Gerak dlm Satu Dimensi

 Mekanika: Adalah ilmu yang mempelajari mengenai gerak benda kinematika = gerak dinamika = gaya yang berkaitan dengan gerak dan dengan sifat-sifat benda yang bergerak Kinematika partikel: Yang dibahas adalah gerak benda ideal  partikel.  Secara matematis, partikel diperlakukan sebagai sebuah titik, yaitu benda tanpa ukuran, sehingga rotasi dan vibrasi (getaran) tidak perlu diperhitungkan terlebih dahulu.  Dalam kenyataannya, tidak ada benda tanpa ukuran di alam ini. Kecepatan rata-rata: Kecepatan partikel adalah laju (rate) perubahan posisi terhadap waktu.

Kecepatan sesaat (laju = speed)= Adalah kecepatan partikel pada suatu saat sembarang

Percepatan= Percepatan sebuah partikel adalah laju (rate) perubahan kecepatan terhadap waktu.

GLB ( Gerak Lurus Beraturan )= Gerak lurus beraturan adalah gerak sebuah benda lintasannya berupa garis lurus dengan kecepatan tetap

GLBB(Gerak Lurus Berubah Beraturan)= Gerak lurus berubah beraturan adalah gerak sebuah benda yang lintasannya berupa garis lurus dengan percepatan tetap.

GLBB dibagi menjadi 2 macam : a. GLBB dipercepat adalah GLBB yang kecepatannya makin lama makin cepat. Contoh GLBB dipercepat adalah gerak buah jatuh dari pohonnya. Ada 2 macam grafik yang dapat dibentuk dari GLBB dipercepat ini: Grafik hubungan antara v terhadap t

Grafik hubungan antara s terhadap t

MASS : a quantitative measure of inertia.a} {Action Reaction} Gmm' F r2 . What is force? 1) Force is a push or pull 2) Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change {Law of Inertia} {F = m.  upaya untuk mendapatkan perubahan kecepatan. 3. FORCE : “a push or pull” Mass  …is measured in kilograms.INERTIA: the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion Inertia is a property of matter and does not depend on the position or location of the object.  Inertia is the natural tendency of a body resist changes in motion. Newton’s Laws  Newton’s First Law  Newton’s Second Law  Newton’s Third Law  Law of Universal Gravitation 1. Contoh GLBB diperlambat adalah gerak benda dilempar ke atas.GLBB diperlambat adalah GLBB yang kecepatannya makin lama makin kecil (lambat). Grafik hubungan antara v terhadap t Prinsip GLB Prinsip GLBB  vt = v0 + at  s = s0 + ½ (v0 + vt) t  s = s0 + v0 t + ½ at2  vt2 = v02 + 2 a (s-s0) Grafik hubungan antara s terhadap t  upaya untuk mempertahankan kecepatan (konstan).  …is the measure of the inertia of an object. 2.

If they are not equal and opposite.. measure Newton’s. Two teams are playing tug of war. an object will “keep doing what it was doing” unless acted on by an unbalanced force. it will remain stationary. It takes an unbalanced force of a kick to change its motion. If the object was sitting still. Some Examples from Real Life: 1. To dislodge ketchup from the bottom of a ketchup bottle. . Law of Inertia A body remains at rest or moves in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by a force.3) Force = Mass times acceleration (F = ma) 4) A force is that which changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion of a body. A soccer ball is sitting at rest.” No mention of chemical composition No mention of terrestrial or celestial realms Force required when object changes motion Acceleration is the observable consequence of forces acting Everyday Applications of Newton's First Law: Coffee in car. Seat belt. they are said to be balanced. changes the velocity Newton’s First Law …is a vector quantity. then the forces are unbalanced and the motion of the object changes. and the object experiences no change in motion. it will keep moving. They are both exerting equal force on the rope in opposite directions. If it was moving at a constant velocity. This balanced force results in no change of motion. 2. It takes force to change the motion of an object. What does this mean? Basically. What is meant by unbalanced force? If the forces on an object are equal and opposite. Force : the agency of change.

it takes a large force to stop them. In outer space. So . If you throw a ball upwards it will eventually slow down and fall because of the force of gravity. What if you double the mass and the acceleration? (2m)(2a) = 4F Doubling the mass and the acceleration quadruples the force. . If objects in motion tend to stay in motion. like a bullet. . Since the boxcars are so massive. a rocket ship launched with a certain speed and direction would keep going in that same direction and at that same speed forever. On your way to campus. Now imagine the original ball moving at twice the original acceleration. A book sliding across a table slows down and stops because of the force of friction.Newton’s First Law is also called the Law of Inertia Inertia: the tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion The First Law states that all objects have inertia. like a glacier. Something very small changing speed very slowly will have a very weak force. F = ma says that the ball will again have twice the force of the ball at the original acceleration. . The more mass an object has. This ball has a certain force. you double the force. the more inertia it has (and the harder it is to change its motion). they have a great deal of inertia and it takes a large force to change their motion. a bug flies into your windshield. can still have great force. Something very massive (high mass) that’s changing speed very slowly (low acceleration). Once they are moving. F = ma says that this new ball has twice the force of the old ball. away from gravity and any sources of friction. you double the force. Example:  A powerful locomotive begins to pull a long line of boxcars that were sitting at rest. why don’t moving objects keep moving forever? Things don’t keep moving forever because there’s almost always an unbalanced force acting upon it. If you double the mass. Since the bug is so small. Something very small (low mass) that’s changing speed very quickly (high acceleration). it has very little inertia and exerts a very small force on your car (so small that you don’t even feel it). Newton’s Second Law The Sum of the Forces acting on a body is proportional to the acceleration that the body experiences  F=a S F = (mass) a What does F = ma mean? Force is directly proportional to mass and acceleration. Imagine a ball of a certain mass moving at a certain acceleration. If you double the acceleration. what if you decrease the mass by half? How much force would the object have now? F = ma basically means that the force of an object comes from its mass and its acceleration. can still have a great force. Now imagine we make the ball twice as big (double the mass) but keep the acceleration constant.

67 ´ 10-11 N·m2/kg2 Weight  Weight is the magnitude of the force of gravity acting on an object. .Newton’s Third Law  Action-Reaction  For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force The Law of Gravity = Every mass exerts a force of attraction on every other mass.  Weight = Fgrav  Fgrav = mass x gravity Normal Force  The normal force on an object that is being supported by a surface is the component of the supporting force that is perpendicular to the surface. G = 6.  The normal force is always perpendicular to the surface but is not always opposite the force of gravity. Fn = mgcosθ.  FN  Normal Force is a force exerted by one object on another in a direction perpendicular to the surface of contact. the normal force is calculated using  The θ is the angle of the ramp.  On an angle.

Elevator Apparent Weight .

The resistive force that opposes the relative motion of two contacting surfaces that are moving is called the force of kinetic friction (Fk)‫‏‬ .  The force of friction is proportional to the normal force.  Two types of friction: Static and Kinetic STATIC FRICTION The resistive force that keeps objects from moving is called the force of static friction. the desk experiences a greater normal force and therefore greater friction.  It is easier to push a chair across the floor at a constant speed than to push a heavy desk across the floor at the same speed. Static Friction = Fs As long as the object doesn’t move. Fs = -Fapplied When the applied force is as great as it can be without moving the object. called Fsmax KINETIC FRICTION Once an object exceeds Fsmax.Apparent Weight Normal Force Is Not Always Equal to the Weight FRICTION  Friction opposes the applied force.  Because the desk is heavier than the chair. it begins to move. the force of static friction reaches its maximum value. the static friction is always equal to the opposite in direction to the applied force.

. the force of friction would be..... if you throw a 500 g book on floor where μk = 0. Think about pushing a car that is sitting still or pushing a car that is already moving.....1.....  Coefficient of friction is represented by the symbol μ and pronounces mu...  The quantity that expresses the dependence on frictional forces on the particular surfaces in contact is called the coefficient of friction.. For example..  μk = Fk/Fn  Divide the Force of kinetic friction by the normal force  μs = Fsmax / Fn  Divide the maximum value of static friction by the normal force Finding Friction If the value of μ is known and the normal force is known.. mk < ms..... The coefficient of kinetic friction is always less than or equal to the coefficient of static friction... Ff = μFn The kinetic friction is always less than or equal to the maximum static friction. then the magnitude of the force of friction can be calculated..Coefficients of Friction  Friction depends on the surfaces in contact.... μs μk materials Coefficient of Friction = Kinetic Friction {Ff = mk FN }  Static Friction {Ff £ ms FN}  In most cases. .

called terminal speed. the fluid provides a resistance to the motion. like air or water. Tension (Tensile Force)  Tension is the force in a string. chain or tendon that is applied tending to stretch it.  FT .Air Resistance= Whenever an object moves through a fluid medium. When an object falls through the air. its velocity increases until the air resistance balances the downward force of gravity. The object falls with a constant speed.

Tetapi apabila bidang acu adalah titk pusat massa bola. Sehingga pada semua proses tumbukan. F12 = dp/dt .  Ketika tumbukan terjadi.MOMENTUM – IMPULS Konsep Impuls-Momentum :  Dalam proses yang sebenarnya sering kali didapatkan keadaan – Gaya bekerja dalam waktu yang sangat atau peluruhan – Melibatkan banyak massa sekaligus singkat.Untuk partikel kedua berlaku: . seperti dalam proses tumbukan  Konsep Impuls-Momentum memudahkan kita untuk menyelesaikan persoalan seperti ini. sehingga Δp1 = ∫ F12 dt Besaran integral di ruas kiri persamaan di atas juga disebut sebagai impuls yang diberikan oleh gaya F12. partikel 1 memberi gaya ke partikel 2 sebesar F21. atau N·s) adalah hasil kali massa dan kecepatan benda (p = mv). memiliki momentum apabila pengamat berada di luar lift. total momentum sistem konstan. Maksudnya adalah suatu objek dapat memiliki momentum yang berbeda apabila bidang acunya berbeda. Apel yang bergerak bersama lift. Bola yang bergerak memiliki momentum apabila bidang acu adalah lubang di tanah.  Momentum linear partikel : Apabila suatu objek bergerak pada bidang acu tertentu. maka objek tersebut memiliki momentum terhadap bidang acu tersebut. Momentum  Momentum (SI unit kg·m/s. dan partikel 2 memberi gaya ke partikel 1 sebesar F12. gaya yang terlibat hanyalah gaya internal. selama tidak ada gaya eksternal. Tumbukan Dalam proses tumbukan antara dua benda ketika kedua benda dilihat sebagai satu kesatuan. Tetapi apabila pengamat berada di dalam lift maka momentum apel = 0 karena kecepatan gerak apel terhadap pengamat = 0. Momentum sangat tergantung dengan bidang acu. Dari hukum Newton kedua. maka momentumnya = 0.

such as gravity. which is the force times distance (times the cosine of the angle in between the two). nilai e = 0. & Power What is work? Work is defined simply as a force which is applied through a displacement. dan untuk kasus tumbukan elastik nilai e = 1. . Tumbukan tak elastik  Tumbukan tak elastik adalah tumbukan yang mana setelah tumbukan kedua benda menyatu dan bergerak dengan kecepatan sama. or distance. It is independent of time. or friction. meaning that there are no restrictions on how fast or slow the work is done. the stiffness of a spring. yaitu 0 ≤ e < 1. inertia. Koefisien e disebut koefisien resistusi. Untuk sembarang tumbukan tak elastik.  Ini berarti pada tumbukan total tak elastik. We learned about work.Tumbukan elastic: Dalam tumbukan elastik. energi sistem sebelum dan sesudah tumbukan tetap sama. Work is done against some agent. nilai e adalah antara kedua kasus tadi. The longer the distance you apply the force over. sehingga v1Ι = v2Ι. Energy. the more work you do. Work.

rest energy) Mechanical energy : Kinetic energy.600.000 J Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed. potential. which creates forces .8 m/s2 x 9000 m ~ 105 J 1 watt = 1 joule per second {1 W = 1 J/s}also electrical term. AS IT LOSES POTENTIAL ENERGY (gets closer to the ground) IT GAINS KINETIC ENERGY (gains speed in freefall). and Potential energy Rest Energy Mass and Energy are related to each other and can be converted into each other.(frictionless case) mgh = 1/2 mv2 work/energy theorem  Conservative systems idealized system. 1 watt = 1 volt x 1 ampere 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts 1 kilowatt hour = 1000 watts for one hour 1000 J/s x 3600 s = 3. E0 = m0c2 E0 (m=1 kg) = 1 kg x (3 108)2 (cm/s)2 ~ 1017 J PE (m=1 kg. no work is done. Energy has various forms (kinetic. THE LOSS OF POTENTIAL ENERGY IS EXACTLY EQUAL TO THE GAIN OF KINETIC ENERGY. h=9 km) = mgh = 1 kg x 9. It can only be changed from one form to another.What is energy? Energy is a property that enables something to do work . total energy change is zero Nonconservative systems     real systems mechanical energy does not remain constant energy is added from outside the system or escapes from the system there is friction. The rest energy of a body is the energy equivalent of its mass. The above statement is called the law of conservation of energy The potential energy of the weight can be changed to kinetic energy is the weight is allowed to freefall.

graph with low friction Kerja  pegas graph with high friction Rumus:F = k x Power The difference between work and power is one of time. The faster a weight is lifted overhead the more power is consumed. . The rate at which work is done is power.