9.

1 SYSTEM REPRESENTATION
1. The power system operates under balanced steady-state conditions before the fault occurs. Thus the zero-, positive-, and negative-sequence networks are uncoupled before the fault occurs. During unsymmetrical faults they are interconnected only at the fault location. 2. Prefault load current is neglected. Because of this, the positive-sequence internal voltages of all machines are equal to the prefault voltage VF. Therefore, the prefault voltage at each bus in the positive-sequence network equals VF. 3. Transformer winding resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. 4. Transmission-line series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. 5. Synchronous machine armature resistance, saliency, and saturation are neglected. 6. All non rotating impedance loads are neglected. 7. Induction motors are either neglected (especially for motors rated 50 hp or less) or represented in the same manner as synchronous machines.

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negative-sequence networks on a 100-MVA.3 is shown in Figure 9.3. (b) Reduce the sequence networks to their Thevenin equivalents. where negative. The motor neutral is grounded through a reactance Xn=0. .EXAMPLE 9. (a) Draw the per-unit zero-. Prefault voltage is V =1.8-kV base in the zone of the generator. 13.and zero-sequences are also given. The neutrals of the generator and ∆-Y transformers are solidly grounded.05 per unit on the motor base. as viewed from bus 2.1: Power-system sequence networks and their Thevenin equivalents A single-line diagram of the power system considered in Example 7.050° F Prefault load current and ∆-Y transformer phase shift are neglected. positive-.

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except that there are no sources. The negative-sequence network is similar to the positive-sequence network. the zero-sequence ∆-Y transformer models are taken from Figure 8.05 0° . and transmission-line reactances are shown. motor. Also.5 shows the sequence networks reduced to their Thevenin equivalent.19.4. b. VF = 1. Since the motor neutral is grounded through a neutral reactance Xn. The positive-sequence network is the same as that shown in Figure 7.and negative-sequence networks for this example. the Thevenin voltage source is the prefault voltage per unit. For the positive-sequence equivalent.3Xn is included in the zerosequence motor circuit.SOLUTION a. Figure 9. The sequence networks are shown in Figure 9. ∆-Y phase shift are omitted from the positive. In the zero-sequence network the zero-sequence generator. and negative-sequence machine reactances are shown. as viewed from bus 2.4(a).

From Figure 9.4, the positive-sequence Thevenin impedance at bus 2 is the motor impedance j0.20, as seen to the right of bus, in parallel with j(0.15+0.105+0.10) = j0.455, as seen to the left; the parallel combination is j0.20//j0.455 = j0.13893 per unit. Similarly, the negative-sequence Thevenin impedance is j0.21//j(0.17+0.10+0.105+0.10) = j0.21//j0.475 = j0.14562 per unit. In the zero-sequence network of Figure 9.4, the Thevenin impedance at bus 2 consists only of j(0.10+0.15) = j0.25 per unit, as seen to the right of bus 2; due to the ∆ connection of transformer T2, the zero-sequence network looking to the left of bus 2 is open.

the subtransient fault currents in each phase are. . Therefore.4-9.2 Three-phase short-circuit calculations using sequence networks Calculate the per-unit subtransient fault current in phases a. SOLUTION: The terminals of the positive-sequence network in Figure 9.6. from (8.EXAMPLE 9.5(b) are shorted. b.6. the current calculated above is the positive-sequence subtransient fault current at bus 2. Also.16). the zero-sequence current I0 and negativesequence current I2 are both zero.1. and c for a bolted three-phase-to-ground short circuit at bus 2 in Example 9. The positive-sequence fault current is which is the same result as obtained in part (c) of Example 7. Note that since subtransient machine reactances are used in Figure 9.4. as shown in Figure 9.1.

FIGURE 9.6 .

558 30° ⎥ ⎦ .558⎥ = ⎢ 7.558 pu Z1 j0.I1 = VF 1.558 −90°⎤ ⎢ − j7.05 0° = = − j7.558 150° ⎥ pu a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 7.13893 n ⎡ Ia ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ n⎥ ⎢ 2 I 1 a = ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ n⎥ ⎢ Ic ⎣1 a ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡7.

1. .1. However. from Figure 9.1) During a bolted three-phase fault. therefore. which must be true since Vag=Vbg=Vcg=0. ⎡ V0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ Z0 ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢V ⎥ − ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ F⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ V2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 0 Z1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I0 ⎤ ⎢I ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥⎢ 1⎥ Z2 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ I2 ⎥ ⎦ (9. from (9. the sequence fault voltages are V0=V1=V2=0. which we consider next. the sequence fault currents are I0=I2=0 and I1=VF/Z1.The sequence components of the line-to-ground voltages at the fault terminals are.2(b).1). fault voltages need not be zero during unsymmetrical faults.

2 SINGLE LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT .9.

4) in (9.2.2. ⎡ I0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ I ⎥ = 1 ⎢1 a ⎢ 1⎥ 3⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ I 1 a ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎤ ⎡ Ia ⎤ ⎡ Ia ⎤ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = 1 ⎢I ⎥ a2 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 3⎢ a⎥ ⎢ a⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣0⎥ ⎦ ⎣ Ia ⎥ ⎦ and (9.2. using Vag = V0 + V1 + V2 I a = I 0 + I1 + I 2 (9.1) and (9.1) (9.2.2) We now transform (9.2. (V0 + V1 + V2 ) = ZF (I0 + I1 + I 2 ) .2).2) to the sequence domain.3) Also.From figure Fault considerations in phase domain Single line-to-ground fault Ib=Ic=0 Vag=ZFIa (9.2.2.

From (9.4): Fault conditions in sequence domain Single line-to-ground fault I0=I1=I2 (V0+V1+V2)=(3ZF)I1 (9.2.3) and (9.2.6) .5) (9.2.2.

7) Transforming (9.2.2. since the single line-to-ground fault is on phase a.2.8) Note also from (8.10) .7) to the phase domain Ia = I0 + I1 + I 2 = 3I1 = 3VF Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + (3ZF ) (9. (9.1.2.22).21) and (8. I b = (I0 + a 2 I1 + aI 2 ) = (1 + a 2 + a)I1 = 0 Ic = (I0 + aI1 + a 2 I 2 ) = (1 + a + a 2 )I1 = 0 These are obvious.I0 = I1 = I 2 = VF Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + (3ZF ) (9.9) (9. not phase b or c.2.1.

. Also calculate the per-unit line-to-ground voltages at faulted bus 2.1.3 Single line-to-ground short-circuit calculations using sequence networks Calculate the subtransient fault current in per-unit and in kA for a bolted single line-to-ground short circuit from phase a to ground at bus 2 in Example 9.EXAMPLE 9.

5 are connected in series at the fault terminals. .8.SOLUTION The zero-. and negative-sequence networks in Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. positive-.

I0=I1=I2 (V0+V1+V2)=(3ZF)I1 .

2. ZF=0.Since the short circuit is bolted.14562) j0.8√3)=4. Therefore.13893 + 0.7).8). I′′ a = ( − j5.1837) = 24.53455 I 0 = I1 = I 2 = -j1.2. the sequence currents are: I 0 = I1 = I 2 = 1.1837 kA.65 −90° kA .05 0 ° = j(0.25 + 0.8928)(4.96427 pu From (9.05 0 ° 1. From (9.96427) = − j5.8928 pu The base current at bus 2 is 100/(13. the subtransient fault current is I′′ a = 3( − j1.

.13893 0 ⎤ ⎡ − j1.05 0°⎥ − ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ V2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 j0.1).179 231.7° ⎥ ⎦ Note that Vag=0.1.96427 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 ⎡ V0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.77710 ⎥ per − unit ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ V2 ⎦ ⎣ −0.96427 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ j0.49107 ⎤ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢ 0.96427 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ − j1.14562 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ − j1.179 128.25 ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢1.49107 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0.From (9.28604 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣1.3°⎥ per − unit a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ −0.77710 ⎥ = ⎢1. the sequence components of the voltages at the fault are ⎡ V0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ j0.28604 ⎥ ⎦ Transforming to the phase domain. the line-to-ground voltages at faulted bus 2 are ⎡ Vag ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 V = 1 a bg ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ Vcg ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣1 a 1 ⎤ ⎡ −0.

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3 LINE-TO-LINE FAULT .9.

3.3.2) (9.1)-(9.4) .1.3.3.2) in (8.19).1) (9.3) to the sequence domain. Using (9.3.3.3) We transform (9. ⎡ I0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ I ⎥ = 1 ⎢1 a ⎢ 1⎥ 3⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ I2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣1 a ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 ⎤⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ (a − a 2 )I ⎥ a2 ⎥ b ⎥ ⎢ b ⎥ ⎢3 ⎥ a⎥ ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ −Ib ⎥ ⎦ ⎢1 2 ⎢ (a − a)I b ⎥ ⎣3 ⎦ (9.1) and (9.3.Fault conditions in phase domain Line-to-line fault Ia=0 Ic=-Ib Vbg-Vcg=ZFIb (9.3.

1.3.4).9) .7) (9. (V0 + a 2 V1 + aV2 ) − (V0 + aV1 + a 2 V2 ) = ZF (I0 + a 2 I1 + aI 2 ) Noting from (9.3.Using (8. (9.21) in (9.4) and (9. from (9.3.6): (9.1.6) Fault conditions in sequence domain Line-to-line fault I0=0 I2=-I1 V1-V2=ZFI1 (9.5) simplifies to or (9.8) (9.5).3.5) (a 2 − a)V1 − (a 2 − a)V2 = ZF (a 2 − a)I1 V1 − V2 = ZF I1 Therefore.3. and (8.3.3).3.3.4) that I0=0 and I2=-I1.1.3.3. (8.

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10) I b = I0 + a 2 I1 + aI 2 = (a 2 − a)I1 I b = − j 3I1 = − j 3VF (Z1 + Z2 + ZF ) (9.3.22) that and Ia = I0 + I1 + I 2 = 0 Ic = I0 + aI1 + a 2 I 2 = (a − a 2 )I1 = − I b (9.1.3.13) .I1 = −I 2 = VF (Z1 + Z2 + ZF ) (9.1.3.3.12) (9.11) Note also from (8.20) and (8.

EXAMPLE 9. .4 Line-to-line short-circuit calculations using sequence networks Calculate the subtransient fault current in per-unit and in kA for a bolted lineto-line fault from phase b to c at bus 2 in Example 9.1.

SOLUTION The positive.and negative-sequence networks are connected in parallel at the fault terminals.10. as shown in Figure 9. .

the sequence fault currents are 1.14562) I0 = 0 .From (9.690 −90° j(0.3.10) with ZF=0.13893 + 0.05 0° I1 = − I 2 = = 3.

3.12) and (9.1837 kA as the base current at bus 2. I′′ b = (6. I′′ a =0 I′′ c = 26.391180°)(4.74 0° kA .690 −90°) = −6. from (9. the subtransient fault current in phase b is I b = I0 + a 2 I1 + aI 2 = (a 2 − a)I1 I b = − j 3I1 = − j 3VF (Z1 + Z2 + ZF ) I′′ b = ( − j 3)(3.1837) = 26.13).3.391180° pu Using 4.3.74 180° kA Also.From (9.11).391 = 6.

9.4 DOUBLE LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT .

4.1) (9.1) to the sequence domain via (8.3). using (8.4.1.21).22) in (9.1.1.1.4.1.4. (V0 + a 2 V1 + aV2 ) = ZF (I0 + a 2 I1 + aI 2 + I0 + aI1 + a 2 I 2 ) (9.4) (V0 + aV1 + a 2 V2 ) = (V0 + a 2 V1 + aV2 ) Simplifying: or (a 2 − a)V2 = (a 2 − a)V1 V2 = V1 (9.2).4. using (8. and (8.3) Transforming (9.4) and (8.Fault conditions in the phase domain Double line-to-ground fault Ia=0 Vcg=Vbg Vbg=ZF(Ib+Ic) (9.4.2) (9.6) .20). (8.5) in (9.4. (9.5) Now.4.4.1. I0 + I1 + I 2 = 0 Also.4).

4).4.7) V0 − V1 = (3ZF )I0 From (9.4.5) and the identity a2+a=-1 in (9.4. therefore.4.5).10) (9.4.9) (9.4.8). I0=-(I1+I2).4).4. (V0 − V1 ) = ZF (2I0 − I1 − I 2 ) From (9. we summarize: Fault conditions in the sequence domain Double line-to-ground fault (9.4.4.4. (9. and (9.4.Using (9.8) I0+I1+I2=0 V2=V1 V0-V1=(3ZF)I0 (9.7) becomes (9.4.6).11) . (9.

14) .I1 = VF = Z1 + [ Z2 //(Z0 + 3ZF )] VF ⎡ Z (Z + 3ZF ) ⎤ Z1 + ⎢ 2 0 ⎥ Z Z 3Z + + 0 F⎦ ⎣ 2 (9.4.13) (9.4.12) I 2 = (− I1 )( I0 = (−I1 )( Z0 + 3ZF ) Z0 + 3ZF + Z2 Z2 ) Z0 + 3ZF + Z2 (9.4.

5 Double line-to-ground short-circuit calculations using sequence networks Calculate (a) the sub transient fault current in each phase. for a bolted double line-to-ground fault from phase b to c to ground at bus 2 in Example 9.1. (b) neutral fault current. . and (c) contributions to the fault current from the motor and from the transmission line. Neglect the ∆-Y transformer phase shifts.EXAMPLE 9.

The zero-.SOLUTION a.12. positive-. and negative-sequence networks are connected in parallel at the fault terminals in Figure 9. .

5464 pu .From (9.14562 )( 0.4.05 0° = ⎡ ( 0.13893 + ⎥ + 0.25 ⎣ ⎦ = − j4. I1 = 1.25) ⎤ j0.14562 0.05 0° 1.23095 j ⎢0.12) with ZF=0.

66°⎥ pu a⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ + j2.8983 21.25 ⎛ ⎞ I 2 = ( +4.5464 ⎥ = ⎢6.5464 ) ⎜ ⎟ = j1.From (9.34° ⎥ ⎦ Using the base current of 4.66°⎥ kA 6.14562 ⎠ Transforming to the phase domain.1837 kA at bus 2.8730 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 6.4.34° ⎥ .8730 pu ⎝ 0.1837 = ⎢ 28.14).6734 pu ⎝ 0.14562 ⎞ ⎛ I0 = ( +4. 0.5464 ) ⎜ ⎟ = j2. the subtransient fault currents are: ⎡ I′′ a ⎢ b ⎢ I′′ ⎢ I′′ ⎣ c ⎡ I′′ a ⎢ b ⎢ I′′ ⎢ I′′ ⎣ c ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 2 = 1 a ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣1 a 1 ⎤ ⎡ + j1.86 21.34° ⎥ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ 6.25 + 0.13) and (9.14562 ⎠ 0.66 = ° ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥( ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 28. ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 4.6734 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ − j4.86 158.25 + 0.8983158.8983 21.8983158.4.

0202 )( 4. Iline0 = 0 I motor 0 = I0 = j1.b.4 . the contributions to the fault current from the motor and transmission line can be obtained from Figure 9.0202 pu = ( j5.00 90° kA c.6734 pu .1837 ) = 21. The neutral fault current is I = I′′ + I′′ n b c ( ) = 3I 0 = j5. Neglecting ∆-Y transformer phase shifts.

5464 ) = − j1.20 + 0.20 ( − j4.1582 p u 0.3882 p u 0.45 5 ) I m otor1 = 0.20 + ( 0.45 5 .I line1 = = X ′′ m I1 ′′ + + + + X ′′ X X X X ( g m TI line1 T2 ) 0.5464 ) = − j3.455 ( − j4.

475 .475 I motor 2 = ( j2.8730 ) = j1.8808 pu 0.9922 pu 0. using current division.21 Iline2 = ( j2.475 0.8730 ) = j0.21 + 0.4(c). 0.21 + 0.From the negative-sequence network. Figure 9.

9813 7.643 =⎢ ° ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1.357° ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0.5074 −90° ⎤ ⎥ pu 1.Transforming to the phase domain with base currents of 0.357° ⎥ ⎦ .2123 −90° ⎤ ⎥ kA =⎢ ° 0 .3882 ⎥ a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ + j0.41837 kA for the line and 4.643 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0.1837 kA for the motor.8289 172.8289 7.8808⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0.9813172. ⎡ I′′ ⎤ ⎡1 1 line a ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ′′ I 1 a = ⎢ line b ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ I′′ ⎥ ⎣1 a ⎣ line c ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎤⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ − j1.

6734 ⎤ ⎢ − j3.91172.91 7.17 =⎢ ° ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 4.9986 153.5074 −90° ⎤ ⎥ pu 4.83° ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 2.1582 ⎥ a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ + j1.643 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 20.123 −90° ⎤ ⎥ kA =⎢ ° 20.9922 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0.9986 26.357° ⎥ ⎦ .⎡ I′′ ⎤ ⎡1 1 motor a ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ′′ I 1 a = ⎢ motor b ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ I′′ ⎥ ⎣1 a ⎣ motor c ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎤ ⎡ j1.

EXAMPLE 9. .6 Effect of ∆-Y transformer phase shift on fault currents We will rework Example 9.5 including the ∆-Y transformer phase shifts.

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.„ „ Per-unit impedances are unchanged Thevenin equivalent of the sequence networks as viewed from fault bus 2 are the same as those given in Figure 9.5. the sequence components as well as the phase components of the fault currents are the same as those given in Example 9. „ Therefore.5(a).

5464 pu I 2 = j2.66 = ° ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ 28.66 = ° ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ 6.34° ⎥ ⎡ I′′ a ⎢ b ⎢ I′′ ⎢ I′′ ⎣ c ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ kA 28.8730 pu I0 = j1.I1 = − j4.8983158.86 158.6734 pu ⎡ I′′ a ⎢ b ⎢ I′′ ⎢ I′′ ⎣ c ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ pu 6.86 21.34° ⎥ .8983 21.

Zero-sequence network is the same.b. contributions to the zero-sequence fault current from the line and motor are the same as in Example 9.5(b). The neutral fault current is the same as in Example 9. Iline0 = 0 I motor 0 = I0 = j1.5(c). c.6734 pu . so.

3882 -6 0 o pu I m otor1 = − j3.I line1 = ( − j1.15 82 pu .3882 ) (1 30 o )=1.

Iline2 = ( j0.9922 pu .8808 ) (1 -30o ) =8.8808 60o pu I motor 2 = j1.

17° ⎥ ⎦ ⎡0.8808 60 ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎡1.9492 180 =⎢ ° ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0.2166 −21.17°⎤ ⎥ pu 2.17° ⎥ ⎦ .17°⎤ ⎥ kA 0.2166 21.5090 21.5090 −21.3882 −60o ⎥ a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ o ⎢ ⎥ a2 ⎥ 0.2690 180 =⎢ ° ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1.⎡ I′′ ⎤ ⎡1 1 line a ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ′′ I 1 a = ⎢ line b ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ I′′ ⎥ ⎣1 a ⎣ line c ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎤⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢1.

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„ These problems cover all the fault types including open conductor cases. Especially problems from 9.13 through 9. .31.Important Assignment „ „ It would be good for you solve the problems at the back of the chapter.

5 SEQUENCE BUS IMPEDANCE MATRICES .9.

5) Double line-to-ground fault (phase b to c to ground): .Balanced three-phase fault: V I n −1 = F Znn −1 In −0 = In −2 = 0 Single line-to-ground fault (phase a to ground): (9.3) Line-to-line fault (phase b to c): I n −1 = −I n − 2 = In −0 = 0 VF Znn −1 + Znn − 2 + ZF (9.5.5.4) (9.1) (9.5.5.2) I n −0 = I n −1 = I n − 2 = VF Znn −0 + Znn −1 + Znn − 2 + 3ZF (9.5.

5.7) (9.6) ⎛ ⎞ Znn −0 + 3ZF I n − 2 = ( − I n −1 ) ⎜ ⎟ Z 3Z Z + + F nn − 2 ⎠ ⎝ nn −0 ⎛ ⎞ Znn − 2 I n −0 = ( −I n −1 ) ⎜ ⎟ Z 3Z Z + + F nn − 2 ⎠ ⎝ nn −0 (9.8) Also from figure 9.5.9) . the sequence components of the line-to-ground voltages at any bus k during a fault at bus n are: ⎡ Vk −0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ Zkn −0 ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢V ⎥ − ⎢ 0 ⎢ k −1 ⎥ ⎢ F ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Vk − 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 Zkn −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ In −0 ⎤ ⎢I ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ n −1 ⎥ Zkn − 2 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ In −2 ⎥ ⎦ (9.I n −1 = VF ⎡Z ( Z + 3ZF ) ⎤ Znn −1 + ⎢ nn − 2 nn −0 ⎥ Z Z 3Z + + nn − 0 F⎦ ⎣ nn − 2 (9.5.5.15.

05 Zbus0 = j ⎢ per − unit ⎥ 0. the zero-sequence bus admittance matrix is Faults at buses 1 and 2 for the three-phase power system given in Example 9.7 Single line-to-ground short-circuit calculations using Zbus0. Prefault load current is neglected.25⎦ ⎣ 0 . The prefault voltage is 1. positive-.1 are of interest. ⎡ 20 0 ⎤ per − unit Ybus0 = − j ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 4⎦ Inverting Ybus0.05 per unit. Referring to Figure 9.4(a). (a) Determine the per-unit zero-. and negative-sequence bus impedance matrices. Find the per-unit line-toground voltages at (d) bus 1 and (e) bus 2 during the single line-to-ground fault at bus 1.EXAMPLE 9. Find the subtransient fault current in per-unit for a bolted single line-to-ground fault current from phase a to ground (b) at bus 1 and (c) at bus 2. 0 ⎤ ⎡0.Zbus1. and Zbus2 SOLUTION a.

12781 0. the sequence fault currents are I1−0 = I1−1 = I1− 2 = I1−0 = VF Z11−0 + Z11−1 + Z11− 2 1.0406 ⎦ Inverting Ybus2.⎡ 9.2787 ⎣ ⎦ Inverting Ybus1. with n=1 and ZF=0.2787 ⎤ Ybus1 = − j ⎢ ⎥ per − unit − 3.12781) j0.5. ⎡ 0.13893⎦ ⎡ 9.11565 + 0.1611 −3.578per − unit j ( 0.2787 8. From (9.9454 −3.04580⎤ Zbus1 = j ⎢ per − unit ⎥ ⎣0.29346 .05212 0.05 = = − j3.2787 ⎤ Ybus2 = − j ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −3.04580 0.05 + 0. ⎡0.05212 ⎤ Zbus2 = j ⎢ ⎥ per − unit 0.11565 0.3).2787 8.14562 ⎣ ⎦ b.05 0° 1.

with n=2 and ZF=0.8928⎤ 2a ⎢n ⎥ ⎢ ⎢− j1.05 = = − j1.53455 ⎡ In ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡− j1.n ⎡ I1a ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ n⎥ ⎢ 2 I = 1 a 1b ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ n ⎥ ⎢ I1c ⎣1 a ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎤ ⎡ − j3. I 2−0 = I 2−1 = I 2− 2 = I1−0 = VF Z22−0 + Z22−1 + Z22− 2 1.13893 + 0.96427⎤ ⎡− j5.25 + 0.14562 ) j0.3).73⎤ ⎢ − j3.96427per − unit j ( 0.578⎤ ⎡ − j10.578⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ c.578⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ per − unit a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ − j3.5.96427⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣1 a a ⎥ .05 0° 1.96427⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ per − unit 2 a⎥ ⎢I2b ⎥ = ⎢1 a ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ n 2 ⎢ I2c ⎥ ⎢ ⎦⎢ ⎣− j1. Again from (9.

11565 ⎢ 1−1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ V1− 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎡ V1−0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.59).1789 ⎤ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢ 0. from (9. .578⎤ ⎥ ⎢ − j3.05 0°⎥ − ⎢ 0 j0.1789 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ a⎥ ⎥ ⎢ +0.12781⎥ j3.8° ⎥ e. with k=2 and n=1. from (9.9843 254.2 1 − bg ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ V1−cg ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 0. The sequence components of the line-to-ground voltages at bus 2 during the fault at bus 1 are.6362 ⎥ a2 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ −0.578 ⎦⎣ ⎦ 0 0 ⎡ V1−ag ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 V 1 − bg ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢1 a ⎢ V1−cg ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣1 a 1 ⎤ ⎡ −0.4573⎥ ⎦ ⎡ V1−ag ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ per − unit = ° V 0. 0 ⎡ V1−0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ j0.9843105.05 ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢1.6362 ⎥ per − unit ⎢ 1−1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ V1− 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ −0.d.9).4573⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎡ − j3. The sequence components of the line-to-ground voltage at bus 1 during the fault at bus 1 are. with k=1 and n=1.578⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − j0.5.

the line-to-ground voltages at bus 2 during the fault at bus 1 are ⎡ V2−ag ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 V ⎢ 2− bg ⎥ = ⎢1 a ⎢ V2−cg ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣1 a 1 ⎤⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0. From the above.9926 249.0 ⎡ V2−0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢1. there is no shift in the phase angles of these sequence voltages.05212 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ − j3.04580 ⎢ 2−1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ V2− 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 0 ⎡ V2−0 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢ 0.9926 110.8861 ⎥ per − unit ⎢ 2−1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ V 0.05 0°⎥ − ⎢ 0 j0.578⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥ j0.8861 ⎥ a⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 2 a ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ −0.18649 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ V2−ag ⎤ ⎡ 0.70 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ V2− bg ⎥ = ⎢0.4° ⎥ per − unit ⎢ V2−cg ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 0.578⎤ ⎥ ⎢ − j3.18649 − ⎣ 2− 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ ⎡ − j3.578⎥ ⎦ 0 Note that since both bus 1 and 2 are on the low-voltage side of the ∆-Y transformers in Figure 9.3.6° ⎥ .