www.metalog.org/files/Plumley.pdf (PDF document, Letter paper 8.


An Introductory Coptic Grammar
(Sahidic Dialect) by John Martin Plumley
Subsequently Professor of Egyptology, the University of Cambridge


London Home & van Thal 1948
Original mimeograph: www.metalog.org/files/plumley.html Fotocopied at the Hebrew University Library, Jerusalem, 1988 Transcribed by George Somsel and Paterson Brown; revised IV.10 Hypertext and Spanish versions: www.metalog.org/files/plum.html

Detailed Table of Contents (475Kb): www.metalog.org/files/plumley/html/toc.htm Introduction Chapter I. The Alphabet Chapter II. Syllables and Words Chapter III. Morphology Chapter IV. The Article Chapter V. The Numerals Chapter VI. The Verb Chapter VII. Verb Classes 1 Chapter VIII. Verb Classes 2 Chapter IX. Conjugation; Durative Tenses Chapter X. Limitative Tenses Chapter XI. Other Verb Forms Chapter XII. Particles Chapter XIII. The Adverb Chapter XIV. Syntax Chapter XV. Forms of Speech Chapter XVI. Adverbial Clauses Page 3 4 6 8 14 16 19 20 24 29 33 36 41 44 48 53 58

Index of Coptic Terms Common Irregular Verb Parts General English Index

61 69 69


The student wishing to acquire a knowledge of Coptic, the last stage of the Old Egyptian Language, has had perforce to consult the Grammars of Stern, Steindorff, Mallon, Till and Chane, none of which are available in an English translation, and all of which are difficult to procure. The last Coptic Grammar of importance printed in English was the second edition of Dr Tattern's Grammar, published as long ago as 1863 (online at http://sourceforge.net/projects/marcion/files/rc3/marcion_rc3-win32.zip/download; unzip, then run marcion.exe). Since that time our knowledge of the language has been greatly increased by the work of two generations of Coptic scholars. On the other hand, there now exists in English the magnificent Coptic Dictionary compiled by the late Dr W.E. Crum (www.metalog.org/files/crum.html). It is with some trepidation that I have ventured to write a new Grammar. The need for a work in English is pressing, but it must not be thought that this attempt to supply the need is in the nature of an exhaustive study. Such an attempt cannot yet be undertaken until a thorough systematic and statistical examination of the writings of Shenoute, the sole outstanding native writer of Coptic, has been made. The Sahidic dialect has been chosen, not because of any theory about its age, but for the very practical reason that it is the dialect which holds pride of place in Crum's dictionary. In addition to this fact, there exists a variety of texts in this dialect for the student to read. The examples, all of which are actual quotations from texts, have been drawn for the most part from the Bible. Zoega's great Catalogus Codd. Copticorum &c., 1810 (hereafter Z) has been utilized to a lesser degree. I have purposely limited myself to quoting a few examples in full, rather than giving many references to published texts which few students ever look up. The need for strict economy in space has compelled me to deal sketchily with Dr H.J. Polotsky's great discovery of the function of the Second Tenses ( §186a), but students must not fail to read his study for themselves (Études de Syntaxe Copte, Cairo, 1944). The most pleasant part of my task remains. It is to express my thanks to those who have made my work possible. First, I have to thank Prof Jaroslav Cerny, of the University College, London, with whom I began my Coptic Studies. His kindness and help have been unfailing, and my debt to him is immeasurable. To Prof S.R.K. Glanville, of Cambridge, I am equally indebted. It was at his suggestion, and with his encouragement, that I began to compile this Grammar, and I have had the benefit of his advice at all times. Prof Battiscombe Gunn discussed several points of grammar with me on two occasions when I enjoyed his hospitality at Oxford, and I need hardly add that the result of these discussions has been the improvement of the work generally. Finally, I have to thank my wife, who not only read through the whole manuscript and made several valuable suggestions, but also by her thoughtfulness and management of a very busy household, has made the labour of writing this book infinitely easier than I had dared to hope. J. Martin Plumley St Paul's Vicarage Tottenham, England 17 July 1947

NB: Windows includes an On-Screen Keyboard (in Start/All Programs/Accessories/Accessibility), which can readily be set to any installed font; thus one can type in Coptic script, and also search in Coptic. A few minor additions and corrections to Plumley’s mimeograph, as well as the dots between word elements, have been added in 2007-8. Corrections: edit@metalog.org, gfsomsel@juno.com, pjchd@uma.es, epostigo@uma.es.


e. knwmh. (a) As consonants: i usually appears in the form ei (less commonly as i+. As a consonant it is equivalent to y in the English ‘Yet’ (cf Heb y).k. q. Note: g occasionally appears for k when it follows n. leye for lepse ‘Fragment’. u. The Alphabet.g. Also. c. which is the usual form in Bohairic) . ouwm (wom) ‘To eat’. The following may be noted: qe for t.g. §2. such as q. a2wn. eiwt (yot) ‘Father’. (b) As vowels: i = i (as in litre). lc (construct of lwks) ‘To bite’.g for souwn. f. Of these 24 were borrowed from the Greek Alphabet. x. souwn. ou = u (as in ‘Truth’). z appear but rarely in purely Coptic words. 2nwmh. This is especially common in the construct form ang– from anok ‘I’. skantalon. the remainder being formed from Demotic characters to express consonantal sounds not represented in Greek. §3. However. sinarpa2h. it should be noted that there is a tendency for these letters to be replaced by other consonants.6e ‘The manner’. mou6 (muh) ‘To be full’.k. pwng for pwnk. cour for ksour ‘Ring’. g replaced by 2: e. tntwn. though they are commonly used in Greek loan words.g. akwra. rir (rir) ‘Pig’. k6. transcribed in Greek as σζ or simply as σ. for they are employed in Coptic both as consonants and as vowels. They are used most extensively in the Bohairic dialect. e. §4. The Coptic Alphabet consists of 31 letters. §5. i k l m n ks o (short) p Letter Name Value r s t w. d replaced by t: e. g. always appears in the form ou.mko for t6. yis for psis ‘Nine’. §1. peths. at the beginning of a syllable. u ph kh ps o (long) sh f kh (Bohairic only) h j g (hard) ti a b g d e z h q i k l m n c o p alfa bhta gamma dalda ei zhta 6hta qhta iwta kappa lauda mh ne ci ou pi r s t u f x y w 4 3 1 6 ` 2 5 - rw shmma tau 6e fi xi yi w 4ai 3ai 1ai 6ori `an`ia 2ima 5 sonant consonant Notes on the letters. e. ke6enna. In Sahidic they are used sometimes as abbreviations for t6. e. except in Greek words. A few verbal stems show the same tendency. p6. The seven letters derived from Demotic: (a) 4 = ‘sh’. z appears in an alternate spelling for anshbe ‘School’ as anzhbe. ks. y occur mostly in Greek words. v g d e (short) z e (long) th y.g. i and u are semi-consonants. nanou.Chapter I.3 (na-nuf) ‘He is good’. In a few cases g appears for the k of the 2nd masc sing suffix when attached to a verbal form ending in n. e. eiwm (yom) ‘Sea’.mko ‘To afflict’. At the end of a word the form i+ is usual. mise (mi-se) ‘To give birth to’.6mso ‘To cause to sit’. preta (Latin praeda). q. g replaced by k: e. e. This letter also represents in some words an original 4 . sxat for sk6at ‘Marriage gift’. and certain causative verbs. moung for mounk .g. As a consonant it is equivalent to a ‘W’ or ‘Y’ (cf Heb w).g.mso for t. v.g for tntwn. Letter Name Value a b.g.g. ps. and in the verbal prefix ng (for nk). d.g. touwt (twot) ‘Idol’.

4a`e ‘To speak’ (Boh sa`i). 3i (fi) ‘To carry’. e. Note: The original presence of ‘ in other parts of the consonantal root is occasionally noted by this doubling of a vowel.g. It frequently replaces b. Note 2: In some old texts n is occasionally assimilated with the following consonant if this is b.man4wpe ‘In the dwelling places’.ou ‘Theirs’. wi+. 6o3 ‘Serpent’ plural 6boui. 6ikwn (εικων). e. etc. e. e. e6rai+ ‘Upwards’. and the mere fact that no symbol for it was deemed necessary at the time when the Coptic script was formulated. 6eqnos. etc. Before b. showing that the old Ayin had finally disappeared.76m. 6isos.g. 2 alternates with `.baampe) ‘The goats’. e. peu.g. c). no2/no` ‘Great’. In Bohairic this doubling of vowels is no longer observed. The Diphthongs are formed by a vowel and one of the semi-consonants (two semi-syllables). 6n. 6amoi+ ‘Oh that!’. ouaab ‘Holy’ (old w‘b). The Old Egyptian language represented in writing two consonants which were not written in Coptic. e. r. pei+. e..g. 4w3 for 4wb ‘To shave’. e. 6wste. §8.p. oou. and vice versa.g. in Sahidic this letter represents four originally distinct sounds.3 ‘To place him’ from old *hŏ3‘ef → *ha‘ef → kaa. (c) 1 = ‘kh’ (Bohairic only.g. First.kosmos (for 6n. m. But in other forms 3 has completely vanished. 5 .baampe (for n. nau ‘To see’. 6elpis. nou3 for noub ‘Gold’.h (curved underline).g. e.6ht ‘Their heart’. 8 is used only in Achmimic to represent the hieroglyphic h (curved underline) and h. It should also be noted that although this letter is counted as a separate symbol in the Alphabetical table. ntoou ‘They’. it corresponds to the Sahidic 6 when representing the old consonants h (curved underline) and h (Old Coptic form: www. (a) With i+: ai+.g. e.g. moui+ ‘Lion’. transliterated from the hieroglyphic script as h. the presence of a doubled vowel. The wide field from which words containing this single form of four original sounds were drawn. e. §11. can be seen in that about one ninth part of Crum's Coptic Dictionary is devoted to words beginning with 6! In Greek words. 4wwt ‘To cut’ (old š‘d). Secondly. 3. Sah 2i` Boh `i` ‘Hand’.g.p.g. `wlk/2wlk ‘To stretch’. in Bohairic. `ero/2ero ‘To blaze’.g. (b) ‘ had begun to weaken as a consonant in Ptolemaic times.g. especially in Bohairic. Note: hu (old hou). e.g. eu. Note 1: When n stands before m or p functioning as Sonant Consonants (§23). 4wpe (sho-pe) from Old Egyptian hpr.laos) ‘The people’. ouou ought to be considered as forming two sounds rather than as a diphthong.gif). However. hi+. The original Demotic sign represented k. §6. the ‘hard ch’ as in German and Scotch. and h. `po for t. wou.4po ‘To cause to become. 6 is used to represent the Spiritus asper.maein) ‘The signs’. kaa.maein (for n. m. e. (b) With u: au. The Vowels are seven in number: short A sound E sound O sound long a e o i (or h) h w (or ou) h. pwi+ ‘Mine’. siou ‘Star’. e.org/files/plumley/plum-004. Before ` the letter s changes to 4 (but not in Bohairic).g. oui+. 6hgemwn. e.m-.g.g. e. or the ‘j’ of Spanish) is not used in Sahidic.‘This’. Change of Consonants: §10. These were the glottal stop 3 (Aleph) and the guttural ‘ (Ayin): (a) 3 at an early period had begun to alternate with ’i (y). 6olws. m. e. words beginning with 5 should be consulted in Crum's Coptic Dictionary under t. e4`e ‘If’ (Boh is`e). (d) 6 = ‘h’. e. p the letter n changes to m. This preference for vowel sound ‘a’ is also noted with some forms which originally contained 3. Also wrongly used in certain common words: e. as noted above (e). indicates that it had all but vanished in the spoken language.laos (for n. (b) 3 = ‘f’. lw`k and lw`2 ‘To stick’. Sometimes it stands as a contraction for t4. and as a result the old consonant is represented in many Coptic words as ei (i+). For convenience in reading it may be pronounced in English as the ‘J’ in ‘Joke’ or ‘Jam’. The others can stand in syllables accented or not. (f) 2 = a hard ‘g’. sa ‘Back’ for se (old s3). nou.metalog. to beget’.rwme (for n. ei+.g.g. §7. hi+ ‘House’. 6wou ‘Themselves’. §9. Note: ` frequently alternates with 2. iou. kwb ‘To double’ (old k3b). ouab and 4wt.3 (curved underlines). pwwne ‘To return’ (old pn‘). eiw6e ‘Field’ (old 3ht [dotted h]).g. e. h (dotted). e. 6agios. o or w always stand in accented syllables. (e ) ` is transcribed in Greek as τζ or τς (Cf Heb.g. oi+. l. Also. e.kosmos) ‘In the world’. l or r.rwme) ‘The humans’.nhu ‘He is coming’. sa3 (saf) ‘Yesterday’. h (curved underline). indication that its original presence was still felt is shown in two ways. (g) 5 = ‘t’. It corresponds to Bohairic 1 and sometimes to Sahidic and Bohairic 4. mhh4e ‘Crowd’ (old mš‘). In Coptic 2 often replaces k. the presence of the vowel ‘a’ where ‘o’ or ‘e’ would normally be expected. it does not change.g.

Note: Where two vowels stand together. e. etc.oun) ‘There was’.g. Chapter II. for example. meut(for meout-) the construct form of mouout ‘To kill’. nter. The general rule may be stated: An open syllable demands a long vowel. 6ww. For example.g. When the vowel ou is followed by the consonant ou. ouoein (for ou. becomes unstressed and its vowel shortens. 3. But note nou. wtp from 3tp.bwl ‘I will loose’. w2s.g.g. Thus pe originated from old pt vocalized *pet.th) ‘Fifteen’. ma6.th (for `out.th) ‘Twenty-five’. ta6t ‘Lead’ e. for the purpose of the tone they are reckoned as one vowel.g. —and many others. e.son bwk ebol (for a. e.g.g. eiwt ‘Father’ plural eiote. slbte ‘To roll over’ e.g. §16. And there are numerous examples of short vowels standing in open syllables. and its vowel the Formative Vowel. This accented syllable is called the Tone Syllable. sou. §13. bwl. ` or 2. a long vowel can stand in a closed syllable when it is accented (§19).g. oua4. soun.(for seou-) the construct form of siou ‘Star’. otp ‘Enclosed’ sblte. pa6. Note: An exception to this rule is when the 2nd plural suffix -tn is attached to a stem ending in o. e.‘With’ before nouns.g. contraction takes place. vocalized *hor → ho [h's dotted]). §20. but nm-ma= before pronominal suffixes. w regularly changes to ou.na. Note: As a general rule. mmw. The tone does not remain on the same syllable: when. closed syllables in a consonant. which reveal endings lost by the Coptic period. thus wp is derived from ’ip. moole ‘Bait’ e. Open syllables end in a vowel.3) ‘To desire it’. ran.g.3) ‘To fill it’. os6=. loome. swtp ‘To choose’. solsl ‘To comfort’ slswl. 6o is the final form of a word which once contained the weak consonant r (hr.g. 6o ‘Face’. These exceptions can be explained by reference to the hieroglyphic forms. Likewise a before ou contracts to au.ou. a closed syllable demands a short vowel. Occasionally w changes to ou after 4. erhu from ’iryw.g. nou`e (for nw`e) ‘To throw’.3 (for ouo4. §18. ws2 ‘To anoint’ e.g. `ou3 (for `w3) ‘To be costly’.g. mp. and also weak consonants which even though written in the old script had long ceased to be pronounced.ouw) ‘When they ceased’. e. pe ‘Heaven’ 6 .na. e.ouw (for nter.2w) ‘You will remain’. son. etc. 3. erhu. Syllables and Words. e. no2. In theory every syllable in a word must begin with a consonant .na.tn (stem mmo=) ‘You’.2w (for tetn. 4ou4t (for 4w4t) ‘Window’. 4ws ‘To be humbled’ e. This is especially the case with n. But normally.g. Short e occasionally falls away before ou.g.g.ou.bwk an (for n. Contraction of Vowels.k ‘To comfort thee’. usually the glottal stop or Ayin (§6). There is a very common tendency in Coptic to contract two similar consonants into one. sw4. Accent or Tone. tet. e. But there are many exceptions to this rule.g. 2ouna2 (for 2wna2) ‘Cloak’. tone on the last syllable. e. §15. opt. e. Metathesis is common. ne.swtm ‘He hears’. Before 6 and 4 when it represents the old h (curved underline). The Tone Syllable is always the last or the last but one in the word. Change of Vowels: §14. the word is augmented by the addition of a suffix. 3.3 (for mo6. etc.ouw4t) ‘They did not worship’. 5. cf also mn. §19. `ou. 5. Note: mn-. a contraction to a single semi-consonant takes effect. wp. But many words violate this rule by beginning with a vowel. pe ‘Heaven’. the tone moves further towards the end of the word.bl. e. the original tone syllable. w` from ‘d3.tn) ‘Yours’. p/t b/l l/m s/4 s/6 6/t 2/s swpt. e. a. sw.bwk an) ‘He was not going’.s ‘To break her’. e.ouoein) ‘A light’.bwl ‘He loosens’. After m and n. taq (tat6).g. o`.(for seoun-) the construct form of sooun ‘To know’.bwl ‘He loosens’. e.§12. tone on the last but one.son bwk ebol) ‘A brother went out’.g.g. ph.thutn ‘I will loose you’.th (for mnt. e. ne. kba. e. One syllable in a word or compound-word bears the accent or tone-stress.(for ne. e. The same change of o to a in words which do not contain 6 or 4 is to be attributed in most cases to the original presence of Ayin (§6).ou. the vowel o changes to a.u. Two kinds of syllables exist: the open and the closed syllable.3.un. which show that originally they commenced with a weak consonant. o6s= ‘To reap’ e. This apparent contradiction can be explained by reference to the hieroglyphic forms.na.g. mour (for mwr) ‘To bind’.ne3. e.g. e. e.tn (not nw. having lost the accent.ouw4t (for mp.g. in monosyllabic words augmented by another syllable the tone does not shift. §17.k pronounced hó-ok: ‘Thou also’.g.

In certain verbal classes (§166. trir. ‘Tunnel’.g. By placing a stroke over the letters thus b-. e. rwme ‘Man’. (Cf. a few plurals show exceptions to this rule. words are given in the Absolute Form. Egyptian’: from rwme ‘Man’ and n-. or Syllable Marker. etc. Likewise. 6etb. in which only one vowel is clearly discernable? How is such a succession of consonants to be divided into syllables? Fortunately the writers of Sahidic MSS were aware of this difficulty.khme ‘Black-man. patn.rwme ‘This man’ (from pai+ ‘This’ and rwme ‘Man’). They extend to almost all parts of speech. which passes to its complement. m. moste ‘To hate’ but mestw.e. meant that long vowels shortened. Three Forms or Vowel Structures exist: Absolute. have no Construct Form. the tl ending common in Mexican Nahuatl. son ‘Brother’ plural snhu.metalog. It must be noted that not all the three forms are necessarily found in all words. but if the vowel was already short. §27.g.6wb ‘Go and work’ as bok neg-er-hob. as has been noted (§20. rm-. 3. e.4a`e ‘Thy word’. Only a few nouns have a Pronominal Form (§38). swtm. as well as in the case of the Auxiliaries of the Verb which also take the suffixes. §26. m-.plural phue.son ‘To kill the brother’ (from 6wtb ‘To kill’ and p. §25.g. they have no Pronominal Form. so long as he fully understands that this is not in itself a vowel sign. Note: An abridged form of the Pronominal Form appears in the case of the Possessive Article (§50) which takes the suffixes.g. 3. When two or more words are placed closely together to form a compound noun or group. e. it is separated in pronunciation from the words which follow it. This sonant characteristic of some consonants is observable in modern spoken English. and Pronominal. e. 6wb ‘Thing’ plural 6bhue. sw6e ‘To weave’ Absolute Form. l. and invented a simple method to aid the reader: the Superlinear Stroke. i. r.g. Note: In Crum's Coptic Dictionary (www.org/files/crum. pek. and in contrast to the Construct it bears the tone.‘To build it’ but Construct ket.sooun. The loss of the tone results in an abridged form exhibiting the vowels in a shortened form (§21. However. the correct division into syllables is indicated. n. s-.p.3. chocolatl ‘Chocolate’ and coyotl ‘Coyote’. Vocalic changes caused by moving of tone.and totn-m-. 6mom ‘To be hot’. 21). e. The last two examples might be written in Coptic letters. Further.3. indicating the syllabic division n-. but it should be noted that the order of words is determined according to their consonantal structure.hi+ ‘To build the house’. §22.) For convenience in reading Coptic aloud.g. which passes to the thing possessed or the action performed.kot ‘To revolve the wheel’ (from skorkr ‘To roll’ and p. solsl ‘To console’ but slswl.‘To hear’. it either remains unaltered or disappears altogether. e. twrt. the effect of the addition of the suffixes is to draw the tone further to the end of the word. or ‘Tottenham’ (a place name) pronounced locally as ‘Tót-num’.k ‘To hate thee’. §24. and less frequently k-. e. e. 4wp ‘To receive.an ‘We do not know’ may be read en-ten-so-wen an.kot ‘The wheel’). e. trre. 4. §28. terpose.ouwt ‘Only son’ from 4hre ‘Son’ and n-. 22).g. The Construct Form is used when a word is closely united with a following word. ntntmnteiwt would appear as n-tn-tmn-teiwt. the student may use a short ‘e’ sound before consonants bearing the syllable marker. This form always bears the tone.6mot ‘To give thanks’ (lit.g. rm.and 6-. a. l-. 6ou-mise ‘Birthday’ (from 6oou ‘Day’ and mise ‘To give birth to’).swtm ‘He heard’.g.son ‘The brother’). or 6. Some of the verbs have only the Absolute Form. In this case the word in the Construct loses the tone. bwl ‘To loose’. rwme ‘Man’. whereas sa6t is the Construct Form and the Pronominal Form. the tone falls on the last word only and the Formative Vowel of the preceding word or words shortens. e. These forms do not bear the tone. and must not be thought of as similar to the Hebrew Vocal Shewa. 4wp. less commonly when it ends in s.g.g.5me ‘Townsmen’ (from rwme and 5me ‘Town’).3. e. 6etb. lose this final vowel.p.g. Construct. but pronounced ‘Tun-l’. The unbroken succession of consonants in Coptic MSS makes word division a matter of extreme difficulty. a3. as well as late verbs. Though the stroke is not a vowel sign. but it is in the verb that they play the most important role.n-. This is a feature of the Sahidic dialect. 7 . Thus in good MSS. 6wtb ‘To kill’. and is most commonly found when the syllable ends in b. §23.‘To kill him’ but Construct 6etb.rwme ‘To kill the man’.son ‘To kill the brother’. it is to be noted that this syllable marker in fact appears over those consonants which can function as sonants. Note: Greek verbs and other foreign loan verbs. skrkr. 4r-.mn-t. §21.p. Thus n-. e. and bwk ng--.‘To console him’.g. What is to be made of such a group as ntntmntenot. e. rm-.g. The Pronominal Form is that used with the Personal Suffixes. a3 ‘Flesh’.eiwt.and p-. The loss of tone. 4-.t.khme ‘Of black’.n-. Alexandrian’. e.p. The last two examples illustrate the tendency for a vowel to disappear completely. Nouns ending in -e which have lost the tone through being closely joined to another word. To receive grace). the three forms are always different from one another. 168-69).rir ‘Swine's flesh’. 6otb.ouwt ‘Of one’. kot. The Absolute Form is the Full Form and is phonetically independent of any other word. n.html).tn-.3. ‘Patten’ pronounced ‘Pa-tn’. pei+.rakote ‘Man of Alexandria.r-.p. tortr.tn-.

m-mo=. §31.na.) §33. auw a. e.a3ta6e-pe3 eiwt auw n-tei+6e aubwk epeuhi+ eura4e The old man said to him: Rise up and run and meet him.g. he rose up.g. The only punctuation used was the single stop (·) to divide sentences. so it can be difficult to recognize the originals. Catalogus Codd. 1810 (hereafter Z.g. In printed texts an arbitrary division of the original is made. e. ero=.: 6eirhnh trapuza anixe arna eti kelebin 5atrepei tihkhma 6enation 6ikwn 6ebrize ειρηνη τραπεζα ανεχειν αρνεισθαι αιτειν πελεκυς (an interesting example of metathesis) διατρεπειν διηγηµα ενατον εικων υβριζειν §34. §35. Plate V.k n-sw. and in this way they went to their house rejoicing. n--.g. As the name implies. e.5. Note: In Crum's Coptic Dictionary and in most Grammars.ng-pwt ng-ta6o3 auw n-teunou a3ou`ai+ a3twoun.. Suffix Pronouns. When the form is that used with Pronoun Suffixes (the Pronominal Form).g.: i\s\ i\h\l\ i\l\h\m\ k\e\ p\n\a\ x\s\ i+hsous israhl i+hrousalhm kurie pneuma xristos (Note also sros for stauros ‘Cross’. r--. p. these forms are attached to the end of various forms as subjects or objects: 8 . aa=.6etb-p. Greek words were spelled phonetically. Copticorum &c. In printed texts Greek punctuation is usually employed. I. Pronouns. pe`e-. dots have been added between word elements to facilitate parsing.kaa.338): pe`ep6llona3`etwoungngpwtngta6o3auwnteunoua3ou`aia3twouna3ta6epe3eiwtauwntei6eaubwkepeuhieura4e Transcribed in printed books thus: pe`e-p6l-lo na3 `e twoung. and s\ for both stauros and σταυρουν ‘To crucify’. In the MSS there is no spacing between words. kaa. auw n. in which the auxiliary and the verbal form are joined together and the direct object added by means of a hyphen. etc.5. e. The following short extract is taken from Zoega. Chapter III. In this Internet version (2007). Morphology. the hyphen is used to show at a glance the forms of verbs and prepositions which occur before a noun or pronoun. The Noun. it often occurs in MSS at the end of a line over the last letter and represents a final n. he met his father. Abbreviations of certain Greek titles and nouns are very frequent.g.i+ a\ = auw n-. also with a Long Superlinear Stroke: e. And immediately he was whole. e.rwme ‘And he killed the man’. As has been noted (§22). §32. e-.i+ an ‘And I will not forsake thee’ (Josh 1:5. pe`a=. in MSS no division is observed between words.na. thus the Construct form of a verb or preposition before another noun is printed with a single hyphen.3.k nsw. The double stop (:) was employed at the end of paragraphs. The Long Superlinear Stroke is not to be confused with the syllable marker. Punctuation. §30. §396). a double hyphen is used.§29.

especially after the verb `w ‘To say’. 2nd masc 2nd fem 3rd masc 3rd fem Plural Ending -t English we you they Description 1st com 2nd com 3rd com Ending -n -tn. mare. nm-ma.`oo.English I thou (m) thou (f) he she Singular Description 1st common -i. §38.k ‘To thee’ but erw.tn. e.‘You’ and nou.‘Your heart’ e`n.3 ‘To him’. arh`. n-t. na.thutn. used with a few nouns only. tn-noou. 6th ‘Thy heart’. e. (b) As subject of verbal auxiliaries.thutn. Most of these are parts of the body.3 ‘He wished to justify himself’ (Lk 10:29). pe`a. those marked with an asterisk* being especially common in Compound Prepositions (§272): an= arh`= eiat= koun= *rw= rnt= *rat= *sw= sount= *toot= ‘Beauty’ ‘End’ ‘Eye’ ‘Bosom’ ‘Mouth’ ‘Name’ ‘Foot’ ‘Back’ ‘Price’ ‘Hand’ touw= 4ant= 6na= *6ra= 6ra= *6ht= 6ht= *6th= 6th= `w= ‘Breast’ ‘Nose’ ‘Will.g. kaa.3.‘To loose you’. §40.ou ‘To place them’.‘In it’ (lit. rat. toot. the ending i+ is replaced by t. §37. e.g. eiat. e.n ‘For us’. Uses: (a) After prepositions. and not in the Pronominal Form.tn. moout ‘To kill me’. But when the verbal stem ends in a (§39n).g.3. (d) As the object of the verb. the stem ends in a consonant. (c) As subject of the Old Conjugation form of the verb (§180). lip’ ‘Head’ —e.‘To you’. e.g.g. n. Forms of the Suffix.m-. e. e. 2wou ‘To make narrow’.u (for 6ra. `w ‘Thy head’. a. e.is used.g.‘We were hearing’.s ‘With her’. -e is likewise omitted after verbal stems ending in o. ero. -se) -k -e (-te) or none -3 -s §36.thutn. ne. e. e.g.k.e ‘Thy eye’.maqhths (Lk 10:2) ‘He turned himself to the disciples’.3. e.e ‘Thy face’ (6ra=). rat. 4aro. otp. naa.s ‘He said it’. When the stem ends in a. this stem vowel gives place to the e of the suffix.‘To raise you’.k ‘To loose thee’ but bel.tn. make’.‘Yours’ (§14).e ‘To bring thee’.g.k ‘To raise thee’ but toun. the form . the imperative of eire ‘To do. 6ht.e ‘Thy hand’.ou) ‘To give them’. e`w. tn-noou.bol. the verb is in the Construct Form. §41.‘Without you’.g.t ‘Send me’.3 e. a. 3 com pl: -ou is the usual form of the suffix. 6ra. ero. §42. bol.ou) ‘Their face’. 6ht ‘My belly’. In its heart). n-t ‘To carry me’. e.oue4 tmeio. rat ‘My foot’.g.g.3 ‘To place him’ but ta6w.3 ‘His mouth’. It is to be noted that when this suffix is employed as the object after a verb.te ‘To give thee’.na. sound’ ‘Front’ ‘Belly’ ‘Heart’ ‘Edge. e. e. a.n ‘Our face’ but 6rh. a. 1 pers sing: The normal ending i+ falls away when the noun or verb stem ends in t.g.k ‘Thou art great’. n-.3. ta6o. ends in a vowel. -sou appears as the 3 com pl suffix after the verbs s6ai ‘To write’.3. e. e.k.t ‘To give me’ (taa= being the pronominal form of 5).ou ‘Their feet’. which must take an object. however.u (for taa. the diphthong au is formed. 6w. §43. taa.bwk ‘Mayest thou go!’. ero ‘To thee’.‘Thy foot’.6otb. ta6o.3 ‘He will kill him’. §44. 3 fem sing: -s is regularly used to express the neuter object ‘It’. (f) As possessives.3 ‘He loosed him’.n.tn.g.k ‘To thee’. Note: m-mw.t ‘To make me’ (aa= from eire). When. 9 . w.tn. taa. 2 fem sing: -e is attached to the stem when it ends in a consonant. e. kto ‘To turn thee’.g. 6obs.t ‘My end’. If the noun or preposition ends in a.e ‘For thee’ (na=).6ht.thutn. taa.thutn.swtm. To my head). When the stem ends in a or o. rw.ou ‘Themselves’. tn-noou and `oou ‘To send’.3. aa. twoun.g.t ‘Clothe me’. desire’ ‘Face’ ‘Voice.g.3 ‘He says’.e ‘To surround thee’.g.kot.`oo. 6r. the vowel is lengthened. a.sou ‘To send them’. being a noun or a preposition. (e) Reflexively. Note: Some verbs having a pronominal form with a as the final letter take t as the suffix ending (originally these verbs possessed an ending in t). 3.‘Your face’.t ‘To lay me’ (kaa= from kw).g.‘With you’.s ‘He said it’. e.g. 6ra.g. 2 com pl: -tn-.tn. and ari. ero. e.ou ‘To them’. §39. -e is omitted when the stem. e.g. ou. When the stem ends in a consonant.i+ ‘Upon me’ (lit.(thutn-) -ou (-sou.‘To place you’. the suffix takes the form -te. m-mw.

e.(old an.`w m-mo. anok pa.3 6ww.k tw tw.g.ouw4b. e. Uses. also’ or ‘But on the other hand’. n-twtn.te 6ww. §338).n-to.n pw. note the asyndeton.6e ‘You also do thus (lit. (4) To strengthen the suffix.g.g.thutn. e.s pw.thutn. (3) To strengthen the possessive adjective (§50). 6ww.3.6wt.ou an.s 6ww.e. The Possessive Pronoun.g. e.k n-to n-to.g. and as a result bears a more of less emphatic meaning.p.s `e ang-.6ht ‘My heart’. e.n-) n-te.eoou 4an.g-n-t. he answered).i+ tw. the Independent Pronoun can stand in its Absolute Form quite independently of any other word in the sentence.k 6ww.‘He (and no one else) answered’ (lit.k-n-te- ano.n nou.i+ pw.tn. anok 5.nim ‘But you on the other hand. The Pronoun of Emphasis or Contrast: 6w(w)= ‘Self. The Construct Form of the Possessive Pronoun. n-to.iene6 ‘Thine is the power and the glory forever’ (Mt 6:13).s tw.ari. e.2n-t.tn `w m-mo. The Construct Forms are more common in use than the Absolute. Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Person 1 com Singular 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem 1 com Plural 2 com 3 com pw.3. The Possessive Adjective. ang-.tn‘I.eiwt anok ‘My father’.3 pw.2om mn.s nou.tei+. Singular Person 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Absolute Construct Person 1 com 2 com Plural Absolute Construct ano.3.g. they drink’ (Lk 5:33.k nou nou.tntw. in this way) to them’ (Mt 7:12).tnn-to. §45. (1) To emphasize the subject of a sentence when it is a pronoun.ou tw.tn-noou.sou na.se ‘He will send them’ (Mt 21:23). who do you say I (am)?’ (Mt 16:15). takes the suffixes: Singular 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Plural 1 com 2 com 6ww.ete.k pw pw.4hre m-.3 tw.t.p.3 de a.thutn6w. §47.g.i+ nou.ari. I say it to you’. nto 6ww.g.g. twk te t.te bhqleem ‘Thou also Bethlehem’ (Mt 2:6). 6w 6ww. anok ou.tn-- 3 com In contrast to the Suffix Pronoun. nou. n-twtn. The Independent Pronouns.rwme ‘I (am) a man’.ou §49. (2) In the 1st and 2nd persons to express the subject in non-verbal sentences (§301). This Absolute Form is used as a substantive. pa.3 n-to.se. §48.3 ‘He found him’ (Z 294).n n-tw.n 6wt.p. He.s an.ou nou.(§14n) nou.3 nou.n tw. the disciples) eat.na.noute ‘I (am) the Son of God’.tn pw. a.u n-. e. e. §46.sou ‘Make them!’ Occasionally this suffix appears in the form .ou 3 com It is frequently used in conjunction with the Independent Pronoun. 3.s nh.k n-to.6wt. 10 . e.k de ouwm sesw ‘But thine (i. §50.

He belonging to the bride). rwme ‘Man’.1 com 2 masc Singular 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem 1 com Plural 2 com 3 com pape. Singular masc Singular fem Plural pa- ta- na- These are used before a noun with the meaning ‘Belonging to’. The things belonging to Nestorius).nte. which?’.g. The Interrogative Pronouns (for uses.3ne. The Demonstrative Pronoun.g. mort ‘Beard’.n-.3pe. la ‘Slander’. nim ‘Who.`w m-mo.3te.g. 6llw ‘Old woman’. which?’. pe3. pet.eime ‘Those did not know’ (Jn 10:6).nestorios ‘The Nestorian Heresy’ (lit.ute. 6ih ‘Path’. e. ‘This’ and ‘These’ have two forms: Absolute Sing masc ‘This’ Sing fem ‘This’ Construct Absolute Plural ‘These’ Construct pai+ tai+ pei+tei+- nai+ nei+- The Absolute Form is used as a substantive.kno.4eleet ‘The bridegroom’ (lit. This which follows)’ (Z 324).g.u- tate. nei+.g. e.g.t. and agree in number and gender.bir ‘Our baskets’.g. §344): a4 ‘Who. Nouns formed by the addition of the suffixes of the 3rd masc sing and 3rd fem sing clearly indicate their • Nouns • 11 .m-mau ‘Who (or which) is there’. na. e. 4te ‘Mast’.e.spe.s6ime ‘His wife’. ou ‘What?’. pai+ and nai+ being used in a neuter sense for ‘This’ and ‘These’. §53.s6ime ‘This woman’.sh6 ‘This which is written (i. pek. §54.upe. pai+ de ne. a6ro= (always with suffix) ‘Why?’ §56.6ht or 6th.u- nane. As the Construct Form is used to express the Definite Article (§80). Masculine and Feminine. §55. e. ouw ‘News’.ka6 ‘This land’.rwme et. e.une. te3.m-mau ‘Those servants’.6m-6al et. fem hpe ‘Number’. nh thr.3. o).ste.ei+re.3 ‘His mouth’. w.kpo. The Possessive Article.rwme ‘These men’. t(e)- Plural ‘Those’ nh.g. e. The Construct Form stands before its noun.tn-te. pai+ et. in order to express such a phrase as ‘That man’ a relative clause is employed: et.nai+ ‘He who does these things’. Note: The possessive article can be used with those nouns which take the suffixes (§38). Note also the following masculines ending in a long vowel: eiw ‘Donkey’.son ‘Thy brother’. masc hrp ‘Wine’.s ‘This one was saying’ (Z 311). But there are many exceptions to this rule. tei+. and fem nouns end in -e (-i in Bohairic) or a long vowel (i. toou ‘Mountain’. §51. what. e. p. p(e)th. pa.tn-ne. ou). nh de m-p. §52. ri ‘Cell’. As a general rule masc nouns end in a consonant or a short vowel (a. §58.kto.ou ‘All those (things)’ (Mt 18:23).n ‘Our heart’. Examples of fem nouns ending in a consonant are: ba4or ‘Fox’. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 4e ‘Wood’.m-mau ‘That man’. 4hre ‘Son’. tai+ te qe ‘This is the way’. n(e)- The Absolute form is used as a substantive.ro or rw. nen. 5me ‘Village’. 3w ‘Hair’.ou. melwt ‘Ceiling’.npe. n-. h.e. ouhr ‘How much?’. 6llo ‘Old man’. especially in respect to words ending in . e. pei+.nne. pen.u- These forms are prefixed to substantives. ‘That’ and ‘Those’ also have two forms: Sing masc ‘That’ Sing fem ‘That’ ph. Coptic recognizes two genders. e. Thus the following are all masc: beke ‘Wage’. §57.tn-pe.sne.

g.g.with the verbal form expresses a noun of agency.g. and is indicated in Crum's Coptic Dictionary by the abbreviation ‘pc’.6. e.s ‘Circuit’ (from kwte ‘To turn’). `ai+. e.khme ‘Egyptian’.eiwt ‘Fatherhood’. Compound Nouns. e. rm-. Note also: (g) eie6. 6am.g. Even with those nouns which have preserved the old plural endings.nou3e ‘Perfume’ (lit. 4l-6. is always in the Construct Form.g. it must be noted that some of the prefixes must be connected to their noun or verbal form by the particle n-. e.4wt ‘Trader’.bwwn ‘Stench’ (lit. §59.r. at. (c) 2in.‘Yoke’ nou6b ‘To yoke’). p. rm-. Although singular and plural forms are found.g. e. an.s ‘Collection’ (swou6 ‘To gather’). (d) at. Note: The verbal form can take an object after it.g. t. e. Evil smell).(construct of eiope ‘Craft’).(from ouwm ‘To eat’).klle ‘Boltsmith’. mane.6twwr or 6en. fit for’. e.taiou ‘Fiftieth’. (a) mn-t. §38) rwou.g. Eater of blood). mo`6. a large number of Compound Nouns were constructed. re3. Without to create it). s5. rm-. Note: The particle n.moout ‘Dead man’.4eere ‘The daughters’.and noun. value’ with the following verbal form has the meaning ‘Worthy of.f) with verbal form expresses nouns of action. e. Plural Formations. sa. which are feminine.rir ‘Swineherd’.‘Work’. (h) eier.w4 ‘Reader’.n-. eiep.noub ‘Goldsmith’. 4ol.4a`e ‘Saying. so 6wb.sont.4hn ‘Grove’. re3.libe ‘Madness’.gender. (e) Occasionally an. The prefix. Noun Prefixes.6to.in collective numerals.4e ‘Carpenter’.g. fem gender. abwk ‘Raven’ plural n-. 3ai.‘Place’ followed by n. placed before another noun or verbal form. (b) re3.beke ‘Hireling’ (lit.nobe ‘Sinless’.to form nouns of profession: e. e. Great canal). Suffix .(from moute ‘To call’) forms abstract feminine nouns. (f) Occasionally e. a verb or a particle.son ‘The Brotherhood’. at. The characteristic feature of the Verb Prefix in Compound Nouns is the presence of the vowel a after the first radical of the verbal root.3 masc gender: (from seize’). e.(eioor ‘Canal’).rwme ‘(Some) men’. §64.noub ‘Goldsmith's craft’. 2in. eie6.3. e.aba2hein ‘Glass blower’. e. ouam.(eiw6e ‘Field’).(ate before double consonants) forms. ma.la ‘Slanderer’. especially in describing trades or occupations.n-. 12 . Without to see it). 3o2.eloole ‘Vineyard’.m-. 6to ‘Horse’ plural 6en.3. The most common of these are: (a) eiep. §63.‘Man’ followed by the particle n. Note: This verbal form has been named Participium Conjunctum.nau ero.‘Use. Man of truth). sa. Good smell). e.g.4e ‘Woodworker's craft’.swtp ‘Choice’.g.g. re3.sno3 ‘Bloodthirsty man’ (lit. matn. This form originated from the old participle.n-. e. t.g. as well as a few words preserving the old dual endings (e. e.2i` ‘Handiwork. re3. e.moste ‘One fit to be hated’ (§249).5me ‘Villager’.n-. Masc Nouns: Ending in o form plurals in wou.g. speech’. When the complement is a verb it can take an object.pwt ‘Place of refuge’. (d) sa.and verbal form. n-. soou6.g.‘Fear’ (4la6 ‘Be afraid’). However.g. it is quite common to find the singular form used with the plural Article. with nouns and verbal forms.6boos ‘Cloth-weaver’. rm-.tako ‘Imperishable’. 4teko ‘Prison’ 4tekwou. e. e.g.3. e. a negative adjective (§101ff). 85).n-. eiero ‘River’ eierwou.rwme ‘The men’. sa. at. 6am.6i.to describe various kinds of workers. 2in. e.hrp ‘Wine merchant’. mn-t.nobe ‘Sinner’ (lit.’ §62. 6en.swtm ‘Hearer’. eier. spotou ‘Lips’. at. §61.n-. §66. Particle Prefixes. ouam. mai+. Verb Prefixes. `o ‘Armpit’ `wou. (f) 4ou.g. and still retains the participial meaning in expressing a characteristic.rwme ‘The man’. (b) ma. eie6.n-. (i) s5. when it stands immediately before the noun or verbal form. ro ‘Door’ (when meaning ‘Mouth’ takes a suffix. ou. Number.kime ‘Movement’.4wpe ‘Dwelling-place’. and it is to be noted that when used in a passive sense transitive verbs must take an object.eoou ‘Lover of glory’. in such cases a pronominal object. This type of noun formation is only met with occasionally.abwk.3 ‘Invisible’ (lit.rwme ‘A man’.‘Girdle’.4eere ‘The daughter’. n-. e. snau ‘Two’). e. Taker of wages).‘Uncreated’ (lit.g.g.‘Robber’ (3w2e ‘To kot.na6b ‘Yoke-bearer’.(stoi ‘Smell’).g.kot ‘Guileful person’. e. re3. (e) 6am.g.g.g.kwt ‘Builder’.me ‘Honest person’ (lit. mn-t. which may be a noun.(from m-ton ‘To rest’).s ‘Booty’ (4wl ‘To rob’). forms nouns expressing profession or even character.3. By means of a prefix.(construct of rwme ‘Man’) followed by n-. masc gender. distinction in number being indicated by the form of the Article (§80.(for `i n--.3. the majority of words show the same form in both the singular and the plural. (j) 6wb. e. and is used regardless of gender or number. Suffix -s fem gender: na6b. 4op.abooke or n-.and mo`. Note: 6l-lo ‘Old man’ has the plural 6l-loi. §60. One who does sin).‘Craftsman’ is used without n.o ‘River’ (lit.g. sa6t.mn-t.s ‘Reception’ (4wp ‘To receive’).is usually omitted before the names of cities and towns. ma. (c) rm-. rro ‘King’ rrwou. 4ou. kro ‘Shore’ plural krwou. eiep. §65. §5. e. 6am. s5.rakote ‘Alexandrian’.n-. 2in.

Note: 6ih ‘Rudder’ forms the plural 6ihu. 4te ‘Mast’. §69) sometimes shows ekote. 6ouht ‘Passenger’. Ending in t preceded by a long vowel form plural ate. Likewise `noou ‘Threshing floor’. 6ht ‘Lip. 6wb ‘Thing’ 6bhue. e. 6boos ‘Garment’ 6bwws. e. e4wt ‘Trader’ plural e4ote. §73. 2amoul ‘Camel’. 4ne ‘Net’. e. (b) -eeu. Ending in t preceded by a short vowel also form plural ate. Likewise besnht ‘Smith’. Feminine Nouns: Ending in e form the plural in hue. e. (b) h becomes ee in 4bhr ‘Friend’ plural 4beer. and so too m-la6 ‘Battle’. 6am ‘Craftsman’ 6mhu. kas ‘Bone’ shows the plural kaas. to4 ‘Border’. e. Note: sno3 ‘Blood’ follows this modification. yuxh ‘Soul’ yuxooue.g.e. `ise ‘Height’. remht ‘Tenth part’. 13 . Plural formed by adding -e to the singular form. (c) o becomes oo: e. Some nouns show a ‘broken plural’. Note: Irregular are eiwt ‘Father’ plural eiote. pe ‘Heaven’ phue. rm-. 4hre ‘Son’ 4rhu.g. mar`w`e ‘Garment’ mar`oo`e. Ending in e form the plural in hu or eeu: (a) -hu. §74. ape ‘Head’ aphue.g. Note: r-pe ‘Temple’ and beke ‘Wage’ show fem plurals r-phue and bekhue. 4om ‘Father-in-law’ shows the plurals 4moui or 4mwou. Irregular plurals are the following: Meaning ‘Flesh’ ‘House’ ‘Hoof. Note: A few Greek words ending in h form a plural in ooue. moueiooue) rmeiooue spirooue tbnooue or tbnhou tou(e)ih 44wte 6ieeu(e) e`hu `isooue §76.g. erht ‘Vow’. and 6o3 ‘Serpent’ the form 6boui. 6oueit ‘First’. But apot ‘Cup’ apht. 6ae ‘End’.g. Also `6o ‘Treasure’ and 6to ‘Horse’. 2erwb ‘Rod’ 2eroob or 2erwwb.g. ana4 ‘Oath’ plural anau4. barw6 ‘Camel’ bara6e. (d) oo becomes ww: e. la4ane ‘Village officer’.§67.g. Plural formed by moving the tone syllable is shown in the following: son ‘Brother’ plural snhu. Note: the following show a vocalic change also: abwk ‘Raven’ plural abooke. But note m-ka6 ‘Pain’ forms the plural m-koo6. rwt ‘Growth’. edge’ plural 6teeu. Note: `a`e ‘Enemy’ shows plural forms `i`eeu and `in`eeu.g. blle ‘Blind man’ plural bleeu. 6ih ‘Road’ 6iooue. 2me ‘Gardener’. likewise sote ‘Arrow’. §68. 6oeim ‘Wave’ 6hme. §75. ekwt ‘Builder’ (but see §70). Likewise amre ‘Baker’. 2erh2 ‘Hunter’ 2era2e. 4`e ‘Locust’. likewise `na6 ‘Forearm’ `nau6.g. barwt ‘Bronze’ barate. ebot ‘Month’ plural ebate. m-sa6 ‘Crocodile’. sabe ‘Wise man’. 6re ‘Food’ 6rhue. e. §70. lelou ‘Youth’ lelaue.g. plural snww3. ekwt (‘Builder’. 2wm ‘Garden’ 2oom. epistolh ‘Letter’ epistolooue. Note: The following show two forms of the plural: 4ws ‘Herdsman’ 4oos or 4wws. 2ale ‘Lame man’. (e) w becomes oo: e. 6atre ‘Twin’. Note: tw4 ‘Ordinance’ shows the plural tww4. §77. claw’ ‘Field’ ‘Water’ ‘Tear’ ‘Rib’ ‘Beast’ ‘Mountain’ ‘Cushion’ ‘Field’ ‘Ship’ ‘Lord’ Singular Plural a3 hi+ ei(e)b eiw6e moou rmeih spir tbnh toou 4ot 6oi+ `oi+ `oeis a3oui hou eiebh eia6ou moueih (mouheie. ame ‘Herd’ plural amhu.g. the vowel of the singular form modifies in the plural: (a) a becomes au: e. Likewise merit ‘Beloved one’ plural merate. i. ou4h ‘Night’ ou4ooue. which show as their plurals a6wwr and 6twwr. 6ourit ‘Guardian’.6e ‘Freeman’. e. ou6or ‘Dog’. 6alht ‘Bird’. sa4 ‘Blow’ sh4e. sot ‘Dung’. e. §71. §72. Ending in h form the plural in ooue. e2w4 ‘Ethiopian’ e2oo4.g. klom ‘Crown’ kloom. 2roo2 ‘Seed’ 2rww2. §69. 4aar ‘Hair’ 4aare. Likewise mn-tre ‘Witness’.

6ih ‘The way’. p.son bwk (for a.are used. ou. t-. Ending in w also form the plural in ooue.often appears for 6en-. Note: In the New Testament ni.pwt ‘Place of refuge’ (§60). Uses of the Indefinite Article.and q. The Article. t. With the preposition 6n-. e. When this begins with a vowel or a single consonant. e. pe. The Vocative is expressed by means of the Definite Article . ni.are used: (a) when the substantive begins with a double consonant or a consonant followed by a semi-consonant.g. te. p.u.(construct of oua ‘One’) 6en. 6n-. the form of the article is determined by the original formation of the word.libanos mn-. 6en.6bhue ‘The works’. te-.eu6or ‘The dog’. e.g. (b) When the substantive begins with a double consonant. te.g.become f.ou. With Abstract Nouns. Singular masc Singular fem p-. e.eu4h ‘The night’ (§16). Irregular plurals are: Meaning ‘Cow’ ‘Woman’ ‘Wall’ ‘Year’ ‘Hour’ ‘Cat’ ‘Fox’ ‘Ceiling’ Singular Plural e6e s6ime `oe rompe ounou emou ba4or melwt e6oou or e6hu 6iome e`h rmpooue ounooue emooue shows a broken plural.me ‘Truth’. t. In a truth).and verbal and prepositional prefix e-. ne. the second noun does not take the article.ne6. 4b-r. An’ ‘Some’ ou. ne.rhnh (for t.u. §80. e.hrp ‘The wine’.ou. pe-. ou. Note: When the first letter of a double consonant is ou.(construct of 6oeine ‘Some’) E.e (t. rsw ‘Fold’.xristos ‘The Christ’.ra4e ‘Joy’. p.4a`e (for 3. In a wealth. it is frequently used to form adverbs (§246).g.rwme ‘Some men’. §81.me ‘Truly’ (lit. pe. §87.g.ou.eiwt ‘Oh father’. n-. e.ou. §86.mn-t.(§3).mao ‘Richly’ (lit.g. e.s6ime ‘The woman’.and t.4al ‘Gold and frankincense and myrrh’ (Mt 2:11).son ‘The brother’. the forms p-. (c) When the substantive is a word denoting time. the first of which is functioning as a sonant. §79. §82.noub mn. r-pe ‘Temple’ pe.ourot ‘The rejoicing’. contraction with the article is usual. e. Sing masc and fem Plural masc and fem ‘A. te.rompe ‘The year’. p. Note: In carelessly written MSS 6n-.6e) ‘The manner’. ne- In old texts the forms pi-. §88. Note: Sometimes when the plural article appears before a vowel.asebhs ‘The evil doers’.boui ‘Oh generations of vipers’. §84. ou.s6ime ‘A woman’. With nouns indicating substance or material.ene6) ‘Forever’ and 5.rpe ‘The temple’. e. Likewise in Compounds in which the second noun is preceded by a 14 .eirhnh) ‘The peace’. p.oumot ‘The thickness’. q. ne. C296a).§78.are found. it loses its sonant function. The Indefinite Article. forms the plural ba4oor melate (as in §69) Chapter IV. Omission of the Article occurs: (1) In Compound words: (a) When a Compound Noun is formed by placing two nouns together. e. e. sbw ‘Teaching’.ene6 (for n-.swtm e.ou.6wb) ‘The work’. e. pe. alw ‘Pupil of eye’.rwme ‘A man’. pe. §85.asebhs also occurs. Note: e4w ‘Sow (female swine)’ shows plural e4au.rm-. 6bsw ‘Garment’.son bwk) ‘A brother went’. e. ou. p. 5-. The Definite Article. thus p. mrw ‘Harbour’ mrooue. Note: With verbal prefix a.ou. §245.wb (p. ma.smot ‘The form’. a.g.g.6oou ‘The day’.g. For use with the Infinitive. n.rwme ‘The men’. ou.g. 6n-.souo ‘The corn’.g.g.swne ‘The sister’.‘In’. 3. n-. e. alw ‘Snare’. But with other words the article coalesces with ou. but n-. §83.g. The article stands immediately before its substantive.m-.6m-6al ‘Fellow servant’. te- Plural n--.4a`e) ‘He hears a word’.`po n-. Likewise abw ‘Dragnet’. pet-. f.g.g.swtm e. Note: Occasionally before 6.

se.profhths ‘Isaiah the Prophet’.rou6e ‘At evening’. This construction had almost disappeared in Coptic.4n-s ‘A cloth of linen’. the correct forms te.mn-t.noute ‘The name of the only Son of God’.g.ouwt n-te te3. ou. mn. The Adjective. However.3 ‘A brother of his’.ouaab ‘The name which [is] holy’ (noun + relative clause). §92.mhh4e n-te. e. the genitive is as a rule n-.g.g. oua `e apa paulos ‘One (namely) Apa Paulos’. Note: After the adjective thr ‘All’. §90. §96.kosmos ‘All the kingdoms of the world’.qalassa and ne. before the noun of the possessor in the Absolute Form. n-.sek.pa6re ‘To heal’ (lit.p. both great and small’. eite 6oout eite s6ime eite no2 eite koui+ ‘Both man and woman.6oun ‘Inwardly’. e.kro3 ‘Guilefully’.preposition. the particle n-te. e. the particle n.ou n-. e.ou m-.p. especially when describing substance. ou. ou. bhqleem nte 5. mhti 4a. less frequently the noun and its qualifying substantive are in direct apposition.g. To give drugs). (b) When a Compound Noun is formed by placing a verbal form before a noun.6at ‘A necklace of silver’. ou. His bosom of Abraham).hrp ‘Wine-drinker’.g.p. (3) n-te is used when the noun indicating the possession is qualified by an adjective or a phrase equivalent to an adjective. e.baampe 6a. e. In the place of n-.4hre m-. §97. This is due to the fact that the old form of the language was rich in adjective-verbs. Note: When the genitival construction is used as an equivalent for an adjective.g. Note: The particle n-ta= can take suffixes. Their mouth of the evildoers) .4onte h 4a.`eele eloole ebol 6n--. thutn‘A sister of yours’.6al2.sa6 ‘There is no disciple higher than his teacher’ (Lk 6:40). ksour n-.6ht ‘A mild person’ (lit.noub ‘Ring of gold’ (noun-n--noun). e.ran et. and the initial t was mistaken for the fem Definite Article. §98.ket. hence a plural form ne. p. the initial p was mistaken for the masc Definite Article.abra6am ‘The bosom of Abraham’ (lit.4r-. Note: Where the word in apposition is a Proper Name. or by linking the two forms indirectly by means of a preposition. n-. ou.mn-t.2i` n-. e. e. the man of God’.3. (c) When a Compound Verb is formed by placing a verbal form either directly before a noun.maau ‘An only son of his mother’.sboui `ose e. eie. material or type. ou. (5) With the nouns which can take suffixes (§38). §95.asebhs ‘The mouth of the evildoers’ (lit. Definition in such cases is implied by the suffix. t.6ai ‘To be married’ (lit.6alassa ‘The seas’.4wrp ‘At morning’. the noun is without the Article. ou. hsaias pe. Note: The Greek words qalassa ‘Sea’ and qhbai+s ‘Thebes’ were frequently treated as if they were contracted forms for t. The oldest construction of the genitive was formed by placing the noun of possession in the Construct Form.p.mappa n-.rwme m-.maniakhs n-. ei ebol 6n.ero n. and always takes the Definite Article.kn-te ebol 6n--. §93. t. e.g.g. To make magic). which is in accord with the following word.polis ‘A multitude of the city’. The usual construction is by linking the noun indicating the possession to the noun indicating the possessor by means of the particle n-. Hence the form n-. (3) In negative sentences and questions expecting a negative answer. §99. Note: Without preceding preposition: sop ‘Sometimes’. §91.g. e. Directly: r-.).noute ‘Peter.u.nobe ‘The scapegoat’ (lit.6hbais. the noun does not take the article. the Pharaoh of the Bible).son n-ta. 5. m-. it is introduced by the particle `e. as well as the fact that even transitive verbs could express the idea of a condition arising as a result of an action performed. petros p.is used.ran m-.4hre n-.g.swne n-te.p. p.4hre n-.g. One who is sweet of heart).n. §94. (2) n-te is used as the genitive between two Proper Names. by means of the old Perfective Form of the verb— in Coptic preserved in the Qualitative (§141). Apposition. ou. For a list of verbs used in forming compounds.g.ouwt n-te. eite.6alassa and t. especially when the items are connected by 6i. Indirectly: 6moos mn.g. The Genitive. even though the noun indicating the possession has the Definite Article.n-.g. koun. p. n-. Generally speaking the adjective is expressed in Coptic by means of a relative clause or by substantives linked together by the genitival n-.rrwou ‘The kings’ (§66).3. ou.m-. §100.pneuma n-te. (4) In precise adverbial phrases.ouwt ‘An only son’. 15 .n-.moou ‘The water-drawer’. The goat with sin).g.is used: (1) When the noun indicating the possession has the Indefinite Article.ou. p.phue ‘The kingdom of the heavens’.u. e. p. e.noute ‘The Son of God’.ou thr.ponhros ‘All the bitterness of depravity’.‘Namely’. The word in apposition follows the noun which it enlarges. e.qalassa do occur. §177. §101. 6wb nim ‘Everything’ (noun + true adjective).g. or are they wont to pluck figs from thistles?’ (Mt 7:16). oude. noub 6i 6at ‘Gold and silver’.6ik ‘To bewitch’ (lit. mostly with preceding preposition. To sit with a husband).pe3. This construction is also widely used in the formation of phrases equivalent to adjectives (§101).swma ‘To die’ (lit. There are few true adjectives.t. (2) In enumerating nouns.rwme ‘The hand of a man.noute ‘A Spirit of God’. si4e nim nte p. e. The few remaining examples of this construction are the Compound Nouns (§59ff.p. Likewise r-ro ‘King’ is really pr-ro (old pr‘3.erw. To come out of body). rw.arooue ‘Are they wont to gather grapes from thorns.g. e. e. §89. e.oudaia ‘Bethlehem of Judaea’.

koui+ ‘Little’.ke. nei+. much’ placed after the adjective.`oeit ‘Olive tree’ (lit. The adjective follows its noun but is linked to it by n-. Comparison. eier o ‘River’ (lit. 6en.6oou ouwt ‘A single day’. e.ou`ai mauaa. Note: 4ire (masc) 4eere (fem) ‘Small’.ke. ne.ke.rwme ‘The man also’. nim ‘Every’. 4ire ‘Little’.g.tn. But Note: The adjective can also stand before its noun. e. But note that the noun appears in its Construct Form when it precedes one of the following Adjectives: o ‘Great’.ne6 ‘A little oil’. 6a6 ‘Many’. p.toou e. 6en. §114. Position of the adjective in relation to its noun.kooue ‘These others’. nou` ‘Lying’.g. bwwn ‘Evil’.g. §110. But note the plural 6en.rpe ‘One who (is) greater than the temple’ (Mt 12:6). §109. To denote that letters had a numerical function. and as such follows the normal construction used to form adjective equivalents. Concord. But if it is borne in mind that even the few true adjectives were felt to be in the nature of substantives. ou. p. in which the letters of the alphabet have a numerical value.eiwt ‘My father also’. adjectives ending in e generally form the fem in h.g. e.profhths n-. §105. though a plural form kooue is fairly commonly so used.p.g.ke. no2 ‘Great’. 3. Year of little). Sahidic writes the numerals in full.6oout ‘Male child’. §104. It can also be linked to a following noun by the particle n-. in the following table. and only rarely uses the system founded on the Greek model. Special forms of the adjective to express the comparative or superlative do not exist in Coptic. p. The comparative is expressed by means of the preposition e. 6wb nim ‘Everything’. Tree of olive). The Superlative is sometimes expressed by the use of the adverb e. §116.‘Other’ is a construct form which stands before its noun.oua ‘The other’.4lo3 ‘Shameful saying’ (lit. e.ke or tei+. ke combines with oua and laau to form the substantive ‘Another’: ke. This is always the usage with nim.nou` ‘The lying prophets’. rwme nim ‘All men’. Note. peto n-.g. e. 6ak ‘Sober’. However. 4a`e n-. §111. §106. §283). a single stroke was written over them from 1→800 and a double stroke for the thousands.oua n-.rwme n-.ke. e. n-. At first sight the syntax of the true adjective seems confusing and illogical.son ‘His beloved brother’. §113. e. 6ae (masc) 6ah (fem) ‘Last’.g. follow their noun and take suffixes in accord. But frequently the context alone can decide whether or not a superlative meaning is implied. Examples which may be quoted are: 4hre 4hm ‘Little son’ (fem 4eere 4hm).6ise ‘Much suffering’. §107.sabe ‘The wise man’. the odd symbol for 6 (see 16 .merit n-. 4r.ke.. e. p.rwme ‘Other men’. §115.ero n-. e. e.laau. own’.g. the apparent confusion is accounted for. It is a usage much less frequent with other adjectives. This is especially common in the case of no2 and 6a6.sabh ‘The wise daughter’. they agree in gender with their noun.4hre n-. pa.. pe3.g. e.g.ouwt ‘His only son’.‘All the world’.g.i+ ‘He (is) stronger than I’. 4hm ‘Little’.phue ‘The great one in the kingdom of the heavens’ is the Greek µειζων .3.mn-t. When ke stands directly before a noun and is itself preceded by the Definite Article or Possessive Article. t. 6en. e. noun-n--noun. This is the most usual construction.`oor ero.rwme n-. ke. pe3. nou3e ‘Good’. i. Saying of shame). p. bw n-.‘Others’.or ero= (§261).4eere n-. sabe (masc) sabh (fem) ‘Wise’.t. In point of fact the adjective is treated as if it were a noun.g. Chapter V. cf Mt 18:1 where the Coptic p. young’. The three adjectives thr= ‘All’. e. e.3 ‘His own salvation’. e.kooue ‘Others’. mauaa= ‘Alone.k ouaa. ou.oua ‘This other’. t.g. self’.g.thr.ke ‘This other’.ke.g.g.teleion ‘The perfect souls’. ke.yuxooue n-. In another time.mate or m-.sop ‘Again’ (lit.kosmos thr. §103.ke. 6oout ‘Male’.no2 dipnon ‘A great supper’. rm-p 4ire ‘Famine’ (lit. and neuter form for things. ou.g. Note: Greek adjectives follow their noun and usually show the masc for persons. bwwn ‘Evil’. The adjective is placed immediately after the noun it qualifies. pe3. ne. ouaa= ‘Alone.§102. ntwtn. ouwt ‘Single’.rompe ‘The other year’. o (masc) w (fem) ‘Great’.`ose e. e. §112.no2 e. Note: The use of ke in the adverbial phrase n-. ke. s5 bwwn ‘Evil smell’. e.e. alau ‘White’. e. The Numerals.oua.g. In Bohairic the Greek system is extensively used. n-to.3.ouei n-. This form can take the Definite Article or the Demonstrative Pronoun. ke. which is in the Absolute Form.ke. brre ‘New.‘You all’.mate ‘Very.no2 6n-. εν τη βασιλεια των ουρανων.6wb ‘Another thing’. Where masc and fem forms of the adjective exist.6bhue ‘Other things’.rompe ‘The year also’.ke. ou.dikaios ‘A righteous man’. it conveys the meaning ‘Also’.mate ‘A very high mountain’ (lit.m.kooue ‘The others’.rwme ‘Another man’. t.4hm n-. e.ke. Great canal). pei+. ou. 6a6 n-. A mountain which [is] very high).rwme ‘The other man’. Note: ke is rarely used in the absolute form as a substantive. pei+. 6oout ‘Male’. §108. True adjectives are mostly invariable in number and gender. as or apas ‘Old’.k ‘Thou alone’.g.

parqenos ‘The ten virgins’.t. §119.a3te ‘14’.yis ‘49’. e. Occasionally the tens were combined with the units by means of the conjunction mn.4e ‘300’.4e *with two overlines §118.g. `out.org/files/plumley/plum-049.eire n-.g. 6me.4e) sa43 n-. mht n-.4e yis n-. §122. Sometimes the method used to express the thousands is that of employing the tens followed by the hundreds. 3toou n-. `out.g.u.ase ‘76’. Note: There also occurs 4m-t 6wb ‘Three things’ (the numeral being in the Construct Form).oue (fem mnt.‘With’.g.4e ‘41. 11-99 were formed by placing the unit expressing the tens before the simple unit. and is in the Construct Form). 5 ten thousands). §120.tba ‘5000’ (lit Half ten-thousand) (§127).ounou ‘Three hours’. §121. maab. ouei (fem) snoous (m).t.no2 n-. 4omte n-. e.g.tba ‘50. `out. 6me. Note: 2is. 4mhne mn-t`out500 600 700 800 900 1. §117.metalog.ase ‘46’.a3te ‘34’. e. Composite Numerals. 3tou.www. e.3.000 f\ x\ y\ w\ r a\* i\* 5ou n-.4mhn ‘28’.rwme ‘Four men’.g.000 10.th) ‘15’ and `ou. `ou.th ‘35’. 10 hundreds).4o mn.4e (seu. everywhere t was inserted. 6me. e. Absolute Masc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 Fem Construct Masc Fem With Tens a\ b\ g\ d\ e\ e\˘ z\ h\ q\ i\ k\ l\ m\ n\ c\ o\ p\ 3\ r\ s\ t\ u\ oua snau 4omn-t 3toou 5ou soou sa434moun yis (yit) mht `ou(ou)wt maab 6me ta(e)iou se 43e (4be. e.tase ‘26’.g. 5ou n-.g.a3te ‘24’.4e ‘3000’ (lit.4e 3tou. sa43 n-. e.400’.4e ou(e)i sn-te 4omte 3to(e) 5e so(e) sa43e 4moune yite mnte `ouwte maabe 4m-t.th (mn-t. e.3tou. (2) with the absolute form of the unit followed by n.soe ‘Sixth hour’ and `p. The ciphers of a number can be written either: (1) without any connecting particle. §123. tmhte m-. making one hundred fifty-three’ (Jn 21:11).ase ‘16’.4e ‘400’. 17 .4e 4moun n-. mn-t.snoous (fem mn-t. e.g. mn-t. 30 hundreds). or (2) with mn. maab n-.4omte ‘13’.gif) and the use of the barred r for 900. and the forms `p. Note: With a3fte ‘4’ and ase ‘6’ following the analogy of mn-t.oua ‘51’ (lit 50 with 1).4o ‘7000’. The Cardinal Numbers. The hundreds 300-900 and the thousands were formed: (1) with the Construct Form of the unit followed by 4e ‘100’ or 4o ‘1000’.4e 4o tba 4omn-t n-.and 4e or 4o. s43e) 6mene pstai+ou 4e 4ht 4mn-t.and `out-.4e 3toou n-.snoouse) ‘12’.4e ‘1000’ (lit.(4mn-t-) 3to(o)useu- 3teu- oue (masc).4e soou n-. mn-t. Syntax of the Cardinal Numbers. maab. taiou mn. Note: The t of th ‘5’ coalesced with the final t of both mn-t. The single units 1-8 appear in the last form shown in the table (§117).000’ (lit.th) ‘25’. 4mn-t.4o ‘4000’. Note that 10 and 20 alone have a special form for constructing the composite numerals.oue n-.yite ‘Ninth hour’ (the noun precedes the numeral.4e taeiou 4omte ‘Being full of great fish. mn-t.th (`out.g. thus mn-.me6 n-. 43e. 3toou n-.sa43 ‘27’. snoouse (f) 4omte a3te th ase sa43(e) 4mhn. e.tb-t e. The numerals precede the noun which they qualify and are linked to it by the particle n-. The numeral agrees in gender with its noun which is in the singular.ouei) ‘11’. e. e.‘With’.g.t.

Fractions in which ‘One’ is the numerator. e. e. ra.rompe sn-te (or t.placed between the two numerals. linked by n-.oua ‘Each one’ and oua n-.4omn-t ‘Third’.mhne) ‘Every 1 2 7 8 qoout paope (poope.mou m-.`ouwt ‘Twentieth’. fem 6oueite.4ire ‘Famine’ (lit.3 ‘Last year’. The Month: ebot. snau snau ‘Two by two’.000’.ou. ou. 1/2 kite). e.2os ‘A cubit [and] a half’. sp--. e.kou`i nabot). 7x70 times).3w n-.4orp.4hre snau ‘Two sons’. ‘That which completes’. p. The numeral ‘One’ is used in two ways: (1) in the full form.ouwt h ou.iwta n-. e. p.me6.te..g. to which it is linked by n-.me6.me6. each one’.6in ‘Half the way’.6oou) ‘Today’ in such phrases as m-. 4omn-t n-.ouwt ‘One iota or one dot’ (Mt 5:18). Note: p. e. ouei n-. me6. and the numeral itself followed by the noun kwb ‘Doubling’ linked to the numeral by n-.e.sa43 n-.n-.g.g. rompe n-.me6. e.ke.sp-. e. and with which it agrees in gender. n-. rmp.4wl6 n-.oua p.which stands before its noun. `in. paape) 6aqwr kia6k (xoia6k) twbe m4ir 18 .sn-te ‘The second year’.u. 1/5.kwb ‘They produced fruit a hundredfold’ (Lk 8:8). ra. The year which commenced on 29th August (30th in a leap year) consisted of twelve months. Notation of time.ne3. That which two men make complete) and t. is used in dating events only.6oou ‘On a day.me6. 2is.6oou ‘Until the day’. when it agrees in gender with its noun.mnt. §132. sep snau ‘Two times’. But note re. The names of the months were: parem6ot(p) parmoute pa4ons 3 9 pawne 4 10 ephp (ephf) 5 11 mesorh (meswrh) 6 12 §133.snte ‘The two’.g.3toou n-. me6.s6ime sn-te ‘The two women’.pe. so that e. e.3toou ‘1/4’.p.6oou ‘After six days’. which has a plural re.rwme might be translated either as ‘A man’ or as ‘One man’.tw4. The Day: 6oou is the usual word. one day’. the numeral is strengthened by the addition of the adjective ouwt ‘Only’ after the noun.‘Part.g. a. e.taue ou. m-. When used adjectivally the Ordinals stand either: (1) in front of their noun and linked by n-. §125. Note: p.ta. e.entolh ‘One of these commandments’. Another word for ‘First’ is 6oueit. t. §130.g. 4omn-t n-. 1/12. p. §128. each containing thirty days. Note: te.ouwt ‘Single one.me6.br-re ‘New year’.g.43e n-.nei+. e.(lit. p.n-.p. 4a pe.mht ‘1/10’. Note: ouwn ‘Part’ sometimes appears in forming a few fractions. Note that the construct form 2is. Also note snou. pl ebate.g.te.g.u4h ‘The fourth watch of the night’. e.ouwn ‘1/3’. Note: The word for ‘First’ 4orp. e. It is widely used in a number of adverbial phrases.son snau ‘The two brothers’.sop ‘Seventy times seven’ (lit.oou (for p. ouwn snau ‘1/2’.p.oou ‘Since today’.n-. p.soou ‘1/6’.g.snau ‘The second death’. 1/3.4b-r 6m-6al ‘One of his fellow-servants’. sep-. or (2) after their noun. oua oua ‘One by one’.g. t.g.sa soou n-. e. e. Note: p. §129.mate (§69). Multiplication is expressed quite simply by means of the numeral following the noun to which it refers.kwb ‘Threefold’. Fractions. Note that the linking particle n. e.g. e. p.oou n-.oou ‘Today’. or by 2os.ouwm ‘Alimony’ (lit.4wp n-. t.g.§124. Sometimes the noun is shortened before the numeral.ouwt ‘One hair’. the construct form ra.g.is also used.before the noun.tba ‘1/2 10. pa4e n-.me6.pa4e n-.g. The numeral ‘Two’ generally follows its noun which is in the singular.ma6e ou.4omn-t ‘1/3’.oou ‘Until today’. Multiplication of one numeral by another is expressed by n.6oou ‘This day’.rwme snau ‘The second man’ (lit.sop ‘The seventh time’.4e n-.g. e. oua n-.is generally used for both genders. but the absolute form may also be used with the linking n-. ou. t. §126. e. sa43n-. e. etc. 2is. There is a construct form 4r-p. Note: The old formation p. p. ‘Half’ is expressed either by pa4e.sp. Note: mhne (always in the form m-. As this latter form is used to express the Indefinite Article (§85).kite ‘Drachma’ (lit. The Cardinals can be used distributively.g. The Ordinal Numbers.is not used.ero ‘The half of my kingdom’ (Mk 6:23).karpos ebol n-. t. though in Sahidic this is mostly used as a substantive and rarely as an adjective.rompe ‘Annually’.rompe ‘Next year’.g.6oou ‘By day’. fraction’ is placed before the numeral indicating the denominator.g.g.4r-p. rm-pe sn-te ‘Two years’. ou.snau ‘The second time’. rompe (rm-pe-) is the usual word for year. mn-.rm-pe sn-te) ‘The second year’.tw4 ‘The first commandment’. §127. Year of food). the toneless form of mou6 ‘To fill’) before the Cardinal Numbers. Also cf 2is. Year of little). These are formed by placing the form me6. the Fore-sail). p. or (2) in the toneless form ou.lauo ‘Half-sail’ (i. §131. Five extra days (six in a leap year) were added to complete the total of 365 (366). but in Sahidic the Greek επαγοµεναι is always used in describing them. 4a. ou. rompe n-. etc. In Bohairic these days are called ‘The little month’ (pi.g. though a fem 4orpe is occasionally found. ra.

Forms. sl-swl-= ‘To comfort’. m-. But from the time of the Arab Conquest of Egypt (640 AD). etc. a date which commemorated the most severe persecution of the Christian Church by the Roman authorities.rou6e ‘Evening’. many possess only the Absolute form.‘To hear’.g. e. thus: a. `nou ‘To ask’. Dating. §139.rompe ths tetarths indik(tionos). The Qualitative.p. Note: Not all verbs have a Qualitative form. which was lost at an early period (in hieroglyphic texts it is more often omitted than written). e. 6ote ‘Hour. e.ounou ‘Half-hour’). however.g. rime ‘To weep’. bel-. solsl-. mou6 ‘To look’. tntont (also tntwn) Qual of tontn ‘To become like’. tako ‘To destroy’ or ‘To be destroyed’.g.‘To boil’. e. e. As a general rule the masculine form ends in a consonant and favors an o sound for its formative vowel. moment’.sou. The Infinitive can express an active or a passive sense (§259). and favor a or i as the formative vowel. From the time of Diocletian (297 AD).g. The Qualitative is restricted in use to a few tenses only (§145). The Qualitative originated from the Perfective form in Old Egyptian. `w ‘To say’.soua (for n-. nau m-. e.3. the year was usually dated from ‘The year of Diocletian’ or ‘The year of the Martyrs’ which commenced the 29th of August 284 AD. e.g. Coptic possesses two fundamental forms of the verb: Infinitive and Qualitative.g. bwl ‘To loose’. The Verb. With the numeral ‘One’ contraction takes place. `raeit (also `oor) Qual of `ro ‘To become strong’. mou6 (for mw6. time’ (masc).(`ep-) ‘Hour’ (mostly with following numeral).ti. Meaning. the form sou. bwl. e. the ending t is attached to the stem. This is particularly the case with the Intransitive verbs. The Infinitive may be said to express a verbal action. often in these compounds nou appears for nau. note that the Cardinal Numeral is used. sl-sl--. etous diokl(htianos) basileus u\n\a\ ‘In the year of King Diocletian 451’.son a. The following words are feminine in gender: ounou (pl ounooue) ‘Hour’ (note 2is. e.meere ‘Midday’. In most verbs it has no special ending. 4ipe ‘To be ashamed’. cf the following compounds: nau n-. The Infinitive. With Intransitive verbs the Infinitive expresses an action without a direct object.sabbaton ‘On the first day of the week’ (NB re Th 27).qoout ‘On the seventh day of Thowt’.3. §136. this tax assessment was made every 15 years. e. e. which in Transitive Verbs passes to an object and in Intransitive Verbs affects the subject initiating the action.g.s ‘He comforted’.rompe oktohs ind(ikti) o(nos). Later it was also customary to use the Mohammedan method of reckoning the year from the Hegira (16th July 622 AD). sou apa papnoute ‘The day (i. In point of fact the Infinitive is a verbal noun and may show either a masculine or a feminine form. §135.t.g. swtm. bol= ‘To loose’. n-. the festival) of Apa Papnoute’. br-br. or it denotes the beginning of a condition or circumstance. §137.day’. n-. Construct and Pronominal forms (§25).sl-swl-.g. e.soe mn. Feminine forms end in e.g.4wrp‘Morning. This ending.(from shu ‘Time or season’) is used.sl-sl-.p. mike ‘To rest’. which is more often found in Bohairic. smont Qualitative of smine ‘To establish’.pen.solsla. Lesser divisions of time: nau ‘Hour. It is to be noted that it was customary to use the Greek numerals. But when the day of a month or a festival is indicated. But some infinitives ending in e are really masculine. or ‘He was comforted’ ‘He comforted our brother’ ‘He comforted her’ Absolute Construct Pronominal (for use of suffixes with the Pronominal form. `p-. 56e ‘To become drunken’.3. being derived from the 3 masc sing of the Old Perfective that ended originally in the weak semi-consonant w.nau n-.`p-.g. e. e.sou sa43 n-.`p. §138. §134. §39-44) Note: Not all verbs show the three forms. mise ‘To give birth to’.e. 4wpe ‘To become’ from original *hop‘r (curved underline). The oldest documents were dated after the various occasions of the fixing of the tax assessment by the Roman authorities. ta`ro ‘To make strong’ or ‘To be strengthened’. etc.g. It would appear that many verbs which have no Qual had also lost the power 19 . nau n-. all the necessary tenses of the verb can be formed from the Infinitive .g. 6wn ‘To come near’. e. With the help of the auxiliaries.g.oua) m-. though syntactically it is always treated as a masculine substantive.g. etous diokl(htianos) basileus u\n\a\ kai etous sarakoinon r\i\d\ ‘In the year of King Diocletian 451 and in the year of the Saracens 114’. n-. The Infinitive may have Absolute. ouwn ‘To open’ or ‘To be opened’.g. Chapter VI. early hour’. §14) ‘To fill’.yite ‘At the sixth hour and the ninth hour’ (Mt 20:5). §141. n-. §140. originated from the 3 fem sing of the Old Perfective -t’i. rw6e ‘To wash’ from original *roh‘t (curved underline). The Qualitative may be said to express the condition or state resulting from a verbal action . their original final radical having fallen away. ra4e ‘To rejoice’. e. Occasionally.

Sethe's Verbum. a6e ‘To stand’. but contained a weak consonant which fell away at an early period. 6moos ‘To sit’. 6oou ‘To be putrid or wicked’. e. These tombs which are smeared/whitened) . nhhbe. is commonly used to express a future sense ‘To be in the act of coming’.nhu gar ebol n-. In this grammar. Qualitative forms are indicated by means of the dagger (†).g. Note: nhu. In contrast to the Infinitive of Intransitive verbs.ouaab ‘The Holy Spirit’ (lit.6hgoumenos ‘For a prince will come out of thee’ (lit. which is then used as an Infinitive. A few verbs have lost all their forms with the exception of the Qualitative.`h6 ‘These white-washed tombs’ (lit. `oor(e) ‘To be strong’. the abbreviation Qual or Q is adopted to avoid confusion with the letter 5. and to familiarize himself with the various verbal forms as they occur. The following abbreviations used in describing the verbal classes should be noted: Abbreviation 2 2 3 3 4 5 3 4 lit lit lit lit lit lit lit lit gem inf Verbal Stem Consonants 2 2 3 3 4 5 3 4 Special Characteristics 2nd doubled 3rd weak gem inf 3rd doubled 4th weak §148. Mt 2:6) . Note: In Crum's Coptic Dictionary. s2ra6t ‘To rest’. the Qualitative indicates the result of a verbal action.g. e. 6loulwou ‘To be high’. and Spiegelberg's Koptische Handwörterbuch. e.tafos et. Meaning. Koptische Grammatik.g. Thus their Sahidic forms are in a section of their own (§170). Model: Absolute Meaning ‘To loose’ bwl Construct b(e)l- Pronominal Qual bol= bhl It is probable that all the verbs in this class were originally 3 lit. Verb Classes. Later he student can consult the etymologies given in Steindorff's. which is employed as the Qual of ei ‘To come’. Note: The forms with a doubled vowel after the first consonant (baabe.g. e. The student is advised in the beginning to work at texts with the aid of Crum’s Coptic Dictionary.) are especially confusing. He is in the act of coming out of thee. In verbal sentences the Qual can only be used with the auxiliaries of I and II Present and Imperfect (§187. §144.g. §146. §145. §147. It might almost be said to suggest a neuter sense. etc. §143. The system of classification of verbal stems adopted in this work is according to their consonantal and vocalic forms as shown in Sahidic. Verb Classes 1. e.to form Construct and Pronominal forms. it suggests the permanent character of the verbal action effected. Reference to the older forms is only occasionally noted. Coptic Translation ‘To double’ ‘To sing’ ‘To pour out’ Hieroglyphic k3b hs’i (h dotted) pnn Coptic Translation ‘To break’ ‘To gird’ ‘To divide’ Hieroglyphic ph3 (h dotted) hkr psš kwb 6ws pwn pw6 6wk pw4 20 .1). Evidence for this is forthcoming from the hieroglyphic forms of about 40 verbs which had become 2 lit in Coptic. §142. tamio ‘To make’ Qual tamihu ‘To be created’. namely a prince. In contrast to the Infinitive. the quality which it finally produces. 4oueit ‘To be empty’. moone. Class I: 2 lit. p. As the Qualitative expresses the meaning of state or quality. the effect or state produced by an action. bost ‘To be dry’. kmom ‘To become black’ Qual khm ‘To be black’.6ht.e n-2i ou. 3. Chapter VII. it can with the relative particle supply the deficiency of adjectives in Coptic. nei+. The Spirit who [is] holy).p\n\a\ et. sht ‘To be fat’. kiwou ‘To be fat’. although etymologically they are derived from various classes.

ou ‘To fill them’. which in their Construct.ou for mou. nou6e ‘To shake’. bwte ‘To pollute’ bet-. twpe ‘To taste’. `a6= ‘To smear’. 2w`e ‘To dig’. The following verbs presenting monosyllabic Absolute forms are irregular. swte ‘To redeem’. e. e. Note: After m and n the formative vowel of the Absolute changes to ou (§14). ta6= ‘To mix’. The majority of the 2 lit verbs follow the model bwl exactly. 2wpe ‘To seize’. (a) Ending in a: Absolute Meaning ‘To have pity’ ‘To go’ ‘To rise’ ‘To be beautiful’ na na 4a sa (b) Ending in Construct –– –– –– –– Pronominal –– –– –– –– Qual –– –– –– saiwou e: Meaning ‘To love’ ‘To be distant’ ‘To fall.g. `wte ‘To pierce’. Pronominal and Qual forms follow the model of 2 lit verbs. oua4= ‘To wish’. Likewise bwke ‘To tan (leather)’. Likewise pa6= ‘To break’. 2 lit verbs without a final consonant are: Absolute Meaning ‘To drink’ ‘To say’ ‘To cease’ ‘To suffice’ Construct Pronominal Qual sw `w ouw (alternate form of se`e–– –– soo= `oo= –– –– shu –– –– –– ouw6) 6w Irregular are: Absolute Meaning ‘To wash’ ‘To place’ ‘To conceive’ ‘To continue’ Construct Pronominal Qual eiw kw ww 2w eiaka–– –– eiaa= kaa= –– –– eih kh eet 2eet §152. ma6. Note: pw2e ‘To break’ po2= but Qual po2e (as 3 lit inf form). oua6= ‘To put’. 3wte ‘To wipe off’. lw2e ‘To hide’. show in their Absolute Form an apparent 3 lit inf form. Some verbs. the vocalization of the first syllable of 3 lit verbs is the same as 2 lit. §149. which shows 6o6=. w3e ‘To press’. with the exception of Qual. Most of them are really 3 lit in r verbs. Q bht. §150. nou`e ‘To throw’.g. mour ‘To bind’. Note: Before 6 and 4 (representing old h [curved underline]). An exception is 6w6 ‘To scratch’. 2 lit verbs without initial consonant (§17) are: Absolute Meaning ‘To hold’ ‘To count’ ‘To cry out’ ‘To be content’ ‘To intrude’ Construct Pronominal Qual wl wp w4 wk w4 olepe4–– –– ol= op= o4= –– hl hp –– –– –– o4= §151.g. light upon’ Absolute Construct Pronominal me oue 6e mere–– –– merit= –– –– Qual –– ouh(h)u 6hu 21 . kwte ‘To turn’. 3w2e ‘To leap’.It may be noted that. o of the Pronominal form changes to a (§15). e. bot=. nout ‘To grind’.

Class II: 2 lit gem. ‘To be about to’ nau mou nou Construct –– –– –– Pronominal –– –– –– Qual –– moout nhu [§152c.(c) Ending in i: Absolute Meaning ‘To come’ ‘To be satisfied’ ei sei Construct –– –– Pronominal –– –– Qual nhu (from nou. Qual 4oi or 4ai. Model: `w= (‘Head’) as its object. §152[e]) shu The following verbs are very frequently used. taking noted 4iai ‘To be long’. especially in forming Compound verbs (§177): Absolute Meaning ‘To give’ ‘To measure’ ‘To carry’ ‘To take’ ‘To beat’ Construct Pronominal Qual 5 4i 3i `i 6i (d) Ending in 54i3i`i–– taa= 4it= 3it= `it= 6it= to 4hu 3hu `hu –– o: Meaning ‘To cease’ ‘To sow’ ‘To put forth’ Absolute lo `o `o Construct –– Pronominal –– Qual –– `e`e- `o= `o= `hu –– (e) Ending in a diphthong: Absolute Meaning ‘To behold’ ‘To die’ ‘To be going to’. Class III: 3 lit. In this class should also be 22 .: Absolute Meaning ‘To pour out’ ‘To shut’ ‘To approach’ Derivation pnn tmm hnn pwn twm 6wn The few 2 lit gem words which have survived in Coptic show only Absolute and Qualitative forms. and are intransitive: Absolute Meaning ‘To be black’ ‘To be soft. weak’ ‘To become cool’ Qual kmom 2non kbo (Boh xbob) khm 2hn khb Note: 2non ‘To bow (the head)’ is transitive. 144] §153. as the fate of many of them was to become 2 lit at an early stage. §154. Model: Absolute Meaning ‘To become hot’ 6mom Construct –– Pronominal –– Qual 6hm The verbs in this class are few. e.g.

For example. Verbs of this class with m or n as the first consonant show the forms: Verb Meaning ‘To become painful’ ‘To rest’ ‘To become cold’ Verb Meaning ‘To become red’ ‘To become hard. 6ko ‘To become hungry’ shows two forms of the Qual (§141): 6okr (the old masc form in which the final weak consonant r reappears) and 23 .and tekm. Four verbs show their original vocalic form by the loss of an original medial consonant (§6): Absolute Meaning ‘To bury’ ‘To be bruised’ ‘To defile’ ‘To cut’ kwws (kwns) lwws sww3 4wwt Construct (Boh kes-) Pronominal Qual lesse(e)34(e)t- koos= (koons=) (Boh las=) soo3= 4a(a)t= khs (old krs [k dotted]) laas(e) soo3 (old s’if) 4aat or 4ht (old š‘d) These forms are interesting in that they show an intermediate stage in the metamorphosis of a 3 lit verb into a 2 lit. over 200 in all. tkm. A few verbs ending in e are really 3 lit verbs like pwr4-. the original t reappears: Absolute Meaning ‘To suffice’ ‘To weave’ Construct Pronominal rw4e sw6e re4tsa6t- ra4t= (§15) sa6t= Qual –– sa6t Three verbs show only Absolute and Qualitative forms: Absolute Meaning ‘To wash’ ‘To become sick’ ‘To happen’ rw6e 4wne 4wpe Construct –– –– –– Pronominal –– –– –– Qual ra6e 4oone 4oop Absolute forms only: swbe ‘To laugh’. Model: Absolute Meaning ‘To stink’ knos Construct –– Pronominal –– Qual kons Verbs with the formative vowel after the second radical in the Absolute Form are intransitive and show only Absolute and Qualitative forms. It is to be noted that the Pronominal and the Qualitative forms are identical. but have lost their final t. 4wwt had become a 2 lit verb 4wt with the regular 2 lit Qual 4ht. sw4e ‘To drag. e. by the time of Shenoute (†451 AD). It is to be noted that in the two verbs which have Construct and Pronominal forms.and 4etb. but quite often without.Absolute Meaning ‘To spread’ Construct Pronominal Qual pwr4- pr-4- por4-= por4- To this group belongs by far the largest number of verbs. m-ka6 m-ton aro4 m-ro4 n-4ot r4. §155. A Construct form to 6ro4 also occurs: 6(e)r4-. difficult’ has no Qual of its own.g. §157. 4tb. is used instead Note the Qualitative forms of the following: ourot ‘To become glad’ Qual roout. which is both transitive and intransitive in meaning. An exception is 6ro4 ‘To become heavy’. The Construct form is sometimes written with an e. the Qual of wr4 ‘To be cold’.‘To muzzle’. and in the case of 4wpe a final r (original hpr [curved underline]). §156. The few exceptions to this vocalic structure of 3 lit verbs of the pwr4. to creep’.model need not occupy the student's attention.‘To pluck’.

`na=.’ The rare tooute Chapter VIII. 6ra or 4ra ‘To drive. Coptic Meaning ‘To row’ ‘To roar’ (especially of lions) ‘To sail’ ‘To rejoice’ ‘To creep’ ‘To doze’ ‘To become still’ ‘To hasten’ ‘To dig’ erht l6hm s2hr telhl 4lh 6inhb 6rh2 2eph 2rh Note: `(e)l6hs ‘To become exhausted’ is really a 4 lit verb. they have not become 2 lit (§148).6kaeit or 6koeit (the fem form. Absolute Meaning ‘To be pleasant’ ‘To be fat’ ‘To increase’ ‘To be lightweight’ ‘To become many’ ‘To ripen’ anai 6tai aiai asai a4ai `tai Construct –– –– –– –– –– Pronominal –– –– –– –– –– Qual –– –– oi aswou o4 `ht Note the two common transitive verbs: Absolute Meaning ‘To write’ ‘To plough’ Construct Pronominal Qual s6ai skai se6sek- s6ais= (or s6ait=) sok= sh6 –– §160. §138). but is noted here as being the only 4 lit showing h as the formative vowel in the last syllable. Model: 24 . Verb Classes 2. show only Absolute Forms with h as the formative vowel after the second consonant. §160a. §161. §159. The verbs following this model are few in number and are mostly intransitive. They are mostly irregular in their Qualitatives. the formative vowel a in the last syllable. `na ‘To quench’ has forms `ne-. Two common verbs have short o as their Formative Vowel after the first consonant. compel’ (absolute forms only). 6oou4 ‘To abuse. like the model verb ou`ai+. A few verbs. but unlike the majority of verbs which originated from similar consonantal forms. Note: srit ‘To glean’ shows a pronominal form srat= (sometimes srit=). 4ma ‘To become lightweight or fine’ shows Qual 4oome. §158. which is more common than the masc in Sahidic) . The Qualitative form of the first of these two verbs shows this tendency at work: Absolute Meaning ‘To become wakeful’ ‘To be acquainted with’ roeis sooun- Construct –– Pronominal –– Qual rhs –– soun- souwn= Less common are the Absolute Forms roou4 ‘To have a care for’ and ‘To gather’ (from old twt) shows the forms touht= and Qual touht. Model ou`ai+ ‘To become whole’ Qual ouo`. These are snat ‘To fear’ and 4tam ‘To shut’ (Construct 4tam-). Model 4lhl ‘To pray’. It is probable that nearly all these verbs are loan words. mostly intransitives. A number of verbs show. a pronominal form only `na= occurs with the meaning ‘To send’. 4ta ‘To become faulty’. Class IV: 3 lit inf (fem infinitives. Both verbs originated from forms with a weak medial consonant. `ro ‘To become strong’ (which is both an intransitive and a transitive verb) shows Qual `raeit.

The verbs in this class are very few—only: Meaning ‘To shine forth’ ‘To be afraid’ ‘To be feeble’ Absolute pr-re tr-re 2b-be §165. As a general rule. The two verbs noted below had already begun to approximate to the 2 lit verbs of the bwte model (§149): Absolute Meaning ‘To join’ ‘To dye’ Construct Pronominal Qual tww2e `w(w)2e te2`e2- too2= `o2= pape-. ask’ ‘To find’ Construct Pronominal eine eire 4ibe 4ine 2ine n-r-4b-4en(t)2(e)n- nt= aa= 4b-t= 4n-t= 2n-t= Qual –– o 4o(o)be –– –– Here might also be included the very common verb: kim §163. The Qual generally shows o as its characteristic vowel. Note especially the following very common verbs: Absolute Meaning ‘To bring’ ‘To make. Model: Absolute Meaning ‘To comfort’ Construct Pronominal Qual solsl-- sl-sl-25 sl-swl= sl-swl . §162. ei4e ‘To hang’ Qual a4e. th2 `h2 Note: pwwpe ‘To knead. Model ‘To move’ kemt- kemt= –– ra4e ‘To rejoice’. Not only are they fem in their Absolute form. make bricks’ shows the forms §166. do’ ‘To change’ ‘To seek. the Construct has e as the formative vowel. o changes to a. papw=. Model alo= –– –– –– alhu matwou pok(e) 4obe –– 6aat= kn-ne ‘To become fat’.g. Class V: 4 lit (Pronominal form. and a appears in the Pronominal. However. site ‘To throw’ has Qual sht. but they further show the old fem ending in t in the Construct and Pronominal forms. The following only appear in this group: Meaning ‘To mount’ ‘To reach’ ‘To be lightweight’ ‘To swell’ ‘To flow’ Absolute Construct –– –– –– –– –– Pronominal Qual ale mate pake 4a3e 6ate §164. Note: Before 6 and 4 (§15). §28).Absolute Meaning ‘To dig’ Construct 4ike 4ekt- Pronominal 4akt= Qual 4oke Verbs of this model are the most common of the 3 lit inf verbs. Model: Absolute Construct –– –– –– Pronominal –– –– –– Qual –– treiwou 2oob Meaning ‘To change’ Construct Pronominal Qual pwwne peene- poone= poone About 30 verbs follow this model. and 6ioue ‘To strike’ Qual 6woui. 56e ‘To become drunken’ Qual ta6e. e.

‘To resound’.‘To roar’. oua6be3 ‘To bark’.All these verbs.‘To snore’.g. 6m-6m. The fourth radical has fallen away in all but the Pronominal and Qualitative forms. §167. Qual sbtwt.‘To become loosened’ has two forms of the Qualitative: br-bort and br-bwr. and ouostn. but krm-rm. ouo4oue4 ‘To thresh’. Note: Exceptions to this formation are n-kotk.‘To play a musical instrument’.‘To be heavy’ which shows Qual temtwm). 2o42(e)4 ‘To sprinkle’. have an intensive meaning or convey the idea of rapidly repeated action. §169. sn-sn.‘To become broad’ Qual ouestwn. thus sbte-. e.‘To become dark’. Class VI: 4 lit inf. §168. Note: kromrm. which are formed by reduplicating the first two consonants. Class VII: 5 lit verbs. 6borbr. §170. 6r-6r. Model: Absolute Meaning ‘To roll’ Construct Pronominal Qual skorkr- skrkr- skrkwr= skerkwr All the verbs in this class are formed by the reduplication of the second and third consonants and follow the model form. Class VIII: Verbs showing a doubled vowel after the first root letter (§146n): Absolute Meaning ‘To be insipid’ ‘To shine’ ‘To shake’ ‘To smite’ ‘To be hard. A fairly complete list of this class is given: Absolute Meaning ‘To mourn’ ‘To awaken’ ‘To chew’ ‘To kindle’ ‘To paint’ ‘To hate’ ‘To trust’ ‘To serve’ ‘To deprive’ ‘To dwell’ ‘To be at leisure’ ne6pe ne6se sabte sa6te lale (or loole) moste na6te 4m4e [6ooure] 2o(e)ile sr3e Construct –– –– –– –– Pronominal –– –– –– –– Qual –– –– –– –– lalwmesten6et4m4e6oure2ale–– lalww= mestw= –– lalwou –– n6o(u)t –– –– 4m4ht= 6ourw(w)= 2alww= –– 2alwou sro3t Note: sobte ‘To prepare’ is really a 3 lit gem verb (old spdd).‘To murmur’. sbtwt=. Verbs of this model are intransitive and have only Absolute forms (the one exception is tm-tm.‘To sleep’. No model can be given.‘To drip’. rough’ ‘To clap hands’ Construct Pronominal Qual –– aa baabe taate toote taate 4aare `a(a)`e `aa`e beebe meeue seepe nhhbe moone moone babw–– –– –– –– –– babww= –– –– taate –– 4ar= –– –– 4ar `a`w –– ee (Absolute forms only) ‘To bubble forth’ ‘To think’ ‘To remain over’ ‘To swim’ ‘To pasture’ ‘To come to land’ –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– hh –– –– oo mene–– manou= –– manoout 26 . Model br-br. km-km.‘To boil’ (note the presence of the sonant consonant). as the verbs in this class are quite irregular. tl-tl.

6ouwr= s. 4o`ne (Boh so2ni) ‘To take counsel’ (old stn’i). the prefix s.mamaat –– s.aan4s.outn–– s.ou`e- t.outwn –– s.ou`o t.b-bhu t.toeit (also k. Also a few verbs show Qual forms ending in . however.m-ko= q.m-keq.sabhut ‘Made wise’.oo6e s. Before verbs with 4.akhut ‘Destroyed’.contracts with 4 to `.a6w= s. This prefix is a contracted form of 5 ‘To give’.m-ko q. as the initial consonant the prefix t.an6o t.pie- `.mont –– –– –– s. e. go’ ‘To reprove’ –– –– –– –– sa6e- sa6w= §171.eit: q.g.piht 27 . Note: 4ouo ‘To empty’ 4oue-.m-ku q.outwn= –– s.ooutn s. often coalesces with the 6 to become q: Absolute Meaning ‘To humiliate’ ‘To make to fly. and less common.thu) ‘Made to turn’.before roots beginning with 6 and with their second consonant b.an6et. This was the regular method of forming Causatives in Old Egyptian.b-bet. Addition of this prefix makes intransitive verbs transitive. In Coptic. by means of the prefix s-.6ouort §172. t. Here may be noted: Absolute Meaning ‘To circumcise’ ‘To appeal’ ‘To bless’ ‘To cause to live’ ‘To establish’ ‘To chew’ ‘To bring near’ ‘To set up’ ‘To straighten’ ‘To rest’ ‘To curse’ Construct Pronominal Qual s.m-so q. Causative Verbs.anou4= s.ou`hu Note: A few verbs show the feminine form of the Qual. In a few verbs with ` as the first consonant.atbe s.bbht= –– –– s.m-soeit §175.g.sa(e)ihu t. (a) Formation with prefix s-.g.moo4e soo6e ‘To walk.l-o q.saeio t.an6hu t.: Meaning ‘To blame’ Absolute Construct Pronominal Qual `.b-bihu(t) –– –– q.saeio= t.a6ns.mn–– s.mou s. The prefix t.pio= `.msoeit ‘Made to sit’.b-bie–– –– q.b-bo t.bbe–– –– s.mme s. All the verbs in this class follow a common formation with but minor variations.m-so= q. e.w6ne s.m-o q.an6o= t.b-bio= q. §173. k.`a`e to 4a`e (Boh sa`i) ‘To speak’ (old sdd).saeiet.: Absolute Meaning ‘To make pure’ ‘To make alive’ ‘To make beautiful’ ‘To make whole’ Construct Pronominal Qual t.a6ou(e) s. Two formations of the Causative exist in Coptic: The first. e.6our- s.ou`o= t.mine s. l or m.g.2ra6t s. (b) Formation with prefix t-. from s.b-bo= t.aan4 s.pio (causative of 4ipe ‘to shame’) `. scatter’ ‘To make hot’ ‘To maltreat’ ‘To make to sit’ Construct Pronominal Qual q.a6es.m-se- q. It is the normal method employed to form the causative.bbe s. e.bbhu(t) –– s. §174.b-bio q. only a few verbs form the Causative in this way. and to transitive verbs it gives a causative meaning.l-o= –– q. and the second by means of the prefix t-.mnt= –– –– s.changes to 4 (§11). 4ouw= is a causative which has lost its prefix (old sšw). t.

to= `.moou sek. a form identical with the Infinitive form minus the final ιν or σθαι.(2ine) ‘To do. Q (t.pe- `.(ouw6) 3i. The prefix Absolute ‘To lay down’ ‘To beget.5 ‘To give (actively) ‘To wish’ ‘To set’ ‘To carry.)sthu. Compound Verbs.po (causative of 4wpe ‘to become’) §176. (t. make’ ‘To be able’ ‘To receive’ ‘To do first’ ‘To strike’ ‘To find’ 5.moou `i.moou 5.moou ‘To cease to give water’ ‘To draw (lit. (Cf also §90) By means of a verb in the Construct form placed before a substantive.(6ioue) 2n-. bear’ ‘To take (passively)’ ‘To buy and sell’ §178. §177. cause to be’ `.: Coptic Greek sunage pisteue 6ubrice aisqane epikalei Contracted Verbs omit the final ν: Coptic συναγειν πιστευειν υβριζειν αιθανεσθαι επιδαλεισθαι Greek plana kosmei aciou Verbs in -µι are treated as Contracted Verbs: Coptic πλαναν κοσµειν αξιουν Greek 28 .to (causative of 4to [?.has fallen away with two Causative verbs: Meaning ‘To make to turn’ ‘To bring to birth’ Construct Pronominal Qual kto mesio kte–– kto= mesio= kthu or ktoeit –– One Causative sometimes shows the prefix and at other times omits it: (t.g.g.(3i) `i. to fill with) water’ ‘To become water’ ‘To draw water’ ‘To give water’ ‘To carry water’ ‘To rain’ ‘To take water’ The principal verbs used in forming Compounds are: r.moou me6. Coptic is able to form a very great number of Compound verbs.moou 3i.)ste-.te`.(eire) e4 or 44p. e.(`i) Note: `i.(5) oue4.po= `. e.(4wp) 4r-p (4wrp) 6i.moou 6i.)sto=. C792a]) `.`.moou r-.thu –– t.)sto ‘To bring back’: (t.: ka. C595b. Greek Verbs appear in the Active Imperative.(ouw4) oue6.

4wwt na.pen.k naa. e. As the language developed.4b-r. 5.simwn bar iwna ‘Blest art thou. naiat.g.‘To be’ and mn.ouoein mnp. my daughter’ (S of S 1:15). There are also four auxiliaries which can express negation.r-. αρνεισθαι πλειν αρχεσθαι χπησθαι τειραζειν ευχαριστειν αιτειν §180.k e.p. God’ (Mt 19:17).paradidou kaqista παραδιδοναι καθισταναι §179.s na. which is frequently used with auxiliaries.k pe ena.g. to have pity upon thy fellow-servant?’ (Mt 18:33).n e2w m-.(e44e-) ‘To be befitting’ and m4-4e.baptize 6m. Conjugation by means of Auxiliaries.(me44e-) ‘To be unbefitting’. §183.na. also mio= ‘To be hale’.ma ‘It is good for us to remain here’ (Mt 17:4). the Tense of Habit. e. e. 44e a. even thou. Conjugation. (3) The impersonal existential verbs oun.u ‘The Lord says to them’.k an ero. §94).sa oua p.with Nominal Subjects and pe`a= with Pronominal Subjects (this form originated from an old relative form p3dd.g. (1) The verb `w ‘To say’. naiat.i+ ‘I shall sacrifice to thee (for) I am willing’ (Ps 53:6). ‘Great is the eye’.k ‘Hail to thee!’ §182.ka6 ‘Blest are we in our land’ (Budge.pek.in the compound naiat=.m-.e44e.2e n-to. e.6m-6al ‘Is it not fitting for thee. ‘That which he says’). e.p.pei.m-. §185. nanou.3. but these are confined to the Perfect. The few surviving verbs are: §181.ou n-.in statements and questions is effected by n.eiwt iakwb ‘Art thou greater than our father Jacob?’ (Jn 4:12). thou art beautiful. mio. Note 2: m-44eseems to be confined to negating relative clauses. It is always followed by the Suffix Pronoun. 433. Note: (e)6ne-.noute ‘There is none good except one.‘Not to be’ with following nominal subject.1). which agrees with the subject in number and person. present and future time.k. oun. pe`a.6hhte nesw ta.n-. tai gar te q. (2) The adjective verbs: Construct Pronominal Meaning ‘To be great’ (§183) ‘To be good’ ‘To be beautiful’ ‘To be numerous’ ‘To be hateful’ naananounesena4ene2e- naa= nanou= nesw= na4w= ne2w= E.`oeis na. n.e44e ero. the noun is introduced by the particle n-.g. By means of the Auxiliaries.e et.4hre 4hm m-. mn. mh n-to.pen. By the time that Coptic had replaced the older stage of the language. the Old Conjugation with the Suffix Pronouns had almost completely disappeared.g.nanon (m-).bal ‘Blest are the eyes’ (Lk 10:23. a new method gradually arose in which conjugation was effected by means of auxiliary verbs— with suffixes attached— placed before the verbal stem..k e6na. expressing thanks or greeting. Some Greek verbs present in Coptic strange forms due to phonetic spelling. §184.: Coptic Greek arna plea arxei xrw pira euxaristou eti Chapter IX. Note 1: 4-4e. an (§195).f.agaqos n-. ‘Blest’. e. a special 29 . Simon Bar-Jonah’ (Mt 16:17). When the subject is in the 3rd person singular or plural. In Old Egyptian the oldest method of conjugating the verb was by means of attaching the Suffix Pronouns to the Verbal Stem. Note: The idiomatic use of naa.pei. pe`e p.k ebol n-.g. eis.g. e.4beere ‘Behold.snau 6m.g. naiat.i+at. Durative Tenses.g. also shows a form pe`e.dikaiosunh nim ‘For this is the way which is befitting for us to fulfill all righteousness’ (Mt 3:15).ma ‘There is a young child here’ (Jn 6:9).ou. The negation of 4-4e.3 na.moou ‘It is appropriate to be baptized in both. Misc.s ‘He says to her’. e. in the light as well as the water’ (Philip 81).rwme ‘Blest is the man’ (Ps 1:1).n e`w. naiat. This is a contracted form of naa. lit.p.. (e)6na= ‘To be willing’.. Coptic is able to form all the tenses needed to express affirmative verbal action in past. e.g.

The form ‘5.`w m-mo. The name Durative is applied to these tenses in that they have no reference to a definite temporal standpoint.3. In the written language. §186.swtm- e. ‘Come with me.swtm.s’ is impossible. departure from the normal stress was indicated at the beginning of the sentence by means of the Second Tenses.3.profhths fulfilled.p. etc.2a26 n-. e. The tense or complete verbal group consists of three parts: (1) The auxiliary.na.3to him?’ (Lk 17:8) §187.) ‘There the weeping and gnashing of teeth will happen. (2) The subject (noun or pronoun).6r-. This is understandable when the essential nature of the Qualitative is considered (§143. verbal form. and the tense of Unfulfilled Action.swtmn-ta.u `e sobte m. In this grammar the names Durative and Limitative are adopted.J. in independent statements. e. to say ‘I am saying it’.4a.`oeis `oo.a.s an na. a. (b) As in English. The Narrative Tenses can be divided into two main groups.3. that is to say. stress on: Interrogative Adverb etwn II Future.g. they indicate a durative process without fixed limits in time. 30 . future or habitually repeated (§199). a.form of the Future. a. Two important facts about the Durative Tenses must be noted: (1) They alone can use the Qualitative.na.swtm4a.: II Present. (3) The verbal form. i.s ‘I said it’ (§328).‘He hears’.g.3.na. p. for it is quite clear that II Tenses are by no means secondary or subordinate. Imperfect and Circumstantial.g. since the eye is the sole guide to interpretation.i.3.3. Polotsky (Études de Syntaxe Copte.`w m-mo.ob6e ‘Young man. distinguished by the names ‘First’ and ‘Second’ Tenses.: I Tense Present Perfect Habitude Future II Tense 3.rwme swtm‘The man hears’.na. (2) They cannot take a Direct Object. stress on: Final Clause introduced by `ekas II Habitude.g.p.bhk etwn e. it may also include the Indirect Object or Dative introduced by n. Dr H.s. except where vocal intonation indicates otherwise. 1944) has convincingly demonstrated that the use of II Tenses indicates that a special stress is to be expected on the Adverbial Extension. Coptic must write 5.‘The man heard’. e.g.k.) The Adverbial Extension may be a real adverb (§281) or its equivalent. The most striking feature of Coptic is its possession of two forms of the Auxiliaries. Under the group Durative appear the Present.p.4wpe m-mau n-2i p. Thus.3.ouom. (But there are many examples in which II Tenses are used where no Adverbial Extension is present. 145).2.n-. in that they appear in main sentences.‘He heard’. 3. By comparing Coptic translations with Greek originals. i.’ (Mt 1:22) ‘Prepare that which I shall eat! Is it that which he is wont to say mh e.rwme na.e. the Construct and Pronominal forms of the Infinitive cannot be used. Forms of the Auxiliaries.`oo.pe.g. stress on: na. the Limitative Tenses indicate a fixed standpoint in time: past.3.na. or even direct speech introduced by the particle `e (in origin an infinitive introduced by a preposition rdd ‘To say’). an adverbial phrase formed by means of a preposition followed by a noun or pronoun (§282ff).4ire e.e.s na.3 6itm. It is doubtful whether all these exceptions to the general rule can be dismissed as improper uses.3. and in questions. ‘Whither are you going?’.swtme. or it may be an Adverbial Clause introduced by a conjunction (§369ff).`oo.3. stress on: the adverb m-mau II Perfect. indirect object or adverb (§318). In contrast.swtm3.swtma. ‘To you is this order given’. said the man’. this position is important.`oo.swtm.k II Present. However. Durative and Limitative Tenses. Coptic preferred to keep its normal word order: auxiliary.swtm- (a) The existence of two sets for each tense presupposes that each form possesses separate syntactical functions.3 n-ta.4wpe `ekas e. First and Second Tenses. the normal position of emphasis is at the beginning of the sentence.5. this happened to us’. ‘Today I shall do this’.k twounge. though with the Limitative Tenses such a form is the normal usage.k ebol ‘It was so that that which the Lord said by the prophet might be n2i penta.swtm. subject. E.‘The man will hear’.4a.swtm.rime mn-.3. p. object.(§263).pe.e`w. in which the subject stands first without any preceding auxiliary. to thee I say: Arise!‘ (Lk 7:14) ‘Whither art thou going?’ (Z 318. stress on: direct speech introduced by `e p. They represent an action or state which is in the process of being achieved. 3.rwme swtm. e.’ (Mt 22:13) pai de thr.‘He will hear’. ‘Because you were absent.swtme. e. Cairo. Exceptions to this order are I Present (§189) and I Future (§209). that all this happened.

3).3ne.s- e..ouw4 e.g..`oeis ‘But in the law of the Lord is his desire’ (Ps 1:2).6ou m-mo.pe. alla ere.5.kne.3e.p\n\a\ ni3e e.ma et.p.3 e. pe`a..g.ie.ouw4 4oop 6m-. e.. the context alone indicating a question which would be expressed vocally by tone of voice.bhk etwn. pe`a.ke. ‘while/as x happens’ Circumstantial* 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Nom I Tense (§197) Negation (§198) e.6wb nim ‘Godliness is stronger than all things’ (Wisd 10:12).a.sa6 ‘There is not (a) disciple higher than his teacher’ (Lk 6:40). §189.rime ‘Why dost thou (f.rene.a. §190.rwme nhu 6i.) weep?’ (Z 339.in negation). a6rw. the I Present occurs: (a) in Oaths.tetn-e. Like the I Present. e.meeue n-. (b) in Questions. k. tenou tn-.e..3-.g.uere- Imperfect 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Nom Duration complete. Durative Tenses Present 1 common 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Nominative I Tense (§189) Duration continues.. Accordingly.nomos m.3.s- ne.noute `oor e.mn-t.2). §341ff). pe.tetn-(n--) .`oeis ‘As the Lord liveth’ (Ruth 3:13.p.n-e.ie.. When the Nominal Subject is undefined or has the Indefinite Article. k.3 `e e.1.ke.8). 3.auw k-.ou te.snhu ‘He says to them: Whither are you going? He says: To instruct the brothers am I going!’ (Z 318. e.ree.. an e.oua4.ne.ine.g.bhk e.s- e.a.swtm. As the name suggests. but with the difference that the main stress in the sentence is laid on the Adverbial Extension (§186). an e.§188. §192.i e.ne.x\s\ ‘Dost thou wish to see the Christ?’ (Z 306. e.tetn-. oun.n-. and thou art hearing its sound’ (Jn 3:8).ree. this tense is widely used in Questions where the Interrogative does not stand at the beginning of the sentence. ‘x was happening’ I Tense (§194) Negation (§196) ne.eime `e k. I Present.ou.pe3.6wb nim ‘Now we perceive that thou art understanding everything’ (Jn 16:30).unereDependent clause. mn. an ne.p. §184. Note: Though in Sahidic the forms 31 .nau e.on6 n-2i p.pe3.4tr-twr ‘Why are you troubled?’ (Mk 5:39). ‘x is happening’ II Tense* (§192) Negation (§193) 5kte3s–– tn-tetn-se- e. e.k. II Present.smh ‘The spirit (wind) blows to the place which it wishes.n-.sooun. the principle use of this tense is to express present time in narrative.3e.(mn. and (ii) very often without an introductory Interrogative.nne. §191.sboui `ose e.uere- *NB: The II Present and Circumstantial Tenses have identical forms but differing functions. Besides its use in narrative.i ‘There is a man coming after me’ (Jn 1:30). e.tetn-n-. etbe. (i) introduced by an Interrogative.b. 197.3 na. see §192n.tn. this tense carries the sense of present action.me m-mo. t.g.g. Z 292.i.6oue nai+ ‘Dost thou love me more than [you love] these?’ (Jn 21:15).pa. it must be introduced by the Impersonal verb oun-.te3.

sw an ‘For John came neither eating or drinking’ (Mt 11:19).e.s.ilh\m\ ‘His parents were going every year to Jerusalem’ (Lk 2:41).g. ne.pe. §193b. ne.me 4oop an 6rai+ n-.sbw ‘I was sitting daily in the temple teaching’ (Mt 26:55).moos m-. and in Non-Verbal sentences with Adverbial Predicate.‘The truth is not existing in us’ (I-Jn 1:8). nek.e3it. Negation of II Present.p.pa.n. Note: Before a Nominal Subject. e.pe.soi de et.ke. it must not be regarded as the equivalent of the Greek Imperfect.ro 4otm ‘The doors being shut’ (Jn 20:19).5. a=.sht ‘He saw the Spirit of God coming down’ (Mt 3:16).3.3.maqhths de se.is used in verbal sentences.3. §193.g.bl-le pe 6moos 6atn-.n-. §197a.e. m-p.3. ne.de oube.mhne pe 6m. e. In both Greek and English it would correspond to a participle or a temporal sentence introduced by ‘While’ or ‘As’.g. thou dost not see it’ (Mt 7:3).g.n-.3.p. e.p. n-. Note 1: nbefore p becomes m.6e ero.ou.ouw4 gar an pe e.mhh4e thr. e. Bohairic distinguishes between II Present and Circumstantial thus: II Present are-.g-.q.6wb ‘She ceased to speak with her about this matter’ (Ruth 1:18). the only difference being that the verbal prefix e. in formation this tense is the same as II Present..g.ou.p.erhu ‘For they were in enmity with one another’ (Lk 23:12). The Circumstantial is used after verbs expressing cessation.ne3.eiote de bhk pe tr-.3. naiat.laos 4lhl ‘The whole concourse of the people were praying’ (Lk 1:10).u.ou e.eiwt ‘But they were beckoning to his father’ (Lk 1:62).`wrm.(§2n).moo4e 6n-.b.`e. ere. §197.e.6elpis ‘Blessed is the man while his hope is in the name of the Lord’.rwme e. a. e=. Circumstantial ere-.3. the auxiliary appears in two forms.m-.pe. Note: As in the case of the Present (§190).pe3.= ‘Was (i.is not infrequently omitted before I Present.nhsteue an ‘But thy disciples.6l-lo 6m-.6ih ‘There was a blind man sitting by the road’ (Lk 18:35). ere. Though this tense is designated ‘Imperfect’ in Coptic grammatical treatises. p.ri a. §196. It might more exactly be compared to the English Historic or Graphic Present. e.nai+ gar ta6e an n-.n-. I am not asking (of Thee)’ (Jn 17:15).marqa ‘But Jesus was loving Martha’ (Jn 11:5). a.g.. 32 .7). for their syntactical functions are quite distinct from one another.n-kotk ‘He found them sleeping’ (Mt 26:40).neu.ran m-. or the 3rd Person represented by the Existential Particle pe. Note 2: n.laau ere.meeue ero.3 ‘As he was sitting in his cell. Its function as a tense is to describe a durative action or state which is now regarded as having been completed.pai+ e.6oou oude te.6ate pe n-. a.6m-.n-.3.(for ne. e. nere.4).oudaia ‘For he was not wishing to walk in Judaea’ (Jn 7:1). a. to introduce a second verb which is usually expressed in English by a participle or an infinitive.g.te. This follows the model of Negation of the Present. e.3 m-. As has been noted (§192n).o an n-. 5.g.p\n\a\ m-. an: §193a.6moos 6n.ou.g. while he lives)’ (Z 342.un.tetn-. e.soon an m-. The Circumstantial.3. e.6oun 4aro.u. when the Nominal Subject is undefined or has the Indefinite Article.snhu gar pisteue an ero.samariths ‘I being a woman of Samaria’ (Jn 4:9).`e nai+ e.rompe e.is omitted (§12).is used in Non-Verbal sentences with Nominal Predicate in which the subject is either the 1st or 2nd Person Pronoun.swtm. e. §194.ne. e. a wolf came to him’ (Z 334.r-.g.p.ne.g.ouon nim ‘His life does not resemble that of everyone’ (Wisd 2:15). nere.s. The Circumstantial clause may precede the main sentence. the negative appears as n.bal n. these (men) are not drunken’ (Acts 2:15).of the II Present are the same as the Circumstantial. n.i\s\ de me m-..kosmos ‘That thou mayest take them out of the world.3. they do not fast’ (Mk 2:18).pek. But as a rule the first particle n.s e.e m-.3 ‘He was not understanding’ (Jn 2:9).swtm.ei.= ‘He is hearing’. e. m-.. e. the Circumstantial has no tense. There is no special Negative Auxiliary.e n-.oun-) ou.3-. e.mnt.4lhl ‘He said this (while) praying’ (Lk 18:11).5..3.unou ‘You are not knowing the day or the hour’ (Mt 25:13).ang.sa3 ‘It (the river) was flowing in the manner of yesterday’ (Josh 4:18). As a general rule ere.. n-.tetn-.rpe e. 3 or s.or e-.a.ouwn an oude e. The Imperfect.4oop gar 6n-. te or ne. an. e.3. Sometimes the Existential Particle pe appears after the verbal form.p.twtne.swma ‘Do not tell this to anyone while the old man is in the body (i. n-.3.e n-.u. the Impersonal Verb must be used.t. e. Negation of the Imperfect.ou ebol 6m-. n-.ouwn4 (for a.rwme ‘I am not become as the rest of men’ (Lk 18:11). now completed) he is hearing’ = ‘He was hearing’.g.p.ei gar n-2i i+w6annhs e.s6ime n-. e. Negation of Circumstantial. It is used in dependent clauses to amplify the main sentence.s ‘In the way which you are thinking.`a`e mn. Strictly speaking.lo e.s an ‘The beam which is in thine eye.nhu e.g. a.q. but ne.p.g. n.pe.swtman ‘He does not hear’.k.pei+.re. n.seeme n-.6ht. §16) ei e.`oeis pe te3.ke.precedes the negative particle n-. §195. Negation of I Present. Negation of the Present.i+.q. nere.nau ero.3-. §198.g.p. nere. e. ne.te3. ne.bios eine an m-. negation is effected by means of the particles n.sops an de e.ouwn4. And when followed by k.p.g.u. Thus 3.i.nau e. they must not be confused. e.(§10).pe3. Negation of the Imperfect is effected by means of n. As in the Present.s-. e.3.noute e.g.4a`e nm-ma. There is also a Future Circumstantial form which is similar to the II Future (§212). sentient perception and the like.q.g. n-.

k.i+n-ta.3-m-p.tet.4an-e.`e.tetn-. §200) II Tense (§202) I Negation (§201) n-ta. §204) I Tense (§204a) II Tense (§206) I Negation (§205) II Negation (§207) 4a. 5.d.tn-maremare.n-ane.oumare.sa. an m-p.i+.n.s4are. e.nm-p..before Nom Subj e.k4a.ue..4a.3.s.n4a.na.tetn-a.3tar.5 n-. a.k-m-p.3me.before Nom Subj n-ta. In contrast to the Durative notion of the Imperfect.Chapter X.4are.tn-n-ta.rea.s-m-pe- m-p. customary. na III Negation (§218) ne.outare. e.natetn-..nanere.nai+ ‘The Pharisee stood.naere.natn-.nase.(e)i+m-p.nane.ee.4a) de 33 .re.4a (for a.nme.farisaios de a6.ua.sn-ne.ee.m-na `pe mhte n-..3a.u.i+4a.before Nom Subj §200. Limitative Tenses I Tense (§200a) a.tetn-e.nane.. §217) e. Under ‘Limitative’ are included the following: The Perfect (§200ff).s.n-- Optative §220..3.kn-ta.before Nom Subj me..kn-ne.g.nae.nak.1).tet.before Nom Subj m-p.ktare. a.un-ta.u.4a.ra)3.a.`oo.(n-ne.smere- me.re. Imperfect (§213. characteristic.nas.n- Perfect (Instantaneous Past Action. e.k.hrp n-. a.34a.i+.nae. he said this’ (Lk 18:11).smare.r.3mar. result.tetn-4a.tn-n-nen-ne. Note that.3.nae. (e) Nom Subj n-ne.nae.ke. I Perfect.apot n-.4a.se.ee.ubefore Nom Subj an I Tense (§209) Future (Instantaneous.nn-na. or so certain of achievement that it can be regarded as completed in the future.6l-lo ‘They gave a cup of wine to an old man’ (Z 291.nane.i+me. a.i+a.un-ne.reme.naNom Subj -na III Future (Energetic.3n-ne.nate.u4a.u. §214) II Tense/Circumstantial (§211-12) 5.ou.nae.na.tn-taretare. those tenses classed as Limitative cannot use the Qualitative form of the verb.g.before Nom Subj –– tar. Negation §221 mar.4a.nane.imar.`eu pa. §208) Future Imperfect (‘was about to’. this tense represents Instantaneous Past Action.1). a..ee..ren-ta.n.. an e.s. Note: When a.em-p.n. contraction usually occurs (§16).ee.3. Under the term ‘Limitative’ are grouped all those tenses which have a definite standpoint in time.snta.eere.3n-ta.s ‘He said it’.i+-) n-ne.stare. in contrast to the Durative Tenses (§187..nane.before Nom Subj mare.n-- II Negation (§203) a. The term ‘Limitative’ is here used to stress the fact that the verbal action is limited to a specific point in time.i+e.tek.g.n-- tare. The action can be regarded as achieved in the past.ka.m-na ‘Thy mina has produced ten mina’ (Lk 19:16).4a.n-ae.nae.kme.pe.aggelos ‘I will send my messenger’ (Mk 1:2. the Tense of Habitude (§204ff).kmare.3.k.i+.3e.. the Future (§208ff) including the Optative (§220) and the two tenses of Unfulfilled Action (§223-24). but can use the Construct and Pronominal forms of the verb where they exist (cf further §326).nane. Limitative Tenses. as opposed to the relatively timeless notion implied by the Durative tenses.. 215) (n-) .tetn-. §219) II Negation of I+II Future.erat..u.stands before a Nominal Subject with the Indefinite Article.ee. na IV Future (Intent.oubefore Nom Subj Tense of Habitude (Ongoing.ee. §199.ree. This is the historic tense indicating an action which has been completed in the past.3..4a.(te.4a. §199a.etn. me.ou.u.re4a.

s na.3i pe.nanou. e. se.4wpe n-. The I Future probably sprang from a form *mn‘i’r.g.agaqon ebol 6m-. Note 1: The 1st pers sing sometimes appears in the form m-p.pek. Note 2: m-pe. mh e.3 `e sobte m-pe. m-mn-.oou take ni.i+ mauaa.`oo. 4are.q.na.`ere ou.m-pe.3. All the Future tenses.2o`b ‘When they become drunken. Negation of II Habitude.6hbs ‘They do not go on lighting a lamp’ (Mt 5:15).e. Note 2: The 2 fem sing sometimes shows the form te.thutn. anok nta. when the Subject is Nominal it stands first in the sentence without any preceding auxiliary.sa6 5 te3.are also common.g.3-. which has the distinctive syllable 4a. he will go on putting forth that which is defective’ (Jn 2:10).g.fr. §209. In this compound form. e.4a`e e. m-pe. §205.na. I Future. m-pe.falls away before the initial n.tn-noou m-.rwme 4a`e ene6 n-.pei. It is to be noted that.c. It is as if the action was regarded as so certain of achievement that already.sine ‘Heaven and earth will pass away’ (Lk 21:33).na and tet. the preposition r (Coptic e-.de ebol n-.p. e.grafh `wk ebol ‘In order that the scripture should be fulfilled.t ‘In respect of myself I have not spoken’ (Jn 12:49).pe mn. na4 n-.s.ou ‘Evil words will go on destroying good hearts’ (I-Cor 15:33). However.ka6 na. The 1st and 2nd pl forms frequently appear as t-. in the speaker's mind.in negation (§190). including the Optative and the two tenses of unfulfilled action (§222ff).i+e. Note 1: When the Nominal Subject is undefined or has the Indefinite Article.hrp e.ka p.na.p. Customary action is indicated. This tense. §203.of the auxiliary (it may be noted here that n. §204.g. 4a.6).4e n-. Similarly the III Future can be traced back to the old compound ’iw+subject+r+infinitive.n ebol ‘Why wilt thou reveal thyself to us?’ (Jn 14:22).with the meaning ‘Until’ (§231).6l-lo toloma e. but also due to be effected in the future.3. §204a.sateere ‘Why did they not sell this ointment for 300 staters?’ (Jn 12:5).i+.p. n-ta. originated from compound forms. e.56e 4a.g.swlp n-. e.na.kite ‘Your master is not wont to pay his tribute’ (Mt 17:24).preceded by I Future and followed by another verb. The verb `pi. conveys the meaning 34 . n-ta.3.ouon6. Negation of this tense follows the model of II Present (§193).6rai+ et.u.s an na.as a bad spelling for e.s.is similarly dropped with the II tenses of Habitude [§207] and Future [§213]) .g. §202. e. §210. ‘He is to hear’.ei gar an `e e. e.ou k. t.`oo.i-.tei.g.ouon6.p.3.6ht et. it must be introduced by oun-. I Habitude: e. as is the case with I Present.6nt et.peu. the fuller forms m-pe. e. these things happened’ (Jn 19:36).3 n-. Tense of Habitude.p. auw on m-pe.g.6a6 gar na.pe.swtm would therefore seem to be ‘I am to be going to hear’. Future Tenses.son ‘How wilt thou say to thy brother?’ (Lk 6:42).ka pet.‘They will arrest you’ (Lk 21:12). ‘To go’. the verbal action is regarded as instantaneous.ouoei4 ‘A feast once took place in Shiët (Z 291.ka6 ‘For to spy out the land have they come’ (Josh 2:3).ei gar e.k-. cf also the 3rd example. Thus in I and II Future the distinctive syllable na is the final form of the old verb n‘i’. nei. n-ta. Negation of I Perfect: e. This tense expresses the notion of repeated instantaneous action. it was visualized as completed. the main stress in the sentence being laid on the Adverbial Extension.n-.6e ‘In this way he revealed himself’ (Jn 21:1). oun-. §201.na.3. is he not wont to say to him?’ (Lk 17:8): stress laid upon direct speech introduced by `e.krine m-. somewhat misleadingly.3.mise ‘She did not give birth’ (Z 296.1).u. me.4a`e an 6aro.so2n ebol 6a 4m-t.ouom. it should be noted that with the possible exception of the Future Imperfect. has the meaning of repeated instantaneous action.kosmos ‘For in order that I should judge the world I have not come’ (Jn 12:47). e.6e k. This tense has been named. etbe. §206.pei+.nanou.d. but the basic notion of a repetition of Past Action demands the relinquishing of the term Praesens at least.ra. Negation of this tense is effected by means of the particle an (§203). and not as durative.rwme n-. indicates that the main stress in the sentence is placed on the Adverbial Extension.ou m-p.agaqos taue.3 `oo. m-pe.na.3 ‘Prepare that which I shall eat!.e m-.4are. but it is to be noted that the first negative particle n.4an.tn-. ‘To be going to’.te.laau na. This tense.g. but it is to be noted that a series of reiterated actions may not only be regarded as effected in the past.4kak ebol ‘These stones will cry out’ (Lk 19:20). and m-pe. mere.wne na. etbe. Negation of II Perfect.4a.14). thus e.p\n\a\ ei ebol ‘Their spirit is wont to come forth’ (Ps 104:29?).q.5. the fundamental meaning of such a form as 5.swtm originated from ’iw.ni. This tense is used in statements and in questions introduced by an interrogative. §207.pe3. e. (m-)mn-.ou. ero=) had a strong implication of futurity.nanou.rwme ‘Man did not ever speak as this man’ (Jn 7:46).tn-. II Habitude.u.4orp ‘First of all he is wont to put out the good wine’ (Jn 2:10). II Perfect.3 ‘Out of the treasure of his good heart the good man is wont to send out goodness’ (Lk 6:45).or `pe.2p-. while expressing instantaneous Past action.6alusis ‘He was wont to break the chains’ (Mk 5:4). Praesens Consuetudinus.i+ ‘For many will say to me’ (Mt 7:22).n-a (§12).s m-. §208.k.g.nai+ gar 4wpe `ekas ere.ra4e ‘No one will take away your joy’ (Jn 16:22).pa6o m-. n-ta. 4are.m4t p. §186.maqhths ‘And still the old man dared not send the disciple’ (Z 294.sdm.4a. Negation of I Habitude: e.5.

rwme swtm.p.meut p. e. In some cases there is the implication of intention.pek.6ote an ‘My heart will not fear’ (Ps 26:3). e. e. or do we look for another?’ (Mt 11:3).3 `e ere.rwme na. II Future.3.g. e.. For the most part it follows an Imperative. As has been noted (§192n. e.tn.k.3.rwme e.tar. n-ne. Note: The 2nd pl form alternates between e.‘Bring out him who has slain his brother (and) we will kill him’ (II-Sam 14:7).tamion ‘But thou.‘Must’. n-ne.g.rwme e.ma et.na.tetn.bwk ebol e. III Future (Energetic).oua ‘Art thou he who is coming.p.kr-ine `e n-.u. and almost always before II Future (§203).b. an action which from the speaker's point of view has now been completed..g.ouoei4 35 .tn-. This tense conveys the notion of future action conceived in the past.n-a (§12).ene6 ‘Will the Lord forever forsake us?’ (Ps 76:7).na..4ouo 6m-.3.kuph 6m-.xiliarxos ‘As Paul was about to be taken into the camp.na.3 4a.e.mere pete. an.oeik m-. In practice.son na. Negation is effected by means of the particles n. §211.`pe.10).n-.k.r. in order that they shall not judge you’ (Lk 6:37). §219. §212.4lhl bwk e.p.ou ‘What shall I do?’ (Lk 20:13).b. It may be noted that examples of Negation of Future Imperfect are not common.moout. an. This tense lays special stress on the achievement of an action in the future. Though as a rule this tense conveys a Final meaning.`oeis smou ero. 197). More often n.7).`oi gar na.`oeis na. Thus the meaning might be conveyed by the phrase ‘X was on the point of doing something’ or ‘X was about to do something’.alektwr moute ‘A cock shall not crow’ (Jn 13:38). cf the first and third of the aforementioned examples. and is commonly found in commands.p. n-tok pet.4hre m-.s ‘I must go to see it’ (Lk 14:18).na.. either on the part of the speaker or by some third party alluded to by the speaker— cp the idiomatic use of ‘Shall’ and ‘Will’ in English. Future Imperfect..r-.k.na.`aio6s `e p. in Sahidic this tense is the same as the II Future in formation. IV Future (Finalis). §218. It carries a much stronger notion of futurity than the I Future.twoun. Preceded by a Question.i+ tare.`oeis e.swtm ‘The man will hear’ or ‘May the man hear’.g. although originally it was declared with reference to the future. sometimes more than the result of action prescribed or avoided is implied.n-.) §213. although syntactically it functions quite differently. ere.`i paulos de e. e. e. they say to him: May the Lord bless thee!’ (Ru 2:4).3.3-. e.r-. e. (Bohairic distinguishes between II Future and Future Circumstantial: II Fut are – na.`pe.u (for n-ne.mou gar pe ‘For he was on the point of dying’ (Jn 4:47). a= – na. a form identical to II Present.pa.son tar.6ht na. however.p.swtm an ‘He was not about to hear’.p.6ise ‘The Son of Man must suffer many (things)’ (Mk 8:31). 5.2w4t 6ht.e.3. he said to the Chiliarch’ (Acts 21:37). one would expect the construction: ere.wn6 an e.ou.ne3.pa.u na.4oei4 ‘As the dust will they be’ (Ps 1:4). it indicates the result which should happen if the course of action postulated by the questioner is carried out. §214. Negation of Future Imperfect. Note: As in the case of the Imperfect (§195).3 n-. e.g.t.na.tetn-. §16).swtm.6oun e.6oun e.yuxn wn6 ‘Hear me (and) your soul shall live’ (Isa 55:3).is omitted.na. mh ere p.3.na.eiwt ‘Thou shalt honor thy father’ (Mt 19:19). either real or fictitious. ne.. swtm ero.rwme na.u. e.na. the Existential Particle pe often appears after the verbal form. Negation of III Future.mou an pe ‘My brother would not have died’ (Jn 11:32). go into thy chamber’ (Mt 6:6).pa.g.ke. It is especially used in Questions in which the Interrogative cannot stand at the head of the sentence.g. Negation of I and II Future. n-ne. nere.an ‘I shall not rise up’ (Z 326.q. p.na and e. The second example quoted above indicates a case in which the context shows that III Future is to be understood.swtm ‘The man shall hear’ or ‘May the man hear’.4p-. §215.3 pe ‘The world would love that which is its own’ (Jn 15:19). ere. This tense expresses the Future.tet. m-p. and the same example also shows the marked preference in Coptic for the use of the suffix forms of the auxiliaries even when the subject is nominal (cf further §322). nere. n-.] §217.i. the main stress of the sentence being placed on the Adverbial Extension.r-.n n-sw.kosmos na. nere.pe`a. e.g.‘Do not judge.nau ero. The use of this tense is confined to direct speech. e. Fut Circum ere – na. and signifies the result which should follow when the action of the Imperative has been achieved. Future Circumstantial. the e (representing the old r) falls away.g. 5.p.k ‘He says to his harvesters: May the Lord be with you!.ket tei.parembolh pe`a.p. so leaving the construction ere. and in view of the origin of this tense (§208).g. strong wishes and in Final Clauses introduced by `e or `eka(a)s (cf the last example in §186).tai+e pek. e= – na.3 m-.ouem laau an ‘We shall not eat anything’ (Z 346.6a6 n-. e. pe`a.t.3.is omitted before I Future.6wtb ‘Thou shalt not kill’ (Mt 19:18).k de e. But frequently the particle n. as thou art about to pray.mate ‘Not by bread only will men live’ (Mt 4:4).tn.p. au eis p. n-to.nhu `n.m-mau ‘For the ship was about to discharge its cargo in that place’ (Acts 21:3). Note: When the Subject is Nominal.krine m-mw.na. n-. [MS lacks §216. Negation is effected by means of the Negative Particles n.n-ta.4wpe nm-mh.g.pw.u. m-. e. A free rendering of such a form as ne.neu.p.n-.g.ne. e.kaa.e m-.might be ‘He would hear’.

3.tn-f sdm.tre. Negation of the Optative. Other Verb Forms.moo4e 6n.3-] n.r--.g. e.swtm ‘Do not cause him to hear’.4wpe ne n-. mare. This auxiliary.oua4.hrp ‘This dome shall not be built in my time. §220.a.ou4ant.mari6am ei ebol n-. It may be translated by ‘Not yet’ or ‘Before’.k-] n.3. ta is more common than n-ta for 1st pers sing. which originated from the old compound form bw ’ir.(ne.ran ouop ‘May thy name be hallowed’ (Mt 6:9).`ioor .(§225)— with which.s eime `e aukhph [sic] 6e 6n-. mare.s-] nte- n-.iordanhs ‘They crossed over .p.4hre mou ‘Come down before my son dies’ (Jn 4:49).f sdm.g. Negation is effected by means of a compound form m-p.tre.u-. m-p.oum-pate- §223.k4an.g.pa.. Model 4ant.(or 4an. §225.6wb 4an. On the whole.3. so that the whole world shall see that a dome fell in Shiet because of a cup of wine’ (Z 292. The Conjunctive.5. This tense is most frequently found after a sentence containing an Imperative. mare. Note: In the 1st pers sing 4an. without any following Infinitive..k-m-patem-pat.oikoumenh thr.maro.n ‘Let us!’ still exists in Coptic.ta-) 4ante.98n).swtm.5. §222.tetn-4ante4ant. later replaced by the more forceful š3‘i’. It is also used very frequently 36 .e.swtm.’ (Jn 2:4). §226..3-4ant.p.n.ei ‘Work until I come’ (Lk 19:13). or by the Conjunctive.g.tn-4an.swtm-.q.tn-m-pa.ounou ei ‘My hour has not yet come.n ebol 6m-. a.5m-pat.5.e et.u.tre. Tenses of Unfulfilled Action: ‘Until’ 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Nom subj ‘Not yet.3-) [n-te.tn-n-.a.4iht etbe ou.3m-apat.s ‘May it happen to thee as thou wishest’ (Mt 15:28). toun-. has the meaning ‘Until’.t.ta.3. m-p. has the meaning of action which has not yet been effected.r-ro ‘Let us not proceed by the King's Highway’ (Mon 587.esht m-pate.3 ‘Let us go to him’ (Jn 11:15). m-pate. alla maro.[n-to.monaxhs ‘I have not yet become a monk’ (Z 384. This compound is formed by the negative of the Imperative (§242) and the Causative Infinitive (§243).r-.thutn.f. This auxiliary.te. which preserved the t throughout.s. it has no affinity. the tense of the verb in the opening sentence being continued in the sentence introduced by the Conjunctive.se-] (The forms in square brackets are the Bohairic forms.ta-.tetn-m-pat.pei+. The n which appears in the Sahidic form is probably due to some contamination of 4ate.swtm. §221. amou e.s-- m-pa.g.pek.‘Until he hears’.with the Conjunctive n-te.3.s-.r-.5.laau eime ‘Do not let anyone perceive’ (Mt 9:30).(ne. m-pa. tan.tare.3-.n‘Let Mariam go out from among us!’ (Thomas 114).6ht. originating from the old r sdmt.ten.3-. This tense expresses the notion of a wish.se. §224.apot n-.g-. In the other dialects. and in the oldest form of Sahidic.p. (Negation: §230) Singular 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Nom subj Plural n-ta-. Note: 1st pres sing is replaced by auw and I Future. e. m-p. The chief function of this auxiliary is to join together sentences.n 4aro.s-) [n-te. this auxiliary appears in the form 4ate.s-4ante- m-pa. but which is due to be effected in the future. let us go from this place’ (Jn 14:31). however. Chapter XI. n-. e. Model m-pat.) The alternate forms of the 3rd pers masc and fem sing are only occasionally found.‘Before he hears’. a hope or a request.laos thr.swtm.. The Optative.f.`ioor m-.1). being liable to be confused with the Imperfect forms.(§2n) [n-te. ari. until all of the people (had) crossed over the Jordan’ (Josh 3:17).p.8). which may or may not be fulfilled in the future. This form is used. before’ 4an. e. 4ante.3-. e.is more frequently found than 4an.tetn-n-.4wpe m-.6ih m-. to express the meaning ‘Let us go!’. Note: An old Absolute Form maro. Uses of the Conjunctive.r-.ma ‘Rise.

§228. §230.u 6wste n.yallei e.telhl 4wpe e. depending upon a previous auxiliary for its time standpoint.per4 nek.ke.bwk ‘Allow all these to go’ (Jn 18:8).4a. The Conjunctive is used after a number of Greek Conjunctions: 6wste 6opws mhpws mhpote eimht(e)i ‘So that’ ‘In order that’ ‘Lest in any way’ ‘For fear lest’ ‘Unless’ E.3. etbe.tre.tn-.3-.5). Conditional Clause.me.m-p.so2n ebol 6a 4m-t. The reason for this is not clear.keoua mor.tm-.g-.sateere n-se.na. 6moos 6n-. Negation of the Conjunctive is effected by the negative particle tm-being placed before the Infinitive.2i` ebol n-te. Temporal Clause.k n.tek.4ine n-sw. e.ta. p. yet on the whole it may be said that it implies the sense of action still to be achieved.ri n. p.ou e.g.21).talo.6e eroi+ ‘You will seek for me. Habitude.3.ouw4 ebw.e en.6ermhtarion ‘The governor ordered them to lift them on to the rack. and another will gird thee’ (Jn 21:18). but with a final meaning to express the object of an order.`w ta.tn-. pe`e 6rouq t.se.3.tre.ouwm ‘Come and eat’ (Jn 21:12).g.g. k.4e n-. so that he has caused the deaf to hear and has caused the dumb also to speak’ (Mk 7:37).t. though comparatively rare. and not reveal thyself to the world?’ (Jn 14:22). Note: It must not be thought that the Conjunctive only follows the above mentioned tenses.n-. (c) After the Past: e.na.i+ n-.`oeis ‘I will sing and praise the Lord’ (Ps 26:6).and neTo a number of Auxiliaries can be prefixed the verbal forms e.auw n. pe`e. eimhti n-.a. The use of this auxiliary after the Past.aa. (b) After the Future: e.n ebol n.na. amhei.to form compound verbal structures. 5.pet.swtmne.ou.4wp ‘Unless we go and buy’ (Lk 9:13). Only very infrequently does it appear after the Past Tense.v). tet.p.6hke ‘Why did they not sell this ointment for 500 staters in order to give them to the poor?’ (Jn 12:5).3.m-. But its use after Imperative and Future is so common that the more regular use is here indicated instead of quoting all the less frequent uses.6ote gar `e mhpote ta.3.mwabiths n-. Negation of the Conjunctive. commanding and allowing. Optative.g-. and then not as a simple continuation of the previous tense.n-.3-.s5rou m-.6tooue ‘Weeping will happen at evening.ou n-.k. §229. §231.rime ‘Sit in thy cell and weep’ (Z 347.after a Future Tense.c.‘Thou wilt stretch out thy hands. §227. (a) After the Imperative: e.m-pat.n-.k. and you will not find me’ (Jn 7:34).4wpe e. The Conjunctive sometimes appears in direct speech without an introductory verb.tm-.3. k-.tetn-.swtme. 587.swtm- 37 .and ne.p.5 pei+.pilatos na.bwk ebol e.swtme.’ (Mor.g.petn-.3.kosmos ‘Why wilt thou reveal thyself to us.bwk anon n-.na.tn.r-. etbe. is noted in that the sense implied by its use is not merely continuity of the previous action.i ta. kalws 6wb nim a.ouon6.k.tn.g.noemein `e ta.tetn-.101. The Conjunctive is frequently used after verbs of wishing.f.6e erw.ei 4arw.swtmne.3-.tn. Perhaps in such cases a verb of wishing.ou n-.4a`e ‘Order me and I will speak’ (Pistis Sophia 202).r-ro ‘Pilate says to them: (Do you wish that) I crucify your king?’ (Jn 19:15). and joy will happen in (the) morning’ (Ps 30:5).oua4 an ‘For I fear lest I come to you and find you in the way which I do not wish’ (II-Cor 12:20).ou k. 5.5.swtmne.3.rime na. ka nai+ thr.al swtm.n-.rou6e nte. Though strictly speaking the Conjunctive has no tense of its own.u `e ta. e.sw4e ‘Ruth the Moabitess says to Naomi: (Let me) go to the field’ (Ruth 2:2).na.p.m-po 4a`e ‘He has done everything well.a.ta. etc.swtme.p.g.douc de a. for example: e.ou m-p.q. Causative Infinitive. Compound Tenses with e. commanding or requesting is mentally understood.diakonei na. keleue na.m-pat. It is found after the Present. e.n-.n ‘Dost thou wish to go and to call him who ministers to us?’ (Z 294.moute e.ouon6.g-.keleue n-se.g.

but is often left untranslated.ne. ne. 195) or the I Future (§209.s. oun-ta.c.‘There is/are not’ (Neg Existential): (1) The Construct forms are far more common than the Absolute forms. e. (2) In the Non-Verbal sentence (§314). ne. e.sh6 ‘It is written (as follows)’.precedes the auxiliary when it is used in a subordinate or co-ordinate sentence with past time meaning. e.g.ou ‘There was not a helper for them’ (Ps 107:12).1).ou. e.`oeis ouhr ero.ne.ei pe ‘When they had come’ (Jn 11:19).prefixed to past tenses gives a Pluperfect meaning (originating from the old wn ‘To exist’. ounta= has the meaning ‘To be in debt’.‘According to him who has it not’ (II-Cor 8:12).ou. the most important of these are: ouon. oun-te.contracts to ne.g. the relation of the object possessed to the possessor depends on the form of the verb used: §235.hrp ‘When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water after it became wine’ (Jn 2:9). Note: The adverb m-mau ‘There’ (Crum 196b) frequently follows the object. an idiomatic use of oun-te-.a. that in some cases e. Coptic must say ‘There exists in the hand of the man (a) house’ (oun-te.khme ‘There was one in Egypt’ (Z 338.3.rwme hi+).3.pet.4wpe ‘This generation shall not pass away until they have occurred’ (Lk 21:32).a. It may be noted that the adverb m-mau (§235n).3.p.g.3-.sometimes are found as bad spellings for e. (b) With oun-ta= and mn-ta= the object.eine e.(§231). oun-te.agaqos n-. (c) ne.6a6 n-. ero=.oun-ta. When. e.te.3. kata pete mn-ta.g.s.rm-. cf also §233n.rwme de n-.3-. ou gar pet.oun. e. and are used in a Verbal Sentence employing one of the Durative tenses when the subject is undefined or has only the Indefinite Article (§190.u. e. oun-ta= mn-te-. H.ou ‘Sheep which have no shepherd over them’ (Mk 6:34).mn-.1) ‘To be needful’ (§237) ‘To be enough’ (§237a) §233. must always be introduced by the particle n-.‘According to him who has it’.‘There is/are’ (Existential) and m-mon. m-.ka ‘He had many possessions’ (Mt 19:22).esoou e.pei+. 3-.ou. ne.oun-ta. mn.3) mmau n-. ounta.6n-.g. Note 2: With the preposition e-.sa oua p. ne.e. Thus in order to say ‘The man has a house’.son ‘For I have five brothers’ (Lk 16:28).1). God’ (Mt 19:17). e. ne. the object stands directly after the pronoun. When verbs are used impersonally.m-pat.moou e. ne.g.g.4we 6i`w. Impersonal Verbs. ouon. §234.6hgemwn ka.3-.un-. e. (b) e.mn-t.g.tei+. Note 2: m-p.ou.mau ‘I have no husband’ (Jn 4:17). But when the object is pronominal. mn-te=. and its negative: m-mon ([m-]mn--) (§233) ‘To be befitting or appropriate’ (§184. §232.ma ‘There is a young boy here’ (Jn 6:9). (m-)mn-.prefixed to the negation of the I Perfect renders ‘Until’.kolasis ‘She has punishment’ (I-Jn 4:18).mn-. however.has been employed as a II Perfect tense. Frequently ne.s.s m-mau n-.oua 6n-. oun-.rwme ecousia ‘The Son of Man has authority’ (Mt 9:6).3--.ou mwushs m-mau mn. oun-.‘He has it’ (§232). 6en.swtm.p.5 6ai m-. a. p. It is to be noted that the object stands directly after the subject without any introductory particle.3.oua ebol ‘The governor had been accustomed to release one’ (Mt 27:15).3 ‘I have him’.3 (for ne. a small number of verbs which are impersonal. oun-. With oun-te= and mn-te=.g. ‘There exists in the hand of’. as Dr. (3) Possession: In the forms: Possession Affirmative: Negative: old form wn md’i nn wn md’i oun-te-.49).g.a. (oun--) 4-4e6aps 6w ‘To be’.t.3. however. by which forms Coptic conveys the notion of possession or the lack of possession.mao ‘There was a rich man’ (Lk 16:19). e.4are. But occasionally the 3rd masc -3 is used.(a) e. Note: The past tense is formed by means of ne.un-. the subject is a pronoun.p.ou.bohqei ero. mn-ta= —literally. the rule is that it is added directly to the verbal form— thus presenting the curious form of two suffixes added directly to the verb.pa.i+. §194).i+.t.noute ‘There is not (anyone) good except one. if nominal. e.genea ou. ne.s. when used after oun-ta=.J.arxitriklinos de twpe m-.k ‘How much dost thou owe my lord?’ 38 .g.grafh ‘They had not yet understood the Scripture’ (Jn 20:9). e.soun.4hre 4hm m-.un-ta.g.and e.oun.and m-pat.m-p.4wpe ‘It happened’. n-.p. e. usually stands directly after the subject. e. Note 1: It is possible.g.ou. Polotsky has pointed out (Étude de Syntaxe Copte.3.g.g.g.pe ‘For who is it whom I have in heaven?’ (Ps 72:25). kata pete oun-ta.m-p.profhths ‘They have Moses and the prophets’ (Lk 16:29). ‘There exists not in the hand of’.p. oun-ta. There are.n-. Note 1: Sometimes a euphonic s is introduced between the two suffixes. the 3rd pers fem sing -s is generally used. n-tere.m-pat. §236.p.r-. oun-5 5ou gar n-. e.4hre n-. oun-te=. e.3.

and is followed by the preposition e-.thutn. tamio ‘Make!’ Note: au-.k. 4-.ke. swtm.g.pwwne 4wpe m-.sop ‘It is necessary for you to be born again’ (lit. a compound form.ktretre.r-.k. e. the second Imperative and any further Imperative is replaced by the Conjunctive (§226a). Sometimes the Existential Particle pe appears after the verb. t.6udria ‘Fill the water pots!’. auei= ‘Give away!’ and mo. Negation of the Imperative.un-ta. ma na. ma. §259. kmom ‘To become black’.3 ero.ntre.r.g-. mostly showing initial a. and it is sufficient for us (Jn 14:8). e. (3) The Causative Infinitive.g. become enough’ is generally used impersonally. placed before the infinitive. ma.g. tre.g.n-.p.n-. also a compound form. moute e.which originated from the old Imperative prefix ’i.‘Do not hear’.nai+ ‘Is it not necessary for Christ to receive these (things)?’ (Lk 24:26).r-. nominal or pronominal.g.tsbo.tn.ke.tre.u.r-. and no distinction in gender is made. .sou (§44) 5 ‘To give’ occasionally uses the Infinitive to express the Imperative.swtm. The Imperative. pai+ e.u.g.`w6ma. e. the same form being used for both singular and plural. a.sboui ‘It is sufficient for the disciple’ (Mt 10:25).p.tn. amh (fem).3tre. m-p.pe. me6 n-. which takes an object.swtm. §243.with the Causative Infinitive to form the negation of the Optative.‘To cause him to hear’.‘Take him!’ §239. 3 pl ari. m-p.nau ‘Come (and) see!’ §242..t. 6aps ‘It is necessary’ is an impersonal verb and is usually followed by the Causative Infinitive (§256). tre. (2) The Potential Infinitive.r-ro ‘It is necessary for him to reign’ (I-Cor 15:25). ma is also frequently used in forming the Imperatives of the Causative verbs with t.satreere ‘This one who owed him a hundred staters’ (lit. ma.nau a. ani= arire.`i-. e. swtm.(plural) an(e)ine. ari-.4e n-. 5. after the prefix tre-.s39 tre.(require object suffix) §240. 6w ‘To suffice. Jn 3:7).3 r-. e.g. These Imperatives are: a. A few verbs have preserved old Imperative forms.‘Give heed!’ (Mt 7:15).n ‘Show us thy Father.t.‘To cause the man to hear’. §237.eiwt auw 6w ero.b-bo ‘Become clean!’.tn.ouop) ‘Be cleansed/purified!’.x\s\ 4ep. amou n. e.3 n-. tre. tre.`w (with direct object a. Uses of the Infinitive.pek.n e.tetntre. e. e.3. the Infinitive of these causatives can also be used to express the Imperative. But far more common is the form ma (Absolute and Construct forms are identical) .. §237a.`pe. A few verbs show quite irregular forms: Verb Meaning ‘To come’ ‘To bring’ ‘To do’ Imperative ‘See!’ ‘Say!’ ‘Become unclean!’ ‘Open!’ ‘Cease thou/you!’ ei eine eire amou (masc).g.6aps an etre. which shows a plural m-mhei.swtm. My lord has how much against thee?) (Lk 16. `it.prefix. ani-.‘Do not do’. Negation is effected by means of the verbal prefix m-p. As a rule the Imperative is expressed by means of the Infinitive.n ‘Give to us!’ (Mk 10:37).tn--.tre. When the object is pronominal the following Causative forms occur: Person 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem Singular Plural tratre. mh n-.‘Take!’.g. ari=.b-bo (for ma.5) . §241. e. This one who. For use of m-p. 6w e.`i= ) a. amh(e)i.6th. e. e.4a`e ‘To be able to speak’. a.nomos ‘It is necessary again for a change to happen in the law also’ (Heb 7:12).rwme. §221.g.g.ouwn.6ote ‘Do not fear’. he had against him a hundred staters) (Mt 18:28) . When more than one Imperative appears in a sentence. that they beget you again.3. 6aps on pe e.‘To cause thee to hear’.lw. §16) Note: a.ne.tn-.lo.r-.‘To hear’.g.pe. 6aps gar pe etre. 6aps e. e.(lit.ergaths ‘Call the laborers!’.u- .swtm.uwn (for a.‘Hear!’. Three forms of the Infinitive exist in Coptic: (1) The Simple Infinitive.tamio ‘Make!’ However. §238.

g.laau e.i.or 4-.4a n-.p. e.swnt m-.laau 4an.ou.`oou n-.2). n-.tm-.Before the Nom Subj: tre- §244.na.wr` ‘Securely’ (lit.noute ‘The creation of God’. (c) n-sa.tn. p.r-. In the form 4-.pe.ana4 a. §253. m-pw.2om e.`oo.ou. (ii) After verbs of wishing.n.koos. the Logos’. desiring. m-pe. beginning. a.n-.2om pe ou. In a destroying he will destroy. and after the impersonal verbs to be possible.6ise ‘Their toil’.at. e. e. (3) As the direct object in Compound Verbs (§177).g. (2) As a genitive after 4ou. 20.g.n-. 101). e.na.‘Not to hear’.ponhros ‘Do not be angry so as to commit wickedness’ (Ps 37:8). m-p.2wnt ‘To provoke’. 90. n-. se.e4. It is very common before the compound verb 2m-.eia. Often it is used with reference to Future time. swearing. §252. (b) n-.genea nim pet. pes. 4-4e de ero.noute ‘It is possible for me to overthrow the temple of God’ (Mt 26:61).placed immediately before the infinitive. 6ws de n-.rat ene6 ‘I shall never allow thee to wash my foot’ (Jn 13:8). In a becoming secure). e.m-p.an pe soun-. 88. p. oun-.karpos ‘He sent his servants to the husbandmen to take his fruits’ (Mt 21:34). As a rule the Infinitive stands before the verb which it intensifies.g. The Infinitive is used without the Article: (1) As the Subject of a Non-Verbal Sentence.pwr` n-.ra4e ‘It is befitting for us to rejoice’ (Lk 15:32). e.2) .g. auw 6n-.with object verb of willing.4wpe na.g. pei+. The Infinitive with the Indefinite Article is less frequently used independently. a. Negation of the Infinitive. the Infinitive is a masculine noun and as such it can be defined by the Definite Article. §254. §245.tm-. and their negatives. Negation of the three forms of the Infinitive is effected by means of the particle tm-.erhu e.se. ou.ou. tm-. being able.4w3 ‘The desolation’.kwte ‘Its surrounding’.swtm. knowing the times and seasons.and the Indefinite Article is sometimes used to strengthen the verbal action (cf the Hebrew Infinitive Absolute in similar use.swtm. peu.s ‘And do not think to say’ (Mt 3:9).p. m-p. The Simple Infinitive. e.2om etre.ne3.g. e. intending. salvation without the humbleness of heart) (Z 301.tooue ‘I am not worthy to bear his shoe’ (Mt 3:11).erat.p. The burying me). §252a.rw4e ‘Moderately’ (lit.2om e.‘Subsequently.pe.and (m-)mn-.4ine n-sa.4. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar .pisteue ‘They were not able to believe’ (Jn 12:39). The Infinitive preceded by the preposition 6n-. 6n-.b. The Infinitive with the Indefinite Article is used mainly with the preposition 6n-.n-.qbbio n-. the Causative Infinitive can be used as a 40 .r.6wtb.ouwm ‘I have desired to eat’ (Lk 22:15).3 n-.ne.swtm.3.i+ ebwl ebol m-.2om ‘To be powerful’.tn-.nen.erhu ‘The love of our fellows’.2om m-mw. In a becoming sufficient).5. to form adverbial phrases. (4) After prepositions: (a) e. who will be able to show it?’ (Acts 8:33).g. It frequently follows the Greek 6wste (ωστε ‘So as to’).6ht.2om it is used as an undefined Substantive after the Impersonal verbs oun. consequently’.e.swtm. anticipating. e. 5.`e oun. van der Merwe.g.‘In’.oueeih e. e.maqhths ‘It is not possible to cause him to become a disciple to me’ (Lk 14:27).2m-.g.tep.ou. a.4a`e ‘He sought to hear the Logos’ (Acts 13:7).g. Josh 3:10). e.na. e.2m-. As has already been noted (§138).g.6en. petn-.mere. e.ne3.tn.n-.ou 6n.g.ne.nen. §246.g. understanding.g. 6n-.2om mmo.3.4. fearing.meeue e. p. Note: When followed by a genitive. 5. 63.ou.6ht ‘Salvation without humbleness of heart is not possible’ (lit. p.g.4a`e ‘The saying.m-.g.`i. This rule also holds good in the case of many compound nouns and in Adjective equivalents (§60.i+ m-.xananios ‘And he will utterly destroy the Canaanite (s)’ (lit.4-. e.ouw6 6a. 6n-.me n-. The Potential Infinitive. and after m-p4a ‘To be worthy’.`ai xwris pe. Not yours it is.a6. nte. ordering. e. allowing.ouo4be. p.rpe m-.sunagwgh ‘They love to stand in the synagogues’ (Mt 6:5). §248. §250.thutn. loving. 6n-. 5.4a`e ‘No one was able to answer him a word’ (Mt 22:46).rw4e ‘Your sufficiency’.6w6 6wste e.3i 6a pe3. e.g.tauos ‘As for his generation. p.kaa.4a`e ‘This saying/Logos’.‘The hearing’. oun-.t ‘My burial’ (lit.ouwn6 ebol ‘Openly’ (lit. The Causative Infinitive. Acts 1:7). Often the Infinitive retains its verbal force and takes an object.k e.e4.4-.paulos ‘By an oath we have sworn among our fellows not to taste anything until we have killed Paul’ (Acts 23:14).‘In order to’ (i) Expressing aim or purpose.ou.esw ‘Is it possible for you to drink?’ (Mt 20:22).6m-6al 4a. Like the Simple Infinitive.wp ‘To give account’.‘I hear that there are divisions among you’ (I-Cor 11:18). §251.(§233). e. §247. te3. In a showing forth). promising.tn. e.6aibes ‘So as they are able to dwell under its shadow’ (Mk 4:32). An impossibility it is.ou.uoi+4 mn-.tes. The Construct form e4.fwte ebol m-. the Possessive Adjective or the Demonstrative Pronoun. m-mn-.epiqumei n-.‘Worthy of’ (§60f). Naudé & Kroeze.fwte 3. the Infinitive is linked to its possessor by means of the particle n-.xronos ‘Knowledge of the times and the seasons is not yours’ (lit.wrk.n e.‘To be able’ can stand before another Infinitive to express potentiality.3. §249. to be befitting.

Thus preceded by e-.k.p.tre.e. a petition or the like. ebol 6itoot=). and not pe.ou thr.2).m-. ero= (2 plural erw. e.arxei de n-. but if used before a pronoun. a.u.g. e.‘Upon’). a.4a`e nm-ma.tn-noou. this causing you to grieve in respect of God has produced for you a great earnestness’ (II-Cor 7:11). e.‘Receive’ and a following infinitive or noun (§177) are passive. e. to form Temporal Clauses with the meaning ‘When. §256.‘To’.4-.g. e. i\s\ de nte.3.g.oue6 sa6ne de na.tn-.g.rwme e. (2) Purpose: ‘In order to’ (§251).tn-) [old r] is used for many purposes.g.3 6rai+ 6n-.ou `po.mn-tre ero. Jesus.p. a command.e. It should be noted that the Article shows the form p-.mauaa.p.3. 6m-. (5) ‘From’. Simple Prepositions: §261.oue4 pai an e.`i baptisma ‘When all the people were being baptized’ (Lk 3:21). a. Particles.ou. (b) mn-ns . 6aps. as regards’.g.tre. Josh 1:1).3 n-.tn-.t.na.d.no2 n-. e. Note: Compound verbs which are formed by means of `i.tre.patria thr.4wpe e.3. a.e. e. cf §392. especially when the main verb is one of expressing a wish. They can be prefixed to nouns or pronouns.u e.u.p. Coptic has to say ‘They killed him’.se.tre. which takes the Definite Article p-.p.r-.6hlias ei ‘It is necessary for Elijah to come’ (Mt 17:10).no`. the Causative Infinite is very common following an Impersonal Verb.noute a.6oun e.`i.etre. (3) Direction: ‘Towards’.na.p. After he died.s ‘It was said’ (lit.g. namely Moses. n-. according to. a.rwme na`. §257.noute ‘When the man casts himself before God’ (Z 332. They said it).1).wwne ebol 6n-. A separate formation for the Passive does not exist in Coptic.6wb nhtn. a. ero.ou nai+ r-.3 ‘He made a great feast for him’.tre. ma tou`o.p. Coptic has to resort to circumlocution by employing the 3rd pers plural suffix with the active tense.hi+ ‘It happened when he was going into the house’ (Lk 14:1). a decision.g. e-.tre.e.ka6 ‘They will be blessed. §259.no2 n-.a. bwk ng-.12). e.lupi gar kata p.r.3.pswp.p.u.na6.substantive.ouotouot ‘He caused me to dwell in a green place’ (Ps 23:2). while. e.`oou. The fundamental meanings are ‘To. se.ou.p.3. The agent is introduced by the preposition: 6itn--. pet m-mau na.tra. a. for. e.bwk e.p.ma n-. eis pei.to4 ‘They began to beseech him to cause him to remove out of their boundaries’ (Mk 5:17). m-mn-. ou.u.touo.2om gar `in tenou e. The Passive.3 ‘To him’). Thus to express ‘He was killed’. see §389.s.3. Especially in the sense of debt or responsibility ( §236.tra.koikonomei ‘For it is not possible from now on for thee to be steward’ (Lk 16:2).u ‘After he spoke with them’ (Mk 16:19). e. §258.ou m-.e.g.tre.3 ebol 6itn-.tre.ou ‘He commanded them that they should all recline’ (Mk 6:39). a prohibition. It can be preceded by one of the auxiliaries.u.r-.hi+ ‘Thou shalt send him to the house’. mn-nsa.telhl mn.precedes the Causative Infinitive. a.laos thr.3 p. than’.a.ouw6 6n-. e.3.etre.r-ro e`w. As has been noted (§139).n ‘We do not wish that this man should reign over us’ (lit.g.ouhhb ‘Go.tre.3. from. 41 .p. k.p.4ops ero. when they had brought him forth in Bethlehem) (Mt 2:1). §255.sabe.`a`e ‘(Give) to save me from my enemies!’ (6) Comparison (§114).noute ‘A man who had been sent by God’ (Jn 1:6). Chapter XII.swtm.neu. 6m-.p. namely all the families of the earth’ (Acts 3:25). for.6wb nim ‘That one will teach you as regards everything’ (Jn 14:26). e.k e. Prepositions. Prepositions are simple or compound (e.`n-.s.kot.mou n-2i mwushs ‘After the death of Moses’ (lit.swbe m-mo.i+ e.u.k ‘Why do these witness against thee?’.3. In order to express the Passive.3.a precedes the Causative Infinitive to form the Temporal clause meaning ‘After’.ebol 6itm-. a.maqhths ‘He turned himself towards the disciples’. We do not wish this [one] to cause him to reign over us. the Infinitives of many verbs may express either an Active or a Passive sense.g. as’ (always contemporaneous time). mn-nsa.bhqleem ‘When Jesus had been born in Bethlehem’ (lit.ou. show thyself to the priest’. (1) Dative: ‘To.3.4wne ‘It happened for him to recover from the sickness’ (Z 288.g.lo 6m-.rm-.`oo. Preceded by a Preposition: (a) e. Lk 19:14).3.ouno3 ‘Thou wilt cause me to hear joy and gladness’ (Ps 50:8).as would normally be expected before the double consonants tre-. e. When used before a noun.g. a6ro. e. 6itoot= (or ebol 6itn--.4wpe de 6m-.3.r-.tre.3. the preposition shows the Construct form (e. then the Pronominal form is employed (e. (c) 6n.precedes the Causative Infinitive. e.smou n-2i m-. The pronoun is represented by the suffix form (§35).na. The pronominal forms are etymologically interesting in that they preserve weak consonants which have been lost in the Construct forms.3.g.e.thutn.g.spoudh ‘For lo.rwme ‘To the man’). §260. e.g.magos ‘He was mocked by the Magi’ (Mt 2:16).u.3. (4) In a hostile sense: ‘Against’.m-.

6i.6ht=) ‘Before.3i 6a ouhr ‘How much will you support?’ (Thomas 84).o n-.5). (5) To introduce the Object. ponhros 6i. n-. (7) With those verbs which take a Second Object.eiwt mn-.ene6 ‘Forever (lit.g.ou.oeik mn-.5ou n-.taa.th6 6i. nm-ma= ‘With’: (1) With the meaning ‘Together with’. 5.g. 6ht= Pronominal form only (rarely n-.3. for’ in dative sense.‘To contradict’.kwte m-. m-mo= (2 pl m-mw. n--.3.pe.u m-.g.g.3 ‘I am his servant (lit. 6i.ouoei4 m-.noute ‘To fear before God’.tn-) [old m]. 6a6 m-.ou.u. pe`a.6ih et..hrp . oute-.g. (3) After 4a`e ‘To speak’. in. (3) Temporal: 4a. anok pe pet.g.`i. 6a. (2) ‘From under. (6) After the verbs 4wpe ‘To become’ and o ‘To be’ (Qual of eire ‘To make.ne.g. from.p. e.g.g. Until ever)’. against’ (lit. e.k ebol m-mo. e.anapausis ‘It is movement with repose’ (Thomas 50. e.anok ‘Thy father and I’. mn--.ou. §264. (4) As a Genitive after the adverbs ebol. e.i+ ‘Do not remove thyself from me’.pwwne ebol n-. n-. 4a.r-.p.u. a. e.r-rwou ‘Many prophets and kings’. from’.3 6arw. nau n-. petros mn-. The fundamental meanings are ‘In. m-p.3 ‘His own village’. r-. (2) ‘From upon.roou4 6aro. defined (§268.m-na ‘He gave to them ten minae’. e.‘To tremble before him’. e. (5) In lieu of the conjunction ‘And’.ra4e nm-ma. a. §267. a.eu4h ‘He came by night’. e. on behalf of’.r-ro ‘They made him king’.p. m-p.4e n-.g. oute. (2) Temporal.g.6ote 6ht. especially when nouns are undefined. Nouns thus linked together are usually.6o n-. a. do’). p.`w m-mo. outw= ‘Between.6inhb tnau ‘When wilt thou rise up from sleep?’ (3) ‘In respect of.si4e ‘Wine .k ‘I say it to thee’. 6i. 6n--. 6aro= ‘Under’: (1) Location: ‘Under.t.g. pai+ e.`oi+ ‘Out of the ship’. e. (4) ‘With’.3. e.4i ‘Beneath a measured (load)’.re6t.filippos ‘He says to Philip’.g.s na.3m-.pe.pe.3.3. e. mingled with gall’.i+ ‘Do not turn thy face away from me’. 4a.k ‘He who receives judgment against thee’. nim m-mo.mhte n-. §262. I am made servant to him)’. 4a-. In front of).nou.m-mau ‘From that road’. e. (2) In lieu of the conjunction ‘And’.i\s\ n-. The Pronominal forms m-mo= are used: (a) After the particle m-min or m-mine to lend emphasis to the notion of possession.3 m-.profhths 6i.3.te. of price. out of’.k. among’.3 ‘He came to him’.g.‘To fight against’. 6i-.6ht= ‘Within’: 42 . et. a. oubh= ‘Opposite.ouoein ‘He hates the light’.g. 6i. but not invariably.p. e.‘To call someone something’. e.na.ma ‘To withdraw from this place’.s ‘They rejoiced with her’. to introduce the qualification of the subject. with’.g.(7) Indicating the object after certain verbs (§331-2).3 n-. ou. §268.. 6a.6ap oubh.w6s. (3) Temporal ‘In the time of’. (2) Of location.3 n-. from’.‘Which will they give on your behalf’. raste gar na. (1) Location: ‘Within. 6a-.p.5 6iww. 3-. e. na= (2 pl nh.i+w6annhs mn-.g. 6iw(w)= ‘Upon. Note the idioms: 5 oube.krwou n-.`w m-mo.pe.. stwt 6ht.aa. so frequently used after verbs of carrying or bearing when the bearer is thought of as being beneath the burden. §269. e.. from upon.tn-) [old n] ‘To.na. e. pek.g.6oou ‘On the day’. at’.xlamus ‘They put a robe upon him’. oute. m-. when the Construct or Pronominal form of the verb is not used (§328). ou. sabol. oube-.g.ou.bal 6a.rpe mn-.4a`e nm-m. (3) Instrument. ou. (4) ‘For’.net.‘Until the time of harvest’.g.3 ‘His own glory’.lo m-.pei+.g.6ih ‘Upon the road’. ouw6m oube.6m-6al na.babulwn ‘In the time of the carrying away to Babylon’.agaqos ‘Evil and good’. the pronominal form is a compound of 6i+ww= (from the old ’i3t ‘Back’): (1) ‘Upon’.i+akwbos ‘Peter and John and James’.g. see §86).nta.s ‘I say it’.pei+. §271.n ‘Who of us?’ §263. §270. te3.bal ‘To see with their eyes’. 5.g. e. toward.oikoumenh ‘Unto the limits of the inhabited (world)’. 5.ei n-.sa6w.te. e.qusiasthrion ‘Between the temple and the altar’. moute oube.p.bal ‘An eye for an eye’.moout ‘Among the dead’. out of’.na.sabol m-mo.aas ‘He smote Jesus with a blow’.ei 4aro.3. m-. (b) Occasionally in a Genitival sense. e. pet.3 ‘For tomorrow will take care of itself’.twoun de 6a. to introduce the Second Object.tn. e. e.4wpe m-. e.4m-t. n--.moste m-.kim pe mnou.g.t. against’.u.p.g.g.5 na. e.r-. a. 4aro= ‘Towards’: (1) Of persons.sabol.p.pek.g. pe3.ou.rodoths ‘This one who became the traitor’. tet. §262a. e. e.tb-t snau ‘The five loaves and the two fishes’.5me m-min m-mo.eoou mmine m-mo. a.e ‘I Am he who speaks with thee’.t.g. e. §265. §266. e.ma ‘In this place’.sateere ‘For 300 staters’.3. e. e.

p.genea ‘Upon this generation’.dikaiosunh na. etbhht ‘Concerning me’.u 6arw. 43 .3 ‘A Samaritan . a.na. after’.g.6oite e6ra. 6itoot= (lit. a. etbe. (3) 6atn-.pe ‘In the heaven’. To the hand of) (2 pl etn-. beside.p. To the face of). (2) erat= (lit.3. from’.4oop n-na6rm--. e.u.t. Compounds with e-.nau ero. a.laau na.oua e`w. (3) etn--.6moos 6a6th.noute ‘The Logos was in the presence of God’.tek.te3.3.ei e6rai+ 6m-.i+ 6a. na6ra= ‘In the presence of.kaa.u ‘They divided his garments among them’. to’.g.e`w.3 ‘Who were sitting beside him’.tetn-. e.g. before’.kton nm-m.4a`e ne. (4) m-ma6.6ih m-pekm-to ebol ‘This one who will prepare thy way before thee’.thutn-.ka nim n-sw.ou.mn-tre etbe. pwt ebol 6irat. e. e`n-. a. upon’.3i petn-. see 3).6ht.tei. etoot= (lit. ere.thutn-) ‘In.(often confused with 6atn--. (e)6rai+.e. (1) ern-. etbe-. (1) 6irn. (c) ‘Against.3.6ht. mostly with verbs of motion. e. e. e. 6n-.`oeis ‘Before the Lord’. (b) ‘For.ra4e nte. (4) ‘From out of. agent) ‘Thru.sepswp. (4) 6a6tn-. after’.3.tei.mestw. 6n-.g.thutn. came to him’.i+ ‘These things may He add in addition to me’. e.laos ‘With thee we shall return to thy people’.n-. e.(6iron--).(1) Location. (3) Instrument.g. (2) 6arat= (lit. ete[t].g.ka nim a.g.‘In him’. (2) 6irat= (lit. among’ (lit.4n-. e. a.u. m-p.g. ‘By.p.‘No one will take your joy from you’.na.rwme ‘To bear witness concerning the man’. t.ouh6 n-sw.‘One of you’ (lit.u.‘What is it which Moses commanded to you?’ (4) etoun--. pai et.ro ‘He has approached to the doors’. upon’. etoot.g. By means of the Simple Prepositions prefixed to the nouns describing parts of the body which could take the possessive suffix (§38). before’. n-toot= (lit. a. concerning’ . n-.2ot n-tn-. e. by.g. 6a(6)th= (lit. §276. of sacrifice offered a deity . under’. (3) (n-)na6rn--.4wpe ebol 6itoot.eiwt ‘To accuse you before the Father’. 6irw= (lit. erw= (lit. from among’ following the adverbs ebol. (2) n-tn--. Compounds with 6i-.i+ordanhs ‘He came up from the Jordan’. e.3 ‘There was a stone upon it’. At the foot) ‘Toward’. with’. Compounds with 6a-. e. Compound Prepositions.p.thutn-.noute ‘Before God’.(eron--). nai+ e.p.wne 6irw. n-. (3) 6itn--.sh3e ‘By the sword’. (2) Temporal.g.t.ou ‘Run out toward them!’. ei e`w. r-.g. over’. e. To the head of): (a) ‘Upon.ou ‘In order that they should place them before them’.e erat..n.thutn.g.pai ‘Because of this’. 6n-. beside’. a. kathgorei m-mw.(varies with 6a6tn--.n-. e. with’.g.u. with’. §275. 6itn-. (1) n-sa-.hi+ ‘In the house’.t. m-mn-.3. 6atoot= (lit.p.ou. etbhht= (old r db3 ‘For the payment of’) ‘Because of. 6n-. a.g.erhu ‘They feared on account of their fellows’.g.p. preceded by the article or possessive adjective and followed by ebol (n-). (6) e`n--. e. see 4). on account of’. e.m-mau ‘In those days’ (§54).m-. e.u ‘They besought him to remain with them’. e.e.+6h (lit. At the hand. e.3.g.g.g. 6m-.6h ‘Righteousness shall walk before him’. e.3. §272.re.g.t.n-na6rm-.(old m-bzh [h dotted]) ‘Before’. e. (1) 6arn--.u. by. e. One out of you). To the foot of) ‘To’.ou e.g.6amn-twn ‘Thru the eye of a needle’. e. et.6en. `e e.‘All things happened through him’.adj.3. e. In the hand of) (2 pl n-te. In the back) ‘Behind. has the meaning ‘In the face of.laau ‘I have not found faith of this degree in anyone’. To the bosom) ‘Beside.6oou et.pou.6ote e`n-. §274.ei. The most important of these are: §273. Compounds with n--. a. §277.. e.6e e.matoi 4oop 6arat ‘There are soldiers under me’ (§39).pe4 ne3.3.moo4e 6a.u. (5) 6a+poss.3.g.tn. Under the hand) ‘Beside.ka n-. e.mwushs 6on. from’.3. To the mouth of) ‘To.6th. cf §259.u. 3.3 ‘He saw them following after him’. e.ouatbe n-. e. e`w= (lit.g.3.r-.e2w 6ath.thutn.s2hr etoun-. (5) e6rn--.6h ‘It hated me before you’. a. m-pemto ebol m-.p.g.. At the mouth) ‘At.g. Coptic was able to form a wide range of Compound Prepositions. Beneath the mouth) ‘Beneath.arxh ‘In the beginning’. Beneath the foot) ‘Beneath. e.ma ‘Over the place’.samariths . m-ma6.g. a.thutn ‘He will remain with you’.thutn-) ‘To’.na.sobte n-. (5) m-pemto (from m-to ‘Presence’).kupros ‘We sailed beside Cyprus’.g.neu.ou ‘He had compassion for them’.6wn e6oun ern-.etoot. oua ebol n-. (d) ‘In addition to. n-sw= (lit.2w 6atn-.ou ‘They left all things behind them’. 6arw= (lit. Beneath-its-forepart) ‘In front of someone/something’ .u. p.ne. mostly of persons.3. before’.. e`m-. Beneath the heart) ‘With. e6ra= ‘To. ou penta. etouw= (lit.pistis n-.

(6) 6i`n-. still’ ‘Behind’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Another time’ ‘Here’ ‘Where’ ‘At once’ ‘When’ ‘Within’ ‘Upwards’ (old hry [h dotted]) ‘Downwards’ (old hry) ‘Quickly’ ‘Perhaps’ me4ak was originally a verb which took pronominal suffixes.p. over’. Adverbial Phrases. Substantives with prefixed preposition used adverbially.(e`n--).t. pet.‘He who is over.3 pe pe. 6i`n-.nou (for te.x\s\ ‘Perhaps he is the Christ’.me on pa6ou sop ke. pararo= eimhtixwris. `in.pinac ‘Upon a dish’.arxh m-. e.p.rh ‘From the place of the setting of the sun’ (Josh 1:4).e.m-pe. in command’.ka6 ‘The Sovereignty of the Father is spread upon the earth’ (Th 113).eiwt e.(the following noun is usually without the article) 6ws.(also m-.swnt ‘Since the beginning of creation’.bol e. a`n-t= (e`n-t=) ‘Without’.parabolh m-p. t.6i`n-. `in. next’. after’ ‘More than’ ‘Except’ ‘Without’ ‘As’ §281. §280. a`n-t. Note the Relative Substantive formed by the Compound pet.net. and is frequently to be left untranslated. nh` 6i`n-.moou ‘On the face of the water’. since’.laau 4wpe ‘Without him did not anything come into being’.g. i. There is no special Adverb Formation.k ‘He who is beside thee’.p.mn-t. me4ak n-to. Coptic uses a noun or infinitive prefaced by a preposition. e.mau ‘Outwards’: this is the commonest of all adverb equivalents.3-.g.hi+ ‘Beside the house’. 6i6ra.s. In order to qualify the verbal action.(the following noun is without the article) Chapter XIII. ‘According to. `in. The substantive may or may not be defined. (1) With e-.t. §278. e.para-).p.g. a`m-.w6s ‘The one in command of the reapers’.p.p. ‘Thy neighbor’.u m-.g.2lo2 ‘Laying upon a bed’. The Adverb.6itouw. 6itoun.ou.g.sop tai+ twn te. Note the relative substantive formed from this Compound Preposition: pet.mate e. The commonest of these are: kata-.p.`e laau ‘Without parable he did not say anything’.3. (5) 6i6ra= ‘On the face of’. The most important of these are: arhu bol ene6 na.g.(4) 6itoun-.por4 ebol 6i`m.6i`n-. Greek Prepositions used in Coptic.‘From. Upon the bosom) ‘Beside.m-mau ‘From that hour’. On the head) ‘Upon.ero m-. e. §282. §279. `in.ma n-. e. 6i`w= (lit. ‘Very’ ‘There’ 44 .ounou) tnau 6oun 6rai+ 2eph me4ak* *Note: ‘Perhaps’ ‘Outwards’ ‘Ever’ ‘Truly’ ‘Again.m-. e.ou.g. A few substantives are used absolutely without a prefixed preposition. kataro= para. 6itouw= (lit.6wtp.eunou et. a`n-. e. e.

often = Greek ως ‘how’ n-. §285.mate m-. n-.ou.tei+.pe.mhne m-.p.oou (m-. (3) With 6n-.mau m-.ou. 6n-.twn e. not necessarily translated.thr.(n-.t.sop n-. so’ ‘One by one’ ‘Once’ ‘A little’ ‘Again’ ‘Outside’ ‘At first’ ‘More like’ ‘Stealthily’ ‘Again’ (§111n) ‘In heart’. even as.`ioue n-.mine n-.eunou n-. .br-re m-.6ouoe. n-.(e.pe.p.6e).6oue) e.pa4e ‘At midnight’.qe (for n-.me ‘Truly’.t.p.sht (e.6ht §284.ou.ouw6mn-.poou (for 6m-.raste n-.t6h e. §246.kwte m-. ‘Downwards’ ‘Backwards’ ‘Whither’ ‘Beforehand’ ‘More than’ ‘Within’ ‘Upwards’ (according to context) ‘Downwards’ (according to context) n-.6oun e.bol 6i.6oou. 6m-. e.ou4hm n-.sht) e. For adverbial phrases formed with 6n.3m-.6oou) ‘Newly’ ‘Daily’ ‘Only’ ‘Greatly’ ‘There’ ‘Round about’ ‘Both together’ ‘Wholly’ ‘Far off’ ‘Today’ ‘At morning’ ‘Apart’ ‘Yesterday’ ‘Thus’ ‘Immediately’ (Crum p. (4) With other prepositions: 6i6i. 6n-.6rai+ §283.ouoei4) n-.snau m-.the substantive takes the article.pa6ou e.484b) ‘In the manner of.6oou) ‘Today’.4abol n-. especially common after verbs expressing moral activity and mental perception.ouoei4 (n-.4orpn-.mate m-.and the Infinitive with the Indefinite Article.4p-n.6oue) n-.t.oua oua n-. (2) With n-.poue m-.6ouoe.p.e.g.poou.4wp ‘Suddenly’. 6n-.sa3 n-. m-.ke.nai+ ‘Outside’ ‘Thus’ 45 .p.saousa n-.

6rai+ mn-. to form an Adverbial Phrase.ou. alla.. epei(dh) 2e n-tooun Gk: ara..followed by the Indefinite article.g.] §289.’ ‘But rather’ Contrasting Statement Causal ‘But on the other hand’ ‘Quote: .pe. 6n-.g.. tote 46 .amelia ‘Carelessly’. etbe `e Gk: gar.n-.3. Greek Adverbs frequently appear in Coptic texts.profhteue 6arw. toinun.s sa. Notes on a few of the more important conjunctions follow in §290-95. ‘And’ ‘Moreover’ ‘Or’ ‘Either .(or n-. it also uses a wide variety of Greek conjunctions. 6wste `e.. dh.... oude . or ..ounam sa.sa-) ‘Away’ ‘Everywhere’ ‘To the right’ ‘To the left’ ‘Upwards’ §286. kaiper. many of which became part and parcel of the language. i. `ekas Gk: 6ws.n-. therefore’ ‘In order that’ ‘As’ ‘Since’ Temporal ‘After’ Connecting Separating auw auw on `n-.sht 6i. The Coptic conjunction appears first and is followed by the loan conjunctions from Greek.6oun 4a. §287.6rai+ ‘Below’ ‘Behind’ ‘Altogether. oute . oute . kalws a.sa nim sa.e. While it is true that Coptic possesses conjunctions which have survived from the older stage of the language..3.. mentoi(te). In the manner) Gk: 6ws `in mn-. 6oson.ou. h oude . e.. ebol `e. men .q. They usually stand absolutely.pa6ou 6i. ketoi.. [MS lacks §288.. mhpote n-.sw.. de Final Comparison `e `e.bol sa.`e pe3.. a.e (lit. Conjunctions. 3omws.a6e ebol kakws ‘He spent his life badly’.6oun 6i.sa Gk: 6ws..6bour sa. epeide. n-to3 6ww3 Gk: de.. 6ote. oun. 6otan. plhn.‘Well did he prophesy about you’. Occasionally a Greek word is introduced by 6n. mhpws.sop 6i.bol 4a. 6opws. ’ ‘Because’ ‘Therefore’ Sequence ‘Then. A list of the principal conjunctions is given in the next section. at once’ ‘Within’ ‘Upwards’ 4a‘Outwards’ ‘Inwards’ ‘Upwards’ mn-‘Afterwards’ sa. e.6i.tn.6rai+ 4a. without introductory preposition.

g.nau ero.`eu pa.6hhne se.pe auw n-.g. Interjections.(§380) and the Imperfect or Future Imperfect.na. set’) is used primarily to join together sentences. It is less commonly used to join nouns together. the particle is made to agree in gender and number with the subject of the sentence. nanou. ene Gk: kan. Z 590. n-.k.6m-6al ‘I shall not again call you my servants’ (Jn 15:15). Apa Victor. NB: the tenses of the verbs preceding and following `e are independent of one another.2) and 6i. m-.n. Coptic possesses few interjections. §337. (no) more’.son ‘I will go then to a brother’ (Z 306. a mother’ (Z 327.kaa. moreover there is room still’.ouon nim ‘Art thou saying this parable to us or art thou saying it to everyone?’ (Lk 12:41).kake auw p. on the other hand.g.3-. (d) To introduce Causal Clauses. verbal form. Oh that!’. viz.2om n-.ou auw n.maau ‘I had.6hte 5. §295.te3.ou e.i+ 6ww3 n-. (b) To introduce Direct speech.3.5).eire m-. e.tet. (4) n-to3 6ww3 -2e n-tooun ‘But rather’ ‘But on the other hand’ ‘Then. (e) To introduce Final Clauses. and he is in the darkness with them’ (¹Crum 008b.se. furthermore’.3. Notes on Conjunctions.2e an erw.kosmos.eira n-to3 n-. i.i+ ‘Woe to me!’ (4) 6amoi+ ‘Would that.israhliths na.te3. barabbas `n.e.9). Sahidic generally substitutes for 6amoi+ the impersonal nanou.3 4wpe auw on oun.na.i+ n-.`w na.dikaiosunh ‘If a wicked father begets a righteous son.Conditional ‘If’ e4`e. e.ou. `en. 5. §337.soutwn ‘Oh that we might do what is upright!’ (Ming. 47 .(§268. may he live¹ by his righteousness!’ (¹Future Energetic.moute.nau e-. a. In other words.g.mnt. To say).kake nm-na. I shall send my messenger!’ (Mk 1:2).t. e.phue se. e. behold!’: properly used before a noun.e.. e.3-.6m-.mn-t.ouw6.5.g.k.e.6e ebol 6n-.6n-.g.(less correctly `in-) ‘Or’.3.t. and this (one) sees the sins while his father is committing them.(§264. (2) auw on ‘Moreover.g. auw p. i. §293.eiwt eire m-mo.r-.e.`ioua de n-to3 m-.c. an Israelite indeed!’ (Jn 1:47). (6) `e.rh na.6hhte ‘Lo.oo6 n. (5) -2e in negative statements has the meaning ‘(Not) again. Note: Occasionally 6hhte appears in the forms 6hhpe and 6hhne.g. has happened. pet. e.aikaios auw pai+ n.na. ne oun-. e.sa6ww.na.na. e.g.`e na. e.i\s\ ‘Barabbas or Jesus’ (Mt 27:7). e4wpe.6ht) ‘Would that you would bear with me in a little foolishness!’ (II-Cor 11:1). ou.n. e.kana ‘He came therefore again to Cana’ (Jn 4:46).ouoein auw n-. p. (¹II Perfect.`w m-mo.`oo. behold!’: properly used before a pronoun or verb.k.g. Lk 14:22) §292. §296.na. lines 1-4) §291.tn. §202. (c) To introduce Indirect speech. eis.amn-te nm-ma.wn6 6n.c. e.pe.m-.3 (an) ebol ‘But the blasphemy in respect of the Spirit will not be forgiven’ (Mt 12:31).p. The following may be noted: (1) eis ‘Lo. e. e. etbe ou tet.tei.na. therefore. (3) ouoi+ ‘Woe!’. er4an ou.3-. (3) `n-.4hre n-. §294.s e.penta.moute ero.3 auw eis. eis.3.ei 4a.ma ‘That which thou hast said¹. and he fears and removes himself from them.pet.parabolh `en e.r-6ote n.11).polis `e kalonia (for kolonia) ‘A city..bwk n-tooun 4a ou.ou.2e na. (1) auw ‘And’ (originating from a. ouoi+ na. §369. Sometimes auw is used to join sentences when the sentences are already joined by use of the Conjunctive (§225). they are in Amente¹ with him. a.ta.ouoein ‘But he who does the truth is wont to come to the light’ (Jn 3:21).g.i+ `e noemin ‘Why will you call me Naomi?’ (Ruth 1:21). to indicate the second object.p\n\a\ n-.aq. (2) eis.aggelos ‘Behold. originating from the old rdd (lit.ht (i.me ‘Behold.’. e.g. followed by the dative. an unaccented particle. e.g. 6amoi+ on ene.2e on e.4). but rather follow an introductory word: noun. §217.nobe ere.u ‘Lo.g. and the powers of heaven will tremble’ (Mk 13:24-25).noein ‘The sun will become darkness and the moon will not give its light.na. a colony’ (Acts 16:12). followed by the prefix ene.3 ebol m-mo. Steindorff Grammar 49*. In Biblical texts 6amoi+ is less commonly found in Sahidic than in Bohairic (Boh form amoi). for this purpose Coptic more correctly used the prepositions mn-.siou se.na. p.5 an m-pe.eiwt n-. and the stars will fall from heaven.koui m-. the Imperative of ouw6 ‘To put.asebhs `po n-.ei. eimht(e)i §290. etc.3-. 322).i an ‘And the world will see me no more’ (Jn 14:19). It is used in a number of ways: (a) Apposition: ‘Namely.6hhpe 3-. but’ ‘Then’ These do not stand at the beginning of the sentence. eis ou.s ‘It is good’. It is used after a verb of calling or naming.n n-.anexe m-mo.ou.at.s ene.t.p. §373.me 4a.

re3.sarc te ‘He is our flesh’ (Gen 37:27). The subsequent Pronouns show Absolute forms. which agree in number and gender with the Predicate. It consists of two parts: (1) The Subject.`e a. pronoun.g. This construction Predicate-Particle-Subject is also used when the Predicate is a Pronoun.eiwt ‘I (am) in my Father’ (Jn 14:10). The Construct Form of the Independent Pronoun is more usual than the Absolute Form—compare the foregoing example with the form giving the same meaning in Lk 5:8: ang-. §305. they (are) in the world’ (Jn 17:10). ten.eiwt n-. (5) 6a(e)io is the interjection of entreaty. §306. e. Possessive.tn. §298.6). For example. can be compared with the English ‘It is’ and French ‘C'est’. Group II: The Predicate Stands First.r2w 6i. cf for example the observations below (§329. e.6en ebol.n-te. You [are] some out of this world) (Jn 8:23). No!’. anok de ang-.eiwt auw n-tw.6en.kosmos ‘These.4a`e m-. verily!’.nobe.thutn. for it shows features of both types of sentence. was. 5. The Durative Verbal Sentence may be said to form a kind of bridge between the Non-Verbal and the Limitative Verbal Sentence.rwme n-. the whole phrase being prefaced by the Indefinite Article. The Verbal Sentence can be further subdivided into Durative Verbal and Limitative Verbal Sentences. This.`oeis e.noute ‘The Logos of God is the seed’ (lit. 2nd or 3rd person.nai+ ‘No.pei.tn.u.na. Demonstrative or Interrogative. the Imperfect tense often shows the Existential Particle pe after the Verbal Form. Chapter XIV.ou.tn.r-. These Particles. (2) The Predicate: noun.g. n-te.g. e. Notes with the introductory ‘Observation’ must be regarded as suggestions on my part. §302.s nh. pai+ pe ‘It is this’ (lit.n-. When the Subject is the Third Person. my daughters.pa. and you (are) in me.4eere m-p. n-te. Two types of sentence occur in Coptic: the Non-Verbal and the Verbal Sentence. In the following pages no attempt is made to present any new explanation. §299. e. nai+ se. e. The Non-Verbal Sentence is a sentence which has no proper verb in the predicate. the Subject is represented by the Existential Particles pe.6ht ‘My Father (is) in me’ (Jn 14:11). anok 5.ou.g.p. pa.pa. e.3n-t ang-.pai+ ‘Yea. Lk 8:11). Fear this one!’ (Lk 12:5).rwme n-.`w m-mo.§297.6e 6atn.6ht. and the Predicate contains a defined noun or Independent Pronoun but not an adverb or its equivalent.te.Obs) on the Direct and Oblique Object. To express the Subject. is.s6ime ‘Thou (art) a woman’ (Ruth 3:11).g. The Predicate Noun must be defined by the Article or Possessive Adjective. such adjectives as did survive from the older stage of the language were treated as substantives (§104) and therefore appear as Nominal Predicates. the Logos of God it is.ou. The predicate can be either Nominal or Adverbial. The equivalent of an Adjectival Predicate is effected by means of the Compound Preposition ebol.p\n\a\ m-. ne.6m-. When the Subject is expressed by a noun. The Sentence. §303.26). The Subject is often strengthened by using the Absolute Form and following it with the Construct Form.makarios para n-. are. ne3.p. use is made of the Independent Pronouns (§45). ‘Yea. anok pe p.g. Syntax. which in the Non-Verbal Sentence stands for the logical subject.no2 pe ‘He is great’ (lit.nobe ‘I (am) a sinful man’ (Z 321. adverb (or adverbial phrase). noun or pronoun. I say to you. A satisfactory theory of the Sentence in Coptic remains to be worked out. §307. pe. §300.‘I (am) in my Father. e.rwme thr. §301. it is).ou. do not remain thus!’ (Ruth 1:13).‘Out of’ placed before a defined Substantive. m-pwr na.ri. nai+ de ne penta. the Pronominal forms of I Present (§188) are used. I (am) not a man’ (Ps 21:6). 6a(e)io 5.tn-. Group I: The Subject Stands First: (1) When the Subject is the 1st or 2nd Person.2ro2 pe p. ou.tn. (b) When the Subject is pronominal.g. further examples which might be quoted are: n-te. Observation: The Independent Pronouns can be used before an Adverbial Predicate.tn. anok ou. representing the Logical Subject.6ht auw anok n-.b. e. etc. it stands in apposition after the Existential Particle representing the Logical Subject.i+ ‘The Spirit of the Lord (is) upon me’ (Lk 4:18). (6) m-pwr is the interjection of deprecation. It is frequently found preceding the Negation of the Imperative. n-tw.g.eiote ne ‘They are his parents’ (Jn 9:2).6m-. the Copula (‘Am.re3. especially when the Pronominal form of I Present has been used at the beginning of the sentence. The Subject stands first: (2) When the Predicate is an adverb or its equivalent: (a) With Nominal Subject. te.6rai+ e`w.p. he is. By no means!. Z 313. The Adjectival Predicate had ceased to exist. §304.6m-.rwme an ‘I (am) a worm.kosmos ‘You (are) worldly’ (lit.6m-. (2) The Predicate stands first. The Non-Verbal Sentence can be divided into two groups: (1) The Subject stands first.’) being understood.6n-. ‘Do not!.6ote 6ht.g. e.6ih ‘These are the ones which fell by the way’ (Mk 48 .4beer ‘You (are) my friends’ (Jn 15:14).g. whether Independent. and I (am) in you’ (Jn 14:20).ou ‘You (are) more blessed than all men’ (Pistis Sophia 15).m-.ro ‘I Am the door’ (Jn 10:9). e. The seed. A great one. pe. e.g. 1st.r-.3. The Non-Verbal Sentence.


ou pe pei+.6wb ‘What is this work?’

(Z 323.a.1). For Possessive Pronoun, cf §248, 2nd example.

Note: Coptic expresses the conjunction ‘So, thus’ by the Non-Verbal Sentence: tai+ te q.e (for t.6e) ‘This is the way (or manner)’; e.g. tai+ te q.e 4hn nim et.nanou.3 4a.3.taue karpos ebol e.nanou.3 ‘So every good tree is wont to produce good fruit’ (Mt 7:17). §308. Concord. When the Predicate is an Independent Pronoun, 1st or 2nd Person, singular or plural, the Existential Particle representing the Logical Subject generally appears as pe; e.g. anok pe p.4ws et.nanou.3 ‘I Am the good shepherd’ (Jn 10:11), n-tw.tn- pe p.ouein m-.p.kosmos ‘You are the light of the world’ (Mt 5:14). However, when the Subject and Predicate are nouns of the same number and gender, the Existential Particle is in accord; e.g. ta.nai+ gar n-.tei+.mine te t.mn-t.ero n-.m-.phue ‘For of such a kind is the kingdom of the heavens’ (Mt 19:14), neu.tafos ne neu.hi+ 4a.ene6 ‘Their graves are their houses forever’ (Ps 48:11). But when the Predicate and the Subject differ in number and gender, the Existential Particle is generally pe, no attempt at concord being made; e.g. pek.4a`e pe t.me ‘Thy word is the truth’ (Jn 17:7), t.pe pe pa.qronos ‘Heaven is my throne’ (Acts 7:49), ou.swma n-.ouwt pe anon thr.n- ‘One body are we all’ (I-Cor 10:17). §309. Emphasis. When special emphasis is laid on the Subject of Non-Verbal Sentences containing the Existential Particle representing the Logical Subject, the order of the sentence undergoes a change: the Subject is placed at the beginning of the sentence, with the Predicate and Existential Particle following; e.g. t.s6ime de pe.oou m-.pes.6ai te ‘The woman is the glory of her husband’ (I-Cor 11:7), n-to.ou thr.ou 6en.agrios ne ‘They all are wild beasts’ (Z 318.a.5). As a rule in this construction, the Existential Particle is in accord with the subject in both number and gender. Exceptions are found; e.g. peu.las ou.sh3e te e.sthm ‘Their tongue is a sharp sword’ (Ps 56:5). Note: The preceding example shows a tendency which is fairly common in Coptic: the desire to keep the Existential Particle representing the Logical Subject as near as possible to the Predicate Substantive; and, when this substantive is enlarged by a genitive or relative clause, to place the enlargement after the Existential Particle; e.g. ou.rwme pe n-te.p.noute ‘He is a man of God’ (Z 348.b.16). §310. The Past Tense of the Non-Verbal Sentence is formed by prefixing the Existential Particle neimmediately before the Predicate or before the Subject, when the sentence is of the type under Group I; e.g. ne.ou.grafeus pe ‘He was a scribe’ (Z 351.12), barabbas de ne ou.soone pe ‘But Barabbas, he was a robber’ (Jn 18:40), ne.ang-.ou.koui ‘I was a little one’ (Ps 151:1 LXX). §311. For the Circumstantial use of the Non-Verbal Sentence, cf §197a.n. §312. Negation of the Non-Verbal Sentence is effected by means of the particles n- ... an; e.g. n-.ou.re3.`i6o an pe p.noute ‘God is not a trifler’ (Acts 10:34), p.4a`e ete.tn-.swtm- ero.3 m-.pwi an pe ‘The Logos which you hear is not mine’ (Jn 14:24), pei.rwme n-.ou.ebol 6m- p.noute an pe ‘This man is not from God’ (Jn 9:16), n-.anok m-.mate an pe ‘It is not I only’ (Jn 8:16). Frequently the particle n- is omitted; e.g. ang.ou.rwme an ‘I (am) not a man’ (Ps 21:7). §313. Note that it is only the Predicate which is negated, and for this reason the particle n- is usually omitted before the subject of Non-Verbal Sentences of the type Group I; see §301. §314. Remarks on the Subject of Non-Verbal Sentences. As a general rule the Subject, if it is a noun, must be defined with the Definite Article or Possessive Adjective. There are exceptions to this rule; cf the examples quoted in §248. When the subject has the Indefinite Article, or no Article, the Impersonal Existential Verbs oun-- and (m-)mn-- (§233) are used. Strictly speaking, when these verbs are used, the sentence is not in fact Non-Verbal, as it contains a verb of the Old Conjugation type. §315. The Verbal Sentence. In contrast to the Non-Verbal Sentence, the Verbal Sentence contains a finite verb— which may be either transitive or intransitive, as well as either Infinitive (expressing action) or Qualitative (expressing state). As has already been noted, the Verbal Sentence should itself be divided into Sentences containing Durative Tenses (§188-98) and Sentence containing Limitative Tenses (§199ff). §316. The Durative Verbal Sentence. Sentences containing the Present, Imperfect, and Circumstantial Tenses, are called Durative. They are distinguished from all other Verbal Sentences in two ways: they alone can take the Qualitative form of the verb, and they cannot take a direct object ; i.e. they must use the Absolute form of the verb, and cannot use the Construct or Pronominal forms (§328; exception in §329n); e.g. (a) Present: pei.laos t.maeio m-mo.i 6n-.ne3.spotou ‘This people praise me with their lips’ (Mk 7:6), 5.`w m-mo.s nh.tn- ‘I say it to you’; (b) Imperfect: nere.i\s\ de me m-.marqa ‘Jesus was loving Martha’ (Jn 11:5), ne.u.4oop gar 6n-.ou.mn-t.`a`e mn-.neu.erhu ‘For they were being in enmity with one another’ (Lk 23:12); (c) Circumstantial: ere.n-.ro 4otm ‘The doors being shut’ (Jn 20:19), n-.4hre 4hm e.u.`i4kak ebol 6m-.pe.rpe e.u.`w m-mo.s `e wsanna p.4hre n-.daueid ‘The children crying out in the temple saying, Hosanna, O Son of David!’ (Mt 21:15). §317. The Limitative Verbal Sentence. In contrast to the Durative Verbal Sentence, the Limitative Tenses employed in a sentence cannot take the Qualitative Form; but can take a direct object, i.e.


they can use the Construct and Pronominal Forms of the Infinitive (see further §327-29 for qualifications of this general rule); e.g. a.3.`e.nai+ ‘He said these (things)’ (Lk 18:11), eis.6hhte 5.na.`eu pa.aggelos ‘Lo, I shall send my messenger’ (Mk 1:2), a.p.koui n-.4hre seu6-.n-.ka nim et.n-ta.3 ‘The younger son gathered everything which he had’ (Lk 15:13). §318. The normal word order in the Verbal Sentence is: (1) The Auxiliary with Subject (Noun or Pronoun) (2) The Verbal Form (3) The Object (Noun or Pronoun) (4) The Dative (Noun) (5) The Adverb E.g. a.p.`oeis tamio n-.6en.4thn n-.4aar n-.adam ‘The Lord prepared coats of skin for Adam’ (Gen 3:21), a.u.n-t.3- 4a.annas n-.4orp ‘They brought him to Annas at first’ (Jn 18:13). §319. When the Dative is Pronominal, it takes precedence over the Object of the verb. The Object then follows the Dative and is introduced by the particle n--; e.g. 5.na.`oou na.u n-.6en.profhths mn6en.apostolos ‘I shall send to them prophets and apostles’ (Lk 11:49), 3.na.eire na.k n-.ouna ‘He will show to thee mercy’ (Z 309.a.6). Note: The pronoun may not precede the noun to which it refers; e.g. a.3.5 n-.ne.skeuh n-.n-.rwme na.u ‘He gave the implements of the men to them’ (Acts Andreas and Paulus, Steindorff, Grammar, *35.l.18). §320. When however the Object is Pronominal, it retains its normal position after the verb; e.g. (a) Durative: 5.`w m-mo.s nh.tn- ‘I say it to you’; (b) Limitative: 3.na.taa.3 nh.tn- 6m-.pa.ran ‘He will give it to you in my name’ (Jn 16:23). §321. The Subject. The normal position of the Subject is at the beginning of the Sentence ; e.g. p.rwme swtm- e.p.4a`e ‘The man hears the Logos’, 3.swtm- e.p.4a`e ‘He hears the Logos’. Strictly speaking, with the exception of the I Present Durative and I Future Limitative, the auxiliary verb precedes the subject; e.g. a.p.rwme swtm- e.p.4a`e ‘The man heard the Logos’, a.3.swtm e.p.4a`e ‘He heard the Logos’, etc. §322. However, it should be noted that Coptic shows a preference for the use of the Pronominal Forms of the auxiliaries, even when the Subject is Nominal; e.g. mwu+shs pa.6m-6al a.3.mou ‘Moses my servant is dead’ (lit. Moses my servant did he die; Josh 1:2), auw noemin pe`a.s n-.6rouq ‘And Naomi, she says to Ruth’ (Ruth 1:15). This construction is particularly common when the Sentence is connected to a preceding sentence by one of the Conjunctions (§287), which must stand second in word order: 2e, de, gar, etc.; e.g. i\s\ de pe`a.3 n-.ne3.maqhths ‘But Jesus, he says to his disciples’. Similarly, when the subject is Pronominal, the Independent Pronoun is used and followed by the Conjunction; e.g. n-to3 de pe`a.3 na.3 ‘But he says to him’ (Mt 19:17). Note: Sometimes when emphasis is laid on the Pronoun, the Independent form is used directly before the Pronominal forms of the Auxiliary; e.g. anok a.i.bwk eime6 p.`oeis de a.3.kto.i+ e.i.4oueit ‘I, I went away full; but the Lord, he has made me return empty’ (Ruth 1:21). §323. Generally speaking, emphasis on the Subject is effected by means of the Interjections eis and eis.6hhte (§296); e.g. eis p.aggelos m-.p.`oeis a.3.ouwn6 na.3 ebol 6n-.ou.rasou ‘Lo, the angel of the Lord, he appeared to him in a dream’ (Mt 1:20). §324. Frequently, especially in Coptic translations of Greek works, the Nominal Subject is represented by the Pronominal Form of the Auxiliary, and is restated more precisely at the end of the sentence. In such cases the Subject is indicated by the prefix n-2i-, ‘I.e., that is’; e.g. pe`a.u 2e na.3 n-2i.m-.maqhths ‘Therefore they say to him, i.e. the disciples’ (Jn 11:12), a.3.bwk n-.ouei4 n-2i.pe.presbuteros n-.4iht 4a.p.arxh.episkopos n-.rakote ‘He went once, i.e. the priest of Shiêt, to the Archbishop of Alexandria’ (Z 292.c.1). §325. n-2i- is also found after the Causative Infinitive to define more exactly the Pronominal form; e.g. 6m-.p.tre.3 `wk de ebol n-2i.pe.6oou n-.t.penthkosth ‘When the Day of Pentecost was being fulfilled’ (lit. When it was being fulfilled, i.e. the Day of Pentecost; Acts 2:1) . §326. The Object. The Object normally follows the verbal form, except when the Dative is Pronominal and thus takes precedence (§319). In the case of Limitative Tenses, the Object may be added directly to the verbal stem. Thus with a Nominal Object, the Construct form is used; e.g. a.3.6etb- p.rwme ‘He killed the man’. When the Object is a Pronoun, the Pronominal form is used; e.g. a.3.6otb.3- ‘He killed him’. (1) In the case of a Nominal Object, the addition of the Object directly to the Verb causes the Tone to pass from the Verb to the Object; e.g. a.3.6etb.p.rwme (§20, 21). We might call this Object the ‘Tonal Object’. (2) However, when the Object is a Pronoun, it does not itself receive the Tone, but rather follows the stressed syllable in the Pronominal form of the Verb; e.g. a.3.kotb.3-. It might be described as the ‘Post-Tonal Object’, but in view of the fact that some verbs, owing to the loss of original consonants, do show a Tonal stress on some suffix endings (e.g. mestw.k ‘To hate thee’, sa6w.3 ‘To set him up’, etc.), a better name


would be ‘Direct Suffix Object’. E.g. (a) Perfect: a.n-.rwme mere.p.kake n-.6ouo e.p.ouoein ‘Men loved darkness more than light’ (Jn 3:19), a.3.no`.3- e.pe.4teko ‘He cast him into prison’ (Mt 18:30); (b) Future: 3.na.`ek.6wb nim ebol ‘He will fulfill everything’ (Mk 9:12), 5.na.tn-nou.3 4arw.tn- ‘I shall send him to you’ (Jn 16:7); (c) Habitude: me.u.`ere ou.6hbs ‘They are not wont to light a lamp’ (Mt 5:15), 4a.u.kaa.3 6i`n- t.luxnia ‘They are wont to put it on the lamp stand’ (ibid.). §327. It must be noted here that with some verbs (§331-2), even if one of the Limitative Tenses is used, the Object cannot be the Tonal or Direct Suffix Object, but rather must be prefaced by the preposition e-, ero=, the verbal form of course being the Absolute Form. §328. The older forms of the language show that, apart from some verbs mentioned above, originally the Direct Object— either Tonal Object or Direct Suffix Object— was the normal usage with all tenses. However, during the Persian Period a new usage appears in Demotic. With certain tenses, represented in Coptic by the Durative Tenses and including the Relative Present (§358), the Object— whether it be Nominal or Pronominal —can no longer be attached directly to the verbal stem, but must be prefaced by the old preposition m ‘In’, Coptic n--, m-mo=. The Verbal Form is the Absolute Form. §329. This form of the Object is here named the Oblique Object. The old term ‘Indirect Object’ is very confusing to the student, as it is a term also applied to the Dative as well as the Adverbial Phrase; e.g. ouon gar nim et.eire n-.m-.pe.qoou 3.moste m-.p.ouoein ‘For everyone who does what is evil, he hates the light’ (Jn 3:20), 5.`w m-mo.s ‘I say it’, ei.`w m-mo.s na.k ‘To thee I say it’, ne.3.tan6out m-mo.3 an nm-ma.u etbe `e ne.3.sooun- n-.ouon nim ‘He was not trusting himself to them, because he was knowing everyone’ (Jn 2:24); cf also the examples quoted in §189, 194, 316. Note: An exception of this rule of Oblique Object with the Durative Tenses is found in the case of the verb ouw4 ‘To desire, wish’; e.g. 5.oue4 ou.na n-.6ouo euqusia ‘I desire mercy more than sacrifice’ (Mt 12:7) = ei.oue4 ou.na e.6oue ouqusia (Mt 9:13), e.u.oue4 n-.aspasmos ‘Desiring the salutations’ (Mk 12:38). With Relative Present; e.g. 6wb 2e nim e.tetn.oua4.ou ‘Everything therefore which you wish them’ (Mt 7:12), n-.q.e e.t.e.oua4.s- ‘In the way which thou (fem) wishest it’ (Mt 26:39), ou pet.e.k.oua4.3- ‘What is it which thou desirest it?’ (Lk 18:41). §329a. Observation: The reason for the use of the Oblique Object with the Durative Tenses is not yet clear. It may be that the imperfective aspect of the Durative Tenses led to the stress being laid on the verbal action. The fact that the verb must appear in the Absolute Form may have been due to the feeling that the verbal action so expressed was a process still in the state of being achieved and that the full result of the action was not yet realized in the object, the destined recipient of the action. On the other hand, the Limitative Tenses could use the Construct and Pronominal Forms where these existed, because it was felt that the verbal action had been or would be realized in the object. Thus the Object received the Tonal Stress, because it was considered as having received or destined to receive the full effect of the verbal action. However, the numerous instances of the use of the Oblique Object after the Limitative Tenses of verbs possessing both Construct and Pronominal Forms, suggest that the explanation advanced above is only a partial explanation. It is not impossible that when the Absolute Form was used after the Limitative Tenses, there was some feeling of emphasis on the verbal action which had been or would be effected. §330. The majority of Greek and other loan verbs take the Oblique Object (§27n). A smaller number follow the rule set out in the next section (§331). §331. After some verbs, e.g. of sentient perception and mental action, the object is introduced by the preposition e-, ero= (§261.7). However, many of these verbs also take the Oblique Object.

meeue nau swtm 4wlm `w6 2om2meime wb4 r-6ote kwr4 4ine moute 2w 6e smou 51

‘To think’ ‘To see’ ‘To hear’ ‘To smell’ ‘To touch’ ‘To feel’ ‘To perceive’ ‘To forget’ ‘To fear’ ‘To entreat’ ‘To greet’ ‘To call’ ‘To await’ ‘To find’ ‘To bless’

ero=.pe3.4). do also’ Cf second example quoted in the Note above.oua6. ne. When the object thus emphasized is a Pronoun.6ise mn.n.i+ auw nai+ e.r-. tetn-.3.laos ‘For they were fearing the people’ (Lk 22:2).pe.g.k k. do not as a rule show the article before the noun following the Construct Form of the verb (§90). The Adverb. §332a. nai+ ere.`oeis aa. eis nai+ oun-ta. exceptions: (1) ouw4 ‘To desire.i+ n-. Obligatory for all Durative Tenses.g. As a rule the Object must be determined either outwardly or in itself.ou e`w. and these things may he add to me’ (Ruth 1:17). anok de a.g.u4h ‘For you remember.meeue gar ne. (2) Greek and other loan words.pe.ou n-. Oblique Object (Verbal form. brethren.6m-.pen.2lo2 ‘He touched the bed’ (Lk 7:14).m-. e.ka6 e. Construct or Pronominal): Admissible with all Limitative Tenses. Compound Verbs. A. §332. nai+ de n-te.p. did they set me as king through him.na6te 2w4t sa6ou 2wnt ‘To trust in’ ‘To behold’ ‘To curse’ ‘To be angry with’ E.re.i+ ‘These things may the Lord do to me.u. they do not wish to move them with one of their fingers’ (Mt 23:4). ero=. (3) Verbs whose object must be introduced by e-. e. r-.p.3.perixwros ‘The report proceeded concerning him in 52 .r.u na.6wb m-.p.g.nau e.soeit de moo4e etbhht.thhbe ‘They.p.pen. exceptions: (1) Verbs lacking Construct or Pronominal Forms. Absolute): e-.p. e.p.neu. Summary. Ps 2:6).ou ‘These things when he had thought on them’ (Mt 1:20). these things. I.3.meeue r-. a. a6ro. e. our suffering and our affliction while we worked (at our trade) day and night’ (I-Thes 2:9).ma nim n-. §334.6ioue ero.ouw4 an ekim ero. Occasionally the Object is emphasized by placing the Interjection eis before it.hrp. ero= are also found after some verbs classified as Intransitives: kim kwte soo6e twmn-t 4aar and 6ioue 6are6 `ro ‘To move’ ‘To surround’ ‘To set up’ ‘To meet’ ‘To strike’ ‘To keep’ ‘To conquer’ E.toot. Admissible with Limitative Tenses.n.eoou ‘We saw his glory’ (Jn 1:14).`w6 e. The normal position of the Adverb or Adverbial Phrase is at the end of the sentence.g.k. Its normal position after the verb is referred to by means of a Resumptive Pronoun agreeing in number and gender.ke ‘To forget’ ‘To remember’ §333.sou ‘Lo. Direct Object (Verbal form. I have them’ (Z 310. wish’.‘Thou hast kept the wine’ (Jn 2:10).kaqista m-mo.6are6 e.i+.t. (2) Verbs whose Object must be introduced by B. e-.3‘I have been set as king by him’ (lit.p.te. a. Exceptions to this rule are: ‘To be.i+ ‘Why dost thou strike me?’ (Jn 18:23).b.g.3.wb4 r-.p.m-. however. n-toou de n-.se. e. the Independent Pronoun is used at the beginning of the sentence.6oou mn. n-tok de a. a.u.6ote gar 6ht. Note: Compound Verbs (§177) used in Durative Tenses generally preserve the Construct Form of the verb.r-.r-ro ebol 6i.oua n-.e.g.snhu m-.3.meeue ero. Emphasis of the Object can be effected by placing it at the beginning of the sentence.

e. Coordination of Sentences.p. This is particularly the case with many Verbs qualified by the Adverbs ebol. Note: Occasionally `e. especially if it were a date.galilaia ‘When he heard (them say): Galilee’ (Lk 23:6).se.smot e.a. although not characteristic of Greek. e6oun. at the end of these days he has spoken to us in the Son’ (Heb 1:1-2a). oun4-.g. In the older stages of the language the Adverb of Time.galilaios pe prwme ‘He asked whether the man was a Galilean’ (Lk 23:6). e. Mk 11:26). Indeed it is often quite impossible to distinguish whether a statement or a question following a verb of saying.na.r-.g. e. emau.sn-te 6n-. Forms of Speech. but rather treats both Direct and Indirect Speech in the same way.3).laau n-.rwme `e 3. the Conjunctive follows the Causative Infinitive.smou ‘There the Lord commanded his blessing’ (Ps 133:3). e.g. it does not stand at the beginning of the sentence.3.g.swtm.noute ‘It is possible for me to destroy the temple of God’ (Mt 26:61).p.rpe m-. `e is not translated but rather is equivalent to inverted commas or quotation marks.6ht.swou6 e6oun n-. This type of asyndeton is also commonplace in the Semitic languages. `e introducing indirect speech is mostly found after verbs of sentient perception or declaration.n-. `e may be rendered as ‘That’ in statements and ‘Whether’ in questions. pe`a. n-tere. e.ouwn na.tn.tetn-.n 6m-. However.3 a.noute ouwna6 na. n-ta.qan n-. she opened (it) to him.ne.pe.sw. §336. etwn. mn-.maqhths m-p. which normally stand at the end of the sentence and can be stressed by means of Second Tenses.1).p.sa pes. n. Chapter XV. When the Adverb refers to location. with Indirect Speech.i. The reason for this position is not so much a desire for emphasis.4hre πολυµερως και πολυτροπως παλαι ο θεος λαλησας τοις πατρασιν εν τοις προφηταις επ εσχατου των ηµερων τουτων ελαλησεν ηµιν εν υιω ‘In many parts and in many manners.pe.tn.3.‘Yet afterwards again I shall see you’ (Jn 16:22).p. after God had spoken to our fathers of old by the prophets. a. he enquired after her father’ (Z 295.3. §338. as an attempt to imitate the word order of Greek originals. answering or ordering.na. In such cases the Oblique Object must be used after the Adverb.ou.ne3.swtm. Frequently a succession of short sentences appear without any connecting particles. but rather must be preceded by a verbal form at least. e.toou et.eiwt ‘When he had knocked at the door.meros auw 6n-.tre. e. Sometimes the verb of saying is omitted before `e.g.profhths 6n.. §335. e.4ine `e e.is found written `-.every place of the surrounding country’ (Lk 4:37).p.s. Some Verbs and their Adverbs are so closely connected as to be almost compound verbal forms.nobe ‘He may¹ forgive (to) you your sins’ (¹IIPresent.tn.‘He said to them: Sleep therefore and rest yourselves’ (Mt 26:45).te. 6n-.na. e.pe.pe3. But Note: when the Dative is Pronominal it precedes the Adverb.ro a.2e n-.3.‘They had not yet laid anyone in it’ (Jn 19:41).3.nai+ n-.g.de e.g.3.g. a. ere.telhl ‘Yet in that hour he rejoiced’ (Lk 10:21).6oou a. e.ouaab ‘Upon the holy hills are his foundations’ (Ps 87:1).6a6 n-.`a6m ‘Not to count any man that he is unclean’ (Acts 10:28).g.7).6oun n-.ne3.2om m-mo.s.‘He answered them: I have already told you (lit.tn.3.: 6n-.auw mpe. a.3 ebol ‘God appeared to him’ (Z 303. e.unou de et. which could be obtained by the use of a Second Tense.s de on 5.g. ne3.3tou thu ‘They will gather in his chosen ones from the four winds’ (Mt 24:31).nobe ei ebol n-. twn.sht.n-. she replied.i.4ine n-.s nh.6a6 m-.ou. Usually the Adverb or Adverbial Phrase is one denoting time. e.ka laau n-. `. e.nau erw.toot. Emphasis on an Adverb of Location can always be effected by means of the Second Tense. e. Direct and Indirect Speech.tn-.3. §336.etre.4a`e nm-ma.tm-.u `e n-.p.nei. Emphasis on the Adverb can always be effected by means of the Second Tenses (§186). is Direct or Indirect Speech. there are many instances where the Adverb does in fact stand at the beginning of the sentence.[pei+]. e.s. Coptic preferred a series of short sentences rather than long involved sentences such as are common in Greek. e.4orp 6n-.3 na.ekw nh. §337.ebol n-.`w m-mo. I have ceased saying it to you) and you did not hear’ (Jn 9:27).rat3. e6rai+. sometimes appear at the beginning of the sentence.ouw e.bwk 53 .swtp ebol 6m.g. On the whole. Continuity of verbal action in following sentences can be effected by means of the Conjunctive (§226).noute 4a`e mn-.ne.kotk-.d.eiote n-.m-pat.m-mau a.tw6m. The conjunction `e is used to introduce both Direct and Indirect Speech: in the case of Direct Speech. etc.4orp ‘His disciples did not perceive these things at first’ (Jn 12:16). etc.netn-. Strictly speaking Coptic has no conception of Indirect Speech as shown in Latin or English. Adverbial Phrases indicating agent or instrument.n ‘Do not let (this) sin come forth from us’ (Z 261.3. Not infrequently.m-ton m-mw. m-mau.p. ne.e.eime e. e.`e t.m-pr-.ouw a.3.u `e a.i ebwl ebol m-. 6aps.`oeis 6wn mmau m-.g. n-tere.soun de an `e i\s\ pe ‘Yet she was not understanding that it was Jesus’ (Jn 20:14).nen.ouw4b. could stand in this position.a.ou.

nim n-tooun net. (2) Questions containing an Interrogative Pronoun or Adverb.6rai+ e. etbe. eis ouhr m-. ΓΕ.arxiereus mnne.sa6 m-.u.s.‘Why have you not brought him?’ (Jn 7:45). Questions are expressed in three ways: (1) In the form of a statement.ou n-.i). etbe.ou a. he will rise on the third day’ (Mt 16:21). the wish is more strongly expressed.b.ou n-. §338a. (iv) etbe. ∆Ε.2e n-to3 pe pai+ ‘(A) what kind (of man) therefore is this (one)?’ (Mk 4:41).rompe 5. (a) The following interrogatives stand at the beginning of the sentence: a4. (vi) aouhr ‘About how much/many?’. It is more commonly used with persons.na.q. §339.p.3 n.ou n-. ou. nim. which?’ can be used as a substantive.e.3 `e n-ta.oeik nte. (i) a4 ‘Who?. the III Future (§217) and its Negation (§218) are used.p.t-.6a6 n-.g. a6ro=.1).g. and dost thou not know these things?’ (Jn 3:10).g. do to them?’ (Lk 20:15).tamo. Wishes are expressed by means of the Optative (§220).ou ‘Lo. especially in Non-Verbal Sentences. ΟΥ∆Ε.na. ΜΕΝ. e.6ise ebol 6itn. e. oun.e ‘Which is the way?’ (Z 298. Wishes. e. however.`oeis ‘Why do you call me Lord?’ (Lk 6:46).r.p. k.na. (vii) ou ‘What?’ is mostly used as a substantive (§345b.6wb (lit. e.moute ero. ou can stand at the beginning of the sentence. §341. Note: In Non-Verbal Sentences containing an Independent Pronoun. §340.g. a.nei+. Note: Occasionally a4 has the meaning of ‘A certain’.g.. must always take a suffix pronoun referring to the subject of the question (it represents τι or ινα τι).motn e. ere. he will suffer much at the hands of the elders and the chief priests and the scribes.g.wn6. These are expressed by means of the Imperative (§238-41) and its Negation (§242).a4 m-.son ‘How (lit. (v) ouhr ‘How much/many?’ is used adjectivally and is linked to its noun by n-.tetn-. a.g.teutn.askei ‘Lo. which?’ is used in the same way as a4. ΓΑΡ. as they already stand in the place of greatest stress. e.ran ‘Which name?’. (b) The following interrogatives stand after the verb. a4 n-... e.maein ‘What is the sign?’ (Lk 21:7). about how many days since they carried them off?’ (Mor.mine.i+ `e p. negative wishes by means of the Negation of the Optative (§221).ierosoluma n. Commands and Prohibitions.6ht..me6. ouhr. (ii) nim ‘Who?. a4 te q. e.nai+ ‘Art thou the teacher of Israel. ΚΑΙ.grammateus n-.vii).‘Which man of you?’ (Lk 15:4).ou. n-te nim nto ‘Who art thou?’ (Ruth 3:9).g. In what way) wilt thou say to thy brother?’ (Lk 6:42).s m-. nim follows the pronoun. and also when some stress is implied in the command or prohibition.g.`w m-mo.sooun an n-.4p. (iii) a6ro= ‘Why?’. (b) Questions in which the Interrogative Pronoun and Adverb stand after the verb: §344.k k.i+ etbe.6wb ‘For what purpose will you come with me?’ (Ruth 1:11). §345.4omn-t n-. When a4 is used adjectivally it is linked to its noun by n-. e. second example): (i) ou ‘What?’ (see §344a. cf §290. When. a6ro.`w6 ero.twoun 6m-.f. nim n-.3it.`oo.take pai+ ‘Why did they destroy this?’ (Mt 26:8).g.ou n-.3-.23). and in writing by the context. (1) Questions in the form of an ordinary statement.bir ‘What are you doing with these baskets?’ (Z 300.u.tet.u ‘What therefore will the Lord .tn-.5me ‘In a certain town’. 587.yuxh 6aro. the interrogative nature of the sentence being indicated by the tone of voice or the context. a4 gar pet.a4 n-. e.rwme ebol n-.g.4a`e nm-ma.ou ‘Why?’ (lit. et cetera appear in Coptic MSS. §342.ka tek.ne. n-tok pe p. n-. ΚΑΝ.6wb ‘She showed him for what purpose she touched him’ (Lk 8:47). a6rw.r-.ou m-pe.pek. see §191) §343. especially in translations from Greek originals.`int a.3-. na. they will kill him. 6n.s pe ‘For which is easier to say?’ (Mk 2:9). e.se.u. what?. 54 .i+ ‘Wilt thou lay down thy life for me?’ (Jn 13:38). but is more frequently found after the verb.s. the III Future (§217) or its Negation (§218) is used.s ‘Why art thou speaking with her?’ (Jn 4:27).g.6e k.d.mouout m-mo. and less frequently stands at the beginning of the sentence. e.s `e tai+ te noemein ‘They said: Is this Naomi?’ (Ruth 1:19.6oou ‘It is necessary for him to go up to Jerusalem. For coordination by means of auw.thutn.tntetn-.ou na. Note: etbe.n-a. Concerning what thing?) usually follows the verb.a4 n-.6oou n. e.ei nmma. which shows a Second Tense.g.`oo.`oeis 2e . ΕΤΕΙ. Questions.n-t. Thus ΑΛΛΑ. (3) By means of an Interrogative Particle (§346). Concerning what?) as a substantive. with which it is often interchangeable. e. e. which shows a Second Tense (§186.100v). e. how many years do I Greek practice self discipline?’ (Z 317.i\h\l\ auw n.‘Who then (are) those who will live?’ (Lk 18:26). Coptic freely incorporated many Greek Conjunctions (§288) in the language. what?.ouhr n-.‘How many loaves have you?’ (Mt 15:34). These sentences can be divided into two groups: (a) Questions in which the Interrogative Pronoun stands at the beginning of the sentence.3 etbe.n-.3. The First Tenses of the Auxiliaries are usually employed after these interrogatives. eis aouhr n-. ou pe p. the interrogative sense being indicated in speech by the tone of voice. When the person or persons addressed are in the 3rd person.3). etbe. (2) By means of an Interrogative Pronoun or Adverb.presbuteros mn.

parabolh `en e.twn ‘Whither will this man go?’ (Jn 7:35).ouei+enin ‘He says to the Chiliarch: Is it permitted to me to speak a word with thee? He said: Dost thou understand Greek?’ (Acts 21:37). a. n-ta. Questions are answered in the affirmative by e6e or se ‘Yes. then of course’ (§376).mn-t. The relative clause plays an extremely important part in Coptic. Where will they bring e. `e p.g.k n-to3 de pe`a.ou.moou nhu on 6m-.tare.g. ma`ne n.`e nim pe ‘He knew (him) who he was’ (Z 304. does the enemy mock?’ (Ps 74:10) §346.6e an e. art thou saying this parable to us.laau n-. §350. whence?’. §360). e.17). e.tnau can stand at the beginning of the sentence. ara a4 pe p. Double Questions.bwk ebol e.twn p. ere. Relative Clauses. ara e.`oo.twn ‘Whence?’ is mostly found with the Indefinite Article prefixed to form a substantive.pai na.tnau p.may be used before a Non-Verbal Sentence to stress the Predicate. (i) `n-.galilaios pe p.tetn-.3 `e e6e p.p.n-.ioudai ‘Where is the King of the Jews?’ (Mt 2:2).ou de pe`a. e. When the Subject is Nominal.pen.na. a. mh a. Relative clauses can be divided into two main types: (1) With undefined antecedent.`e (§357) ou.(ii) twn ‘Where.`w na.ebol. n-tok pet.e.3. e.snau ‘Is it possible for a blind man to lead a blind man?’ [Expects the answer ‘No’] ‘Will they not both fall into a ditch? [Expects the answer ‘Yes’]’ (Lk 6:39).m-mo. Lord’ (Mt 13:51). 4a.beniamin ‘Are we to set ourselves to go out to fight with Benjamin?’ (Jud 20:28). (iii) mh. with the meaning of ‘Surely. §349.p.3.k.3 m-. e.na.ero m-.g.na.6wb n-.nai+ ‘What is the work of these?’ (Z 344. ecesti e. e.g.se.(eeie-) introduces a question to which no definite answer is required. an affirmative answer is expected (cf Latin nonne).`po m-.twn pe ‘This one we know (of him) whence he is’ (Jn 7:27).m-mon ‘Or not’.3i m-.sooun.g. pai+ tn-. A subdivision of both these types must further be made: (a) When the antecedent is also the subject of the relative clause.ebwl.i+ na.4p-. e.4wpe n-.r-ro n-.s.n n-.`ere p.bl-le e.ouk ecesti) ‘Is it lawful to give tribute to the king or not?’ (Mk 12:14). e.at.sofia ‘Whence is this wisdom?’ (v) tnau ‘When?’ and its compound 4a. which often receives some stress in consequence. ei+e.u.tnau k. ou.3 `e ene.n-. (2) With defined antecedent.n-. mh oun-.pei.2om n-.m-mon (other MSS `n-.n. sometimes mht(e)i.th2 twn ‘Whence found it tares?’ (Mt 13:27). e.rm-.i\h\l\ ‘Is it at this time thou wilt give the kingdom to Israel?’ (Acts 1:6).g.xiliarxos `e ene. O Lord.r-ro `n-.moeit 6ht. (ii) `n-.n-.na. e.17).ou.g.g.n-.twn ‘Whither?’. §348. e.n.pe3. (iii) e.is often found at the beginning of the apodosis of a Conditional Sentence. e.`e ou n.16).ouoei4 ‘Is the flood to come again in his time?’ (Z 347. e.tei+.g.g. the Second Tense of the Present Auxiliary (§37). e. As in the case of the Indirect Statement (§337). (3) Questions introduced by an Interrogative Particle: (i) ene.ou.n-.ouw4b. is used in questions to which a negative answer is expected. ei+e ntok an 2e pe p. it is often difficult to decide if a question is in fact direct or indirect. m-pe is used to deny questions relating to past events. e.k. en 6rai+ 6m-. mh n-. taking our heart)?’ (Jn 10:24). pe`a.g.g. e.tb-t nte.g. and in the negative by m-mon ‘No’.4wpe tnau ‘When will these things happen?’ (Lk 21:7).`a`e no2ne2 ‘Until when.4-.n.t.rwme ‘Is the man a Galilean?’ (Lk 23:6). Its function is similar to the Greek αρα. e.mi4e mn-.a.`oeis ‘They say to him: Yes.g.u.u.u `e m-pe ‘Were you without anything? They say: No’ (Lk 22:35).ou.(occasionally en-) stands at the beginning of the sentence. e. Indirect Questions. Note: 4a.5 n-.3 `e ou.6ht.3.sto na. pe`a.nai+ na.san4.g.ent.twn te tei.khme ‘Art thou not therefore the Egyptian?’ (Acts 21:38). If the question already contains a negative.‘To understand’ in order to amplify the Object.nhu `n. mhti anok pe ‘Is it I?’ (Mt 26:22).ke.ouon nim ‘(Peter said to him:) Lord.6e 2e e.[in bad MSS `in-]) is used to link two questions.n.g.k. (b) When 55 .5.5me ‘Shall he nourish a village?’ (Z 340. Note: This construction is usual after sooun. §347.bl-le mh n-.4a`e ero.u na.thutn ‘Have you any fish?’ (Jn 21:5).pe. mh oun. Mt 2:4).6ht ‘Until when art thou holding us in suspense (lit.3.laau nto.g.pe.tnau ‘Until when?’. ei+e p.u.u `e se ‘I say to them: Yes’ (Z 347. ene. or is it for another we shall look?’ (Lk 7:20).e.g. so that ara is frequently used instead.u na. ene.x\s\ twn ‘Where will Christ be born?’ (lit. 4a.a. usually before the Subject. e.oua ‘Art thou he who is about to come.swtm.3 `e m-mon ‘They answered him: No’ (Jn 21:5). ere.3.sooun m-.3.2w4t. for by means of it the deficiency in adjectives and the lack of the participle are made good. twn is prefaced by the pronominal form of forth the Christ?.noute p.na.`w m-mo. in which case the auxiliary shows a First Tense.3).p.mn-t.souwn.g.khnsos m-.bwk e. pe`a.e. m-pwr ‘By no means’ (§297).na.ouw6 e. ene.i+. Note: ara sometimes appears at the beginning of a question with another interrogative.`oeis e.3. or art thou saying it to everyone?’ (Lk 12:41).(`en.6hbs an ‘Will she not light the lamp?’ (Lk 15:8).i+ etra.oeik twn ‘Where shall we buy bread?’ (Jn 6:5).s e. e.toot. Likewise the stress may fall upon an adverbial phrase of time standing at the beginning of the sentence. verily’.5). and the Nominal Subject follows without an introductory particle. (ii) ei+e. (iv) ebol.na.`i.6ieit m-.ent.ouoei4 k.u ‘Ask those who heard what were the things I said to them’ (Jn 18:21.

d.ma gar etere.3n-... the like of which has not happened since the beginning of the world’ (Mt 24:21).ran pe nineuh ‘There was a rich man whose name was Nineve [ sic]’ (Lk 16:19).pa. e.na.4o4ou m-. ne.k-.6m6al e.is omitted before a sonant consonant. When the antecedent is not the subject of the relative clause.3. ou.br-re e.sa pe. (c) et-Old Conjugation (§180).na- et. 56 .3 an auw 6n-. §222).un ou.sno3 m-pw.‘For the place in which thy treasure will be’ (Mt 6:21).stasis e.6ate ‘The tree sprouting beside the water channels’ (Ps 1:3).p\n\a\ et. When the subject of the relative clause differs from the antecedent.indicating its syntactical function. Negation of relative clauses with undefined antecedent.3 `e liqostrwton ‘A place which they call it: Lithostraton’ (Jn 19:13).g. 6en. eis ou.6ht.sw4m.the antecedent is not the subject of the relative clause.et.is prefixed to the negative particle n(§198) or to the negative auxiliary.p. But. (a) et-Present Tense.k-et. e. (1) With Undefined Antecedent: When the antecedent is without the article.ounou e. if nominal.ou.g. e.polis e. the subject. p.is used before non-verbal clauses of the 2nd group (§306ff).te.3 ‘The crowd which was much’ (Lk 7:11).n-.ne3. ou.s an ‘In a day which he does not understand and in an hour which he does not perceive’ (Lk 12:46).bal et.ou ‘The little one who (is) in their midst’ (Lk 15:12). Note: Sometimes.no2 n-.naet.akaqarton nm-ma. this one whom Paul preaches him’ (Acts 19:13).g.pe3. e.g. naiat.te3.naa.2i` 4ouwou (§233 & 233n) ‘There was a man there whose hand was dried (lit.g. et. a. e.t.polis ‘An insurrection which had happened in the city’ (Lk 23:19).is used to introduce the relative clauses making an affirmative statement when the subject of the relative clause is the same as the antecedent. §352. e. (b) et-Future Tense.nau ‘Blessed (are) the eyes which see’ (Lk 10:23).moute ero.kosmos ‘A great tribulation.s. Note: This rule does not apply in the case of affirmative statements which contain the Imperfect or Tense of Habitude (§359). e.laos ‘This one who will shepherd my people’ (Mt 2:6).sta.ne3.rwme ere.r-.maqhths soou6 n-..ma n-.me. ou.e- et.rwme de n-. ou. Reference to the antecedent is made by means of a resumptive pronoun (§353).re3. e. a day which he will judge in it the world)’ (Acts 17:31).tafos n-.pek.3 ‘A man upon whom is a pitcher of water’ (Mk 14:13).g.m-pat. §354. e.paulos kurisce m-mo. This rule applies equally when the antecedent is defined (but cf §364 for an exception to this rule). e. it must be referred back to by means of a resumptive pronoun.6oueite m-. et.`rhu ‘A city which is strong’ (Ps 30:22).g. a man who his hand is dried.3.1).n-.s6ai n-.g.3 ‘Jesus.gramateus pe e. The use of et.rwme de m-mau ere. §205). ou.3.is used when the subject of the relative clause is nominal and differs from the antecedent and the predicate is adverbial (§301ff).n.eime ero. the following forms are used: Person 1 com 2 masc 2 fem Future e5.s ‘A daughter . (2) With Defined Antecedent: When the antecedent is defined.ou n-. when the subject of the relative clause is Pronominal.g.3. the usage is as noted in §197a. §357.and the Qualitative is particularly common in forming the equivalent of adjectives or participles.3-.6ht.et. (b) e.m-pw. When the relative clause is non-verbal.p\n\a\ n-.3) an pe ‘A blood which is not his own’ (Heb 9:25). ere..m-. or has the indefinite article.koui et.t.ouaab ‘The Holy Spirit’ (lit.oikoumenh ‘He has appointed a day on which he will judge the world (lit. ne. p.4eere . e.ou.ou.6or4 ‘Burdens which are heavy’ (Mt 23:4). p. pai+ et.3 e.ma e.s6h 4wpe `in te.ouon n-. p. §353.ou.6oou e. §358. The relative clause follows the construction of an ordinary statement. m-.souo ‘He was a scribe who used to keep account of the corn’ (Z 350..a.) ’ (Mk 3:1).a6o na. ou. m-mn-. p.sate e.m-mau ‘That one’ (§54).mao e.ou. a woman .mpe. the particle et. in whom was an unclean spirit’ (Mk 7:25). i\s\ pai+ etere..6ht. ou. e.sooun m-mo. ne. ou.qliyis e.4hn et.krine n-.ka. is prefixed by the form etere-. in badly written MSS.n. §356.6oou e.4a. 6n-.4wpe n-. the particle et..6oun n-. the relative clause is introduced by the Circumstantial Tense or a compound tense prefixed by e(§231).6ht.u. e. The Spirit who [is] Holy).na.net.‘In the place in which his disciples are gathering together’ (Jn 20:19).etn-- e5. (d) et-Adverbial Phrase.u. e.6ht.is used to link the relative clause to the word it qualifies.g. §355.3.‘A fire which is not wont to be quenched’ (Mt 3:12.pw e.rht 6i`n.g.3.`oeis ‘There is not (a) servant who is greater than his Lord’ (Jn 15:20).un ou.s6ime ..3.u.laau n-. (a) ere. who (was) a sinner’ (Lk 7:37).moone m-.ou.3 (for e.‘A new tomb in which they had not yet laid anyone’ (Jn 19:41.ma etere.moou 6i`w. e.smine n-.na4w.p.n-.4wpe 6n-.3.rm. §351.n-naetc. or the Perfect tense (§360).g.nobe te ‘Lo.mhh4e et. ou.

3-.a. §359.nobe e.t.g. §363. ou.beke ete. When a defined antecedent is qualified by several consecutive relative clauses. and a form exactly the same as that used after the undefined antecedent follows.3.loimos ‘Blessed is the man who has not gone in the counsel of the wicked. cannot take a direct object (§328.m-pe.thu qlo.no3 m-.e...e..magdalhnh tai+ ent.p.taa.swma pe mn-.m-p.3.n-.oun-.ou. the Negative Particle n-.6ht.ma et. which is the regular form in Bohairic.tn.mao pai+ ent. However. the Relative Particle appears as ent.3 ‘The place where the young child was’ (Mt 2:9). ne.n.(§199a) are prefaced by the verbal prefix e-.4o`ne n-.qne n-.(§184).18). e. holds good: (a) when the relative clause contains the impersonal existential verbs oun-.barnabas pe mn-.s.pe3. containing pe. mh n-to.a.spire et.3-.k e.3.is sometimes found.nau de n-ta.6ht.4). `in p. p.re3.n. less correctly written n-t-.g. 57 .p. who has not sat in the seat of the scornful’ (Ps 1:1). p. Note 1: Sometimes.ka6 n-.oeik de e5. Note: ete. e.ouaab ‘The tent .e.on6 ent.ta. ete.g. anok pe p.2om m-mo.a.na.ma enere.ergaths ‘A rich man. e.m-pe.rwme n-.3. p. Before the Perfect Tense.taue karpos an ‘Every tree therefore which will not bring forth fruit’ (Mt 7:19). Remarks on the Relative Clause.p.swtm.3-.u.‘The man out of whom the demons came’ (Lk 8:38). §361.hrp ‘He came therefore again to Cana.3... p. e. this one who gave us the well?’ (Jn 4:12). e. pai+ e.r-.p.5 na. n-.e-.m-p.. p.3i 6a.e. When the relative clause contains a negative statement. t. te or ne. which they are wont to call: The Holy of the Holies’ (Heb 9:3). viz.i\h\l) \ eime ‘Did Israel not perceive?’ (ibid.esoou n-t. and the pronouns pai+..4are.asebhs e.daimonion ei ebol n-. p.oeik et.a. like the Durative tenses.me. 4hn.g.is used in an interrogative sense..3..5.u ‘The works .s6ime ‘Since the hour in which I took my wife’ (Z 346.me an m-.4are.skhnh .4a an n-.‘According to the way in which he has instructed you’ (I-Jn 2:26).na.tooue ‘This one whose shoe I am not worthy to bear’ (Mt 3:11).3-.mn-.m-pe.moou et.rwme de ent.soou ‘The hireling who is not a shepherd. a. the following constructions were employed: (1) The antecedent is undefined and the Relative Clause in introduced by et.and mere.e.6a6 n-.ou.p.e.’ (§294.pes..‘My sheep which has gone astray’ (Lk 15:6). The same construction.t.n-..ou.`ai.or (m-)mn-..mt.s `e pet. the place in which he caused the water to be made wine’ (Jn 4:46).shmewn ‘Teachers. p. §306).6ih n-.3 ebol ‘The dust which the wind is wont to scatter’ (Ps 1:4). p.nou.3. the same form is used after the defined antecedent as after the undefined antecedent (§351).2e on e.oua aa.n-. §365. §274).ou- It should be noted that the Present Relative. te.sa6 et.m-pe.a.6tooue e.g. Or (b) when the relative clause contains a Non-Verbal sentence of the Second Group (i.sa43..kaqedra n-.moou r-.ouaab n-.ne.nai+ etbhh.p.2e nim ete.. ete.g.3. an exception is noted in §329n).n-. It is to be noted that when the Relative Clause was used in a descriptive sense. pai+ e5.e nta.rwme et.6i te.n-. te.4hre 4hm n-.3 an ne n-e.daimonion ei ebol n-. kata q.g.pe ‘I Am the living bread which has come down from heaven’ (Jn 6:51).n-. verse 19).a). ete.eidwlon ete. §362. e. naiat.g.falls away before the negative.eiwt iakwb pai+ ent. which another has not done’ (Jn 15:24). §364. e.(thus ent. tai+.g. The resumptive pronoun is omitted when the antecedent is an adverbial expression of time. §366.son ‘This one who does not love his brother’ (I-Jn 3:14).g. who has not stood in the way of sinners.3 masc 3 fem et. as a rule only the first relative clause is prefaced by the particle et-.6. §360.israhl (variant reading e. e. pa.3 ‘The bread which I shall give’ (Jn 6:51).sbw nh.ke. (2) The antecedent is either defined or undefined. When the relative clause contains either the Durative Imperfect (§194) or the Limitative Tense of Habitude (§204). Note 2: Occasionally ete.n.‘Did they not hear?’ (Rom 10:18).equivalent to ‘Namely.a6erat. particularly after pai+ ‘This one’.k naa.s `e t.5. e.g.6ht.bwk 6m-.b.p.tre.4wte ‘Art thou greater than our father Jacob.6moos 6i t.m-p.g.net. are inserted between the antecedent and the Relative Clause.ei ebol 6n-.3. place or manner.kana .6italikh ‘The company which they call: The Italian’ (Acts 10:1).4ws an pe pai+ ete.t.n-.3 ‘This one concerning whom I hear these things’ (Lk 9:9.p. e.4a.i+.a.e.n n-.pugh m-. namely Barnabas and Simeon’ (Acts 13:1).‘The place in which there is not much earth’ (Mk 4:5).pe3.moute ero.g. etc. nai+. et.or the Negative Auxiliaries m-pe.u moute ero.3 m-. e. t. e.`oeis ‘The fountain of water which is the body with his blood of the Lord’ (Z 320. 6en.6ht.3.`i n-.4a`e ‘The idols which are not wont to speak’ (I-Cor 12:2).a-.`oeis et. this one who came out at morning to hire workers’ (Mt 20:1).ei.3 ‘The Lord in whom is strength’ (Ps 23:8).swtm.a.m-p. this one whose own the sheep are not’ (Jn 10:12).rm-. e. it is occasionally written et-.).pen. this one out of whom came forth seven devils’ (Lk 8:2).‘The Magdalene.4oei4 e.3.swrm. the relative particle et. pai+ e.6bhte .p.3-et.ei ebol e.s-- et.ma enta. ete.

peq.3 `ekas e.na.n.3.6oou) ‘The evil’. peq.6a6 na.thutn. e.seepe n-.m-mau ‘That one’.3 ‘The good’.oua4.p.3. A.ou `ekas nne.g.thutn.oeik twn `e e. pet.3 ‘They besought him that he should place his hand on him’ (Mk 7:32).r.3.6en.r. can be used to introduce a Final Clause (§229). e.b-bio de m-mo.3-. nim pet.`e 5.g.3 se.36n-.w4 ‘He rose in order to read’ (Lk 4:16).sa n-. e. II. e4`e a.g. These substantives. The [one] who seeks).laau ‘He ordered them that they should not say it to anyone’ (Mk 7:36).nanou. As a substantive it can be used as a subject. §373.kto.e m-. or could prefix the Possessive Adjective . epeidh gar n-ta.ou ‘I give the tenth of all that I acquire’ (Lk 18:12).moo4e 6n-.tetn-.i+ouda ‘They proceeded in the way in order that they should return to the land of Judah’ (Ruth 1:7).`e and etbe.ouwm ‘Where shall we buy bread that these may eat?’ (Jn 6:5).u.toot. pet.laau q.me an m-mo. §374.e.k. although in fact they already possessed the Definite Article. e.i ne ‘To do what I wish with mine own’ (Mt 20:15).mor. e. ep(e)idh.p.re. Conditional Clauses. pet. The conjunctive without introductory conjunction.6en.ou thr.a).6wn] m-mo.e`w.p.oou (pet. nai+ ne5. §369. a.ou et.i+ m-.ne5.u.nou.rwme ‘I thank Thee because I am not like the rest of men’ (Lk 18:11). e. the Perfect.toot. Real Conditional Clauses: (1) Open: Conditions in which nothing is implied as to the fulfillment or non-fulfillment of the supposition.u na.`e m-pe.3.nai+ na.6mot n-.m-. e4`e pek.`e ne.3.na.ka6 ‘That which thou wilt bind on earth’ (Mt 16:19).mou 4wpe ebol 6itn.`oeis `e beelzeboul posw mallon 58 . and is followed by the Auxiliary of the Present. less frequently by the II Future (§199a). e.am.3 `e etbe.p.g.u.p.i+ n-. The Greek conjunctions 6wste. §368.ounam skandalize m-mo. Definite or Indefinite. the Relative Clause can become the equivalent of a substantive.net. §372.oou e. §370. Sometimes appear the Greek conjunctions epei.6no.3.k ‘If thy right eye is offending thee. pet. ne.pet. e.ou.t.twoun e. kte. mhpote.ouaab ‘Thy holy one’ (Ps 16:10).pe5.u.mht n-. e. p.ma n-.`ast. Final clauses can be expressed in their simplest form by means of the Infinitive (§251) or the Causative Infinitive (§256) placed after the main verb.i+ ‘The one who does not love me’ (Jn 14:24).g. e.pet.usually occurs: pe.g.e.`w] mmo.g.kl-le r-.sepswp. The Protasis is introduced by e4`e (represents Greek ει).u. §396.6llw ‘Return. e.k.ouaab ‘The holy one.te.paraskeuh te ‘Because it was the Day of Preparation’ (Jn 19:31).nanou.rwme ‘For because through man death has come into being’ (I-Cor 15:21). to express purpose (§226c).toot. The the-one-who holy). a.e.4ine ‘The seeker’ (lit. Chapter XVI.q.r-. When the relative clause is preceded by a non-verbal sentence containing with et.alecandros f. usually followed by the Conjunctive.n. pek.`e (for ebol an `e.‘The one who humbles himself will be exalted’ (Lk 18:14). ebol. or its compounds ebol.g. te.ke.na. a.4eere n-.§367.p.ng-.e. Causal Clauses. pe`a. 5. the saint’ (lit.s e.5. it can be distinguished from it by reference to the preceding sentence which must be non-verbal.no`.g.oou ‘Alexander the smith did me much evil’ (II-Tim 4:14).3.s ne ‘Who is it who is speaking to thee?’ (Jn 4:10). §375.na. e.bal de n-.p.6i `m-. object or adverb of a sentence. and less frequently the Future.3. pluck it out and cast it from thee’ (Mt 5:29). and Irreal Conditions. I.n-. Adverbial Clauses. Final Clauses.4p-. both forms being prefaced by the preposition e-.n-.`po m-mo. my daughters. followed by the III Future. and go.e.6wn [ne e5. Long usage made some relative substantives equivalent to undefined nouns. §371.pet. pet.`oo. 5. because I have become an old woman’ (Ruth 1:12). a.i+. peq.bwk `e a.u. contraction pe ette etne et- becomes becomes becomes pettetnet- Though this form is morphologically identical with the relative substantive (§368).6ih etre.6wn de e.peq.ka6 n-. e. a.twwbe na.bol m-mo. Conditional clauses can be divided into two main groups: Real Conditions. The Clause can be introduced by the conjunction `e or its compound `eka(a)s.g.ou ‘They requite to me evil instead of good’ (Ps 34:12).k pork. mhpws. a.moute e.ou e6rai+ e.no.tal e.‘These are those which I am ordering you’ (Jn 15:17).o an n-.n (t.4p-.1.`w [pe et. could take a second Article.g. The Relative Substantive. The former group must be further divided into Open Conditions and Prospective Conditions.n) ‘They said to him: Because no one has hired us’ (Mt 20:7). By prefixing the Definite Article. Causal clauses are introduced by the conjunction `e. III.

ou.4an.3). e. The Conditional Clause sometimes renders a concessive meaning. er4an pe. inform me’ (Mt 2:8).gelh n-. ¹§243..2om enta..pe.p.tetn-.r-. in a little (time) my soul had dwelt in Sheol’ (Ps 94:17).te3. the particle 4an. e4wpe de e.5pe n-.oou ‘For if they had understood it.an ‘Although I do not fear God’ (Lk 18:4).3.3.(represents the Greek εαν).ou.mou nm-ma.mwushs ne.i+ ‘If you shall find him. but with the difference that the supposition of the Protasis is regarded as conceded. Remarks on the Conditional Clause.na.4an-. §382. In this sense Coptic occasionally uses e4`e.g. Note: The form of the Imperfect tense in the Protasis. mare. since’. In fact.na.n-.koui+ a.u.pa.and the verbal form er4an.ta. and kai-toi ‘And yet.ne. if he has desired him’ (Ps 22:8).3 e4`e a. e. e.nta.`oeis bohqei ero. ¹Crum 84a).mate e.n-a.as e4wpe m-mon 4a.ta. he would perceive what she is’ (Lk 7:39).na.i.4.s. When the Protasis contains a future supposition.nobe .5.u.6ote 6ht. e.4an. 59 . §381.eirhnh ei e6rai e`w.. e.p. if only’ . or contain the Imperfect or II Perfect tenses.eiwt e.ei 4aro. the Concessive Clause is a variation of the Conditional. e.souwn. let your peace come upon it’ (Mt 10:12).6wt n-. But as a general rule. except My Father who sent me draws him’ (Jn 6:44).na.pw6 e.u. §376. n-. When the supposition contained in the Protasis is clearly impossible of fulfillment.rm-. e4`e k.nta. then send us into the herd of swine’ (Mt 8:31). kai-per ‘Since.6n-.na.abra6am ‘Although they have come forth from the loins of Abraham’ (Heb 7:5). ene.ne`. e.3 ‘If the house is worthy.kr-mes ‘If the mighty works which have happened among you. especially if the Protasis is NonVerbal.g. §63c).p.g.s.i+ para ou.tamo.gar ne.tetn. although’.nta.g.kw gar ebol n-. presents the curious appearance of a Present tense with the prefix ene-.no`. The Apodosis usually contains the Future Imperfect. ene.u.tetn-. §378.2m-. e. Irreal Conditional Clauses. §379.ne3.noute eie a.. e.2ooune mn. ‘Except. owing to contraction. 4wpe n-. e4`e anok de e.s.3.sabhl `e.u.`oeis m-. ene.s5ro\u\ an pe m-.rwme n-.ou ‘If the salt shall become insipid. Often the Apodosis is introduced by the particle eie (eeie) ‘Then’.3 ‘It is not possible for anyone to come to me.p\n-a\ m-.6aplous pe ‘If thy eye is sound’ (Mt 6:22).p. I shall not deny thee’ (Mt 26:35.tou`a.. e.tetn-.pw6 n-.ou.i+ ei-mh-ti n-te.tauoi swk m-mo. er4an `o6 m-.3.‘Let him deliver him.twoun 6a. is only found in archaic texts.hi+ m-. Negation of this form of the Prospective Conditional is effected by the particle tm-.g.ebol eie ma. e. it is introduced by the verbal prefix ene-.g.maau ‘If I have not been able to bear the reproach of my mother’ (Z 289.k an ‘Although it should happen for me to be put to death with thee.top n-.i+. even if.u.`oou.bal ou.p.g.placed before the Infinitive.3. §377. As a general rule the Protasis precedes the Apodosis.n-.4au ‘If thou wilt cast us out.turos mn. §383. Sometimes the particle e4`pe introduces the Apodosis. had happened in Tyre and Sidon. e.e. ka-n e.2om e. e4`e mp. The exceptions which occur are no doubt due to the desire to retain as far as possible the word order of Greek originals.t.tn-.6wt ‘They are not wont to put new wine into old skins.laau e.4wwt an ‘If we shall not eat. kai-per e.k n-. less frequently the Imperfect.4wpe 6n.5.p.g.na.n-2i t.4.epistolh ‘Although I made you very¹ sorry by the letter’ (II-Cor 7:8. But as a rule Coptic employed the Greek conjunctions ka-n (και εαν) followed by er4an ‘And if.e6oun e.neu.3. e4`e a.na. The protasis in introduced by the auxiliary of the II Present followed by the particle 4an.mol6. e4`e p.ke¹. e4wpe 2e pek.u.i ‘If I shall touch only the fringe of his garment. §380.6).metanoei 6n-.amn-te ‘Unless the Lord had helped me.6e ero. B.eime `e ou te ‘If this one were a prophet. with what shall they salt it?’ (Mt 5:13).thutn. e4wpe is usually followed by er4an-.pisteue gar e.4an.t.6mou de baabe e.r. I shall become whole’ (Mt 9:21). then the Kingdom of Heaven has come upon you’ (Mt 12:28).g.3 ma. how much more his domestics?’ (Mt 10:25).6ht. (2) Prospective: Conditions in which the fulfillment of the supposition contained in the protasis is regarded as being reasonably likely. e.tm-. The Protasis may be Non-Verbal.ouwm n-.daimonion ebol 6n-.g. unless’ is rendered by the compound conjunction n-.tra¹.4thn 5.no2ne2 n-.oua4. m-mn-.tm-.nta.n.n.tn.ta.hi+ ‘If they have called the Lord: Beelzebul.profhths pe pai ne.tn.ei ebol 6n-.ero m-.n-. e. e.kw de ebol ‘If you shall forgive men their sins. me.p.n-.4wpe e. then they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes’ (Mt 11:21).tou`o. or by means of the Greek ei-mh-ti followed by the conjunctive.2om n-.yuxh ouw6 6n.r-.aparna m-mo.i+ pe ‘For if you were believing Moses.6rai+ e`w.p. which would normally be expected before the Nominal Subject or with the 2 fem sing pronoun (§199a). we shall not be in want’ (I-Cor 8:8).g.g.n. they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory’ (I-Cor 2:8). The prospective conditional may be introduced by e4wpe. e.pisteue ero.u. §384.lupei m-mw.2in-.noute ‘If I by the Spirit of God am casting out devils.3.tetn-. Note: e4wpe m-mon renders ‘Otherwise’.g. It is to be noted that the form e.ne` m-ris e.tet.4a mare. otherwise the skins become rent’ (Mt 9:17.is omitted. you would believe me’ (Jn 5:46).mn-t.sidwn e4`pe a.sabhl `e a. ene.4an. if you shall not forgive’ (Mt 6:14-15).i.noute n-. e4wpe p.a.

.p.re3. e. IV.a+the Causative Infinitive ‘After’.oei4 `i.3.rwme a.3.mou n-2i mwushs ‘After the death of Moses’ (Josh 1:1). For 6m-.nta. insofar as’. 6m-. Negation of the Past Temporal is effected by means of tm--.3 ‘Lo. (b) Temporal clauses with a specific reference to a point in time can be expressed in terms of Past (i. I shall rise after three days’ (Mt 27:63).in-tere.eime `e anok pe ‘When you will be raising up the Son of Mankind.u. expressing themselves in a particular time standpoint.and e.na.`it. p. Prospective Temporal Clauses.me6. §389.oou `i.s- n-ter(e).3n-tere. §391. stresses the fact that an action has been completed in the past— mn-n_sa+the Causative Infinitive indicates the event itself which thus happened in the past.‘From’.to express temporal clauses.6wb ‘When Naomi had seen that she was determined to proceed with her. In these clauses the time standpoint is determined by the tense of the verb in the main sentence. n-ter. eis aouhr n-. which decides the temporal nature of the preceding clause.de n-2i n-. 60 .e. e.s e. e. while he was yet alive.eoou ‘When Christ who is our life will appear.2om de e.p.p.4. Contemporaneous. Note: Clauses containing `i. it expresses the meaning ‘While yet’.. 6otan ete. For e.§385. §387. As noted in §197.3.moo4e nm-ma. e.p.na.n-ta. generally but not invariably (§388n) precede the main sentence.contracts to `i.3.6m-.g. The Greek conjunction 6otan ‘Whenever’ can introduce temporal clauses with er4an-.soit. For mn-ns . see §258.a. But it is to be noted that these conjunctions can stand before other auxiliaries and before the Non-Verbal sentence.lo e.‘When. Prefaced by `in-.3 e6oun ‘When they had not been able to take him in to him’ (Mk 2:4).p. followed by the II Perfect.nta.(§377) introduces the Prospective Temporal Clause as well as the Prospective Conditional.pai ta6o.tet. efoson ‘As long as.g. the essential difference being that the event referred to is contemporaneous with the action of the main sentence.4omn-t n-. his enemy came’ (Mt 13:25). the report spread’ (Ruth 1:19). to some extent at least.ei n-2i pe3.tre. §392.ou. then you will also appear with Him in glory’ (Col 3:4). see §257. 6oson ere. Past Temporal Clauses. e. n-tere.n-kotk.tn-.6oou ‘This deceiver said. er4an pe.g. Such clauses.ouwn6.bhqleem . The Greek conjunctions 6ws ‘As’. she ceased to speak to her concerning this matter’ (Ru 1:18). §386.ebol nm-ma.2m-. 6oson 5.ou. er4an.na.e. §390.is used to express action completed prior to the action of the verb of the main sentence. as’.sa 4omn-t n-. the Circumstantial Tense is normally used to express contemporaneous action.t.nta.`e 5. e. still’.nn-tere.g.g. §393.g.planos a.. §388.`a`e ‘During (the time that) the men were sleeping.6oou pe p.tm-.4hre m-. Contemporaneous Temporal Clauses.p. generally precede the main sentence. n-ter. Sometimes the main sentence contains the Greek tote ‘Then’.x\s\ ouwn6 ebol ete.4an `ise m-. eti ‘Yet.do not conform to the rule that the temporal clauses.ou.pa.n-.ta`ros e. refers back to action completed in the past.m-p.g.swr ebol ‘When they had entered Bethlehem .pei.s.wn6 pe tote 6wt. 6oson ‘As long as’. It might be described as a Dating Clause. or Prospective Action.tre.noemin de nau `e a.3 6n-. Context alone must in many cases decide whether a temporal or a conditional meaning is implied. then you will perceive that I Am’ (Jn 8:28).pen.s `in. e. while.g.nta-).kn-teren-tere.s. The syntactical function of this adverbial compound is similar to that of the Causative infinitive prefaced by mn-. The clause can stand before or after the main sentence. mn-n-sa t.nai 4wpe ‘It is the third day since these things have happened’ (Lk 24:21). cf §231. other than those containing the Circumstantial tense.u ‘As long as the bridegroom is with them’ (Mk 2:19).tn-n-ter. and renders ‘Since’ (Note: `in. The Past Temporal Auxiliary Person 1 com 2 masc 2 fem 3 masc 3 fem nom subj Singular Plural n-ter(e).ou. e. completed action). `in. e.ei e6oun e.on6.4eleet 4oop nm-ma.s a.(§387)— which.rwme tote tet.`oo. 212).twoun mn-. can also precede the Circumstantial Tense to render the meaning ‘While.. pei. about how long since this had seized him?’ (Mk 9:21).4a`e nm-ma.s.g.e. Temporal Clauses: (a) Temporal clauses can be expressed by the Circumstantial tenses (§197.thutn.na.sa.n-. a. as’.kosmos ‘As long as I (am) in the world’ (Jn 9:5).oun-tere- The auxiliary n-tere. In contrast to the temporal clause introduced by the Past Temporal n-tere.

(§222)..2 §45 §64 §38 §45.§394. 203).e an n-.. §396. e.roou4 pe 6a.is frequently omitted (§193. I Perfect I Habitude III Future Unfulfilled Action Optative Imperative m-pmen-nem-patm-p. I Perfect Negative Particle for anon ‘We’ Collective Numeral Prefix ‘Beauty’ Construct of anok ‘I’ Interrogative Particle ‘Perhaps’ ‘End’ §117 §15 §239 §200 §396. so also in Coptic there is a marked hesitation to deny a state.na. a= an anan= angara arhu arh`= 1 (cardinal number) 1000 (two overlines. an. (b) Non-verbal sentences (§312).and m-pat.is used to negate: (a) The Infinitive.a2w e.r-m-p. As was the case in the older stages of the Egyptian language. also before Old Conjugation verbs (§182).6upokriths ‘When you come.46 §346.6hke ‘Not because his concern is for the poor’ (Jn 12:6).n-. can be used in Prospective Temporal Clauses. 196.ou.(§378). e. (d) The Conjunctive (§230). mh e. (c) The Old Conjugation verbs (§182ff.r-- §201 §205 §218 §222 §221 §242 §399.n-. 4ant.aparna m-mo.m-pate. Imperfect (§196). Habitude (§207). Future (§213).4lhl n-ne¹.ou.4omn-t n.neu.4ou4ou an ‘Your boasting is not good’ (I-Cor 5:6). These particles are used to negate: (a) Single words and prepositional phrases. (d) The Auxiliaries of I Present (§193).s-.q.i+ n-.q.e n-.. Note 1: The first particle n.no2 ‘Will you continue looking for them until they are grown up?’ (Ruth 1:13). (f) In relative clauses (§354. Perfect (§203). (2) The Negative Auxiliaries.ei de e.a. (e) The Second Tenses: Present (§193). Examples of Negation of the Qualitative are not common. Note 2: an is placed immediately after the word in the sentence which is to be negated.tb-bo an ‘Not humbly’ (Phil 1:17). e.tetn-.sop ‘Before a cock has crowed thou wilt deny me three times’ (Mt 26:34). cardinal number) for o (letter name = ou) prefix for some imperatives verbal prefix. an (2) Negative Auxiliaries (3) tm-(1) n.2 §281 §38 61 . Circumstantial (§198). ¹III Fut Neg. 361). e.ou.alektwr moute k. (c) The Past Temporal ntere. (3) tm-.mou ‘She has not died’ (Mk 5:39) rather than n. Future Imperfect (§215). I Future (§213). What is denied is the inception of action. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Index of Coptic Terms Term Usage Section a a\ a aa-.(§387).g. Negation..nanou petn-. The Tenses of Unfulfilled Action.g.grammateus ‘Not as their scribes’ (Mt 7:29).g.g. e. ebol an `e pe3. e. rather than the state or condition resulting from an incepted action. both Simple and Causative (§244).s-. being about to pray.r-.ou 4ant. n-.tetn.tetn. §395. do not by any means become as the hypocrites’ (Mt 6:5.).moout an ‘She is not dead’. The Circumstantial Tense (§188) can often express a temporal clause with reference to the future.4wpe n-. and so is used to provide the negation of auxiliary forms which have sprung from prepositional phrases.. (b) The Prospective Conditional er4an. 6n-.tetn-. n-.2w4t 6ht. §397. Thus Coptic writes m-p.. §199a). §398. Coptic employs three methods of negation: (1) n.tn-.

etbhht= for eneInterrogative Particle Introducing Irreal Conditions Relative Imperfect Relative Perfect ‘Ever’ Verbal Prefix (cf also II Present.6hte eis.352 §261 §377 §393 §355-56. what? ‘A certain’ ‘Why?’ ‘Without’ §232 §63 §85n §290 §291 §344 §344 §344.185 §61 §115 §346.6hhpe eiat= eie6e.192.mate eneneenere-.n.note §344 §278 §117 §5b §10 §281 §117 §117 §2 §117 §117 §261 §197a.4wpe atauauw auw on aouhr a4 a6ro= a`n. furthermore’ ‘About how much?’ ‘Who?. III Fut) Preposition ‘To.n. eneentaene6 ereero= (cf e-) erwtner4an etetbe-. eis. behold’ Agreement in gender + number ‘Eye’ Noun Prefix ‘Very’ e-.206.32 §273 §251 §256 §56-7 §282 §345 §303 §373 §4 §346 §376 §60 §61 §296 §296n §38. for.360 §274 b b\ b bbol g\ d\ d e\ e\’ e2 (cardinal number) for 3 for nadverb g 3 (cardinal number) d 4 (cardinal number) replaced by t (letter name = tau) e 5 (cardinal number) 6 (cardinal number) Noun Prefix Verbal Prefix Characteristic of II tenses ‘To.(e`n-). a`nt= (e`nt=) ‘It happened’ Privative Prefix for aou‘And’ ‘Moreover. II Fut. concerning’ indicating object in compound prepositions + Simple Infinitive + Causative Infinitive Feminine ending adverb ‘Whence?’ forming the equivalent of an Adjectival Predicate ‘Because’ = consonantal i Interrogative Particle Introducing Apodosis of Conditional Clause Noun Prefix Noun Prefix ‘Lo.359 §360 §281 §197a. 231. 352 §186.s.a.6hhne. ero= -e ebol eboltwn ebol6n-ebol`e ei eie (eeie) eiepeiereis also eis.1 §346 §380 §351. from’ Verbal Prefix of Conditional Temporal Relative Particle ‘On account of’ 62 . 211 §261 §331.

m.before b. cardinal number) semi-consonant 1st sing suffix = consonantal i §117 §4 §35. also’ ‘Although’ ‘Bosom’ ‘Again’ Prepositional form of Greek κατα ‘According to’ l 30 (cardinal number) Assimilation §117 §10.2 §345 §357 §211n §359n §379 §379n §206 §351.for n-ta3 e6e z\ z h\ q\ q qhbais qalassa i\ i -i ‘On account of what?’ ‘Because’ Relative Particle and Verbal Prefix as an Interrogative ‘Whither?’ Relative Particle and Verbal Prefix for etetn-na for e4arein Conditional Clause ‘Otherwise’ Verbal Prefix II Habitude Relative of Habitude ‘If’ in Apodosis of Irreal Condition ‘Yes’ §344 §373 §361-63 §361.39 §4 §117 §2 §35 §111-13 §384 §38 §281 ei k\ k -k ke kan koun= kesop kataro= l\ l for nm\ mma mamaremaron mauaa= mere-.000 (two overlines.359 §375 §381 §231. me= me4ak me6mh mht(e)i k 20 (cardinal number) for g 2 masc sing suffix ‘Other.1 §348 §117 §2 §117 §117 §3.174 §95 §95 z 7 (cardinal number) rarely used h 8 (cardinal number) q 9 (cardinal number) = tz misused form misused form i 10 (cardinal number) 10.2 §117 §10 §240 & n §60 §220 §220n §110 §205 §281n §129 §346 §346 m 40 (cardinal number) for n.etbeou etbe`e ete-eetem-pe etwn etereetetn-a ete4aree4wpe e4wpe m-mon e4aree4`e e4`pe ea3. p ‘Give’ Noun Prefix Verbal prefix of Optative Absolute form of Optative ‘Only’ Verbal prefix negative of I Habitude ‘Perhaps’ Particle forming Ordinal Numerals Interrogative Particle Interrogative Particle 63 .

190. ‘Not yet’ for e. 2 §117 §98 §263 §262 §275 §252 §35 §51 §209 §50 §182 §183 §52 §2n §306 §231 §53 §188 §263 §52.275 §383 m-pe-.n-.sw= n-.348 §222.‘Until’ ‘No!’ Negation of imperative ‘No!’ Verbal prefix. ‘Unless’ nana-. m-mo= -n- n 50 (cardinal number) genitival particle ‘To’ (dative) ‘In.1. of’ in compound prepositions + infinitive ‘Us.2 §184.389 §63 §234.’ ‘There’ see (m-)mn-‘With’ + Causative Infinitive Noun Prefix ‘Not to have’ Verbal Prefix Negative of I Perfect for empe.314 §264 §257..m-pate‘It is unbefitting’ §181n §184. neing-ne nenh nenh. mn-te=. from.mio= (m-)mn-- ‘Hail’ ‘There is not’ Possessive Particle Absolute Form of m-mn ‘No!’ ‘Daily’ ‘Afterwards’ ‘Very’ ‘That .314 §262a(a) §233 §348 §133n §285 m-min(e) m-mon m-mhne mn-. nm-ma= mn-nsa mn-tmn-te-.sa. mn-ta= §115 §54 §235n §184.sabhl. with.mate m-mau mn-mn--. after’ ‘Except’.80 §344 §105 §111n §264 §218 §48 §252.236 §201 §201. m-p(e)= m-pe m-pr-m-pwr m-patem(e)44e n\ n-n--.224 §231.s m-.sa=. our’ Possessive Article Verbal prefix of Future Tenses Possessive Adjective Adjective Verb ‘To be great’ ‘Blest’ Demonstrative Pronoun for nkParticle indicating logical subject in a Non-Verbal Sentence Verbal prefix Demonstrative Pronoun Imperfect 2nd plural Dative Old form of article ‘Who?’ ‘All.sw.2 §348 §242 §296.`e 64 .. ne= naa-. negative of Unfulfilled Action. every’ ‘Again’ Cf mn-Verbal prefix Negative of III Future Possessive Pronoun + Infinitive: ‘Behind.tnninim nim n-kesop nm-ma n-nenou= n-. n-. na= n--.190. naa= naiat= nai-. n-.

283 §283 §182 §324. ta-. oun-tw= c 60 (cardinal number) for ks o 70 (cardinal number) ‘Great’ ‘Again’.n-soua n-tn-tante-. outw= ouw4 p\ pa-.325 §117 §3 §117 §103. ne2w= n-2i c\ c o\ o on oun-te-.291 §234 §266 §329n §117 §51 §52 §361. Prepositional form of Greek παρα ‘Half’ ‘Behind’ Particle indicating logical subject in Non-Verbal Sentence with the Imperfect with Future Imperfect after 6aps pe pet pe`e-.233n §182 §275 §271.80 §133 ne2e-.1 §366 §280 §127 §281 §306 §195 §214n §53 §367 §181 §53 §52. ‘Still’ Possession ‘Between’ ‘To wish’. n-6oue for n-sououa for entVerbal Prefix of II Perfect Genitive Particle Verbal prefix of Conjunctive for nto for n-tok ‘Thou’ Verbal Prefix of Past Temporal for n-twtnConjunction ‘Then’ ‘He’ as conjunction ‘Hour’ Qualitative Form for neoun-Adjective Verb ‘Before’ See 6n-‘More like’ Adjective Verb Particle indicating subject §153 §360 §202 §99-100 §225 §45 §45 §387 §45 §293 §45 §293 §134 §144 §195n. pei+ pai+ en-3pai+ etpararo= pa4e pa6ou p 80 (cardinal number) Possessive Article Demonstrative Pronoun for pai eten-3Descriptive Relative ‘Against’. used in Durative Tenses oute-.106 §281. nta= ntentk-n-teren-tetn-n-tooun n-to3 nau (nou) nhu neunna4e-. napai+. pe`a= for pe et‘Says’ Demonstrative Pronoun Old form of the Article for p6oou ph pipoou 65 . na4w= na6rnn-6ht= n-6ouoe-.

39 §54.poua poua pw= r\ r r ra. tetate -te t/5 300 (cardinal number) for d Causative Prefix Omission of Causative Prefix ‘Me.80ff §50 §51 §225 §306 §40 §53 §5g §52. -sou swsobte snau s(e)psop s5sousount t\ t t(t-) -t t(e)ta-.( re-) rw= rm-rompe (rm-pe-) ‘Each one’ Possessive Pronoun §126n §48 §117 §117 §10 §127 §38 §60 §131 §127 §38 §95 §38 §63 §117 §171 §35 §41 §58 §60 §348 §35. time’ Noun Prefix ‘Day’ (in dating) ‘Price’ sase -se. my’ Definite Article Possessive Adjective Possessive Article for n-ta.281 §61 §133 §38 §117 §2 §173 §176 §35.(conjunctive) Particle indicating logical subject in Non-Verbal Sentence ‘Thee’ (fem) Demonstrative Pronoun letter old form of the article th 5 66 .80 r 100 (cardinal number) 900 (cardinal number) for n ‘Part’ ‘Mouth’ Noun Prefix ‘Year’ ‘To’ ‘Name’ ‘King’ ‘Foot’ Noun Prefix remht rn-t= r-ro rat= re3s\ s-s s 200 (cardinal number) Causative Prefix ‘Her’ as neuter forming feminine nouns Noun Prefix ‘Yes!’ ‘Them’ ‘Back’ ‘To prepare’ ‘Two’ ‘Year’ ‘Occassion.44 §38 §168n §125 §131 §93n.

2 §345 §281 §243.2 §367 §38 §209.42 §117 §4 §117 §3 §117 §3 §117 §3 §117 §14 §5a §172 §253 §267 §204 §120 §38 §223 §129n §345n §60. yours’ u 400 (cardinal number) semi-consonant f 500 (cardinal number) for p6 x 600 (cardinal number) for k6 y 700 (cardinal number) for ps w 800 (cardinal number) changes to ou 4 letter for s` Potential Infinitive ‘Towards’ Verbal Prefix I Habitude 1000 ‘Nose’ Verbal Prefix of unfulfilled action ‘First’ ‘Until when?’ ‘Worthy of’ 4atnau 4ou- 67 . tei+ tai+ tai+ te qe tm-tn-tntwn tn-` tnau te nou tretareteratettoot= tetn-a touw= -thutnu\ u f\ f x\ x y\ y w\ w 4 4 4--.2 §38 §35. (e4-) 4a-. your’ ‘Where’ ‘Where?’ for tn-na ‘When?’ ‘Now’ (for teounou) Causative Infinitive Verbal Prefix of IV Future for tena for te §177 §48 §52 §281 §307n §399 §35.254 §219 §209.249 et- ‘Hand’ for tetn-na ‘Breast’ ‘You. 4aro4a-.42 §281 §345 §209. 4are= 4o 4ant= 4ante4orp(e). 4r-p- ‘To give’ in compound verbs with active meaning Possessive Pronoun Demonstrative Pronoun ‘Here’ equivalent of Conjunction ‘So thus’ Negative Particle ‘You.tw= tai+.

6aro= 6i-. nouns 6 6 6a-.283 §38 §134 §393 §133 §129n §293 4-2om 3\ 3 -3 3 90 (cardinal number) letter ‘Him.271.246-7. alternates with 2 §5e and note §175 §337n §294-5 §339 §96n §177. belly. (e)6na= letter ‘Under’ ‘Upon’ ‘To suffice’ Pronoun of emphasis or contrast ‘Work’ Interjection of entreaty Noun prefix ‘Would that!’ ‘In’ for 6en-.392 §85 §281 §38 §181n §237 §38 §281 §38. sound’ ‘Upward’ or ‘downward’ ‘Forepart. (e44e-) ‘It is befitting’ ‘Be strong. tip’ ‘Hour’ ‘When’ in Temporal Clause ‘Day’ ‘First’ ‘On the other hand’ 6aps 6ra= 6rai+ 6ht= 6ote 6otan 6oou 6oueit(e) 6ww3 ` letter. able’ §184n §223 §117 §5b §35 §58 §5d §269 (compounds 276) §268 (compounds 277) §237 §47 §61 §296 §60 §296 §271. Indefinite Article ‘Some’ ‘Within’ ‘Volition. his’ forming masc.6ht 6n-6oun 6na= (e)6ne-. voice. heart’ ‘Edge. n-.259n §38 §370 §292.4-4e. since’ ‘While’ Past Temporal ‘Since’ 68 . 258. desire’ ‘To be willing’ ‘It is necessary’ ‘Face.347a §347b §279 §391 §388 ` = t4 for `e before sonant consonant Conjunction `e `i `w= `eka(a)s `(e)n `n--m-mon `in `in + Circum `inta- Introduces Direct and Indirect Speech Explicative ‘Namely’ ‘To receive’ in Compound Passive Verbs ‘Head’ ‘In order to’ ‘Or’ ‘Or not’ ‘From. 6iw(w)= 6w 6w(w)= 6wb 6a(e)io 6am6amoi+ 6n--.

‘To drink’ skai+ ‘To plough’ sine ‘To pass by’ s6ai+ ‘To write’ sw6e ‘To weave’ si6e ‘To remove’ 5 ‘To give’ Qual of 5 ‘To give’ Qual of ouop ‘To be pure.`(e)p `pi. ‘To become whole’ 4ine ‘To ask’ Qual of 4wpe ‘To become’ 3i ‘To bear’ 6ioue ‘To strike’ or 6i ‘To thresh’ `w ‘To say’ Qual of `ro ‘To be strong’ `i ‘To receive’ 2ine ‘To find’ Qual of 2w ‘To continue’ General English Index Abbreviations §32 Absolute Form §26 Accent (Tone) §19 Adjectives §101ff. 2n-t= 2eet eire ‘To make’ Qual of w6e ‘To stand’ Qual of ww ‘To conceive’ eiw ‘To wash’ kw ‘To lay’ kim ‘To move’ me ‘To love’ mise ‘To bring forth. Concord §109. sok= sn-(t)-. n-t= o r-se-. Emphasis §186.(mes-). 4nt= 4oop 3it6i`e-. sa6t= sa6t= taa= to ouaab ouo` 4en(t)-. mast= n--. saat= se6-.(`pe-) `oo. Greek §286. Position §334-6 Long Superlinear Stroke §31 Metathesis §13 Multiplication §128 Negation §396ff 69 . 2is- ‘Hour’ Verb prefix ‘Must’ ‘To say it’ ‘To buy and sell’ §134 §210 §41 §177n §5f §293 §253 §63c §281 §127 2 letter ‘Then. kaa= kemt-. Greek §109n. s6ais= or s6ait= sa6t-. Position §104-8 Adjective Verbs §182 Adverb §281-6. merit= mas. eiaa= ka-. kemt= mere-. soo= sek-. Ending in –e §103. holy’ Qual of ou`ai+. `oo= `raeit `it= 2(e)n-. give birth to’ eine ‘To bring’ Qual of eire ‘To make’ eire ‘To make’ sw. therefore’ ‘To be powerful’ Noun Prefix ‘Quickly’ ‘Half’ 5: Cf t Common Irregular Verb Parts aa= a6e eet eia-.s `i5 2 -2e 2m-2om 2in2eph 2os.

Compound §272-8. Intro by e§331-2. Word Order §318-20 Fractions §127 Subject §314.3 Possessive Adjective §50. Movement §20-1 Unfulfilled Action §222ff Verb §137ff. Masc Plural §66-75. 330. Real §375-9. in Circumstantial Clause §197a. Change of §10-11. Defined Antecedent §355-63. II Perfect §202. Position of Protasis §382 Conjugation of Verb §180ff Conjunctions §287-95 Conjunctive Tense §225-9. Negation §221 Participium Conjunctum §62n Particle Prefix §63 Passive §259 Perfect Tense §200. ‘Indirect’ §329. 321-25 Sufficiency §237a Future Tenses §208ff Suffix Pronouns §35 Superlative §115 Gender §56 Superlinear Stroke §23 Genitive §97ff Syllable §17. 316 Elliptical use of Conjunctive §229 Necessity §237 Non-Verbal Sentence §299-314. Position §336 Definition of norms taking suffixes §94 Demonstrative Pronouns §52-5 Diphthongs §8-9 Direct Speech §337 Durative Tenses §187-8. 254-8 Causative Verbs §171ff Circumstantial §197. Types §298ff. Negation §244 Interjections §296 Temporal Notions §131ff Tone (Accent) §19. Fem Plural §76-79 Noun Prefix §60 Number §65ff Numerals §116ff Oaths §191 Object §326-33.n Nouns §56ff. Preceded by Non-Verbal Sentences §367 Euphony §236. Tense of §204ff Temporal Clauses §385-95. Adjectival Use §145 Relative Clauses §350-68. II Present §192. Pronoun §48 Potential Infinitive §253 Praesens Consuetudinis §204 I Present Tense §189-91. Future §212. Article §51. Negation §242 Imperfect §194. Descriptive §366. First and Second Tenses §186 315ff.Apposition §96 Article §80ff. Prospective §393-5 Imperative §238-41. Negation I & II §193 Prohibitions §339 Pronomial Form §28 Prepositions §260. Contraction §12 Construct Form §27 Dating §135 Dative §319. Oblique §328. in Non-Verbal Sentence §305. Meaning §143. Direct §326. Classification §146ff. Greek §280 Punctuation §34 Qualitative: Origin §141. Greek Verbs §178-9 Vocative §84 70 . Negation §230 Consonants §1ff. Neg §203 Phonetic Spelling §33 Pluperfect Tenses §231.1 Relative Substantive §368 Finalis §219 Second Tenses §186 Final Clauses §369-72 Sentence Coordination §338. Negation §198 Commands §339 Comparison §114 Compound Noun §59 Compound Tenses §231 Compound Verbs §177 Concessive Clause §384 Conditional Clause §374-83. 364. Simple §261-71. Contemporaneous 391-2. Irreal §380. Closed/Open §18 Syllable Marker §23 Habitude. Old Conjugation 180ff. as Infinitive §142. Causative §171ff. Undefined Antecedent §351Emphasis in Verbal Sentence §186. Exception §329n Old Conjugation §180-4 Optative §220. Past §386-90. Non-verbal 54. Succession §365. Omission §88ff Causal Clauses §373 Causative Infinitive §243. Resumptive Pronoun §309 §353. Emphasis §333. Negation §201. Negation §196 Impersonal Verbs §233 Independent Pronouns §45-6 Indirect Speech §337 Infinitive §138-40.

Contraction §16 Wishes §340 Word Order §318ff.mn-t. 199. 344 Irreal Conditional Clauses §380ff Limitative Tenses §187. 22. influence of Greek Original §335  t. 317 Vowels §7.Interrogative Adverbs §345.xristos 71 . Change of §14-5. 148.1&2.son m-.pe. Pronouns §55. Particles §346.