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In a conductor where an electric field is established electrons are free to move. The electrons move from a place where their electrical potential is high to a place where they have less electrical potential, at this time the electrons are said to flow. This is analogous to water flowing through a pipe or hose. The water will flow from a place of higher potential energy to a place of lower potential energy. This flow of electrons is an electric current. Current is represented by the letter, I, and has units of amps. Current is the amount of electric charge which flows in a second. Other terms to become familiar with are volts and voltage, which are terms associated with electric potential difference and represented by V the units are called volts and uses the term V. A battery is a voltage source, when connected across a device a current is established and flows in one direction. The common convention is to say that current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. Resistance is the term used to define the opposition to the flow of current. The component that performs this duty is aptly named a resistor. The units of resistance are called ohms and use the Greek symbol, Ω. You have now been introduce to current, I, voltage , V, and resistance, R. There is a relationship between them called Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law states that the current, I, passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage, V, through the conductor and inversely proportional to the resistance, R, of the conductor. The mathematical equation of this is shown by I = V/R

Power is the amount of current which flows through a potential difference (voltage). Power uses the term .P and has units of Watts denoted by W. To determine the power used by a device multiply the current the device draws by the voltage across the device P=I*V

Terms Current Voltage Resistance Power

represented by I V or E R P

Units amps volts ohms Watts

represented by A V Ω W

In this lab we will measure the voltage and current across and through different unknown resistors. Using these values the resistance will be determined for each resistor.

R par can be found V R1 R2 R3 Figure 2 Rn where Equipment: Analog Voltmeter Power Supply 1 1 1 1 1 = + + ++ R par R 1 R 2 R 3 Rn current meter ( digital voltmeter) Unknown resistors box . an equivalent total resistance. as in Figure 1. R ser can be found R1 R2 V where R ser = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n Figure 1 R3 Rn Also when resistors are connected in parallel as in Figure 2 an equivalent total resistance.When resistors are connected in series.

Connect a wire from the negative of the power supply to the COM input for the DMM.Procedure Setting up the Circuit 1. R 2 and R 3 connected in series. Adjust the knob on the power supply until the voltmeter displays one volt. Complete the data table for R 1 . Turn the dial on the power supply completely counter clockwise to the zero position. R 2. From the other terminal connect a wire to the mA µA input of the DMM. Turn on the power supply. R 3 and R 4 connected in series Resistors in parallel 5. 200mA. Calculate the resistance and the power. (Use the scale on the bottom). Read the current and record into the data table. Resistors in series 4. Connect a wire from the positive of the power supply to one terminal of the resistor. Connect R 1 and R 2 in series determine the series resistance. Making measurements 2. Determine the measured resistance value using R = voltage / current Repeat for R 1 . Repeat for R 1 . Calculate the series resistance using the average values from table 1 Measure and record the current at 2V DC. Set the DMM to measure DC amps A . 3. . Repeat the steps 1 and 2 for each resistor of the unknown resistance box. Repeat step 4 for the resistors connected in parallel. Connect the analog voltmeter across R1.

at 2 V DC Resistor Calculated Measured combination Series Current Resistance I R 1 and R 2 Calculated Current I Calculated Measured Calculated Parallel Current Current Resistance I I R 1 . R3 and R 4 . R 2 and R3 R1. R2.Data Sheet Box # ________ voltage setting 1 R1 2 3 1 R2 2 3 1 R3 2 3 1 R4 2 3 measured current calculated resistance calculated power Average resistance Resistors in series and parallel.

What relationship can be seen between the voltage and current for any given resistor? As resistors are connected in series what happens to the resistance and current in the circuit at a constant voltage? As resistors are connected in parallel what happen to the resistance and current in the circuit at a constant voltage? .

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