7 characteristic of living things

1. Nutrition e.g. Human- Primary food substances (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) Protective food substances (vitamin, mineral, dietary fiber) Plants- Photosynthesis (water + carbon dioxide +sunlight + chlorophyll = glucose + oxygen) 2. Movements e.g. Human- Bones, muscles, joints…etc Plants- Sunflower, mimosa 3. Respiration - the process by which food is oxidized to give out energy for growth, self- repair, movements, keep warm… etc. This process occurs in mitochondria in every living cell. (glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water) 4. Growth e.g. Human- growth in weight and height (stop growing at a point) Plants- continuous growth in height 5. Excretion- to remove metabolic wastes (toxic if kept in the body e.g. sweat, egestion, urination, carbon dioxide… etc 6. Sensitivity e.g. Human- 5 senses’ reaction to stimuli (stimulus) Plants- mimosa fold inward its leave when touched 7. Reproduction- produce new similar organisms e.g. Human and plants- sexual reproduction (2 parents) Bacteria- asexual reproduction (1 parent)

*metabolism- all chemical reactions in a living organism

Variety of life
Living organism

Prokaryotes
(Chromosomes enclosed in a nucleus)

Eukaryotes
(Chromosomes enclosed in a nucleus)

Viruses

Bateria

Protoctists

Fungi

Plants (Plantae)

Animals (Animalia)

Unicellular
(only one cell)

Multicellular
(more than one cell)

Biological Classification

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Speices

Genius

Family

Binomial system of nomenclature
Example: Human Genius: Homo Species: sapiens Homo sapiens / H. sapiens

Characteristics of different kingdoms
Fungus / Fungi -Most are multicellular, but some are single-cell -with cell wall -extracellular digestion (feed on dead organisms) e.g. yeast, bread mold (produce enzymes) Protoctists -unicellular -can be pathogenic (can cause diseases) e.g. amoeba, plasmodium (cause malaria) Bacterium / Bacteria -single-cell organisms -some can carry out photosynthesis -some feed on dead/ living organisms -some are beneficial, some are pathogenic e.g. lactobacillus bulgaricus, pneumococcus (cause pneumonia) Viruses -do not show typical characteristics of living things -very small (smaller than bacteria) -with a protein coat -parasitic (infect living organisms) e.g. HIV (cause AIDS), influenza virus (cause flu)

Cells and tissues
1. Structure of cells -3 rules of cell theory: I. All living things consist of cells. II. The cell is the basic unit if structure and function in all living things. III. Every cell originates from another preexisting cell.

Animal cell
Cell membrane -thin and flexible -differentially/ selectively permeable -consists of liquid and protein -controls the movement of materials in or out of the cell Nucleus -bounded by a nuclear membrane -contain chromosomes (chromatins) -made up of DNA -control activities of cell Cytoplasm -clear, jelly like -consists of an aqueous solution (90% water) of many substances (e.g. protein = enzymes and fat) -provide a medium for chemical reactions to take place -contains a lot of organelles (e.g. mitochondria) and granules (e.g. starch) Mitochondria -Respiration takes place -release energy

Plant cell
Cell wall -is made up of cellulose -hard (give turgidity to cell) -protect & support the cell -give shape to plant cell -large spaces between the cellulose fibers (fully permeable) -allow large particles to penetrate the cell wall Vacuole -large, at the centre (permanent) -contains chlorophyll (green pigment)

-absorbs sunlight for photosynthesis. Other Plastids -non-living granules -contains crystals of insoluble waste -starch granules Similarities and differences between plant cell and animal cell Features Animal cell Plant cell Cell membrane yes yes Nucleus yes yes Mitochondria yes yes Shape irregular regular Location of nucleus in the centre peripheral Cell wall no yes Vacuole small/ no large Chloroplast no yes Food reserve granules starch

Microscope
-Light microscope -Dissection microscope -Electron microscope Compare light microscope with an electron microscope Features Light microscope View most organelle or inner details cannot View nucleus can Source of light light beam Resolution lower

Electron microscope can can electron beam higher

Structure of microscope -Eyepiece: is mounted on top of the body tube -Body tube: holds the eyepiece at the top and usually carries a nosepiece at its lower end -Coarse adjustment: raises or lowers the body tube for rough focusing

-Fine adjustment: raises or lowers the body tube by a very small amount for sharp focusing -Nosepiece: carries the objectives; can be rotated to bring each of the objectives to give different magnifications -Objectives: are screwed into the nosepiece, each has one or more convex lenses inside -Stage: acts as the platform that holds a slide -Clips: holds the slide in position on the stage -Condenser: concentrates light reflected from the mirror to the specimen -Iris diaphragm: controls the amount of light passing through the condenser -Mirror: reflects light to the specimen

Properties of microscopic images -bigger -inverted (180o) -enlarged by objectives and eyepiece -magnification= eyepiece magnification x objective magnification -Length of actual specimen= length of image / magnification