The world of the 21 century is inescapably multicultural. Over the past half century, as societies have become increasingly multicultural, many demands for specific language and literacy proficiencies have arisen in terms of maintaining, revitalizing and archiving the languages of non-dominant cultures; and in acquiring languages of wider or official communication. In response: experimental bilingual and multilingual education programs have been developed; they have grown into well-researched educational alternatives (familiar options in schools in the world).

BILINGUAL EDUCATION Brief historical introduction to bilingual education: .history of language contact shows: languages of strongest influence have been supported by powerful institutions (religion. government. .not a new phenomenon. education. professions). .

Bilingual education models may be further separated into additive and subtractive [səbˈtrakt ɪv] mn mat kivonandó models. Monolingual education models use only one language in instruction. .BILINGUAL EDUCATION Bilingual education models refer to programs that use two or more languages in instruction.

BILINGUAL EDUCATION Additive (strong. Subtractive (weak) bilingual educational programs seek to replace a student’s first language (native language) with a second language. maintenance) bilingual education models are bilingual education models which help students to continue to develop academically and conceptually in their first language (native language) as they add a second language. in this case English. . developmental.

perhaps as little as one thirty-minute class per day. Mainstream Education in English with foreign language teaching: This model treats the foreign/second language as a subject in the curriculum rather than a medium for instruction. throughout the school-day are minimal. . unlike the Immersion and Mainstream Bilingual Education models discussed below. second language instruction and exposure. In a foreign language.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Programs for Language Majority Students: 1.

in the U..BILINGUAL EDUCATION In terms of duration of foreign language study. . foreign languages are most often taught at the secondary level. 2006). while foreign language programs in other countries run Kindergarten through twelfth grade in order to provide maximum exposure and experience within the foreign language model. with only about a third of elementary schools including any foreign language instruction (Baker.S.

. 2006). particularly partial immersion programs. Importantly.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 2. In order to prevent loss or lack of development in a student’s native language. Within this program the second language is used as a medium of instruction and the goals are bilingualism and biliteracy. Immersion Bilingual Education for monolinguals: Immersion bilingual education was created in Canada in the 1960s (Baker. in immersion programs minority languages are as valued as maj ority languages. support students’ first languages to varying extents. rather than being assigned lesser prestige as may be the case in other models. some programs.

. and 50% in his or her second language.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Differentiation between immersion programs is based on the age at which a child enters the immersion experience and the amount of time spent in immersion. Early immersion begins in kindergarten. and late immersion commences in high school or ju nior high. Total immersion means that the student starts out being 100% immersed in the second language and that the immersion diminishes gradually to about 50% of the week being spent in the student’s first language. delayed or middle immersion starts in middle school.

Baker emphasizes that such schools typically educate majo rity language children. with the goals of bilingualism.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 3. International Schools. rather than a mixed student population of majority and minority language students. biliteracy. and cultural pluralism. are one example of such schools . which are found in over 80 countries throughout the world and primarily cater to the affluent. Mainstream Bilingual Education in two majority languages: Mainstream Bilingual Education is defined by Baker (2006) as the use of two (or more) majority languages in a school.

. .contains only language minority children. Structured Immersion/Submersion: Structured Immersion. .BILINGUAL EDUCATION Programs for Language Minority Students: 1.all instruction is in English but the teachers use simple or simplified English. in California) are not taught alongside native English speakers. meaning that students (e.g. (Baker. is a monolingual program: .2006).

BILINGUAL EDUCATION the native language is not developed. but rather is replaced by English. Given these qualities. . typically. there is no first language support. with monolingualism in English being the goal. structured immersion clearly corresponds with California’s English-Only political stance and the related linguistic orientation of language as a problem and linguistic ideology of assimilation. although individual Structured Immersion teachers may or may not initially allow students to use a little of their native language in class.

Brisk (1998) specifies that these sessions generally occur outside of the mainstream classes and are thus referred to as “pull-outs”. English as a Second Language (ESL): ESL is a monolingual model in which students spend the majority of the school day in mainstream classes but also have special sessions of tutoring in English with an ESL teacher in order to develop their competence in English (Akkari & Loomis.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 2. “pull-ins” may occur in which the ESL teacher comes to some of an ELL student’s mainstream classes to give the student extra help in English (Brisk. 1998). 1998). . although less commonly than pull-outs. In some cases.

. Torres-Guzmán and Etxeberría (2005) report that historically ESL has been one of the most popular if not the most popular method of educating ELLs in the U.S.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Both students and teachers are expected to use English .

gradually progressing to instruction in English with students’ native languages used only for elaboration or clarification.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 3. . Akkari and Loomis (1998) clarify that English is taught directly in a separate language class but all other classes are initially taught in a student’s first language. Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE): TBE is a bilingual education model in which ELL students move from instruction via their first language to instruction via English.

e. separate classes) from fluent English speakers.and late. . As described by Baker (2006). while late-exit TBE permits approximately 40% of instruction to be conducted in the native language until the sixth grade. Both varieties entail segregation (i. early-exit signifies a two year limit on assistance using the native language.BILINGUAL EDUCATION TBE can be divided into early.exit programs.

to attain academic achievement.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 4. Dual-Language (Two-Way Immersion) programs: Dual-Language programs are additive bilingual education programs which.. strive for all students. the language as a right or resource perspectives . and a pluralist ideology. . Dual-Language programs correspond with the English-Plus political agenda . and biculturalism (i. bilingualism. Unlike the above-mentioned programs directed to ward ELL students. cross culturalcultural competence ) (De Jong & Howard. 2009).e. biliteracy. language minorities and language majorities.

.preparation of individuals who value intercultural peace and respect for people o f different cultural backgrounds.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Program’s goals: . . . .general academic success at or above grade level.high levels of mastery in both languages.positive intercultural behaviours and attitudes.the capacity to read and write at grade level in both languages. .

As in Dual-Language programs.g.. and pluralism. and thus also correspond with English-Plus. . are additive bilingual education programs that strive for bilingualism.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 5. classes contain a mixture of language minority and language majority students and both languages (e. Heritage language programs: Heritage programs. the view of language as a right and/or resource. and biculturalism. like Dual-Language programs. Spanish and English) are used for instruction. biliteracy.

often dedicate themselves more to the preservation of the ethnic (minority) language and culture.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Unlike Dual-Language programs. . Heritage programs. (Baker.have significantly more language minority students than language majority students. . 2006): .

2 bilingual education. csodaszer. panacea/ for students’ underachievement. is not a panacea /[ˌpænəˈsɪə] általános/univerzális gyógyszer. by itself. 3 the development of literacy in two languages entails linguistic and perhaps cognitive advantages for bilingual students. pp. . 202-3): 1 bilingual programs for students from minority and majority language backgrounds have been implemented successfully in countries around the world. 4 significant positive relationships exist between the development of academic skills in L1 and L2.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Cummins enumerates applied linguistics researchers’ common findings about bilingual education (2000.



p. however.BILINGUAL EDUCATION 2 Bilingualism and nationalisation Concept of one nation one lang (signalling unification of a nation-state through a common lang) e merged recently in human history (following the establishment of 18-19th-century nation-states in Europe and America) (Hornberger. supranational political blocs.31. multinational t rade.) Since 20th cent. French. this marginalizing ideology has been pressured by globalisation. 2001. ethnic fragmentation. English. Russian have been appropriated as languages of wider communication (Lewis. 1976) .

. Bilingual education is lauded as an enriching educational experience. it is not a universal opinion.BILINGUAL EDUCATION Bilingual education is rooted in a political ideology that rejects a singularity of cultural vision and works toward understanding across cultural and linguistic difference.