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Organization Profile: VIPULA Technologies was founded in the year 2000 by Mr.M.V.RamiReddy, a young business entrepreneur with a great ambition to embark in the IT industry and succeed at any cost. The objective was to provide unique, cost-effective and powerful solutions in business management, manufacturing processes, defense research and allied fields. The objective has been fulfilled to large extent and today the company is poised for major developments in the high-end technological domains. The company is currently planning to launch a major research center, which will form the backbone of the various development activities by transferring high-end technologies. The company is also engaged in parallel, in providing high-quality training and experience to the engineering student community. The students not only benefit from finely chiseled course curriculum, but also from the practical experience gained through the development center. In order to realise these end-results, the company is supported by domain expects with strong technical

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background and rich industrial experience. The development activities may broadly summarised under the following heads:  Turnkey solutions in business management  Process Automation solutions to manufacturing companies  Flexible and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, vision-based Robots  High-end Technological Solutions to Defense & Aerospace Industry  In-house development of microprocessor-based products  Web Based Applications using J2EE and .Net Technologies  High-end Software development using leading technologies in different domains Investment in high-quality manpower has largely been the reason for the success of the organization. The technical team is headed by B.Chandra Sekhar, Viswanath, B.Uday Reddy and Ashok whom have substantial industrial experience with numerous successful projects to their credit both in the industry and the defence sector. The following list represents a typical cross section of the clients who have eulogised on the quality of services provided by us. We have built confidence and trust into our clients through our quality services and dependable on-going support. Turbo Engineering Prem Industries JK Mills Deepak Oils

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4 .Citizen card Maheshwari Marriage Bureau Jayasree Enterprises DigitalAUM Arithmatics Gempac India VishVision Malhotra Shaving Products Limited Bayer India Limited Hoechst Pharmaceuticals Limited Klockner Windsor Limited Hindustan Dorr Oliver Electronic Corporation of India (Bangalore) The company provides a close-knit. sleeves rolled-up atmosphere throughout. Make a King’s ransom to achieve profitability and get acquired. Our goal:. The company allows employees to customise benefit programs and provide flexible time-off policy. rather than a flat hierarchy.Change the World.

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Citizen card Contents • Introduction • Organization Profile • Problem Definition • Software Design • Software Requirements  Overview of Java  Java Database Connectivity  Java Servlets  JSP  HTML & Java Script  Oracle 8i  Overview of Testing • Dataflow Diagram • Data Dictionary • ER Diagrams • Operational Profile • Implementation • Use Case Document • Software Testing Design • Test Cases • Performance Evaluation Report • Conclusion and future scope 6 .

This system not only help us to know the information about the services or utilities but also it gives the information about the character of the citizen in credit rating. a citizen card helps in having all the utilities and services under one unique Id. RTO. Banking. he has to go to each and every department with different Id for that particular department. Voting. Tax. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. Municipality. Travel Agency etc. Instead. Movies. 7 .Citizen card Introduction: The Project ‘Citizen Card System’ gives us the information about the citizen in any country. Credit Rating. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. Insurance. Provident Fund. This System consists of the modules like Personal Information. Gas. Passport. Electricity. If any citizen wants to utilize the services or utilities by the Government or Private organizations. Telephone.

Provident Fund. How they work? In citizen card system the citizen will perform the all transactions basing on id. Credit rating etc. Tax. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen.Not only the Insurance but also he/she perform the transactions like banking. Banking.If citizen want to take a policy like Insurance policy then citizen basing on id he/she logins and register themselves to take a policy . Insurance.Citizen card Project Description: ‘Citizen Card System’ provides the information about the citizen in any country. If any citizen wants to utilize the services or utilities by the Government or Private organizations. Telephone. Gas. Movies. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. Electricity. 8 . he has to go to each and every department with different Id for that particular department. Credit rating tells the behavior of the person whether citizen’s character is good or bad. Municipality.

Credit Rating : This module gives the information about the character of the citizen. It provides the information of the citizen . address etc.If the citizen wants to make a policy in the insurance then citizen can make it by his citizen id. of citizen. Insurance : This module provides the amount insured and regarding its installments. Taxation: 9 . It determines whether the citizen’s behavior basing on all the things is good or bad. If administrator want to view the personal details of the citizen administrator can verify the personal information module.. id .Citizen card MODULES: Personal Information : This module contains the personal information like name . Basing on citizen id the insurance details can be displayed.

Gas : This module provides the information regarding the deliveries of the gas.Citizen card This module provides the information regarding the tax paid and tax to be paid. Telephone : paid by the customer to the 10 . If Administrator wants to know about the particular citizen details whether he/she paid the tax or not then the administrator can check it basing on id. ICICI. Citizen can choose particular area to the voting.citizen can vote according to his/her choice. Andhra bank etc All the banking transactions can be done with citizen id.vehicle reg number.engine number.Service number. Banking : This module allows all banking transactions. RTO : This module provides information regarding licenses for vehicles. The information provides the amount particular gas no and gas type.It gives the information like vehicle name.Bank like SBI. Citizen can make any bank transactions basing on citizen id.Owner address etc Voting : This module provides the online voting facility.

Citizen card This module provides information about the telephone bill payments. SOFTWARE DESIGN DOCUMENT 11 . Passport: This module provides information about particular citizen.It provides the information like number of units and previous no of units and the charge for that bill basing on id of particular citizen.banking Personal Information. It provides the information about the STD calls/ISD calls and their charges of particular citizen id. Credit Rating. etc. passport.renewal Objectives To enable the Administrator to perform operations basing on citizen id like voting. Electricity : This module provides information about electricity bill payments and all.Details like citizen personal information and date.validupto etc...gas.issued govt . dateissued.

processes. and data fields for this software.Citizen card Purpose Purpose of this document is to clearly describe all known classes. data security could be provided etc. 12 . reliability. GUI. FEASIBILITY STUDY: Feasibility considerations: The feasibility study is carried out to find whether the proposed system can be developed and implemented without any problem. behavioral. In this regard technical. and economic feasibility are analyzed. ease of access. Also any technical guarantees of accuracy. Technical feasibility: Technical feasibility such as whether the necessary technology exist to do what is suggested and if the equipment have the capacity to hold data required by the use of new system. The following feasibility is considered for the project in order to ensure that the project is viable and it does not have any major obstructions.

An agreement is made between management and staff so that computerizing system will be installed step by step by giving training to existing staff members only. Create system definition that forms a foundation for all subsequent engineering work. 13 . Every department welcomes the idea of computerization. Behavioral Feasibility is also studied like whether the changes made to the system facilitates the user and if he is able to adapt to the change made by introducing computers.Citizen card Behavioral Feasibility: People are inherently resistant to change and computers have known to facilitate changes. s/w people. Also can the system be built within the specified time interval? Establish cost and schedule constraints. Any extra h/w required should be affordable in terms of cost. Defining functions for h/w. Economic Feasibility: Economic feasibility like if the existing resources are sufficient introducing. But the resistance will be from the operators who are involved in the existing system or manual system.

Citizen card Software Requirements SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION:  JAVA  JDBC  SERVLETS  JSP  HTML  ORACLE SCRIPT LANGUAGE: JAVA SCRIPT WEB BROWSER: TOMCAT (OR) WEBLOGIC Hardware Requirements Pentium III and above with 10 GB HDD and 256 RAM 14 .

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1 added some important elements to Java.Citizen card JAVA The initial release of Java was nothing of revolutionary. and reconfigured many features of the 1.0 library .It also deprecated several features originally defined by java1. Features added by 1. java had already created java1. but it did not mark the end of java’s era of rapid innovation. java2 also and subtracts 16 .1 Version1.1: • Java Beans. added and subtracted attributes from its original specification. which are software components that are written in Java. Continuing in this evolution. a few new language features were also included. Thus java1. However. • Serialization.1 added many new library elements. redefined the way events are handled by applets.1 were more significant and substantial than the increase 1 the minor revision number would have you think. Java1. Most of the addition occurred in the Java library. Here is a list of the important features added by 1. increment improvements.1 both features.0. Unlike most other software systems that usually settle into a pattern of small. which allows you to save and restore the state of an object.

constructors and methods of a java object at run time. and access control lists and key generation. For example. • Reflection. • Inner classes.1 As just mentioned java 1. In general. This is an important facility for building distributed applications. databases from many different vendors.1 depreciated many earlier library elements. which allow one class to be defined within another. most of the original Date class was deprecated. • The Java Native Interface (JNI). which provides a new way for your programs to interface with code libraries written in other languages. • Significant changes to event handling that improve the way in which events generated by graphical user interface (GUI) components are handled. which is a process of determining the fields. messages digests. Deprecated by Features 1.0 feature is still available in 17 . which allows programs to access SQL. such as digital signatures. they were replaced with updated alternatives. objects to invoke the methods of another Java object that located on a different machine. • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). which allows a Java. • Built in support for 16-bit character streams that handle Unicode characters.Citizen card • Remote Method Invocation. • Various security features. Instead. deprecated 1. the deprecated features did not go away. However.

0 adds many important new features. Java programs can parse and use certificates to enforce security policies. • Digital certificates provide mechanism to establish the identity of a user. Features added by java 2. dynamic arrays and hash tables for use. The latter generates code from an IDL specification. You may think of them as electronic passports. Collections offer a new way to solve several common-programming problems. Here is a partial list. Java 2. Using a sequence of keystrokes to represent one character does this.Citizen card java to support legacy code.0 includes an ORB and an IDL to java compiler. • Text components can now receive Japanese. such as linked lists.0 Building upon 1. but they should not be used by new applications. 18 . • The Common Object request Broker Architecture (CORBA) defines an Object request Broker (ORB) and an Interface Definition Language (IDL). You can also design your own look and feel. java 2. • Collections are group of objects.1. Java 2.0 provides several types of collection. • Swing is a set of user interface components that is implemented entirely in java You can use a look and feel that is either specific to a particular operating system or uniform across operating systems. Chinese and Korean characters from keyboard.

it is Byte Code.The JRE is a subset of the JDK. 19 .0. resume () and stop () methods of the Thread class should not be used in new code Java’s Magic: The Byte Code: The key that allows java to solve both the security and the portability problems just described is that the output of the java compiler is not an executable code.It does not include the tools and classes that are used in a development environment. not interpreted-mostly because of performance concerns. • Many browsers include a Java Virtual Machine that is used to execute applets. A Just-InTime (JIT) compiler is included in JDK. browsers JVM’s typically do not include the latest java features.1 are deprecated by java 2. The java Plug-in solves this problem. It directs a browser’s JVM .1 some features of java 1. the suspend (). Rather. Various tools such as Javac. This may come as it of surprise as you know c++ is compiled. Unfortunately. Debugger and Profiler interfaces for the JVM arte available. Features Deprecated by 2 Although not as extensive as the deprecations experienced between 1.Citizen card • Performance improvements have been made in several areas. For example.0 and 1. Byte Code is a highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by virtual machine that the java Run-time system emulates. Java and Javadoc have been enhanced.

the fact that a java program is interpreted helps solve the major problems associated with downloading the program over the Internet. Although the fundamentals that necessitated the invention of java are portability and security. • Simple • Portable • Object-oriented 20 . Once the runtime package exists for a given system any java program can run on it. there is technically nothing about java that prevents on the fly compilation of Byte Code into native code. The java in the following list of buzzwords summed up the key considerations. Thus interpretation is the easiest way to create truly portable programs. If java were a compiled langu8age then different versions of the same program will have to exist for each type of CPU connected to the Internet. The Java Buzz Words No discussion of the genesis of java is complete without a look at the java buzzwords. the portability and safety would still apply. there are other factors that played an important role on molding the final form of the language. However. even if dynamic compilation were applied to Byte Code. Although java was designed to be interpreted. Because java programs are interpreted rather than compiled .Citizen card However. Here is why java was designed to be interpreted language. Only the java runtime system needs to be implemented for each platform.It is easier to run them in wide variety of environments. because the run time system would still be in change of the execution environment.

we need to understand what these limitations are and how they arose from traditional programming.Citizen card • Robust • Multithreaded • Architectural-neutral • High performance • Distributed • Dynamic OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING AND JAVA Object-oriented Programming was developed because of limitations found in earlier approaches of programming.. To appreciate what OOP does. PROCEDURAL LANGUAGES Pascal. FORTRAN. add these numbers. 21 . display the output. C. That is. each statement in the language tells the computer to do something: Get some input. A program in a procedural language is a list of instructions. divide by 6. and similar languages are procedural languages. Basic.

Citizen card

For very small programs no other organizing principle (often called a paradigm) is needed. The programmer creates the list of instructions, and the computer carries them out. Division into Functions When programs become larger, a single list of instructions becomes unwieldy. Few programmers can comprehend a program of more than a few hundred statements unless it is broken down into smaller units. For this reason the function was adopted as a way to make programs more comprehensible to their human creators. (The term functions is used in C++ and C. In other languages the same concept may be referred to as a subroutine, a subprogram, or a procedure.) A program is divided into functions, and (ideally, at least) each function has a clearly defined purpose and a clearly defined interface to the other functions in the program. The idea of breaking a program into functions can be further extended by grouping a number of functions together into a larger entity called a module, but the principle is similar: grouping a number of components that carry out specific tasks. Dividing a program into functions and modules is one of the cornerstones of structured programming, the somewhat loosely defined discipline that has influenced programming organization for more than a decade. Problems with Structured Programming

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As programs grow ever larger and more complex, even the structured programming approach begins to show signs of strain. You may have heard about, or been involved in, horror stories of program development. The project is too complex, the schedule slips, more programmers are added, complexity increases, costs skyrocket, the schedule slips further, and disaster ensues. Analyzing the reasons for these failures reveals that there are weaknesses in the procedural paradigm itself. No matter how well the structured programming approach is implemented, large programs become excessively complex. What are the reasons for this failure of procedural languages? One of the most crucial is the role played by data. Data Undervalued In a procedural language, the emphasis is on doing things--read the keyboard, invert the vector, check for errors, and so on. The subdivision of a program into functions continues this emphasis. Functions do things just as single program statements do. What they do may be more complex or abstract, but the emphasis is still on the action. What happens to the data in this paradigm? Data is, after all, the reason for a program's existence. The important part of an inventory program isn't a function that displays the data, or a function that checks for correct input; it's the inventory data itself. Yet data is given second-class status in the organization of procedural languages. For example, in an inventory program, the data that makes up the inventory is probably read from a disk file into memory, where it is treated

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as a global variable. By global we mean that the variables that constitute the data are declared outside of any function, so they are accessible to all functions. These functions perform various operations on the data. They read it, analyze it, update it, rearrange it, display it, write it back to the disk, and so on. We should note that most languages, such as Pascal and C, also support local variables, which are hidden within a single function. But local variables are not useful for important data that must be accessed by many different functions. Now suppose a new programmer is hired to write a function to analyze this inventory data in a certain way. Unfamiliar with the subtleties of the program, the programmer creates a function that accidentally corrupts the. This is easy to do, because every function has complete access to the data. It's like leaving your personal papers in the lobby of your apartment building: Anyone can change or destroy them. In the same way, global data can be corrupted by functions that have no business changing it. Another problem is that, since many functions access the same data, the way the data is stored becomes critical. The arrangement of the data can't be changed without modifying all the functions that access it. If you add new data items, for example, you'll need to modify all the functions that access the data so that they can also access these new items. It will be hard to find all such functions, and even harder to modify all of them correctly. It's similar to what happens when your local supermarket moves the bread from aisle 4 to aisle 12. Everyone who patronizes the supermarket must figure out where the bread has gone, and adjust their shopping habits accordingly.

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you can extend the capabilities of the language. or two dimensional coordinates. For example. The problem is that their chief components--functions and data structures--don't model the real world very well. One is the difficulty of creating new data types. and so on. simplify maintenance. Being able to create your own types is called extensibility. suppose you are writing a program to create the elements of a graphics user interface: menus. Computer languages typically have several built-in data types: integers. characters. and then add and subtract 25 . Quick now.Citizen card What is needed is a way to restrict access to the data. Relationship to the Real World Procedural programs are often difficult to design. Without unnatural convolutions. to say the least. windows. New Data Types There are other problems with traditional languages. what functions will you need? What data structures? The answers are not obvious. floating-point numbers. to hide it from all but a few critical functions. or dates— quantities the built-in data types don’t handle easily. you can’t bundle together both X and Y coordinates into a single variable called Point. and offer other benefits as well. and so on. Traditional languages are not usually extensible. It would be better if windows and menus corresponded more closely to actual program elements. This will protect the data. What if you want to invent your own data type? Perhaps you want to work with complex numbers.

It will read the item and return the value to you. and maintaining the program. data items are referred to as instance variables. The data is hidden. If you want to read the item and return the value to you. The result is that traditional programs are more complex to write and maintain. oriented languages. debugging. This simplifies writing. so it is safe from accidental modification. Also. We should mention that what are called member functions in C++ are called methods in Java.Citizen card values of this type. A Java program typically consists of a number of objects. You can’t access the data directly. you call a member function in the object. No other functions can access the data. called member methods in Java. If you want to modify the data in an object. typically provide the only way to access its data. which communicate with each other by calling one another’s members functions. The object oriented approach The fundamental idea behind object-oriented languages is to combine into a single unit both data and the functions that operate on that data. Such a unit is called an object. you know exactly what functions interact with it: the member functions in the object. message to the object. Calling an object’s member function is referred to as sending a Data encapsulation and data hiding are key terms in the description of object 26 . An object’s functions. Data and its functions are said to be encapsulated into a single entity.

It also has its own data: payroll. the payroll the next. and you need to know the total of all the salaries paid in the southern region in July. depending on the department. objects provide an 27 .Citizen card An analogy You might want to think of objects as departments—such as sales. with clearly assigned duties. people don’t work on personnel problems one day. personnel. This ensures that the data is accessed accurately and that inept outsiders do not corrupt it. and then go out in the field as sales people the week after. (This view of corporate organization is show in figure). Departments provide an important approach to corporate organization. and then you wait for that person to access the appropriate person in the department. for instance. and then you wait for that person to access the data and send you a reply with the information you want. is responsible for the payroll data. or whatever. If you are from the sales department. accounting. sales figures. In the same way. In most companies (except very small ones). department. You send a memo to the appropriate person in the department. and so on—in a company. you don’t just walk into the payroll department and start rummaging through file cabinets. Each department has its own personnel. personnel records. Dividing the company into departments makes its easier to The payroll comprehend and control the company’s activities. inventory. and helps them maintain the integrity of the information used by the company. The people in each department control and operate on those departments data.

Thinking in terms of objects. but there are some typical categories to start you thinking: Physical objects 28 . has a surprisingly helpful effect on how easily programs can be designed and objects in the real world. you no longer ask how the problem will be divided into functions. Objects When you approach a programming problem in an object oriented language. while helping to maintain the integrity of the programs data. but how it will be divided into objects. it deals with the overall organization of the program. rather than functions. Characteristics of object-oriented languages: Let’s briefly examine a few of the major elements of object-oriented languages in general and Java in particular. Instead.Citizen card approach to program organization. What kinds of things become objects-oriented programs? The answer to this is limited only by your imagination. OOP: An approach to organization Keep in mind that object-oriented programming is not primarily concerned with the details of program operation.

Citizen card Automobile in a traffic-flow simulation Electrical components in a circuit design to a program Countries in an economics model Aircraft in an air-traffic control system •     Elements of the computer-user environment Windows Menus Graphics objects (lines. rectangles. circles) The mouse and the keyboard • Programming constructs    Customized arrays Stacks Linked lists • Collection of data    An inventory A personnel file A dictionary A table of the latitudes and longitudes of world cities • User defined data types    Time Angles Complex numbers 29 .

For instance. a data type int. Int answer. Classes In OOP we say that objects are members of classes. or template. meaning integer is pre-defined in Java. A class serves as a plan. What does this mean? Let’s look at an analogy.Citizen card  Points on the plane • Components in a computer games     Ghosts in maze game Positions in a board game (chess. and what functions will be included in objects of that class. Int count. checkers) Animals in an ecological simulation Opponents and friends in adventure games The match between programming objects and real-world objects us the happy result of combining data and functions: the resulting objects offer a revolution in program designing. Defining the class 30 . Int divisor. Almost all computer languages have built-in data types. You can declare as many variables of type int as you need in your program: Int day. It specifies what data. no such close match between programming constructs and the items being modeled exists in a procedural language.

and braking systems work.Citizen card doesn’t create any objects. Prince. cellular phone. They think of it as a well-defined object with its own unique behavior. are members of the class of rock musicians. In turn. Once inside. There is no person called rock musician but specific people with specific names are members of this class if they possess certain characteristics. just as the mere existence of a type int doesn’t create any variables. For example. From the outside. Humans manage complexity through abstraction. They can ignore the details of how the engine. the car is a single object. sting etc. breaking them into more manageable pieces. Instead they are free to utilize the object as a whole. A class is thus a collection of similar objects. you see that the car consists of several subsystems: steering. This allows you to layer the semantics of complex systems. brakes.. This abstraction allows people to use a car to drive to the grocery store without being overwhelmed by the complexity of the parts that form the car. and so on. The point is that you manage the 31 . sound system. a CD player. seat belts. and/or a tape player. transmission. each of these subsystems is made up of more specialized units. A powerful way to manage abstraction is through the use of hierarchical classifications. people do not think of a car as a set of tens of thousands of individual parts. This fits our non-technical understanding of the word class. heating. Abstraction An essential element of object-oriented programming is abstraction. the sound system consists of a radio. For instance.

object-oriented programming is a powerful and natural paradigm for creating programs that survive the inevitable changes accompanying the life cycle of any major software project. For example. and aging. It is important that you understand how these concepts translate into programs. The data from a traditional process-oriented program can be transformed by abstraction into its component objects. reliable interfaces to those objects. growth. Hierarchical abstractions of complex systems can also be applied to computer programs. You can treat these objects as concrete entities that respond to messages telling them to do something. including conception. and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Object-oriented concepts form the heart of Java just as they form the basis for human understanding. One way to think about encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents the code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by other This is the essence of object-oriented 32 . Encapsulation Encapsulation is the mechanism that binds together code and the data it manipulates. As you will see.Citizen card complexity of the car(or any other complex system) through the use of hierarchical abstractions. you can gracefully decommission or replace parts of an older system without fear. each of each object describes its own unique behavior. once you have a well defined objects and clean. Thus. A sequence of process steps can become a collection of messages between these objects. programming.

You can’t affect the transmission by using the turn signal or windshield wipers. It encapsulates hundreds of bits of information about your engine. for example. You . Although the class will be examined in great detail later in this book. have only one method of affecting this complex encapsulation: by moving the gear-shift lever. The power of encapsulated code is that everyone knows how to access it and thus can use it regardless of the implementation details—and without fear of unexpected side effects. Each object of a given class contains the structure and behavior defined by the class. Access to the code and data inside the wrapper is tightly controlled through a well-defined interface. the gear-shift lever is a well-defined (indeed. Thus. However. such as how much you are accelerating. example. they all work the same. unique) interface to the transmission. the pitch of the surface you are on. as the user. what occurs inside the For transmission does not affect objects outside the transmission. To relate this to the real world. and the position of the shift lever.Citizen card code defined outside the wrapper. This same idea can be applied to programming. objects 33 . consider the automatic transmission on an automobile. In Java the basis of encapsulation is the class. For this reason. as if it were stamped out by a mold in the shape of the class. from the driver’s point of view. Further. A class defines the structure and behavior (data and code) that will be shared by a set of objects. shifting gears does not turn on the headlights! Because an automatic transmission is encapsulated. the following brief discussion will be helpful now. dozens of car manufacturers can implement one in any way they please.

Since the private members of a class may only be accessed by other parts of your program through the class’ public methods. Of course. The public interface of a class represents everything that external users of the class need to know. or may know. Therefore. Specifically. Each method or variable in a class may be marked private or public. Since the purpose of a class is to encapsulate complexity. a class is a logical construct. Thus. these elements are called members of the class. an object has physical reality.Citizen card are sometimes referred to as instances of a class. any other code that is not a member of the class cannot access a private method or variable. there are mechanisms for hiding the complexity of the implementation inside the class. this means that the public interface should be carefully designed not to expose too much of the inner workings of a class. The code that operates on that data is referred to as member methods or just methods. Collectively. the data defined by the class are referred to as member variables or instance variables. The private methods and data can only be accessed by code that is a member of the class. you will specify the code and data that constitute that class. you can ensure that no improper actions take place. Inheritance 34 . When you create a class.

This is known as a subclass of animals. This description of attributes and behavior is the class definition for animals. and mammary glands. where animals are referred to as mammals’ super class. breathe. and type of skeletal system. such as mammals. they ear. top-down) For example. and sleep. such as animals. mammals.Citizen card Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. However. classifications. Animals also have certain behavioral aspects. which in turn is part of the mammal class. If you wanted to describe a more specific class of animals. As mentioned earlier. most knowledge is made manageable by hierarchical (that is. by use of inheritance. an object need only define those qualities that make it unique within its class. and dogs. such as size. each object would need to define all of its characteristics explicitly. you would say they have some attributes. Without the use of hierarchies. It can inherit its general attributes from its parent. Thus. it is the inheritance mechanism that makes it possible for one object to be a specific instance of a more general case. they would have more specific attributes. 35 . If you wanted to describe animals in an abstract way. a Golden Retriever is part of the classification dog. This is important because it supports the concept of hierarchical classification. intelligence. Most people naturally view the world as made up of objects that are related to each other in a hierarchical way. such as type of teeth. which is under the larger class animal.

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Since mammals are simply more precisely specified animals, they inherit all of the attributes from animals. A deeply inherited subclass inherits all of the attributes from each of its ancestors in the class hierarchy. Inheritance interacts with encapsulation as well. If a given class encapsulates some attributes, then any subclass will have the same attributes plus any that it adds as part of its specialization. This is a key concept, which lets object-oriented programs grow in complexity linearly rather than geometrically. A new subclass inherits all of the attributes of all of its ancestors. It does not have unpredictable interactions with the majority of the rest of the code in the system. Polymorphism Polymorphism (from the Greek, meaning “many forms”) is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of actions. The specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. Consider a stack (which is a last-in, first-out list). You might have a program that requires three types of stack. One stack is used for integer values, one for floatingpoint values, and one for characters. The algorithm that implements each stack is the same, even though the data being stored differs. In a nonobject-oriented language, you would be required to create three difference sets of stack routines, with each set using different names. However, because of polymorphism, in Java you can specify a general set of stack routines that all share the same names. More generally, the concept of polymorphism is often expressed by the phrase “one interface, multiple methods.” This means that it is

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possible to design a generic interface to a group of related activities. This helps reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action. It is the compiler’s job to select the specific action (that is, method) as it applies to each situation. You, the programmer, do not need to make this selection manually. You need only remember and utilize the general interface. Extending the dog analogy, a dog’s sense of smell is polymorphic. If the dog smells a cat, it will bark and run after it. If the dog smells its food, it will salivate and run to its bowl. The same sense of smell is at work in both situations. The difference is what is being smelled, that is, the type of data being operated upon by the dog’s nose! This same general concept can be implemented in Java as it applies to methods within a Java program. Polymorphism, Encapsulation, and Inheritance Work Together When properly applied, polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance combine to produce a programming environment that supports the development of far more robust and scaleable programs than does the process-oriented model. A well-designed hierarchy of classes is the basis for reusing the code in which you have invested time and effort developing and testing. Encapsulation allows you to migrate your implementations over time without breaking the code that depends on the public interface of your classes. Polymorphism allows you to create clean, sensible, readable, and resilient code. Of the two real-world examples, the automobile more completely illustrates the power of object-oriented design. Dogs are fun to think

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about from an inheritance standpoint, but cars are more like programs. All drivers rely on inheritance to drive different types (sub classes) of vehicles. Whether the vehicle is a school is a school bus, a Mercedes sedan, a Porsche, or the family minivan, drivers can all more or less find and operate the steering wheel, the brakes, and the accelerator. After a bit of gear grinding, most people can even manage the difference between a stick shift and an automatic, because they fundamentally understand their common super class, the transmission. People interface with encapsulated features on cars all the time. The brake and gas pedals hide an incredible array of complexity with an interface so simple you can operate them with your feet! The implementation of the engine, the style of brakes, and the size of the tires have no effect on how you interface with the class definition of the pedals. The final attribute, polymorphism, is clearly reflected in the ability of car manufacturers to offer a wide array of options on basically the same vehicle. For example, you can get an antilock braking system or traditional brakes, power or rack-and-pinion steering, 4-, or 6-, or 8-cylender engines. Either way, you will still press the break pedal to stop, turn the steering wheel to change direction, and press the accelerator when you want to move.

Java Data Base Connectivity (JDBC) JDBC is a set of specification that defines how a program written in java can communicate and interact with a database. It provides a vehicle for the

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or java powered terminal. The JDBC consists of two layers .The top layer is the JDBC API. You can move your data from one database to another. Typical uses of the JDBC Just as one can use java for both applications and applets.Citizen card exchange of SQL between java application and databases. At the heart of the JDBC is the JDBC driver. JDBC was designed to support the most common form of SQL known as ANSI SQL92 entry level standard. JDBC driver is responsible for ensuring that any requests made by the application are presented to the database in away that is meaningful to the databases. It is all common that one writes the database application in proprietary database language. using a database management system that is available only from one or two platforms. a workstation. one can use the JDBC enhanced version of java in both applications and applets. This is in sharp contrast to the database programming typically done on personal computers today. The manager should communicate with the various third party drivers that actually connect to the database and return the information from the query or performed the action specified by the query. for example from Microsoft SQL Server to Oracle and the same program can still read your data. Programs developed with java and the JDBC are platform independent and vendor independent. The same java database program can run on PC. When 39 . This API communicates with JDBC manager driver API sending. it the various SQL statements.

They can give the application the total access to files and remote servers. In particular. When signed java applets become possible this restriction could be loosened. Of course.Citizen card that version is used in an applet. applets that use JDBC would only be able to open a database connection from the server from which they are downloaded. Applications on the other hand have complete freedom. That means the web server and the database must be the same machine. all the normal security restrictions applied. which is not a typical set up. Although the JDBC extensions of the java security model allow on to download a JDBC driver and register it with JDBC device manager on the server. JDBC continues to assume all applets are trusted. Components of JDBC There are three components to the JDBC • The JDBC driver manager • The JDBC driver test suite and 40 . We envision that JDBC applications will be very common. that driver can be used only for connections from the same server the applet came from. They can make neither explicit nor implicit use of information. the web server can have a proxy service that routes database traffic to an other machine.

This means that this type of JDBC driver only needs to speak only one language ODBC. It was implemented. The ODBC interface remains constant no matter which database is used. a long term will provide a way to access some of the less popular DBMS’s if JDBC drivers are not implemented for them. as a way to get JDBC off the ground quickly. The JDBC driver test suite provides some confidence that JDBC drivers will run your program. JDBC DRIVER TYPES JDBC-ODBC Bridge: ODBC driver is the only driver that can be used with the multiple databases and is vendor independent. Only drivers that pass the JDBC driver test suite can be designated JDBC COMPLIANT. It actually quite small and simple its primary function is to connect java application s to the connect JDBC driver and then get out of the way. The JDBC-ODBC Bridge allows ODBC drivers to be used as JDBC drivers. Native-API -Party-Java Driver: 41 .Citizen card • The JDBC-ODBC bridge The JDBC driver manager is the backbone of the JDBC architecture.

The driver does this by making call to the locally installed native call level interface (CLI). The CLI libraries are responsible for the actual communication with the database server. This allows a direct call from the client machine to the DBMS server and is a practical solution for Internet access.All c communication between the application and the database server are 100% java to java. the database vendors themselves will be the primary source and database vendors have these in progress 42 . Communication between the database itself and the server processes is still done with a native database CLI.Citizen card This makes use of local native libraries to communicate with the database. Native-Protocol-All-Java-Driver: This kind of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol used by DBMS directly. Since many of these protocols are proprietary. JDBC-Net-All-Java-Driver: The main difference when using this driver is that the native CLI libraries are placed on a remote server and the driver uses a network protocol to facilitate communication between the application and the driver .

Servlets offer several advantages over CGI: Performance is significantly better. Netscape and Microsoft 43 . However. in terms of the processor and resources. Creating a separate process to handle each request isn’t necessary. It communicated with the web server via an interface known as the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) . because they are written in java. CGI suffered serious performance problems. C++ and Perl. Servlets are platform-independent. Creating a separate process for each request was expensive. from vendors such as Sun. The process would open connection to one or more databases in order to obtain the necessary information. A variety of different languages were used to build CGI programs including C. Servlets execute within the address space of a web browser. It was also expensive to open and close database connections for each request.CGI allowed the separate process to read data from HTTP request and write data to the HTTP response.Citizen card SERVLETS In the early days of the web. a server could dynamically construct a page by creating a separate process to handle each client request. Several web servers.

The full functionality of the class libraries is available to a servlet.Citizen card offers the Servlets API. The life cycle of a servlet: Three methods are central to the cycle of a servlet: Init () Service () Destroy () They are implemented by every servlet and are invoked at specific times by the server. Programs developed for this API can be moved to any of these environments without recompilation. This servlet is dynamically retrieved and located into the address space of the server. The java security manager on the server enforces a set of restrictions to protect the resources on a server machine. assume that a user enters a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to the web browser. The Browser then generates a HTTP request for this URL and sends it to the appropriate server. First. The server maps this request to a particular servlet. Second. You will see that some servlets are trusted and others are untrusted. to understand when these methods are called. 44 . the web server receives this HTTP request. Consider next a typical user scenario.

You will see that the servlet can read data that has been provided in the HTTP request. The servlet remains in the servers address space and is available to process any other HTTP requests received from clients. The servlet interface provides for methods that manage the servlet and it’s developing a servlet.Citizen card Third. SERVLET ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW: The central abstraction in the JSDK is the servlet interface. You will see the initialization parameters can be passed to the servlet so that it may configure itself. either directly or more commonly by extending a class that implements it such as HTTP servlet. which is called to process the HTTP request. Fourth. 45 . The algorithms by which this determination is made are specific to each server. Important data may be saved to a persistent store. and may also formulate an HTTP response for the client. The server calls destroy () method to relinquish any resources. The service () method is called for each HTTP request. the server invokes the init () method of the servlet. the server invokes the servlets service () method. All servlets implements this interface. Finally the server may decide to unload the servlet from its memory. This method is invoked only when the servlet is first loaded into the memory. The memory allocated for the servlet and its objects can then be garbage collected. such as file handlers that are allocated for a servlet.

the protocol (scheme) being used by the client. The Servlet Response interfaces give the servlet methods to the client. Subclasses of servlet request allow the servlet to retrieve more protocol specific data. Servlet classes of servlet request allow the servlet to retrieve more protocol specific data. The servlet request interface allows the servlet access to the information such as the names of the parameters passed in by the client. 46 . It allows the servlet to set the content length and mime type of the reply and provides an output stream. It also provides the servlet with access to the input stream. and the names of the remote host that made the request and the server that received it. The servlet request class encapsulates the communication from the back to the client. Input stream. For example. Servlet output stream and a writer through which the servlet can send the reply data. Subclasses of Servlet Response give the servlet more protocol specific capabilities. through which the servlet gets data from clients that are using application. protocols such as the HTTP POST and PUT methods. HTTP Servlet Response contains methods that allow the servlet to manipulate the HTTP specific header information.Citizen card When a servlet accepts a call from client it receives two object one is servlet request and the other is a servlet response.

other threads might be running service request . and will not call it again unless it is reloading the servlet. Servlets can run multiple service () methods at a time . Initialization is allowed to complete before the client requests are handled or the servlet is destroyed. This is because the service calls the init () method once. there are no concurrency issues during servlet initialization. The method is run once. the service3 will not run it again until after it reloads the reinitializes the servlet. Even though most servlets are run in multi-threaded services. it is necessary to access shared resources that access should be synchronized.Citizen card Services load and run servlets. when it loads the servlet. The method receives the client’s request and sends the client its response. When a service removes a servlet.It is important therefore that service () methods be written a thread -safe manner. it runs the servlets init () method. it removes a servlet. 47 . They can also remove servlets. it runs the servlet destroy () method. When the destroy () method runs. Each client’s request has its call to the service () method run in its own servlet. When a service () loads a servlet.If in cleaning up. which then accept zero or more requests from clients and return data to them. These are the steps of a servlets life cycle. Servlets until they are removed from the service. The service cannot reload a servlet until after it has removed the servlet by calling the destroy () method. however.

All you require is to view and download the HTML files. HTML is platform independent: If you can access Internet. 48 . HTML is a language for describing structured documents. The behind hypertext is that instead of reading text in rigid liner structure you can easily jump from point to another point . graphical. irrespective of your Operating System and the Operating System of Web Server you are accessing . heading. It is only a formatting language and not a programming language. hypertext information system. Hyper Media: HTML pages audio and video files linked to them are Hyper Media. etc. which are on the WWW.Citizen card HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML) HTML is a language used to create hypertext documents that have hyperlinks embedded in them .You can navigate through the information based on your interest and preferences. are browser and Internet connections. and paragraph. Hyperlinks are underlined or emphasized words or locations in a screen that lead to other documents. interactive.You can build web pages. HTML describes the structure of documents -lists. you can access WWW. WWW is a global.

Anything that is not a tab is part of a document itself. exact placement or appearance of any element will change. 49 . Different browsers show data differently. have different styles for Headings. It is small because it does not include format information. There may be or may not be fonts installed. HTML does not describe page layout: Word for windows or Lotus AmiPro for example.Citizen card Elements of web document are through the usage of HTML tags. HTML does not have all these. a program that reads and understands HTML can make formatting decision based on capabilities of the individual platform. They parse and format documents and display them on the screen. So your formatted text will appear differently on differently on different machines/platforms. In addition to providing the networking functions to retrieve documents. Based on the platform. web browsers are also HTML formatters. Advantages: An HTML document is a small and hence easy to send over the net. fonts. size and identification. By separating the structure of the document and its appearance. It is tags that describe documents.

locations etc are required.Citizen card HTML documents are cross names. platform compatible and device independent. Font 50 . You only need HTML readable browser to view them.

and any browser that supports JavaScript can interprets the commands and act on them. This can greatly improve the performance of the browsing session because users don’t have to send data to the server until it has been verified as correct.Citizen card JAVA SCRIPT Introduction To Java Script: JAVA script enables you to embed commands in an HTML page. Scripting Language: JavaScript enables Web authors to write small scripts that execute on the users’ browsers rather than on the server. 51 . You embed your JavaScript commands within an HTML page. such as Netscape Navigator 2 or higher or Internet explorer 3 or higher. your JAVA script commands are loaded by the web browser as part of the HTML document. before sending it to the server. JavaScript is powerful and simple. JAVA script is an interpreted language . manipulates gadgets and fields in an HTML form. When a compatible web browser. An application that collects data from a form and then posts it to the server can validate the data for completeness and correctness. or moves through the page history list. for example.the computer must evaluate the program every time it is run. These commands can be triggered when the user clicks page items. downloads the page.

Use of JavaScript: JavaScript provides a fairly complete set of built-in functions and commands. and access and verify user input to your Web forms. Dynamic HTML elements. A Web page might use an HTML form to get some user input and then set a parameter for a Java applet based on that input. Web authors can use each of these things to add extra functions and interactivity to a Web page.Citizen card Another important Web browser scripting languages such as JavaScript comes as a result of the increased functionality being introduced for Web browsers in the form of Java applets. play sounds. You can write a JavaScript method that is called when the user clicks submit button of a form. Active X Controls. enabling you to perform math calculations. We can also write functions containing code that is triggered by events you specify. 52 . for example. or properties. Code to perform these actions can be embedded in a page and executed when the page is loaded. and VRML objects and worlds. JavaScript can also set the attributes. It is usually a script that carries out. or one that is activate when the user clicks a hyperlink on the active page. open new windows and new URLs. manipulate strings. plug-ins. of Web page elements. Java applets and other objects present in the browser. Active-x controls. Scripting language acts as the glue that binds everything together.

53 . which specifies the scripting language to use when evaluating the script. The <SCRIPT> element takes the attribute LANGUAGE. for example. Your JavaScript code could automatically set the text of an Active-X Label Control. based on what time the page is viewed. and SRC. Embedding JavaScript in your pages requires only one new HTML element: <SCRIPT> and </SCRIPT>. JavaScript commands are embedded in your HTML documents. you can change the behavior of plug-ins or other objects without having to rewrite them.Citizen card This way. which can be used to load a script from an external source.

JavaScript. which.just make sure to add a semicolon (. • JavaScript is flexible about statements. 54 . and you can put multiple short statements on a single line . is intended to provide a quicker and simpler language for enhancing Web pages and servers. in turn.) at the end of each statement. A single statement can cover multiple lines. looks a lot like C and C++. • Braces (the {and} characters) group statements into blocks.Citizen card The following are some simple rules to help you understand how the language is structured: • JavaScript is case sensitive. A block may be the body of a function or a section of code that gets executed in a loop or as part of the conditional test. JavaScript is designed to resemble Java. on the other hand. The difference is that Java was built as a General-purpose object language.

• Enforces user-defined rules to ensure that integrity of table data. 55 .Citizen card ORACLE DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DBMS) : A DBMS consists of a collection of interrelated date and a set of programs to access that data and to modify the data. Characteristics Of Database Management Systems: • Have different It represents complex relationships between data. the system must avoid possible anomalous results. Database systems are designed to manager large bodies of information. The database contains information about any particular enterprise. • Enforces data access authorization. • Keeps a tight control on data redundancy. The management of data involves both the definition of the structure for the storage of information and the provision of mechanisms for the manipulation of information. The collection of data is usually referred as the “database”. In addition the database system must provide for the safety of information stored in the database despite system crashes or attempts by users. • Enforces threat data can be shared by different applications. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use in retrieving and storing information into the database.

• Communication within networks/time sharing environments. A column that has a unique set of values through out the table can be used to access the data.interfaces via which users can manipulate data. The tables consist of one or more records or rows.Citizen card • Have automatic. The tools can be used to • Define database • Query a database. using a set of columns such that when combined they are unique throughout the table can access the data. Such a column is called the “ key” or the “primary Key”. intelligent backup and recovery procedures for data. • Export and import the data. 56 . • Add. Each row has one or more fields or columns. It provides a set of flexible and sophisticated tools for handling information. The data is stored in the form of tables. • Secure the data public access. delete and modify the database. If no such single column exists. These set of columns are called “Composite Key”. • Modify the structure of the database. In short modern (Relational) RDBMS act as a transparent interface between the physical storage and the logical presentation of data. The unit of data is accessed by a row and column intersection.

who must decide what information is to be kept in the database. a collection of conceptual tools for describing data relationships. Data base administrators. The system may provide many views for the same database. View Level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of the entire database. use the conceptual level of abstraction.Citizen card Data Abstraction The major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of data. Conceptual Level: T he next level of abstraction describes what data is actually stored in the database. data semantics and consistency constraints. Levels are Physical Level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how the data is actually stored. and the relationships that exist among the data. Data Model: Underlying the structure of a database is the concept of the data model. That is the system hides certain details of how the data is stored and maintained while the data is sufficiently retrieved. 57 .

as pointers. • NetWork Model: . Some of the object based logical models are • Entity-relationship model • Object-oriented model • Binary model • Semantic model • Info logical model • Functional data model Record based logical model: Record-based logical models are used in describing data at the conceptual and view levels. 58 . each of which has number of columns with unique names. In this the three most widely accepted data models are • Relational Model: . The records in the database are organized as collection of arbitrary groups. which can be used. They are Object Based logical model: These are used in describing data at the conceptual and view levels.Data in the network model is represented by collection of records and relationship among data represented by links.The relational model represents data and relationships among data by a collection of tables. • Hierarchical Model: . These are so named because the database is structured in fixed format records of several types. but the records are organized as collection of trees rather than arbitrary groups.It is same as the network model.Citizen card The various data models fall into three groups.

Citizen card • Physical Data Model: Physical data models are used to describe data at the lowest level. The overall design of the database is called as the Database Schema. Two of the widely known ones are  Unifying model  Frame model Instances and Schemas: The collection of information stored in the database at particular moment in time is called an instance of the database. Database systems have several schemes. They are • Physical Schema • Conceptual Schema • Sub Schema Data Independence: The ability to modify a schema definition in one level without affecting a schema definition in the next higher level is called data independence. The two levels of data independence are 59 .

Data Definition Language (DDL): A database schema is especially by a set of definitions.  Logical Data Independence: It is the ability to modify the conceptual schema with out causing application programs to be rewritten. 60 . which are stored in a special file as data dictionary. The result is a set of tables. which are expressed by a special language called data definition language. Data Manipulation Language (DML): By data manipulate we mean that • The retrieval of information stored in the database.Citizen card  Physical Data Independence: It is the ability to modify the physical schema without causing application programs to be rewritten. • The deletion of information from the database. • The insertion of information into the database.

Overall System Structure A database system consists of functional components. 61 . A query is a statement requesting the retrieval of information. The portion of DML that involves information retrieval is called “Query Language”. Here the data gets modified in each procedure and execution is in the form of procedure by procedure. Data Dictionary: A data dictionary is a file that contains Meta data that is data about data. Hence sometimes DML is also called as query language. There are basically two types of data manipulation languages. On-procedural DML is usually easier to learn than procedural DML.Citizen card The goal should be to provide efficient human interaction with the system. The form is based on certain events. The data storage and definition language specifies the storage and access methods of the database system. they are • Procedural: . The DML is a language that enables us to a view data as organized by the appropriate data model. • Non-procedural: . This file is consulted before actual data is read or modified in the database system. that is event driven.DML requires the user to specify what data is needed without specifying how to get it.DML requires the user to specify what data is needed and how to get it.

Converts DDL statements to a set of tables are containing the data. It also attempts to transform the query into an efficient and optimized equivalent query. not necessary to its appreciation and database may be regarded as composed of a number of rectangular tables. DML pre-compiler: . Data Manager: . Unlike network or hierarchical 62 . Query Processor: -Translates the statements in a query language into low level instructions that the database manager understands.Manager the allocation of space on the disk storage and the data structure used to represent the information stored on the disk. The mathematical nature of the concept is. DDL compiler: . These tables are then stored in the data dictionary.Provides the interface between the low-level storage in the database and the application programs and queries submitted to the system.Citizen card File Manager: . each expressing one relation.Converts DML statements embedded in an application program to normal procedural call in the host language. however. Normalization: Relational databases a form of database specification based upon the mathematical concept of a relation.

Second Normal Form: Second normal form is achieved when a record is in the first normal form and each item in the record is fully dependent on the primary record key for identification data item is functionally dependent if its 63 . The original and new records are interrelated by a common data item. inserts and deletions. Normalization is carried out for three reasons. 3.Citizen card database models. To reduce the need to restructure or re-organize data when new application requirements arise. To simplify the maintenance of the data through updates. 1. To secure the data so that any pertinent relationship between entities can be represented. The structures are achieved by the combination of relations using relational operators. the relational system is structured at the time each query is posed rather than at the time if the database is established. 2. Removing the repeating group and creating a separate file or relation containing the repeating group accomplish this. First Normal Form: First normal form is achieved when a record is designed to be of fixed length.

64 .Citizen card value is uniquely associated with a specific data items . every data item in the record that is not dependent on the primary key of the record should be removed and used to form a separate relation. Relations in 3NF can also have anomalies. Third Normal Form: Third normal form is achieved when transitive dependencies are removed from a record designed conversion to third normal form removes the transitive dependencies by splitting the relation into two separate relations. However it was soon discovered that anomalies could arise from situations other than functional dependencies. The fourth. Boyce Code Normal Form A relation is said to be in the BCNF if determinate is a candidate key.To achieve second normal form. fifth and domain key normal forms were proposed to overcome these anomalies. Relations in BCNF have no anomalies regarding functional dependencies and this seemed to have put the issue of modification anomalies to rest.

implementations and consequences. because we want to connect various networks there could be hundreds of different types of networks and surprisingly Internet accommodates all these. But the difference is in the extendibility and reach. It can use the simple serial ports to the most advanced satellites. World Wide Web (WWW): World Wide Web (WWW) is a global hypertext system that uses the Internet as its transmission medium. From a home PC to a super computer can be present on the Internet.Citizen card INTERNET Internet is a network. There are no special advantages of Internet apart from those of general network. in the respect that it connects networks but not computers. Now. 65 . The simple definition has many complications. Primarily it differs from the ordinary networks. Whether it is an Internet or general network it can do only information interchange and we can achieve the same secondary advantage.

The users have click software such as Netscape Navigator. Clicking on these links activates the necessary protocols and pulls up the chosen site.It is also defined as a hypertext information system. WWW 66 . Browsing: The process of navigation among documents is called browsing.Citizen card Hypertext: Hypertext is a method of preparing and publishing text in which users can choose their own paths through the material. It is not the same as a page on your screen . Typically the user can has a GUI on which he clicks a button to navigate through the different pages. Then hyperlinks are embedded into the text. These documents can come from other sites on the Internet. A web page is a synonymous with web documents. Web: A collection of documents inter-linked by hyperlinks is called as web. The text is broken in to small units such as single pages called nodes. Internet Explorer to actually retrieve and browse the information on the WWW. Hyperlink: A hyperlink is an underlined or emphasized work that when clicked with a mouse displays another document.

These Browsers provide with in line images. Some websites have only a 67 . Internet Explorer is more popular. This is faster but does not provide GUI features and so not that user friendly. Text only browsers such as Linux are used on Shell accounts. Graphical Web Browsers such as Netscape Navigator.Citizen card supports many kinds of documents such as text. fonts and document layouts. Sometimes it is referred to as Net Surfing. pictures. HotJava and Mosaic are also Web Browsers. video and audio. Website: The website is a computer system that runs on web server and has been set up for publishing documents. Browser Types: There are two types of Browsers 1. Web Browser It is basically a program that run on an Internet connected computer and provides access to WWW resources. 2.

for example about the services or products provided by the company. This reduces network traffic by not having to hold on to a line while you read a document. When you access a WWW server.Citizen card single document while others consists of hundreds of pages. the document is transferred to your computer and then the connection is terminated. Its basic function is to detect errors in the software. The server processes these requests and sends the request documents. Testing Testing is the major quality control measure employed for software development. During requirement analysis and 68 . Web Server: A web server is a program that accepts requests for information framed according to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

Thus. This implies that testing has to uncover errors introduced during coding phases. the goal of testing is to cover requirement. After this the modules are gradually integrated into subsystems.Citizen card design. or coding errors in the program. The purpose is to exercise the different parts of the module code to detect coding errors. The starting point of testing is unit testing. which are 69 . After the coding phase. design. In this a module is tested separately and are often performed by the programmer himself simultaneously while coding the module. the output is document that is usually textual and non-textual. computer programs are available that can be executed for testing purpose.

There are two different approaches for selecting test case. Finally accepting testing is performed to demonstrate to the client for the operation of the system. The goal of this is to detect designing errors. proper selection of the test case is essential. For the testing to be successful. Here the system is tested against the system requirements to see if all requirements were met and the system performs as specified by the requirements. The software or the module to be tested is 70 . After the system was put together. while focusing the interconnection between modules. system testing is performed.Citizen card then integrated themselves too eventually forming the entire system. During integration of module integration testing is performed.

while functional testing is used for higher levels. the other tests the internal structure.Citizen card treated as a black box. In structural testing the test cases are decided based on the logic of the module to be tested. 71 . A common approach here is to achieve some type of coverage of the statements in the code. this form of testing is also called “black box testing”. Often structural testing is used for lower levels of testing. For this reason. The focus here is on testing the external behavior of the system. The two forms of testing are complementary: one tests the external behavior. and the test cases are decided based on the specifications of the system or module.

different units to be tested.Citizen card Testing is an extremely critical and time-consuming activity. It requires proper planning of the overall testing process. together with the expected outputs. and specifies guidelines for testing. This plan identifies all testing related activities that must be performed and specifies the schedule. 72 . allocates the resources. Frequently the testing process starts with the test plan. which lists all the different test cases. Then for different test unit. The test plan specifies conditions that should be tested. a test case specification document is produced. and the manner in which the module will be integrated together. that will be used for testing.

Errors refer to the discrepancy between computed and observed values. The error report describes the errors encountered and the action taken to remove the error. That is error refers to the difference between the actual 73 .Citizen card During the testing of the unit the specified test cases are executed and the actual results are compared with the expected outputs. or a set of such reports. The final output of the testing phase is the testing report and the error report. Each test report contains a set of test cases and the result of executing the code with the test cases. Error Messages The term error is used in two different ways.

As we can see.Citizen card output of the software and the correct output. error essentially is a measure of the difference between the actual and the ideal. In this interpretation. The consequence of thinking is the belief that the errors largely occur during programming. This detection is quite general and encompasses all phases. the errors occur through the development. the cost of connecting the errors of different phases is not the same and depends upon when the error 74 . Error is also used to refer to human action that results in the software containing a defect or a fault. the errors occur throughout the development process. However. as it is the can see.

Citizen card was detected and corrected. the more expensive it is to correct it. To correct the error after coding is done require both the design and the code to be changed there by increasing the cost of correction. As one would expect the greater the delay in detecting an error after it occurs. This is 75 . If there was error in the requirements phase that error will affect the design and coding also. The reason for this is fairly obvious. The cost of correcting errors in the function of where they are detected. Suppose an error occurs during the requirement phase and it was corrected after the coding then the cost is higher than correcting it in the requirements phase itself. The main moral of this section is that we should attempt to detect the errors that occur in a phase during the phase itself should not wait until testing to detect errors.

reliance on testing as a primary source for error detection and correction should be a continuous process that is done throughout the software development. In reality. what this means is that we should try to validate each phase before starting the next. In terms of the development phase. During testing. which reveals errors in the program. Testing Techniques Testing is a process. Besides the cost factor. sometimes testing is the sole point where errors are detected. It is the major quality measure employed during software development. the program is executed with a 76 .Citizen card not often practiced.

Citizen card set of conditions known as test cases and the output is evaluated to determine whether the program is performing as expected. It is confined only to the designer's requirements. In order to make sure that the system does not have errors. the different levels of testing strategies that are applied at differing phases of software development are: Unit Testing Unit Testing is done on individual modules as they are completed and become executable. EACH MODULE CAN BE TESTED USING THE FOLLOWING TWO STRATEGIES: 77 .

Citizen card Black Box Testing: In this strategy some test cases are generated as input conditions that fully execute all Functional requirements for the program. In this testing only the output is checked for correctness. This testing has been uses to find errors in the Following categories: a) b) c) d) e) Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structure or external database access Performance errors Initialization and termination errors. White Box Testing 78 . The logical flow of the data is not checked.

79 . It has been uses to generate the test cases in the following cases: a) b) c) operational d) Execute internal data structures to ensure their validity. Execute all logical decisions on their true and false sides.Citizen card In this the test cases are generated on the logic of each module by drawing flow graphs of that module and logical decisions are tested on all the cases. It tests the interface of all the modules to make sure that the modules behave properly when integrated together. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their Integration Testing Integration testing ensures that software and subsystems work together as a whole. Guarantee that all independent paths have been executed.

Acceptance Testing It is a pre-delivery testing in which entire system is tested at client's site on real world data to find errors. Its aim is to satisfy the user the system meets all requirements of the client's specifications. Validation Testing The system has been tested and implemented successfully and thus ensured that 80 .Citizen card System Testing Involves in-house testing of the entire system before delivery to the user.

COMPILING TEST It was a good idea to do our stress testing early on. Because of good programming there 81 . because it gave us time to fix some of the unexpected deadlocks and stability problems that only occurred when components Were exposed to very high transaction volumes.Citizen card all the requirements as listed in the software requirements specification are completely Fulfilled. EXECUTION TEST This program was successfully loaded and executed. In case of erroneous input corresponding error messages are displayed.

Data flow analysis studies the use of data in each activity. 82 . stored. changed and output.Citizen card were no execution error. Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) DATA FLOW ANALYSIS This states a great deal about how organization objectives are accomplished in the course of handling transactions and completing task. retrieved. OUTPUT TEST The successful output screens are placed in the output screens section above. Data is input. processed. Used.

Citizen card FEATURES OF DATA STRATEGY: Data flow analysis examines the use of the data to carry out specific process Within the scope of a systems investigation. DFD’s are central tools and the basis for the development of other components. The transformation of data from one 83 . TOOLS OF DATA FLOW STRATEGY: Data flow strategy shows the use of data in the system pictorially. and delay in the system. The tools used in the data flow strategy are: DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD): A graphical tool is used to describe and analyse the movement of the data through a system manually or automate including the process of data storage.

In contrast.Citizen card process to another process is independent of physical components. which 84 . The data flow approach emphasis on the logic underlying the system. A full description of a system actually consists of set of DFD s. by using combination of only 4 symbols. departments and workstations. It follows a top down approach. DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Data flow diagram is a structure analysis tool that is used for graphical representation of Data processes through any organization. These types of DFD’s are called LOGICAL DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS. physical data flow diagrams show the actual implementation and movements of the data through people.

It is a pipeline through which information flows. And initial over view model is exploded lower level diagrams that show additional feature of the system. DFD SYMBOLS Square: It defines a source (originator) or destination of system data. Circle or Bubble: It represents a process that transforms incoming data flow(s) into outgoing data 85 .Citizen card comprises of various levels. This occurs repeatedly until sufficient details are described. Arrow: It indicates data flow-data in motion. Further each process can be broken down into a more detailed DFD.

or a temporary repository of data. They are explained by • GANE and SARON method • DEMACRO YORDAN method 86 . Open Rectangle: it is a data store-data at rest. Here I am giving only the Data Flow Diagram.Citizen card flow(s).

Citizen card GANE AND SARSON NOTATION DATA FLOW DATA STRUCTURE EXTERNAL ENTITY OR DATA LINK PROCESS DATA BASE 87 .

Citizen card 88 .

Citizen card DEMACRO YORDAN NOTATION DATA FLOW DATA STRUCTURE EXTERNAL ENTITY OR DATA LINK PROCESS DATA BASE 89 .

Citizen card 90 .

Citizen card DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Administrator Employee 91 .

Citizen card Registration logging in and logging out Adding details display details 92 .

Citizen card 1-LEVEL DFD for citizen MODE Insurance Banking citizen passport Server Gas details 93 .

Citizen card 1-LEVEL DFD for ADMINISTRATOR MODE login Add ci ti DATABASE Administ rators Update citizen details View citizen details 94 .

Citizen card ADVANTAGES OF DFD’s: Users. early understand the notations. So analysts can work with the users and involve them in the study of data flow diagram. persons who are part of the process being studied. Data flow analysis permits analyst to isolate areas of interest in the organization 95 . If the errors are not found in the development process they will be very difficult to correct latter and the system may be failure. For accurate business activity users can make suggestions for modification and also they examine charts and spot out the problems quickly.

Data Flow Diagram - Administrators Add citizen details Update citizen details View citizen details 96 .Citizen card and study them by examining the data that enters the process and see how it is changed when it leaves the process.

Citizen card UML Diagrams :`Usecasediagram of Citizen Personal info Voting Passport Municipality Electricity Gas RTO 97 .

Citizen card USECASE DIAGRAMS OFADMINISTRATOR PERSONAL INFORMATION : Adding Citizen Personal details Updating Citizen Personal details View Citizen Personal details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR VOTING : Adding Citizen Voting details Updating Citizen Voting details View Citizen Voting details 98 .

Citizen card USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR PASSPORT : Adding Citizen Passport details Updating Citizen Passport details View Citizen Passport details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR MUNICIPALITY : Adding Citizen Municipal details Updating Citizen Municipal details View Citizen Municipal details 99 .

Citizen card USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR ELECTRICITY : Adding Citizen Electricity details Updating Citizen Electricity details View Citizen Electricity details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR GAS : Adding Citizen Gas details Updating Citizen Gas details View Citizen Gas details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR RTO : 100 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen RTO details Updating Citizen RTO details View Citizen RTO details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR TELEPHONE : Adding Citizen Telephone details Updating Citizen Telephone details View Citizen Telephone details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR PROVIDENT FUND : 101 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen Provident Fund details Updating Citizen Provident Fund details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR TAXATION : Adding Citizen Tax details Updating Citizen Tax details View Citizen Tax details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR BANKING : 102 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen Banking details Updating Citizen Banking details View Citizen Banking details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR INSURANCE : Adding Citizen Insurance details Updating Citizen Insurance details View Citizen Insurance details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR CREDIT RATING : 103 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen Creadit rating details Updating Citizen Credit rating details View Citizen Credit rating details 104 .

Citizen card Sequence Diagram for Citizen : Persona l Credit rating Electricity Insurance Electricity Banking Tax 105 .

Citizen card Activity Diagram for Citizen: Login Create. Modify Citizen Access Citizen Options Client Updates Server Reports 106 .

Citizen card Activity Diagram for ADMIN : Enter username Enter Password Check to correctness of entered text Validat ed? Citizen Access Admin Page Apply Items 107 .

Citizen card Diagram for Admin : Create the Citizens Modify the Citizen Remove Citizen 108 .

Citizen card Diagram for User Options : Get User Details Select the Option If Not Eligible If Eligible for Apply? If Eligible for the Options Apply for the Items Access and Apply Online 109 .

Name varchar2(20). Language varhcar2(10). Idno varchar2(20). Amount number(8) not null). Taxation Create table tax2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. Aincome varchar2(10) not null. Pass varchar2(20)).Citizen card DATA DICTIONARY Database tables User Details Create table userdata(cdid varchar2(20). Dateofbirth varchar2(20). Incometax varchar2(10) not null. Cdno varchar2(20)). 110 . Fname varchar2(20). Personal Information Create table personal1data (name varchar2(20). Assets varchar2(10) not null. Idno varchar2(10) not null. Addr varchar2(10). Gender varchar 2(10). Ptax number(10) not null. Quli varchar2(10). Rtax number(10) not null.

v_serviceno varchar2(10). Name varchar2(20) not null. v_engno number(8). licence varhcar2(15). addr varchar2(40). balance number(8)). citizenid varchar2(15). Addr varchar2(10) not null. v_type varchar2(10). RTO: create rto1data(name varchar2(10). create ab1data(name varchar2(10). Banking: create sbi1data(name varchar2(10). Idno varchar2(15) not null. 111 . balance number(8)). Gasno varchar2(10) not null. v_regno varchar2(10).Citizen card Gas Details Create table gas2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. Amount varchar2(10) not null). re_date varchar2(10)). create icici1data(name varchar2(10). Gastype varchar2(10) not null. citizenid varchar2(15). idno varchar2(15).

name varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. age varchar2(10) not null. Electricity: 112 . fname varchar2(20) not null. noofphn varchar2(10) not null. create vote2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. fname varchar2(20) not null. number(8)). age varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(40) not null) voterno varchar2(10) not null). sex varchar2(10) not null. fname varchar2(20) not null. sex varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. Telephone: create tele2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. create votedata(cdno varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(40) not null). totbill varchar2(40) not null) duedate varchar2(10) not null). age varchar2(10) not null.Citizen card citizenid balance Voting: varchar2(15).

idno varchar2(10) not null. Municipality: create table muni2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. 113 . waterbill varchar2(40) not null htax varchar2(10) not null bill varchar2(10) not null duedate varchar2(10) not null). name varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. Insurance: create table insurance1data( cdno varchar2(10) not null. noofphn varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(10) not null. Passport: create pass2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. age varchar2(10) not null. contno varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. amtbill varchar2(40) not null duedate varchar2(10) not null). typeofinsurance varchar2(10). amount number(10) not null). addr varchar2(10) not null.Citizen card create elect2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. fname varchar2(20) not null.

dob varchar2(10) not null. credit varchar2(5)). idno varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. Provident Fund: create pf2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. ss varchar2(20). rendate varchar2(10) notnull). fileno varchar2(10)not null. amount varchar2(10) not null.Citizen card name varchar2(10) not null. 114 . fir varchar2(50). gender varchar2(10) notnull. contno varchar2(10) not null. saving varchar2(10) not null). fname varchar2(10) not null. passno number2(10) notnull. addr varchar2(10) not null. Credit Rating: create table credit1data(name varchar2(20). country varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10). noofstamps varchar2(10) notnull. company varchar2(10) not null. aincome varchar2(15) not null.

This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. It maintains and manages the transactions different departments. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. Conclusion: Citizen card project maintains unique id to every citizen to utilize there own services in private or Govt Organizations. There is a chance of gathering wrong information in personal information details until administrator works good without fraud. easily in 115 .Citizen card Drawbacks: Citizen Card project has some drawbacks like The details are maintained by the number of administrators.