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The world of the 21 century is inescapably multicultural. Over the past half century, as societies have become increasingly multicultural, many demands for specific language and literacy proficiencies have arisen in terms of maintaining, revitalizing and archiving the languages of non-dominant cultures; and in acquiring languages of wider or official communication. In response: experimental bilingual and multilingual education programs have been developed; they have grown into well-researched educational alternatives (familiar options in schools in the world).
government.history of language contact shows: languages of strongest influence have been supported by powerful institutions (religion.not a new phenomenon. . education. . professions).BILINGUAL EDUCATION Brief historical introduction to bilingual education: .
BILINGUAL EDUCATION Bilingual education models refer to programs that use two or more languages in instruction. Bilingual education models may be further separated into additive and subtractive [səbˈtrakt ɪv] mn mat kivonandó models. . Monolingual education models use only one language in instruction.
maintenance) bilingual education models are bilingual education models which help students to continue to develop academically and conceptually in their first language (native language) as they add a second language. . in this case English.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Additive (strong. developmental. Subtractive (weak) bilingual educational programs seek to replace a student’s first language (native language) with a second language.
unlike the Immersion and Mainstream Bilingual Education models discussed below. throughout the school-day are minimal. . Mainstream Education in English with foreign language teaching: This model treats the foreign/second language as a subject in the curriculum rather than a medium for instruction. In a foreign language. perhaps as little as one thirty-minute class per day. second language instruction and exposure.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Programs for Language Majority Students: 1.
while foreign language programs in other countries run Kindergarten through twelfth grade in order to provide maximum exposure and experience within the foreign language model. in the U. foreign languages are most often taught at the secondary level. with only about a third of elementary schools including any foreign language instruction (Baker.S.BILINGUAL EDUCATION In terms of duration of foreign language study. 2006). ..
Importantly. . 2006). in immersion programs minority languages are as valued as maj ority languages. support students’ first languages to varying extents. some programs.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 2. rather than being assigned lesser prestige as may be the case in other models. Within this program the second language is used as a medium of instruction and the goals are bilingualism and biliteracy. Immersion Bilingual Education for monolinguals: Immersion bilingual education was created in Canada in the 1960s (Baker. particularly partial immersion programs. In order to prevent loss or lack of development in a student’s native language.
BILINGUAL EDUCATION Differentiation between immersion programs is based on the age at which a child enters the immersion experience and the amount of time spent in immersion. . and late immersion commences in high school or ju nior high. delayed or middle immersion starts in middle school. Total immersion means that the student starts out being 100% immersed in the second language and that the immersion diminishes gradually to about 50% of the week being spent in the student’s first language. and 50% in his or her second language. Early immersion begins in kindergarten.
Baker emphasizes that such schools typically educate majo rity language children. rather than a mixed student population of majority and minority language students. International Schools.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 3. biliteracy. with the goals of bilingualism. Mainstream Bilingual Education in two majority languages: Mainstream Bilingual Education is defined by Baker (2006) as the use of two (or more) majority languages in a school. and cultural pluralism. which are found in over 80 countries throughout the world and primarily cater to the affluent. are one example of such schools .
. . meaning that students (e. (Baker. .g.2006).contains only language minority children. Structured Immersion/Submersion: Structured Immersion. is a monolingual program: . in California) are not taught alongside native English speakers.all instruction is in English but the teachers use simple or simplified English.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Programs for Language Minority Students: 1.
typically. . structured immersion clearly corresponds with California’s English-Only political stance and the related linguistic orientation of language as a problem and linguistic ideology of assimilation.BILINGUAL EDUCATION the native language is not developed. although individual Structured Immersion teachers may or may not initially allow students to use a little of their native language in class. but rather is replaced by English. there is no first language support. with monolingualism in English being the goal. Given these qualities.
although less commonly than pull-outs. “pull-ins” may occur in which the ESL teacher comes to some of an ELL student’s mainstream classes to give the student extra help in English (Brisk. 1998). Brisk (1998) specifies that these sessions generally occur outside of the mainstream classes and are thus referred to as “pull-outs”. .BILINGUAL EDUCATION 2. In some cases. 1998). English as a Second Language (ESL): ESL is a monolingual model in which students spend the majority of the school day in mainstream classes but also have special sessions of tutoring in English with an ESL teacher in order to develop their competence in English (Akkari & Loomis.
S. . Torres-Guzmán and Etxeberría (2005) report that historically ESL has been one of the most popular if not the most popular method of educating ELLs in the U.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Both students and teachers are expected to use English .
. Akkari and Loomis (1998) clarify that English is taught directly in a separate language class but all other classes are initially taught in a student’s first language.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 3. gradually progressing to instruction in English with students’ native languages used only for elaboration or clarification. Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE): TBE is a bilingual education model in which ELL students move from instruction via their first language to instruction via English.
Both varieties entail segregation (i.exit programs.BILINGUAL EDUCATION TBE can be divided into early. As described by Baker (2006). while late-exit TBE permits approximately 40% of instruction to be conducted in the native language until the sixth grade.e.and late. . separate classes) from fluent English speakers. early-exit signifies a two year limit on assistance using the native language.
Dual-Language programs correspond with the English-Plus political agenda . and a pluralist ideology.e. strive for all students. Dual-Language (Two-Way Immersion) programs: Dual-Language programs are additive bilingual education programs which. the language as a right or resource perspectives . Unlike the above-mentioned programs directed to ward ELL students. biliteracy. and biculturalism (i. bilingualism. cross culturalcultural competence ) (De Jong & Howard. language minorities and language majorities. 2009). . to attain academic achievement..BILINGUAL EDUCATION 4.
. . .high levels of mastery in both languages.preparation of individuals who value intercultural peace and respect for people o f different cultural backgrounds.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Program’s goals: .general academic success at or above grade level. .positive intercultural behaviours and attitudes.the capacity to read and write at grade level in both languages. .
g. Spanish and English) are used for instruction. Heritage language programs: Heritage programs. biliteracy.. are additive bilingual education programs that strive for bilingualism. and biculturalism.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 5. As in Dual-Language programs. and pluralism. the view of language as a right and/or resource. classes contain a mixture of language minority and language majority students and both languages (e. . and thus also correspond with English-Plus. like Dual-Language programs.
. .BILINGUAL EDUCATION Unlike Dual-Language programs.have significantly more language minority students than language majority students. (Baker.often dedicate themselves more to the preservation of the ethnic (minority) language and culture. 2006): . Heritage programs.
3 the development of literacy in two languages entails linguistic and perhaps cognitive advantages for bilingual students. 2 bilingual education. by itself. csodaszer. 202-3): 1 bilingual programs for students from minority and majority language backgrounds have been implemented successfully in countries around the world. pp. 4 significant positive relationships exist between the development of academic skills in L1 and L2. panacea/ for students’ underachievement. is not a panacea /[ˌpænəˈsɪə] általános/univerzális gyógyszer. .BILINGUAL EDUCATION Cummins enumerates applied linguistics researchers’ common findings about bilingual education (2000.
BILINGUAL EDUCATION 2 Bilingualism and nationalisation Concept of one nation one lang (signalling unification of a nation-state through a common lang) e merged recently in human history (following the establishment of 18-19th-century nation-states in Europe and America) (Hornberger. ethnic fragmentation. Russian have been appropriated as languages of wider communication (Lewis.31. French. however.) Since 20th cent. supranational political blocs. 2001. this marginalizing ideology has been pressured by globalisation. 1976) . English. multinational t rade. p.
Bilingual education is lauded as an enriching educational experience. it is not a universal opinion. .BILINGUAL EDUCATION Bilingual education is rooted in a political ideology that rejects a singularity of cultural vision and works toward understanding across cultural and linguistic difference.
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