Foucault's Science of Rhetoric: The Contest Between Practical Discourse and Discursive Practice Author(s): Richard L.

Lanigan Reviewed work(s): Source: symplokē, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, special issue: Rhetoric and the Human Sciences (1996), pp. 189-202 Published by: University of Nebraska Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40550393 . Accessed: 30/10/2012 00:40
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the function ofmeaningthat must versusthe affective function ofsignification cognitive ° Symplokê Vol.the simply goodgrammar.3for from translation In the voice of Nietzsche's Aristotlethe lexis graphiké(or writtenstyle of language) is from the lexis agónistiké different (or spokenstyleof completely thesameas is virtually Thewritten ofpublic discourse). good in speaking.the expressively of ofthe methodology discussion 1See Lanigan (1988) and (1992) fora theoretical with applied examples. thesis.2 created of by corpus thought Aristotle's with as doesNietzsche.FOUCAULT'S SCIENCE OF RHETORIC: THE CONTEST BETWEEN PRACTICAL DISCOURSE AND DISCURSIVE PRACTICE Richard L.. 4. A specific semioticphenomenology example of the applied in rhetoric method and discourse analysisis Lanigan(1984). bystarting. 2See Lanigan (1992) as a particulardiscussionof Michel Foucault's semiotic phenomenology. remain forced to not to be "means in address spokenstyle public . .e. betweencommunication 4Thisis the classic distinction i. oratory style is articulation Yet. at theUniversity of1872-73 semester A somewhat Nietzschegave a series of lectureson rhetoric.during Friedrich ofBasel. of fora professor turnofinterest yetunderstandable surprising. 3See Nietzsche (1989). encompassing TheProblematic ofRhetoric the Greek. knowing goodGreek. lost contest between articulation is a thought silently discourse. and expression. Lanigan Rhetoric.4 in language andthought found Thus. thewinter and twenty-two Someonehundred yearsago. 1-2 (1996)ISSN 1069-0697.as to thepublic to communicate whenonewished silent something In oral write" how to it goes forpeoplewho do not know (217). 189-202. that ofdiscourse andthematic theproblematic find both thatonemay in the a semiotic constitutes and also both phenomenology1 occupies fill out this Let me Michel Foucault.Switzerland. and on rhetoric lectures is in these Nietzsche It language philology. Nos.

= language) distinction is between and parole parlée(spoken speech parole parlante (speaking speech = rhetoric).81).190 Richard Science ofRhetoric Lanigan Foucault's inlanguage. Aristotle's is thetrope in speech calledasyndeton example. says stylistic felicity delivery.and per force existential. turn.5 is counterpoised to thepresenceof generalization reason decoded indiscourse."In this space createdby this [tropological] Raymond tolife. in his earlyvolumeon namelessvoice. andis.8 ofwords as themodel conjunction mediation thegrammatical a voiceless name. in whichlanguage.99 (1970.e.. of embodiment as a narrative mediation ofan absent speech person's in its tropic is a case oíprosopopoeia. definition for 8Thisis thestandard Modernity. thematic Nietzsche ofAncient (1989)says: Rhetoric. byomitting in in oral a i. This Foucault has yieldedto criticism. come all thefigures ofrhetoric displacement. makes thatFoucault in Nietzsche The problematic ofdiscourse In his lectureon the in rhetoric is easily identified. thephenomenological of science a of guise In both thecases ofrhetoric's (a space"ofdiscourse "tropological thereis firstthe rhetoric of scienceand a scienceof rhetoric). du discours de savior(1970. 7See Lanigan(1991)."(15). somehow respectable knowledge of things." "Description Our utterances by no means wait untilour perception and experience have provided us with a many-sided.e. . encoded as thegeneration and forgetfulness ofrationality of Grammar.Instead ofthe immediately the sensationtakes in onlya sign. Second. .An excellent as theconative combine maybe found explication Gusdorf(1965). they result whenthe impulseis perceived. rhetoric9 i. .a which. "commentary in of(1) thought semiotic between the phenomenology opposition the in speech as rhetoric forms as grammar and(2) thought language withthe contest between basic problematic ofFoucault'sconcern as a discourse as a formation and discourse semiotic practice practical thatmaybe wonor It is a contest transformation. definition ofPostmodernity ^his is thestandard . which thewriter leavesouta conjunction andthuscommits a stylistic sucha conjunction creates a whereas thespeaker fault.7The parallel in Foucault's is énonciation and rhetorical terminology description in énoncé. because it desires to convey aspect: language is rhetoric. onlya doxa [opinion].indeed. That is thefirst thing. phenomenological and under lostunder both thesemiotic ofscience guiseofa rhetoric rhetoric.as the asyndeton of science and rhetoric is notarticulated ofrationality.6 Or as Merleau-Ponty has characterized the agonistic the contest. see Lanigan(1995). notan epistemé [knowledge]. As Foucaultsummarizes Roussel. in function ofdiscourse.215)..80). 5Thisis Foucault'sGrammaire générale (1970. as thestating andspeaking ofRhetoric. . hypokritika which.17) and l'ordre 6Thisis Foucault's figures (1972. oflanguageis made silentby the oral.

because it desires to . and philology. thefirst time whether in isolation or as a group. abandoning 10 thatBourdieu(1977) thatcreatestheproduct Autocommunication is theprocess is also the autocommunication calls habitusas expressionand hexisas perception." Foucault notan epistemé convey onlya doxa [opinion]. intertextaulity) . When he thus reads Nietzsche.10 The Human Sciences": OrderofThingsentitled factthatman. In short. As Foucault (1970. In short. the human in lexisagónistiké sciencesare defined as discourses (or spokenstyle) is discoursein the forms of rhetoric and becomeepistemés. [knowledge] sees that Nietzsche has succumbed to the "forgetfulnessof rationality"in the lexis graphiké (or writtenstyle of language). intrinsic thesimple . leaveus as themonuments of What civilizations andpeoples their thought is not so much their texts as their oftheir thesounds their vocabularies.. to be themost artistic meansofa rhetoric .the wholeofLes Motset les Choses (The OrderofThings:An Archaeologyof the Human Sciences) is a thematic contest with Nietzsche's naming of rhetoricas doxa. And this event was itselfproducedin a general thespace oftheepistemé: redistribution when. of thought mechanismby whichdiscoursebecomesthe institutions and proscribe cultureas human embodied thatprescribe meaningor in the construction of what Lotman(1994) calls autocommunication culture where preconscious expression becomes conscious in the finalchapterofThe As Foucault (1970) confirms perception. economics. their possibility. biology. languages syntaxes.. their discourse notmuch rather thanthewords they spoke... myemphasis) institutions reminds us. reflexive.Foucault sees a problematic in the articulatedthesis that "language is rhetoric. thediscursivity as theelement (87) language. Rhetoricis the language in the service of knovrledge/epistemé. (formerly process that explicates the movementfromthe chora to transposition in Kristeva (1974). thenonliteral are considered significations. ofopinion as a phenomenon ortreated cannot be considered intheorder itis an event ofknowledge [doxa]: [epistemé].Symplokê Winter/ Summer 1996 191 Thetropes. language never butdisplays expresses something completely onlya characteristic which appears to be prominent to it (23) [language]. "languageis rhetoric" is counter thesisthat rhetoric and reflective the reversible. For Foucault.that shouldhave become the objectofscience societies. and for in human haveexisted andhavelived since together beings ... Indeed. Foucault wished to contest Nietzsche's thesis that Foucaultasserts in the serviceofdoxa/opinion. Rhetoric is the creation of encodedin discourse. oftheir that madeitpossible.

of the language by which he is which.esp. 130. in what the essence oflaborand its laws consist. an analysis that extends fromwhat man is in his positivity(living.it is thatbeing. speaking. utilizetheirforms represent and meanings. livingbeingstookup theirplaces in the specificdepthof life. being)to whatenablesthissame beingto know(or seek to know)whatlifeis.and finallyprovides witha representation oflanguageitself.and philology in the verybeingofman [= prosopopoeia].and words in the developmentof languages(345).fromthe interior to himself. but in any case themselves. contrary to Heidegger's view that the subject speaking (an epistemological existence(the Other) ofa becoming individual)is the onticrecipient in language. . It further communication suggests the way in whichthe speakingsubject(an ontological person)is the ontological source of embodied being (the Self). himself The human sciencesare . laboring.The objectofhumansciencesis not it is spoken language(though bymenalone). the words or propositions he utters. whichmust be deciphered and restored as far as possible to their representative veracity..192 RichardLanigan Foucault* s ScienceofRhetoric ofrepresentation.. . in Nietzschenow thematized to recallwhatRomanJakobson it willbe helpful (1971) has called the branchoflinguistics" "rhetorical (571).economics. It willbe possibleto speak ofhumansciencewhen an attempt is made to define the way in whichindividuals or groups wordsto themselves... thempossibility (353. real discourse.. perhaps unknownto moreor less than theywish. Is Said?" in XVI: "WhoIs Actually nSee Chapter Something SpeakingWhenever Ijsseling(1976). revealand concealin compose what they are thinkingor saying. myemphasisand insertion) This long quotation must serve as a documentary proofthat the central to Foucault's of discourse is philosophy of problem centered on the speakingsubject. represents byspeaking.wealth in the onwardthrustof new formsof production.11 ofrhetoric further withFoucault'sproblematic Before proceeding as the episteméofthe human sciences. thesense of surrounded. without them[= asyndeton]) connecting separates (though fromthat which gives biology. leave a mass ofverbaltracesofthosethoughts. namelythe human scienceof that is built aroundthe episteméof communication communicology theory.and in what way he is able to speak [= The humansciencesthusoccupy thedistancethat rhetoric].

13SeeLanigan(1992.whereoppositions inscribed or modelofdisembodied the enunciation grammar.illustrated ofKnowledge.Symplokë Winter I Summer 1996 193 TheThematic ofRhetoric Communication theory for Roman Jakobson is the phenomenological structure that separates (asyndeton) by combination(prosopopoeia) certain features of speech such that distinctivefeatures (appositions and inclusions) are created by redundancyfeatures (oppositionsand exclusions) in discourse. Sixth and last is the element of the function. a voicelessname.350-377).thereis the human speaker as communicator in the discourseevent. substitution. as in the utterance "I am speaking io you.and contiguity(that constitute and its elementofcommunication is the fifth "Contact" metonymy)." theutterance view ofthe operationof speech speaking. or glossing" "code"withits "metalinguistic communication the message so that it bothrefers Here. speech speaking has the énoncé functionof occur ofinclusion i. the speechact so thatbotha and terminating managing. maintaining. It is this Jakobsonian where appositions of inclusion constitutethe énoncé or model of embodied oral rhetoric. basicallybyFoucault'sTheArchaeology 12Jakobson (1960." The third element of comof function whichcoversthe "referential" is the "context" munication of function third the fulfills and denotation" person "cognitive "I am speaking as in the utterance or something "someone spokenof." to youaboutit. contact is achieved by creating.In such a tropicformulation.the code "doublearticulates" to itself(the objectlanguage) and to it use (the metalanguage)as in "1 am speakingto you'is an examplesentence. as in the utterance is achieved. functionis "phatic.13 of operation who is the First." That is. is achieved between the connection and psychological physical addresser and addressee. to formthe rhetoricof science or a discourse semiotic.e. The addressee's process consists of the "conative" functionof second person articulation and judgment." Second.1 Jakobson formulates these linguistic features as a theory of in the in which six elementsachieve six functions communication human discourse..229-236)." element of the "message" which Fourth is the communication carries the "poetic"function. orderof withthe syntagmatic can be reversed (horizontal) metaphor) word combination.that Foucault uses in his many applied ofexclusionconstitute analyses ofspeech spoken. articulation the human listener as communicateeis the "addressee" of the discourse act. . Holenstein (1976). Namely.whereappositions asyndeton. The addresser'sprocessis one of "addresser" "expression" in which the "emotive" function of first person "/am speaking.contexture. the paradigmatic(vertical) and similarity (that constitute orderofwordselection.

as rhetoric. grammar defines in the the case of each individual language the order that distributesthat spatiality in time*(84). Foucaultis concerned grammar" by discoveringthe science of the human person in understood as a sequenceofverbalsigns"(83) whichis to "discourse. MichelFoucaulfsDiscourseQuadrilateral _j_ . fundamentally by Foucault's The Orderof Things.. speech spoken has the énonciation function of of exclusion i. positions I PRRCTICE DIFFERENT SRME I <-sauoir-> SS = o £ Q Ì .it is a space of differential and subject-functions" (Foucault1991.where oppositions prosopopoeia. discourseunderstood whichthe subjectivity subjectirrupts.e.194 RichardLanigan FoucaulfsScienceofRhetoric In turn. a nameless voice.0) S g c I SUBJECT POWER OBJECT DESIRE ~ -3 = O ™ o ut v I _LJ ° <-connaissance-> Figure1. occurto form the scienceofrhetoric or a discoursephenomenology.58). of"general to critiquethe culturalforce Thus. As exemplified and thematic: "Rhetoric summarizes his problematic Foucaulthimself as it comes into being with definesthe spatialityofrepresentation language."Discourseis not a place into say.

Here forFoucault (see fig. Thus forFoucault. a self/same articulates Second. In contrast. 58) function /emotive exemplifying expressive the objects.Symplokê Winter/ Summer 1996 195 A Rhetoric ofScience(Semiotic) Discourse as the rhetoricof science forFoucault is illustrated his manytextsbythe aphoristic et l'autre. grammar or lexisagónistiké theessenceofrhetoric ofmeaning. the oppositionof Énoncé and Énonciation is a thematic of practical discourse discoveredin archaeologyas a problematicof exclusion. The practicaldiscourseofrhetoric context-contact (intradiscursivedependency)of the Addresser is The in such Foucaultstudiesas Madness and Civilization. illustrated BirthoftheClinic.the rhetorical tropeofasyndeton "nameless voice" of of a versus other / different representation in which both inclusion and (ensembles) (interstices).genealogy is the consciousnessof experience located in Jakobson's Addressee with the attendant the essence of ofsignification. apposition16 discourseand practicecontesteach otheras a discourse practice.159-60). In this context.. opposition one anotheras a practicaldiscourse. rendered archaeologicallyas both the trope of speech known as is a comparative and in thatofasyndeton."15 intodifferent up theirdiversity figures First in a tropicrhetoric. the prosopopoeiaarticulates a self / ofa "voicelessname" of otherversus same /different representation in whicheither discourse or practicecontest and exclusion. a diversifying effect. throughout phrasele même in of Thereis a semiotic structure this that (Fig. and to reducethe diversity analysisthatis notintended but is intended to divide thatmusttotalizethem. . construction oflanguageis a syntactic 14Afigure a tropeof or lexisgraphiké(the written styleoflanguage).by comparison. construction speechis a semantic ofdiscourse). (thespoken style ^Foucault (1972. between calls uintradiscursive dependencies" and conceptsof a single discourse formation. to outlinethe unity .1. in which thatapposition is a both/and 16Recall by combination logicofinclusion an itemshave the same relationwitha thirditem.orDisciplineand Punish. Énoncé becomes a notionofthe Message statingor speakingthat embodiesJakobson's as the of function its (with poetic Subject/Objectspace reversibility) in discourse."Archaeology prosopopoeia ofdiscourse. p.. the appositionof Savior and Connaissance is a as a thematic in genealogy ofdiscoursepracticediscovered thematic of inclusion.operations. 194). By comparison. two alternative is an either/or by separationin whichtwo itemshave a logicofexclusion opposition relation witheach other. In this context.énonciationbecomes an articulatingor or that embodiesJakobson'sCode (withits metalinguistic uttering as the space of Power / Desire in of reflexivity) glossingfunction as a message-codeor discourse. archaeology is the experience of consciousnesslocated in Jakobson'sAddresserwith the attendant what Foucault (1991. 1) figure language14 therefore it must be cannot be renderedwith literal signification.

Jakobson's notionofContext of denotationand cognitivelocation illustrate Foucault's view of as a contactconnaissance.or withthe aid ofthesesystems [2] through.. Object. "three other principles: [1] how series of discourses are formed.as an [lexis graphiké . and [3] what were their and variation* conditions ofappearance. and Desire where the in bothdiscourse is recorded ofexperience consciousness (institution) and practice. This "criticarapproachofgenealogy amongthe distinguishes and appropriation of discourses accordingto exclusion. Thus. It does nottreatdiscourse ofsomething document ] as a sign else. By contrast. Both oppositionsand constitutea problematicofpractical exclusions in communication forthe subject. i. As Foucault(1972.. repreArchaeology thatare conthemes. ofKnowledge Archaeology of ofscienceis a semiotic In short. of Savior is Jakobson'sconceptof Contactwith its phatic function controlin human communication.e. the discoursepracticeof rhetoric oftheAddressee or code-message context (interdiscursive dependency) is discussed in such works as The Order of Things and The (Savior). growth. Power.limitation.and interdiscursive dependencies. cealed or revealedin discourse. (1972. Once again we are confronted withthe in theAddresser of consciousness approachto theexperience emotivefunction of firstperson expression. withdiscourse [lexis between dependencies" analysis that involves extradiscursive . ofconstraint: in spiteof. A Science ofRhetoric(Phenomenology) a discussionofintramovesbeyond Foucault'smodelofdiscourse to a third.myemphasisand discourse insertions) argues. 138-9.connaissance is betweenObject knowledgeor knowingabout discoursecorrelations function and its referential and Desire. These dependencies motivate the relation of message and code together with the interrelation of contact and context in communicationas the constitution of Subject. as a rules [myemphasis]. what are the specificnorms for each. preoccupations images. sentations. tries to definenot the thoughts.. 58) calls discursiveform"interdiscursive dependencies"between different ations.196 RichardLanigan FoucaulfsScienceofRhetoric conative functionexemplifying what Foucault (1991. it is concerned to be transparent thatought element as a monument in its ownvolume. Foucault'srhetoric explication intra. 58).Here. in rhetoric.but those discourses certain as practices thosediscourses obeying themselves. . 232-233). Savior becomes for the Subject an understanding or knowinghow to function among discourses as a source of Power.morecomplexlevel of and interdiscursive dependencies a outside of discourse and transformation discursivetransformations with an archaeological (1991.

"historyis that which transforms intomonuments"1^ documents Document ) (lexisgraphiké Name) (Voiceless Asyndeton Spatial (Historicality) Object/Desire Desire (ofsubject[noun]) Énonciation (paroleparlée) Representation Contact/Context Addressee Event Connaissance Metonymy Archaeology Analysis Semiotic (either/or) Opposition The Library: Monument ) (lexisagónistiké (NamelessVoice) Prosopopoeia (Historicity) Temporal Subject/Power Power(to subject[verb]) Énoncé(paroleparlante) Presentation Message/Code Addresser Memory Savior Metaphor Genealogy Criticism Phenomenology (both/and) Apposition The Museum: Table 1. memoirsof a Nineteenth-Century is renamed18 Abel death whose after HerculineBarbin.Symplokë Winter/ Summer 1996 197 it doesnot ]. p. mostpointedly discovered Foucault'seditionofHerculineBarbin. In this of the metaphor thatwe understand analysis.Foucault(1972) intends the Library as a "documentaryfield" (51) of spatial location in contrast to the Museumwithits byinscription/writing exemplified 17SeeLanigan(1992). definition for discourse which is ofcoursetheclassicAristotelian 19Foucault (1972. Foucault'sSemiotic Phenomenology ofRhetoric intothe Power ofthe soon transforms The subjectas monument Museum as a temporalpositionin a discourse (Table 1).is an exemplarofthe extradiscursive dependency in the subjectthat can exist betweenthe Self discourseofthe Body whojudge (message) and the Same practiceby Othersas Addressers the subject (code)." ofverbalrepresentation (writing). 'allegorical. discourse historically underthe rulesofle mêmeet l'autrebecomesa Message whosepoetic ofopposition and exclusion. beingtherecently Adélaïde French hermaphrodite.a representation. In short.' In practical discourse. legally body HerculineBarbin. This is to say.17Both Self is the conjunction function Discourse and Same Practice come to constitutethe Subject as a in illustrated discoursemonument (see fig. of verbal of the Name is a "representation 18Recallthat Foucault's definition henceto be renamedis to moveto the thirdlevel oflogic.namely. (speech)ofrepresentation (thought) representation levels.1.then. It refuses seek another. the subject must be approached as an existentialmonument.7). 194). . It is notan interpretive discipline: agónistiké to be better-hidden discourse.

e.Pierre A and mybrother: Rivière. but of that tangential of "the history[discourse]. In the museum. The semioticstructure phenomenological to and reflective. mymother. ofdiscourse is specified function i.21 entitled studyofthepainterRené Magritte A second aspect of discourse practice as a genealogical elementof of the Addressee is the communication transformation see Lanigan(1994).reflexive. checking. p. almanacs. mysister. 1.e. Object subjects specifythe same practice of discourse in and as the document.1). i. rumor.198 RichardLanigan Foucault'sScienceofRhetoric monumentary field of temporal transposition illustrated by /speaking. i. in values or actions ofContactis the element thatdisplaya choice. ..the a mannerofthinking! a way ofspeakingwhichspecifies best semiotic exampleofthe Objectas Documentis Foucault'ssmall ThisIs NotA Pipe. made rhetorical..that everyday. temporary authors"(136-7). literatures. exampleofthe powerofthe museumis Foucault'seditionof/. 20For a detailedanalysisofthispoint.such that the semioticsignification of language is meaning. 108).. This genealogicalprocessofcriticaltransformation specifiesthe of other discourses the other as 1) (see Document. havingslaughtered Case ofParricidein the19thCentury. fig.e. we cometo the genealogy entailsa phenomenology consciousnessof experiencewhere both appositionsand inclusions the discourseofthe Addressee(fig. The phatic Same Discourse and of Other conjunction function of establishing. or is immediatelylost: the analysis of subsuccesses.20The communication Practice. theanalysisoftherebuscalligram ¿lSee especially byFoucaultin Lanigan(1992. one genderedobjectin one document The rationality ofmodernity represent bymakinga writing triumphs In turn. Thus in practicaldiscourse. The secondperson constitute in conation.The bestphenomenological examplein Foucault'sworkis once again the case ofHerculineBarbinin whichthe birthcertificate document by the attacheddeath showinga femalebirthis corrected the birth certificate showing a male death that also transforms is created. certificate. is transformed The Addresser's message-code as context-contact forthe as contact-context intothe code-message reversed) (reflexively into the transforms Addressee.transientwritingthat never acquires the status of an oeuvre. that is discourse structure becomean existentialphenomenological per se.reviewsand newspapers. we findthe iconicmemories description not of literature. 194) of the Museum to locate a phenomenologyof the subject (time) and make the subject of discourse The best withbeingsubjectto discourse simultaneous (transposition).Thus. prolonging. confirmingor and discourses takes different the act ofcommunication discontinuing of themas the same institutional transforms practice communicating.the Code anonymous Practiceis foundin that constitutes a Self Discourse and Different the Power (see fig. made reversible. which in the scienceofrhetoric nowto discourse practice Turning ofthe ofdiscourse.

12-16October1994. . 5. in its but as a monument to be described mentary.23 in the into criticalgenealogy ofanalyticarchaeology transformation has threeconsequences: studyofdiscourse.its sourceis the Library a genealogical product whichis archaeologically discovered archive bydetermining: is itpossible to andforms ofthesayable." ofscience myanalysisofFoucault'srhetoric By way ofconcluding ofthe let me cite Foucault'sown summary and scienceofrhetoric.(What 1. and forms 4.1. conditions ofexistence. 22SeeLanigan(1984) for 23 on at theInternational ofthispaperwas presented An earlierversion Congress ofToronto. and forms of[discourse] 2.Symplokë Winter/ Summer 1996 199 Context. Thelimits does everyone formations. the most pointed category of what Foucault calls extradiscursive dependencies. of discoursepracticestudied as a that we findthe best illustration in Desire as the Library. p. Context is. . invalid?) debatable.it is mostexplicitly context nominating of the sayable is the historyof sexualitythat the phenomenology conserved in memoryto be reactivated for appropriation.Such research comnot as a themeof reviving 1. The limits (What without todisappear utterances aredestined anytrace?) in different as it appears ofmemory andforms 3. The third person perspectiveof someone or something ofcognitive a referential function withthe force talkedaboutprovides denotationin discourse. ofeachpoint text omitted) (59-60. foreign epochs with them. intrinsic configuration. as ofdiscourse. recognize the disofreactivation. discursive (Whatutterances ordefinitely as as valid. The limits (Among are which or ofprevious courses cultures. Merleau-Ponty an expressive space. Thelimits domain ofdiscourse?) is theconstituted speakof?What conservation. Practice to Contextcombinesboth Other Discourse and Different Desire is createDesire (see fig. an exampleanalysisin rhetoric.the threevolumeHistory ofSexuality. The limitsand forms (How is the thethediscourse. MichelFoucaultand Literature. Toinvestigate but its is doneby thosewhouse structural methods. not thelawsofconstruction 2. between institutionalized relationship anditsdestined audience?) speakers.22 Although or forFoucault(1991). .University Toronto.For. 146) summarizes. Canada. 194) as the Library. of appropriation. retained. As "Nowthe bodyis essentially (1981. explanatory It is in Foucault's last work. ?) what is done which arevalued. To treatdiscourse. perhaps.

in theAge A History ofInsanity Foucault. Paris: de la clinique: Une archéologie de France. Paris: Éditions Gallimard. inauguralau Collègede France(1971). Publications Tavistock M. Jonathan Works Aristotle. New York:Pantheon. L'Ordre du discours: Leçon 1971.. is the studyofintrinsic As I have demonstrated.1972." both as ofsemioticphenomenology. In shortforMichel Foucault. Trans. Smith. Switzerland:LibrairieDroz précédéde troisétudes d'ethnologie S. Outline of a Theory de la pratique. PressesUniversitaires 24Foucault (1991. TheArchaeology ofKnowledge du RandomHouse.RandomHouse. NJ: Princeton Vol. Madnessand Civilization: of Reason. SheridanSmith.Pierre. configurations a rhetoricof science that we know as semiotics. Ed. 1977. Second. first.that we discoverthe practical field withinwhich discourseis deployed.A. Howard. London:TavistockPublications Ltd. TheBirthoftheClinic:An Archaeology ofMedicalPerception.Rhetoric. London: Ltd. of Practice. the study of " "intradiscursivedependencies. 1972. A. Bourdieu. Cambridge:CambridgeUP. Irans.buttothepractical engendered 24 is deployed. 1971. . Princeton. 1966. Savior. R. The Orderof Things:An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London: Tavistock Publications Ltd. Les Motset les Choses.The Complete ofAristotle. anon. Naissance du regardmédical(revised edition). de la Folie. Equisse d'une théorie kabyle.Michel.. Paris: ÉditionsGallimard. . Paris: Libraire 1965. UP. 1969. . 1972. Trans.. Trans. an investigationof the in discourseis the scienceofrhetoric that we conditions ofexistence knowas phenomenology. . the studyof"interdiscursive dependencies. 2. SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY References Barnes.LArchéologie M. inwhich field it which it. S. Histoire copyright Pion. rhetoric as the transposition ofthe nameless voice and the voiceless name in discourse is an "extradiscursivedependency.A. 1970. Third.200 RichardLanigan Foucault'sScienceofRhetoric mind orsubject 3."namely. Trans.1973.1961. To relate thediscourse nottoa thought. L'Ordredu discours. Paris: ÉditionsGallimard.59-60). Richard Nice.it is in the conjunction asyndetonand prosopopoeia. 1984. & The Discourseon Language.

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