcotics and dangerous substances is the fact that some precursors are smuggled both through air and sea. With regard to this matter. the heroin in circulation came from the golden triangle. however. The suspects (TSK) constitute part of syndicates operating regionally and internationally covering the regions of Hongkong. althouth the Ministry of Health and Food and Drugs Supervisory Agency (BPOM) have included ketamine in the category of prescription drug that must be overseen. In order to cope with this issue. In the past. the authorities have established a team for immigration permits that analyzes someone. Indonesia still confronted issues relating to narcotics and dangerous substances. Thailand and Indonesia. however. Situation of Narcotics and Dangerous Substance Issues in Indonesia In 2008-2009. smuggled illegally or making fraudulent use of the official channel. This team 2 . efforts to include ketamine in list of medicines overseen in the Narcotics Law are still made. Indonesia has improved efforts to monitor and oversee the entry points both at seaports and airports. These days.

Number of Narcotics and Dangerous Substance Suspects Based on the Type of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances For a period of 5 (five) years as from 2005 – 2009.658 suspects.780 persons in 2005 to 44. namely 22.3%.668 cases in 2009. 3. both economically and socially. from 98 foreign citizen suspects in 2008 to 115 foreign citizen suspects in 2009. the number of narcotics and dangerous subtance case suspects increased from that of the 2005–2008 period. Number of Narcotics and Dangerous Substance Suspects Based on Citizenship The number of foreign citizen suspects increased in 2009 with an increase percentage of 17. the number of Narcotics and Dangerous Sustance cases increased from 16.9%. aimed at replacing the illegal plants (marijuana) with types of substitute plants and livestock with a hope that this will enhance the standard of living of the peasants. meanwhile the number decreased by 14. meanwhile the number of Indonesian citizen suspects decresed in 2009 with a decrease percentage of 14. 3 . or an increse of 17 suspects.also conducts a series of operations to cut off foreign narcotics and dangerous substance networks with local couriers.84% per year. Indonesia is also facing marijuana-related problems mostly originating from the province of Aceh.Aceh Province. 2. Number of Narcotics and Dangerous Substance Cases Based on the Type of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances For a period of 5 (five) years as from 2005-2009. an average case increase of 17. 1.711 persons in 2008 or an average increase of 25. but we have initiated an Alternative Development Program located in Lamteba and Maheng.252 cased in 2005 to 30.4% per year. or a decrease of 6.8% in 2009.

4.7 MORPHINE (GR) - Source: Directorate IV/Criminal Acts of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances & KT of the Criminal Investigation Squad of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia.796 MARIJUANA AREA (HA) 62.603 317. 5.4 265.035 4.903 Source: Directorate IV/Criminal Acts of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances & KT of the Criminal Investigation Squad of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia.5 367. Data on the Number of Items of Evidence Confiscated a.496.124.8 835. 4.6 14. 1.2 113.506. 3.2 140.049 541.3 289.799.253.690.8 11.6 242 128.8 2.803 598.691.8 523.801. Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Narcotics Confiscated Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Narcotics Confiscated in 2005 – 2009 ITEM OF EVIDENCE PREPARED COCAINE HASHISH OPIUM (GR) (GR) (GR) 1. YEAR MARIJUANA LEAVES (GR) MARIJUANA SEED (GR) 1.553. Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Marijuana Confiscated Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Marijuana Confiscated in 2005 – 2009 ITEM OF EVIDENCE MARIJUANA EXTENT OF TREES (TRUNK) 187. 2. 2. YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL HEROIN (GR) 19.1 5.3 3.2 110.9 26. 5.7 1.307 1.2 4. January 2010 6.190.579.00 NO.7 40. Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Psychotropics Confiscated 4 . January 2010 5.2 2.411.552.5 720.680 3.898 361. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL 22.174.828.718.4.168.345.8 10.835.012.602 1.8 20.8 31.592.877.7 74.9 NO.8 280.010.019.2 105 6.00 241.734.8 8.1 1. 3.

6 3.803.081.70 124.8 199.277.795.8 1. January 2010 Additional Information: Methadone Substitution Treatment for Drug Addicts 5 .180.5 2.306 1. January 2010 7.195.203.61 4.854.462.495.694 Source: Directorate IV/Criminal Acts of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances & KT of the Criminal Investigation Squad of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia.226. YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL ECSTASY (TABLET) 255.877.748 8. Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Other Addictive Substances Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Other Addictive Substances Confiscated in 2005 – 2009 NO. 1.143 142.1 SHABU (GR) 368. 2.4 Source: Directorate IV/Criminal Acts of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances & KT of the Criminal Investigation Squad of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia.535.419 755.335 3.7 1.153.455 15.071.053 1.188. 1. 3.252.305 645.Number of Items of Evidence in the Form of Psychotropics Confiscated in 2005 – 2009 ITEM OF EVIDENCE NO.408.016.670.5 3. 3. YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL ITEM OF EVIDENCE HARD LIQUOR (BTL) HARD LIQUOR (LTR) 49. 5.081 93.214.611.341 10.2 52.471 9.5 1.052.574.806.5 167.272.61 2.3 349. 5.655.780. 4.6 G LIST (TABLET) 2.266 309. 2. 4.246.717 709.

Principles on harm reduction include. The use of multiple and varied strategies: including hidden population (closed) and education of fellow victims. Pragmatic objectives for saving lives and reducing state budget spending (because drug addicts have the potential of being infected with HIV and must forever take medicines at the expense of the state). viewed from the aspect of international institutions.Medically. among other things: 1. Meanwhile. data in the field on the efforts of harm reduction through methadone substitution treatment for drug addicts show that approximately 4. rehabilitation and social reintegration efforts as alternatives together with criminal punishment. 1971 and 1988 which allow any country to make treatment. and (2) The UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV (2001) as well as other international covenants calling for the increase of access to sterile injection equipment (Needle Syringe Programme/NSP) and harm reduction effort related to drug use. Such conditions are closely related to the consistently deep-rooted myth and misconception of harm reduction program in a number of countries as shown by the existence of beliefs that this program will: (1) place 6 . the harm reduction efforts are based on: (1) the International drug conventions of 1961. pharmatic therapy. Introduction to the hierarchy of risks. 2.5 million injecting drug users/IDUs are in Asia and out of the aforementioned number. needle syringe program. 3. 4% of it is female. and participation of the drug addicts themselves. It must be admitted that legal restrictions still occur in a number of countries for the effective implementation of harm reduction strategies such as methadone substitution treatment and needle syringe program. Improvement in positive law enforcement and expansion of program coverage level are still required. substitution treatment and health treatment access as well as social support (most victims are below the poverty line).

(2) the absence of proof of increase in the use of drugs. Counter Drug Programs. as for 7 . 29 Year 2004 Regarding Medical Practices. However. Law No. The second one is the legal obstacle where the implementation of this therapy has not obtained sufficient legal framework and there are even still overlaps with a number of related laws such as Law No. As an example. Activities and Achievement Law Number 35 Year 2009 regarding Narcotics. this theraphy on a medical basis may reduce the illegal use of drugs.victims in the position of drug addiction. in HIV infection case. All this time. (3) preventing and controlling diseases. this therapy still faces a number of legal obstacles in its implementation. Indonesia has implemented methadone therapy program. Although methadone theraphy has not been fully supported by adequate legal framework. (4) enabling people to be consistently productive at home and at work and eventually reducing criminal behavior. The reasons are. Law No. Precursors of Narcotics because Precursors of Narcotics constitute substances or basic ingredients or chemicals that can be used to make Narcotics along with an attachment about Precursors of Narcotics by classifying the types of Precursors of Narcotics. (2) encourage the use of drugs. 35 Year 2009 Regarding Narcotics. III. and (3) result in waste or use of budget that is difficult to be accounted for. 5 Year 1997 Regarding Psychotropics. and preventing death caused by overdose. among other things: (1) keeping any victim in effective medical treatment. The first one is the lack of coordination between the law enforcers and the Ministry of Health. 55% of the supporting factors come from drug users particularly injection drug users/IDUs.regulates the following: 1. This therapy has even become one of the consistently improved programs because the number of drug users in Indonesia is considered very high. and (5) more effective in cost as in several cases in a number of countries.

2. coca leaves. having a very high potential of causing addiction. cocaine. petidine. meanwhile the aggravation of criminal sanctions shall be conducted based on the class. morphine. only used for rehabilitation purposes and having a light potential of causing addiction. prepared opium. The position of BNN is below the President and reports to the President. type. 3 Cocaine: cocaine powder. in the form of special minimum sentence. paste. has been promoted to become a Non-Ministerial Government Institution (LPNK) and its authority has been strengthened to conduct pre-investigation and investigation. 4. size and amount of the Narcotics. fentanil or metadone. b. In addition to the above. c. 2. BNN also has 8 . life imprisonment and capital punishment. and can only be used as the last option in a treatment. for example: petidine. 3.the classification and the types of Precursors of Narcotics are regulated in Article 49 and in the attachment to the Law as follows: a. causing a potential strong addiction. The purpose is to give a deterrent effect to perpetrators of abuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics. hashish. Class II. for example: codeine dyphenoxilate. Criminal sanctions for the abuse of Precursors of Narcotics for making Narcotics are regulated in Articles 111 up to and including 148. 20 (twenty)-year imprisonment. Marijuana/Canabis. Class I for the development of science. Class III. and only had the duty and function to carry out coordination. diagnostic/laboratory reagents. Article 64 regulates the strengthening of the institution of the National Narcotics Agency (BNN) initially constituting a non structural institution being under and reporting directly to the President. constitutes basic ingredients for producing medicines. Aggravation of criminal sanctions. for example Opiat: morphine. heroin/low-grade heroin.

9. based on court rulings that have obtained permanent legal force. The expansion of wiretapping investigation techniques. shall still be confiscated for the state and shall be used for the purpose of the implementation of the prevention and eradication of the misuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics as well as medical and social rehabilitation efforts as provided for in Article 101. With regard to the management of assets and properties that constitute proceeds of criminal acts of Narcotics and Precursors of Nacotics and criminal acts of money laundering of criminal acts of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics.representatives in provinces and regencies/cities as vertical agencies. The granting of reward to law enforcers and community members who have been meritorious in efforts for the prevention and eradication of the misuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics shall be regulated in Article 109. Bilateral. 6. 9 . BNN in the field of law enforcement has conducted the following activity measures: a. regional and international cooperation to prevent and eradicate the misuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics conducted in an organized fashion and has broad networks as well as exceeds state borders as shall be provided for in Article 63 of Law No. as well as other investigation techniques for the purpose of tracing and revealing the misuse and illegal circulation of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics shall be provided for in Articles 73 up to and including 92. 7. under cover buy and controlled delivery techniques. 35 Year 2009. namely provincial BNN and regency/city BNN. Preparation of training material modules in the field of law enforcement (Basic Education and Training for Indonesian Police Investigators and Civil Servant Investigators (PPNS)). 5. 8.

YOGI PERMANA bin SOBANDI. Kalipasir G. The cutting off of networks of illegal circulation of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances. such Shabu was obtained from his friend named ABENG having his address in Penang. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to nail 4 (four) Indonesian citizens of Marijuana Type Narcotics dealer network members controlled by the Cross Bandung – Sukabumi – Aceh network in Warung Cieuri Village. d. The item of evidence was packaged in Sustagen Junior boxes and war rice boxes from Malaysia to be circulated in Medan. 11/10 No. monitoring and evaluation in the field of law enforcement. ADE 10 . and item of evidence of: 4 Kgs of Shabu. Eradication of illegal circulation of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances. ISMANTO (ojek driver) as its suspect and DYUHANA Binti RAHMAN AMIR (recipient of package shipment from Cambodia). 3. 35 Year 2009 is as follows: 1. with item of evidence of 60 Grams of Heroin. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to uncover the smuggling of Psychotropics of Shabu type brought from Malaysia at the International Arrival Terminal of the Polonia Airport. Malaysia. with NANDAR SUKANDAR bin TOHA. Handling of Cases following the Promulgation of Law No. Sukabumi Regency. Medan on October 7. 2. with TRI SUDARMOKO alias MOKO as its suspect. 2009 sent from Cambodia through the Air DHL services (Soekarno Hatta Airport) at Jl. Tembok Rt. September 2009. West Java on September 12. e.b. 30 Kebon Sirih. with HARRY ZALDY bin OYONG C. Central Jakarta. Cicurug District. Training of law enforcing apparatus officers. Identification. c. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to catch a recipient of Koran Holy Book package containing Heroin on August 18. Menteng. 2009.

(Iranian Citizen). (Iranian Citizen).668 Kgs of Shabu. (Iranian Citizen). Female. (Iranian Citizen).400 ML of liquid Shabu. 2009. FATEMEH ARABALI DOUSTI binti HASAN. Jl. Male. 0331 3rd Floor. with all suspects were Iranian citizens by the name of: MARYAM BABEI SAYAD. Central Jakarta on October 19. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to nail 2 (two) Shabu type psychotropics dealers at the “Park Royale” Apartment. KARIMPOV PARDESTANI ROUSHAN. The marijuana was brought from Aceh using a truck covered with bananas. with FRANK AMADO (American Citizen). MAHNAZ SADAT. Female. Female. KAHEH MORADIOJAGH SHAZDEH. Tower 1 (One) Room No. Items of Evidence of: 17. JOUDI MITRA SADAT. Female. Citizen).852 grams of crystal Shabu. KHOSRAVIAN ZOHREH SADAT. (Iranian Citizen). Surabaya on November 3. Male. Jenderal Gatot Subroto Kav. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to foil the smuggling of Shabu from Iran to Indonesia at the Soekarno Hatta Airport on October 19. and PEYMAN bin AZIZALLAH alias SORENA (Iranian Citizen) at its suspects. 26. 2009. snacks and women wear packages that were kept inside suitcases.8 tons of marijuana. (Iranian Citizen). (Iranian (Iranian Citizen). Female. The items of evidence were brought by the suspects through the Teheran – Syria – Dubai– Jakarta air lane. and item of evidence of: 5. (Iranian 11 . Female. Female. 4. MOHAMMAD REZA NEZAFAT. 6. item of evicence of 1. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to thwart the smuggling of Shabu from Iran to Indonesia at the Juanda Airport. Female. with all suspects were Iranian by the name of: MOHAMMAD KHANLARI bin ASGHAR.SUPRIYATNA bin SAEFUL ANWAR and DASEP BOBOH WAHYUDIN bin ENDI as its suspects. IRANI DELKESH. 5. 2009. (Iranian Citizen). with modus operandi of packaging liquid Shabu in 13 ”Head & Shoulder” shampoo bottles that were kept in suitcases and crystal Shabu that was put inside tea. 35-39.

8. 7. Male. 600 liters of liquid Precursor. West Jakarta on November 4. and items of evidence of: 1. in which suspect Christian Salim alias. MOZHGAN SHOURJEH binti MORAD.Citizen). based on the information developed by the Directorate of Narcotics and Dangerous Substances. 4. (Iranian Citizen). (Iranian Citizen). with item of evidence of: 5.000 grams of yellow solid Powder. Shabu reagent and a unit of mold.51 grams Shabu. 5.620 tablets of XTC.000 grams of Shabu. WILLIAM FRENDY. Safire.000 grams of Shabu. with modus operandi of Shabu that was absorbed by towels and kept in plastic bags.000 grams of pink Powder. Items of Evidence of: 2. Female.000 tablets of XTC with IWAN DJAYA ADMAJA. 2009. 4. 2009. The items of evidence were brought by the suspects through the Teheran – Indonesia air lane (Surabaya destination). with ALENG as its suspect. 6 bottles of dye. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force. SEYED MEHDI MOJAB bin SEYED AZIZ. 12 .254.000 grams of black Powder. Items of Evidence of: 10.159.012.28 grams of Shabu. 300 kilograms of shabu reagents and shabu making equipment.28 grams of Shabu. CHRISTIAN SALIM alias AWE at its suspects. 5 jerry cans of Ammonia. 1. 1. Mangga Besar VI Taman Sari. 4 grams of Shabu. 1. RUDY.000 grams of Precursor. managed to uncover an illegal XTC and Shabu dealer syndicate network on November 5. 3. 3. Male (Iranian Citizen). The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force managed to disclose a XTC and Shabu as well as XTC making home industry dealer syndicate begun with the arrest of a suspect by the name of Iwan at Jl.AWE showed that such items were made at the Villa Setia Budi Regency housing complex. Wing 2.000 grams of white Powder. MOHAMMAD REZA SHAHVAROUGHI bin MOSLEM.

(3) MOHSEN MUHAMMAD ARGASI. Bali. (6) SAEID SOLTANI NABIZADEH.047 8. Denpasar.422 5.580 NO CASE 1 2 3 Narcotics Psychotropic s Other Addictive 2005 8.275 2007 11.171 6. with suspects by the name of: (1) DARYOUSH OMID ALI. As for the handling of cases settled by virtue of Law Number 22 Year 2007 and Law Number 35 Year 2009 shall be described in the following tables: TABLE OF CASE SETTLEMENTS 2009 JAN-OCT Law 22/1997 8. Bali and made the transit in Kuala Lumpur. managed to thwart the smuggling of Shabu from Turkey at the Ngurai Rai Airport. with item of evidience of 53 capsules of Shabu. with Item of Evidence of 100 Capsules of Shabu.9. Qatar – Denpasar. Male. (4) ALI REZA SAFARKHANLOO. The Narcotics and Dangerous Substances Task Force. Male. Turkey – Doha. with item of evidence of 80 capsules of Shabu.780 1. The total number of items of evidence was 560 capsules of Shabu. Male.964 13 . with item of evidence of 131 capsules of Shabu.348 2006 9. The items of evidence of Shabu were packaged in the shape of capsule and then were swallowed by the suspects and brought from Istambul. RS BIMC and RS Polri Trijata Bali on December 9 – 14.779 10.00 6 8.135 8. 2009. (7) MASOUD SOLTANINABIZADEH.384 NOV-DEC Law 35/2009 3.779 9. with item of evidence of 32 capsules of Shabu.658 2. with item of evidence of 87 capsules of Shabu. with item of evidence of 77 capsules of Shabu. (2) BAHMAN MIRZAE.547 8.088 232 2. in collaboration with the Ngurah Rai Airport Customs and Excise.733 1.961 2008 10. Male.573 TOTAL 11. Male. (5) MEHDI ALI NEJAD GOLESTAN. Male.380 9. Male.

8. 2.814 7.756 2006 15. Provisions regarding Narcotics Transit activities.207 392 2.07 7 1. Class II and Class III Narcotics that are in the shape of both natural and synthetic basic ingredients used for producing medicines.874 11.081 11.116 7. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for obtaining permit and using Narcotics. 4.6% -14.947 NOV-DEC Law 35/2009 4.900 TABLE OF SUSPECT SETTLEMENTS NO 1 2 3 SUSPECT Narcotics Psychotropics Other Addictive Subtances Total % of increase 22. Provisions regarding changes to the classification of Narcotics.178 2009 JAN-OCT Law 22/1997 10.287 2005 10.4% 29. 3.78 0 38. Provisions regarding Narcotics annual need plan preparation. 5. Provisions regarding procedures for the administration of production and/or use in production with a very limited amount for the purpose of the advancement of science and technology. 9.008 2008 13.07% 31.978 5. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for licensing for the circulation of Narcotics in the form of medicine . Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for obtaining Import Approval Letter and Export Approval Letter.687 11.9% 14.494 8.878 5.35 9 29. 6.8% 22.295 8.412 13.Subtances Total % of increase 16.635 36.7% 30.403 31.94 7 10.252 17.206 4.17% 24.327 2007 17.635 As a follow-up to the ratification of Law Number 35 Year 2009.694 38.688 TOTAL 15.955 14. Provisions regarding oversight procedures. 7.630 30.3% 23. the following implementing regulations shall be made: 1.104 18. 14 .355 6.169 44.

exporting and circulating. students. especially. Provisions regarding protection procedures by the state. Provisions regarding organizational structure and working procedures of the BNN. 13. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for the delivery of Narcotics. safeguarding and supervision of Narcotics and Precursors of Narcotics confiscated. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for sampling and test at certain laboratory. 21. 12. Provisions regarding procedures for the use of properties or assets obtained from the proceeds of crimes. 23. 19. 20. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for the delivery and destruction of confiscated goods. Provisions regarding conditions and procedurs for producing. Provisions regarding public participation. 15. 18. IV. programs and activities. Conclusion 1. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for the storage. importing. parents and the community have received intensive prevention information 15 . 14. Provisions regarding development and supervision. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for the inclusión of label and publication. 11. 2. Larger population. laborers.10. recording and reporting as well as overseeing Precursors of Narcotics. the youth. Provisions regarding the implementation of mandatory report. 16. 17. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for the appointment and discharge of the Head of the BNN. which are made possible because of firm political and budgetary commitment and support from both the Executive and Legislative. Provisions regarding conditions and procedures for the distribution of Narcotics. The government of Indonesia has been intensifying and expanding its counter drug measures. 22.

5. 4. Law enforcement operations are enhanced using sophisticated investigation technology conducted by special trained personnel.and education. Treatment. -------- 16 . Rehabilitation and aftercare will be further developed using evidence based modalities. regulations and procedures. 3. most of them have recognized and been aware of the danger of drugs. between ASEAN countries. Regional cooperation could be enhanced by harmonizing several articles in the laws.