Dysgueusia, natural treatment for taste disorder

By * Pascal EPPE LSD Dentist - Specialize in Nutrition Therapy

Introduction to dysgeusia
The sensory function plays an important role in everyday life, because it brings the pleasure of touch, smell, taste, see and listen. The alteration of one of 5 senses disrupts the quality of life. The loss of taste may lead to problems such as loss of appetite with consequent a weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. In more severe cases of alteration of taste (dysgeusia), it is possible to note an increase of stress, anorexia and depression. The taste and the sense of smell are with difficulty dissociable because these two senses are aroused when feeding. In the U.S., it is estimated that every year approximately two hundred thousand people consult for disorders related to taste and smell

Etiology of taste disorders
Different etiologies may lead to loss of taste :  - the disorders of contact (the stimulus does not contact the taste bud)  - neurological disorders (the gustative information is untreated)  - the medicinal treatments (iatrogenic dysgeusia)  - the radiotherapy  - nutritional deficiencies in zinc (by dysfonction of the gustine : zinc-dependent enzyme), vitamins and trace elements.  - tabagism  - buccal electrogalvanism and the toxicity of dental metals.

Disorders of contact and neurological disorders :
The modifications of the saliva quantitative or qualitative constitute an obstacle to the routing of substances into contact with the taste bud and helps to explain the taste disorders observed in the Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome or during an anticholinergic treatment. Nutritional deficiencies and vitaminic (vitamin B3 and B12), treatments such as radiotherapy and cytotoxic drugs can interrupt the cycle of regeneration of taste buds while keeping intact the lingual epithelium. But the epithelium can itself be altered, during iron deficiencies, vitaminic deficiencies (vitamin B12), by viral or mycotic infections. The transduction of the signal at the level of the gustative cells can be also modified by some medicines like the calcic inhibitors. Finally the neurogene attack, by touching the way leading the signal of the bud to the cortex, can be affected to any level, by a pathological phenomenon or a medicinal unwanted effect of toxic nature or pharmacological.

Physilogy reminder :
If we observe the surface of the tongue, we distinguish, even with the naked eye, very small circular protrusions of various shapes: the lingual papillae. The receivers of the taste are located in some of these papillae (the fungiform papillae and especially the calyciform). In the thickness of the epithelium covering the papilla, open many microscopic pores which correspond to the buds of the taste. It is inside these pores that are situated the sensory cells which receive stimuli at the villosities level. On the opposite side, the gustative cell goes on by a nerve fiber.

inhibition of the AMPc. However. Beta-Blockers).. Immunosuppressants. interference with the cytochrome P450.. The other flavours are only mixtures. The saliva is the solubilizer flavors agent allowing them to make better contact with the taste buds. . tolbutamide. Antiimpaired perception of taste without that viral (didanosine. salty. Mechanisms physiopathologic : AINS : ibuprofen. The most frequent are a zinc deficiency by chelation via medicines. Antispasmodic origin of the gustative distortions induced by medicines. The impact of such symptoms can be very variable depending on the intensity. Number of Cardio-vascular (IECA. The xerostomia is also a big factor of polycaries in the elderly. By altering the body homeostasis. Hypoglycemics. thirdly an imbalance of cellular regeneration cycle and et fourthly a modification of the receptors due to a local change as for example the salivation. Quinolones. alter the synthesis.All the fibers stemming from sensory cells reunite in nerves (the lingual nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve) which lead the gustative nervous messages to the brain area of the taste where they are registered and recognized. functional integrity of taste buds and their glipizide. BCC. medicines can affect the taste if we considers the Diuretics. induced by medicines. Macrolides.). zidovudine. Antipsychotics. the architectural and Hypoglycemics (Biguanides. diclofenac. the Gustine . Muscle relaxants. a modification of the Ionic flows of the calcic or sodic channels. depend on salivary proteins (particularly decongestants.zinc-dependent). Psychotropic (Anxiolytics. Anti-fungal. an inhibition of the regeneration of the gustative cells. Various physiopathological mechanisms are at the Antiemetics. a rupture or injury of physical cause or chemical. There may have also an excretion of the medicine by the saliva. The reduced flow of saliva (xerostomia) is a problem frequently met during the taking of medicines with anticholinergic or adrenolytic action and is thus associated with the decrease of the taste. Anti-Parkinson. indomethacin. The differentiation. The pathogenic mechanisms potentially associated to the taste disorders are firstly a local atrophy of taste buds. Antihistamines and receptors.). largely the quality of life of the patient.. the medicines causes a cascade of biochemical events or chemosensory.. convulsants.). The advanced hypotheses are multiple and complex. it is recognized in many scientific publications that these factors are closely linked. The sense of taste cannot distinguish as four fundamental flavours: sweet. architecture or the activity of Lithium). Antidysgeusia as a possible consequence of xerostomia infective (Cephalosporin. not only the patients present a problem of salivation. certain classes of medicines can cause Sulfamides. xerostomia is involved. etc... a problem of dysgeusia. Dysgueusia iatrogenic : The scientific literature reports a large list of medications that can cause taste disturbances. then it can have a alteration of the metabolism of the zinc (at the molecular level) but also by an alteration of the zinc (at the enzymatic level) as essential cofactor of the gustine (the protein of the taste buds which maintains the homeostasis and the integrity of the gustative receptors). Furthermore. Antithese proteins can alter the taste. lesion of the double lipid membrane. These biological changes can thus modify sensory perception because there is rupture of the balance required for the optimal functioning of taste buds. bitter and acid. secondly a damage caused in the projections of neurons. Tetracyclines. growth. severity and duration of medicinal treatments .. The mechanism of the taste is connected to the exchanges of sodium and potassium in taste buds. Main medicines able to induce In the long term. Penicillins. insulin. but also a problem of chewing and feeding. Anti-H2. Metronidazole.Antidepressants. a medicated dysgeusia affects taste disorders. Anti-arrythmic. an interference with the second messenger. The medicines that hypnotics..

zinc depletion. copper. taste. Indeed. blocking of the calcic channel of the gustative receptor.at Washington is considered a specialist in the U.Data from the scientific literature shows that the magnitude of the reported cases should particular make us focus more attention on this type of unwanted effect so as to better manage and help patients in gustative distress. xerostomia. the revealing of a zinc deficiency is not easy because a normal rate of zinc in the plasma is not synonymic of deficiency.S. In case of irradiation. The taste disorders appear after about three weeks of treatment.. treatment with anti-oxidants is recommended to neutralize free radicals induced by radiotherapy. He studied the role of carbonic anhydrase VI ( the gustine ). between 20 and 40 Gy. stomatitis Irradiation Used in the upper aerodigestive tract cancers. sialagogues or saliva substitutes may be prescribed. The plasma rate detects only the severe deficiencies and not the sub-deficiencies. The zinc is a key trace element in the treatment of dysgeusia. . inhibition of the vitamin A. iron . reaching 90% of relative loss of taste beyond 60 Gy. inhibition of the sodic channel. Its dosage is difficult.450 reductase. CYP inhibition . inhibition of the Ionic receptor.             inhibition of the gustine. A prolonged irradiation can cause a permanent loss of taste by fibrosis of the salivary glands. and vitamin A may be responsible for hypogeusia because they intervene in the normal development of taste cells. This enzyme plays a key role in in taste function and its activity is closely linked to the presence of zinc sufficiency. director of . Decreased of the cellular renewal The deficiencies in zinc. a zinc-dependent enzyme secreted by the salivary glands.. Various studies of Dr Hentkin show the efficiency of the zinc in its action of stimulation of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase VI and in the capacity to regenerate the taste bud (recovery of the morphology) this recovery of the taste and smell is associated at an elevation of zinc level in saliva. Dr Hentkin.The taste and smell clinic . To mitigate the oral drought accompanying these therapeutic. urines and plasma. B12. Types of possible effects with an incidence varying from 1 % to 20 % =  Chelation of zinc. the dysgeusia increases rapidly. He believes that zinc deficiency is not always related to a lack of supply but also to a bad assimilation of this one. Numerous studies demonstrate the close link between a sufficient zinc rate and its role in the taste. starting from 20 Gy . B3. the irradiation is at the origin of hyposialia by direct lesion of the salivary glands without sparing the gustative cells. glossitis. alteration of catecholamine. The saliva becomes rare and very viscous involving at once a loss of the lubricating power and the solvent power of sapid substances. A recent Japanese study estimates at 11 % the proportion of elderly reached by taste disorders related to the taking of medicines. inhibition of neuronal transmission receivers.

The deficiency in vitamin C is also noticed in smokers. Some medicines alter the synthesis of proteins. to an increase of the nutritional risk. We also know that exist in smokers. what entails the decrease of the cellular renewal. however. So if the competition exists between cadmium and zinc in placenta. with doses above 900 mg/d. it has been shown that taste disorders are associated to a decrease of the calorie intake. Taste disorders and smoking Several studies have shown a disturbance of taste in the context of smoking. it could also cause zinc deficiency in smokers. at the origin of taste disorders. Indeed. put in evidence the relation between deficiency of the activity of SOD in the serum and the saliva in patients presenting disorders of smell provoked by a chronic sinusitis or a banal flu. On the other hand. used in the long term in patients reached by a rheumatoid polyarthritis. This has particularly been studied in pregnant women smoker's. Cooper deficiency The role of copper is not well defined in taste disorders. D-penicillamine. Deficiency in vitamin A. is responsible for a sensation of transient metallic taste but relapsed to each taken. . This disorder affects an average of 25-50% of patients. a toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium chloride.The American researchers recommend to measure the zinc rate in lymphocytes in order to have a more sensitive test. the increase of the labial and lingual heat induced by smoking could alter locally the lingual epithelium and so affect the taste of the smoker. It is also possible that taste disorders are the cause of a decrease in caloric intake in smokers. ageusies are common with certain specialties being able to induce a copper deficiency. The presence of several metals of different composition often causes phenomena electrogalvanic with diffusion of metal ions in saliva. Indeed. Metallic taste and dental metals The presence of a metallic taste is often the first symptom of a dental metal poisoning. since this vitamin is involved in the regeneration of taste bud and lingual epithelium. which has an adverse impact on the mitochondria and the endothelium. the pravastatin was implicated in cases of dysgueusie by decrease of the rate of vitamin A. The deficiency in vitamin B12 is observed in smokers. can be at the origine of disorders of taste. a disorder of the taste can be noticed. However. and enters into competition with zinc. Furthermore. It seems more implied in the olfactive disorders. competitiveness of zinccadmium in placenta creates a zinc deficiency (cofactor of many enzymes) noxious at the level of the placenta. But these dosages are practicable only in a few laboratories in the USA and are often expensive. much more than the other flavours. may be due to several factors. The tobacco use seems to decrease the recognition of the acid flavour. and the bitter taste in a lesser degree. leads to a sub-weight in smokers. as this renewal is fast. The onset of the disorder appears between 2 and 6 weeks of treatment at a dose between 10 and 20 mg / day. and disappears in 1 to 4 weeks after cessation. This disturbance in smokers. Some total agueusies. and to a reduction of the consumption in fruits and in vegetables as in smokers. This is due to a loss of body fat at the beginning of smoking attributed to the increased of energy expenditure linked to tobacco consumption. The taste disorders leads to a deficiencies in calcium and vitamins A and C. reversible over two or three months are even possible Gold salts and antithyroid of synthesis are also involved in copper deficiencies. SOD and olfactive disorders A Japanese study made by a team of ENT. we know that smoking through nicotine.

Disorders of taste and smoking . inhibition of DNA synthesis.. These data. : when the check up of intolerance and / or poisoning in dental metals are positive. New Engl J Med 1983.. although often incomplete. B3. These aspects of molecular biology allow to understand better how medicines can affect the taste. particularly if sustained. Deficiency in vitamin A. .Cod liver oil. : . and that it interests many therapeutic.2 caps per day Adjustments in .  Zinc: . 308(21):12751279 . Bibliography and scientific bases : Schiffman SS.Down Nicotine Nown .ZincAmin. The main mechanisms involved are processes which act either on the environment of taste cells (saliva).Natural treatment of dysgeusies  TG Action Program In case of irradiation... . chelating zinc . associated to important intra-oral galvanic currents.ULTRA VITA MINERAL . the removal of metals will be associated with the protocol of treatment.TOP A. or even contribute to depressions.one to two caps per day..TMD Toxic Metal Detox .2 capsules per day which S&P has developed and which contains a high percentage of vitamin B12. inhibition of ion channels. exacerbations of diabetes.2 capsules per day . inhibition of cytochrome P450. B12.1 capsule per day to reduce the harmful effects of nicotine and a precious help in the natural smoking cessation. demonstrate that this unwanted effect is very common.  to associate with the. Taste and smell in disease (first of two parts). Nutritional deficiencies Zinc.Spirulina california.dosed at 100 mg.DNN . but mostly to nutritional deficiencies by anorexia. hypertension. : . It can certainly be considered in certain conditions as a sequela of medicinal treatment. in some cases it can persist and require the implementation of a specific corrective treatment.  Conclusion Many testimonies concerning the iatrogenic disorders of the taste can be collected in the literature. and how it is possible to control these disorders.O. While in most instances. This can lead to noncompliance.). or which prevent a transmission of nerve impulses in good conditions (inhibition of On-Off system.SOD forte .1 capsule twice daily with meals. soit either directly or indirectly on the development and multiplication of these receptors (deficiency in trace elements and vitamins. It is important to realize that a taste disorder. action on the second messengers).. cooper.1 capsule per day : natural source of vitamin A which prevents any risk of overdose and allows optimum assimilation Olfactory disorders associated . iron. based on little rigorous experimental protocols or for a small number of patients. the taste disorder is dose-dependent and disappears after discontinuation of treatment more or less quickly.2 caps per day : neutralize free radicals induced by radiotherapy. Vit B:  V B COMPLEX. 1 cp per day : boost the anti-radical function and protect the tissular protein regulation of the metabolism at any level and treat the olfactive disorders which can be associated to the taste disorders. Metallic taste and dental metals . can have an impact on quality of life of patients who suffer.

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