Computer Application-II

Notes

Unit-I

Web Technology
Web technology is a technology that relate to the interface between web servers and their clients. This information includes mark up languages, programming interfaces and languages, and standards for document identification and display. There are many types of technologies which are used to support the World Wide Web and more are being developed all the time.

DNS namespace: DNS is the name service provided by the Internet for TCP/IP networks.
DNS is broken up into domains, a logical organization of computers that exist in a larger network. The domains exist at different levels and connect in a hierarchy that resembles the root structure of a tree. Each domain extends from the node above it, beginning at the top with the root-level domain. Under the root-level domain are the top-level domains, under those are the second-level domains, and on down into subdomains. DNS namespace identifies the structure of the domains that combine to form a complete domain name. For example, in the domain name sub.secondary.com, "com" is the top-level domain, "secondary" identifies the secondary domain name (commonly a site hosted by an organization and/or business), and "sub" identifies a subdomain within the larger network. This entire DNS domain structure is called the DNS namespace. There are three types of top-level domains:

Organizational domains . These are named by using a 3-character code that indicates the primary function or activity of the organizations contained within the DNS domain. Organizational domains are generally only for organizations within the United States, and most organizations located in the United States are contained within one of these organizational domains. Geographical domains . These are named by using the 2-character country/region codes established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 3166. Reverse domains . This is a special domain, named in-addr.arpa, that is used for IP address-to-name mappings

Top-Level Name Component .com .edu .gov .int

Description

Example DNS Domain Name

An Internet name authority delegates portions of the domain namespace under this level to commercial microsoft.com organizations, such as the Microsoft Corporation. An Internet name authority delegates portions of this domain namespace to educational organizations, such as mit.edu the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). An Internet name authority delegates portions of this domain namespace to governmental organizations, such whitehouse.gov as the White House in Washington, D.C. An Internet name authority delegates portions of this domain namespace to international organizations, such nato.int as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

~

1

~

Computer Application-II

Notes

Unit-I

.mil .net

.org

An Internet name authority delegates portions of this domain namespace to military operations, such as the ddn.mil Defense Date Network (DDN). An Internet name authority delegates portions of this domain namespace to networking organizations, such as nsf.net the National Science Foundation (NSF). An Internet name authority delegates portions of this domain namespace to noncommercial organizations, cnidr.org such as the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR).

What is IP Address?
Internet Protocol Address (or IP Address) is an unique address that computing devices use to identify itself and communicate with other devices in the Internet Protocol network. Any device connected to the IP network must have an unique IP address within its network. An IP address is analogous to a street address or telephone number in that it is used to uniquely identify a network device to deliver mail message, or call ("view") a website. Dotted Decimals The traditional IP Addresses (IPv4) uses a 32-bit number to represent an IP address, and it defines both network and host address. Due to IPv4 addresses running out, a new version of the IP protocol (IPv6) has been invented to offer virtually limitless number of unique addresses. An IP address is written in "dotted decimal" notation, which is 4 sets of numbers separated by period each set representing 8-bit number ranging from (0-255). An example of IPv4 address is 216.3.128.12, which is the IP address assigned to topwebhosts.org. An IPv4 address is divided into two parts: network and host address. The network address determines how many of the 32 bits are used for the network address, and remaining bits for the host address. The host address can further divided into subnetwork and host number.

Web Browser
A web browser or Internet browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users to easily navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to access the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by Web servers in private networks or files in file systems. Some browsers can also be used to save information resources to file systems. This is a table of personal computer web browsers by year of release of major version, in chronological order, with the approximate number of worldwide Internet users in millions.

~

2

~

Opera 4. SlipKnot 1. 1018 AOL Explorer1..PowerBrowser 1. Netscape Navigator Communicator 4. Maxthon 1. Agora (Argo). 1565 ~ 3 ~ .0. Opera 9.5. MacWWW (Samba) Mosaic.9. Firefox 2. Firefox 3. Flock 1. Internet Explorer 5.0.0. Safari 3.0.0. Amaya 6.0. Mozilla 1. Epiphany 1. Netscape Navigator 2. Opera 36 2.0 Firefox 1. Mozilla Amaya 2. Internet Explorer 3.1. Netscape Browser 8.0 361 Amaya 4. Amaya 5.0.0. Amaya 0. OmniWeb 5.0. Cyberdog. Opera 5. Netscape Navigator 3. MidasWWW. Safari 1. UdiWWW. Opera 9.0 iCab. Arena.0. Camino 1. iCab 3.0. Opera 8. Amaya 9.0.0. Amaya 587 7. AWeb. Minuet Internet Explorer 1.0 4. Cello.0. Netscape Navigator.0 Opera 7. 16 WebRouser. Internet Explorer 2.0. Epiphany1.0. K-Meleon 0. Grail Arachne 1.0 IBM WebExplorer. Opera 3. AMosaic 1.0. Netscape Navigator 9.0. Links 2.0 513 Netscape 7.0. Safari 1262 3. 1093 Avant 11. Voyager Internet Explorer 4. Internet Explorer 7.0.0 719 817 Safari 2.0. Amaya 8. Netscape 6. Amaya 1. Amaya 3. Shiira 1.2.0. Mozilla M3.0. Galeon 2.0. Erwise. MacWeb.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Year Web Browsers Users (in millions) 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 WorldWideWeb (Nexus) ViolaWWW.1.0 SeaMonkey 1. Lynx 2. Phoenix 0.0.0. Netscape 70 147 248 Konqueror.0.5. Sputnik Maxthon 2.8. K-Meleon 1.0. Netscape Browser. Opera 6.0. Flock 2.0.0.0. NetSurf 1. IBrowse.0. Amaya 10.0. OmniWeb. Conkeror Konqueror 4.0 Internet Explorer 6. Galeon 1.

although by 2002 its usage had almost disappeared. Opera 10. 2004 Google Chrome. September 2. February 26.6. is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. Camino 2. Later versions were available as free downloads. October 13. Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 or later. Opera 10. Safari 4.0 2009 2010 Internet Explorer 8. Amaya 11. 1994 Internet Explorer 1. and Windows Server 2008. The latest stable release is Internet Explorer 8. 2003 Mozilla Firefox. Chrome 3. Firefox 3. Chrome 2. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Chrome 1. attaining a peak of about 95% usage share during 2002 and 2003 with IE5 and IE6.50. 1991 • Mosaic. commonly abbreviated to IE or MSIE). 1993 • • • • • • • Netscape Navigator and Netscape Communicator. January 7. November 9. which is available as a free update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2 or later. April 22. see History of the Opera web browser Mozilla Navigator. IE has been the most widely used web browser since 1999. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corporation and the dominant web browser in terms of usage share. 2008 Internet Explorer • • Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer. or in service packs. Windows Vista. August 16. and included in the OEM service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows. June 5. This ~ 4 ~ . Safari 5. 1996. and is included with Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. • Netscape Navigator Netscape Navigator is a proprietary web browser that was popular in the 1990s. 2002 Safari. Chrome 4 through Chrome 8. 1995 Opera.5 Firefox 3. Opera 11 Notable browsers In order of release: • Worldwide Web. 1734 SeaMonkey 2.

Worldwide usage share of browsers for December 2010 Source Net Apps I.E.07% 4. The same concepts and technologies of the Internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet protocol suite are used to build an intranet. ~ 5 ~ .0% 42.94% 30.82% 11.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I was primarily due to the increased usage of Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser software.23% 3.18% 5.10 INTRANET An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols. such as FTP.34 % 5.80 % 2.81% 9. Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service.79% 2.10% W3Counter 41. and partly because the Netscape Corporation (later purchased by AOL) did not sustain Netscape Navigator's technical innovation after the late 1990s.3% Wikimedia Median 30.85% 4.9% 2.70% 3.4% 44.45% StatCounter 46.56 % 12. HTTP and other Internet protocols are commonly used as well.53 % 29.15 % 4.98% 5. network connectivity to securely share part of an organization’s information or operations with its employees.3% 13.08% 22.5% 5.67% 6. Firefox Chrome Safari Opera Mobile 57.12% 28. the internal website. There is often an attempt to use Internet technologies to provide new interfaces with corporate "legacy" data and information systems.76% 14.89% 2.

Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Briefly. ~ 6 ~ . will be an Extranet. The firewall helps to control access between the Intranet and Internet to permit access to the Intranet only to people who are members of the same company or organization. if it allows access from the Internet. If the Intranet network is connected to the Internet. the Intranet will reside behind a firewall and." or as a version of the Internet confined to an organization. This is a network that is not available to the world outside of the Intranet. an intranet can be understood as "a private version of the Internet.

The most common use of web servers are to host websites but there are other uses like data storage or for running enterprise applications. The hardware part is what houses the content. These can include firewall server management. The most common request is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic. A web server is what makes it possible to be able to access content like web pages. and government networks. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company’s intranet that is extended to users outside the company. such as an online banking application managed by one company on behalf of affiliated banks o Share news of common interest exclusively with partner companies. partners. business. or other data from anywhere as long as it is connected to the internet. while the software part is what makes the content accessible through the internet. the issuance and use of digital certificates or similar means of user authentication. encryption of messages. It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with other companies as well as to sell products to customers. which together carry various information and services. such as electronic mail. publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). vendors. There are also different ways to request content from a web server. file transfer. online chat. Companies can use an extranet to: o Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) o Share product catalogs exclusively with wholesalers or those "in the trade" o Collaborate with other companies on joint development efforts o Jointly develop and use training programs with other companies o Provide or access services provided by one company to a group of other companies.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I INTERNET The Internet is a worldwide. EXTRANET An extranet is a private network that uses Internet technology and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business’s information or operations with suppliers. An extranet requires security and privacy. but ~ 7 ~ . or other businesses. academic. customers. and the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) that tunnel through the public network. Web Server A web server can be referred to as either the hardware (the computer) or the software (the computer application) that helps to deliver content that can be accessed through the Internet. and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients. Sun Java System Web Server and Jagsaw. such as images.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I there are also other requests like the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). This open source web server is fast. This web server runs on Windows NT/2000 and 2003 platforms ( and may be on upcoming new Windows version also). style sheets and Java Scripts. secure and consumes much less CPU power. Linux and Solaris operating systems. About 60% of the web server machines run the Apache Web Server. For example. You can load up with Dedicated Servers that can support your webbased operations. Internet Information Services The Internet Information Server (IIS) is a high performance Web Server from Microsoft. also known as a domain name. Unix. This server is always connected to the internet.127. FreeBSD.35.122.178. pronounced lighty is also a free web server that is distributed with the FreeBSD operating system. Apart from these Web Servers. Windows.com you have to specify the IP address of the Web server that will host the site. Every Web server that is connected to the Internet is given a unique address made up of a series of four numbers between 0 and 256 separated by periods.157. When you register a Web address. ~ 8 ~ . Because IIS is tightly integrated with the operating system so it is relatively easy to administer it. IIS comes bundled with Windows NT/2000 and 2003. lighttpd The lighttpd.132 or 68. Bea's Web Logic and IBM's Websphere. Lighttpd can also run on Windows. Types of web Servers Every Web site sits on a computer known as a Web server. You can have Apache with tomcat module to have JSP and J2EE related support. there are other Web Servers also available in the market but they are very expansive. Apache HTTP Server This is the most popular web server in the world developed by the Apache Software Foundation. lighttpd. Mac OS X and more. IIS. Apache web server is an open source software and can be installed on almost all operating systems including Linux. such as tutorialspoint. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document. 68. Mac OS X. There are four leading web browsers: Apache. Major ones are Netscape's iPlanet.

0 license permits bundling with commercial software and does not require derivative works to be open source. Mac OS X Free BSD etc. Unix. It is open source and free and can run on various platforms like Linux. The latest version of IIS. and either PHP. Companies that use Apache range from start-ups to long-established large enterprises. Perl. including members of the Apache Software Foundation.0. Linux (Apache) Vs. Windows (IIS) Web Server ~ 9 ~ . IIS security results from Microsoft investing in the Security Development Lifecycle. Windows. but simply to point out that IIS 6. with only four vulnerabilities reported since its release in 2003. an end-to-end approach to security that typically reduces both the total number and the severity of vulnerabilities in software built using that methodology. and even individuals contributing to Apache on their own time. IIS 6. runs on Windows.0-based solutions.0 has a fully modular architecture. A variety of developers make code contributions to the project. It however. and enabled hosting providers to offer Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6. Java Servlets. the Apache Web server. ASP and Coldfusion etc. This isn’t to say that Apache is not secure.0 such as JSP. Microsoft introduced Internet Information Server (IIS) 6. Jigsaw Server Jigsaw (W3C's Server) comes from the World Wide Web Consortium. developers who are allowed or instructed to work on Apache by their corporate employers. Python. The Apache 2. Linux and Unix platforms. While people often perceive Apache as a Linux Web server. and has a great security track record. or Python programming language.0.0 included a number of features that made it a good fit for corporations. PHP. it also runs on Windows. Jigsaw has been written in Java and can run CGI scripts and PHP programs. as high-profile and widely available Web sites wouldn’t use it if they thought it were. Internet Information Server 6. the Apache HTTP Server is a free open-source Web server developed under the governance of the Apache Software Foundation. The Sun Java System web server supports various languages. Perl. Apache HTTP Server First released in 1995. Ruby on Rails.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Sun Java System Web Server This web server from Sun Microsystems is suited for medium and large web sites. is included in Windows Server 2008. scripts and technologies required for Web 2. Apache is used for intranets and public facing Web sites. Apache is a key component in what’s known as the “LAMP” stack. version 7.0 With Windows Server 2003. which has proven to be a very secure Web server. This feature lets users install or uninstall discrete pieces of functionality and also gives users the ability to leverage new modules from Microsoft and from the Web development community at large. Though the server is free it is not open source. One of the most important changes is that IIS 7. the MySQL database. which comprises the Linux operating system.0 and introduces a number of new features. It builds on the foundation of IIS 6.0 was designed with security in mind.

the open source community is also a good source of support for users who have the time and patience to ask for answers. ~ 10 ~ . but mostly on Linux. There are some similar file types that are used on both operating systems. One is how you transfer you files. MySQL Database can run on both Linux and Windows. Linux Server and Windows Server means the operating system the server is running on. 3. IIS also comes with the support of the .NET Framework released by Microsoft. Apple’s OS X. The fact that they are made by the same company assures you that they would operate at the best capacity with each other. Difference between IIS and APACHE Web Server Apache is a software foundation that develops and provides open source software that is meant to run web servers. 4. The IIS – Windows combo is both a boon and bane for users. Aside from being free. ASPX runs only in IIS. Support for IIS is provided by Microsoft which is an assurance that you would have answers to your problems direct from the makers themselves. Even more are being created everyday and that might pose a threat in the future. This is very advantageous to those who are just trying out web publishing and is still unsure about it. IIS has a dedicated staff to answer most problems while support for Apache comes from the community itself. Both Windows and Linux support FTP access. in fact. Linux Server. Their primary product is their HTTP server which is the most popular HTTP server in use today. Apache is most commonly included in a totally free web server solution called LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) which is a collection of open source software that would totally handle all of your web publishing needs from the OS down to the scripting language. IIS is second only to HTTP as the most used HTTP server in the world. The only problem with the Windows OS is its too popular and a lot of malware. 2. IIS or Internet Information Services is the software pack developed by Microsoft to provide their Windows operating system the ability to host internet services. Windows Server vs.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Most of the time when working in web development there will be two types of operating systems. ASPX scripts are exclusive to IIS. IIS only runs on Windows while Apache can run on almost any OS including UNIX. the fact that you need to buy Windows to use it shatters that dream. and Trojans exist on the Windows OS. Both Operating Systems Common Features There are a few common features both servers will provide. Summary: 1. virus. IIS is from Microsoft and thus it would only run on the Microsoft Windows OS. HTML Files (. The clear advantage with running IIS is the fact most people are already familiar with the Windows operating system and IIS would be a lot easier to learn for Windows users. Apache is free while IIS is packaged with Windows.html) and JavaScript (. The Apache web server is very popular due to the fact that is free. and on most Linux Distributions. Although it might seem to be free.js) are both commonly used on both platforms.

ISPs also serve large companies. In addition to serving individuals. as well as other services unique to each particular ISP. cable modem. Internet service provider (ISP) An Internet service provider (ISP). password and access phone number. IIS is optimized for Windows because they are from the same company. DSL. 6. It refers to a company that provides Internet services. For broadband access you typically receive the broadband modem hardware or pay a monthly fee for this equipment that is added to your ISP account billing. wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects. ISPs may also be called IAPs (Internet Access Providers). such as dial-up. ISPs themselves are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs). Working of ISP: ~ 11 ~ . ISPs may provide services such as remotely storing data files on behalf of their customers. and send and receive e-mail. also sometimes referred to as an Internet access provider (IAP). For a monthly fee. Equipped with a modem. providing a direct connection from the company's networks to the Internet. ISPs may provide Internet e-mail accounts to users which allow them to communicate with one another by sending and receiving electronic messages through their ISP's servers. is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet. including personal and business access to the Internet. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol packets or frames. you can then log on to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web and USENET. username.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I 5. the service provider usually provides a software package. The Windows OS is prone to security risks.

Crawler-based search engines are those that use automated software agents (called crawlers) that visit a Web site. such as Yahoo! or Google. So why will the same search on different search engines produce different results? Part of the answer to that question is because not all indices are going to be exactly the same. But more important. where the data is indexed. It depends on what the spiders find or what the humans submitted. it would be virtually impossible to locate anything on the Web without knowing a specific URL. Those with higher frequency are typically considered more relevant. But do you know how search engines work? And do you know what makes some search engines more effective than others? When people use the term search engine in relation to the Web. Another program. Since the search results are based on the index. One of the elements that a search engine algorithm scans for is the frequency and location of keywords on a Web page. initially gathered by a robot. they are usually referring to the actual search forms that searches through databases of HTML documents. in fact. only meaningful results are returned for each query. a search engine works by sending out a spider to fetch as many documents as possible. Each search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that. The algorithm is what the search engines use to determine the relevance of the information in the index to what the user is searching for. This explains why sometimes a search on a commercial search engine. Human-powered search engines rely on humans to submit information that is subsequently indexed and catalogued. will return results that are. Without sophisticated search engines. These indices are giant databases of information that is collected and stored and subsequently searched. called an indexer. Only information that is submitted is put into the index. How Do Web Search Engines Work Search engines are the key to finding specific information on the vast expanse of the World Wide Web. The crawler will periodically return to the sites to check for any information that has changed. then reads these documents and creates an index based on the words contained in each document. not every search engine uses the same algorithm to search through the indices. ideally. when you query a search engine to locate information. But search engine technology is becoming sophisticated in its attempt to discourage what is known as keyword stuffing. if the index hasn't been updated since a Web page became invalid the search engine treats the page as still an active link even though it no longer is. read the site's meta tags and also follow the links that the site connects to performing indexing on all linked Web sites as well. dead links. The crawler returns all that information back to a central depository. you're actually searching through the index that the search engine has created —you are not actually searching the Web. Although search engine is really a general class of programs. or spamdexing. ~ 12 ~ . read the information on the actual site. The frequency with which this happens is determined by the administrators of the search engine. Typically. the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Google. In both cases.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I SEARCH ENGINE A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. Alta Vista and Excite that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web and USENET newsgroups. It will remain that way until the index is updated.

By analyzing how pages link to each other. Crawler-Based Crawler-based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. The search results are returned to the user in a fraction of a second. an engine can both determine what a page is about (if the keywords of the linked pages are similar to the keywords on the original page) and whether that page is considered "important" and deserving of a boost in ranking. These listings are what make up the search engine's index or catalogue. The Different Types of Search Engines Although the term "search engine" is often used indiscriminately to describe crawler-based search engines. and that can affect how those pages are listed. it is also becoming more savvy to Web masters who build artificial links into their sites in order to build an artificial ranking. They "crawl" or "spider" the web. human-powered directories. Just as the technology is becoming increasingly sophisticated to ignore keyword stuffing.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Another common element that algorithms analyze is the way that pages link to other pages in the Web. crawler-based search engines eventually find these changes. and everything in between. The web server sends the query to the index servers. The following graphic example(Figure 1) illustrates this life span 3. Snippets are generated to describe each search result. yet involves a number of different steps that must be completed before results can be delivered to a person seeking information. which actually retrieve the stored documents. and people search through their listings. Each type of "search engine" gathers and ranks listings in radically different ways. they are not all the same. The life span of a typical web query normally lasts less than half a second. 1. 2. compile their listings automatically. If web pages are changed. body copy and other elements all play a role. You can think of the index as a massive electronic filing cabinet containing a copy of every web page the spider finds. The content inside the index servers is similar to the index in the back of a book .it tells which pages contain the words that match the query. 1. The query travels to the doc servers. Page titles. ~ 13 ~ .

or from editors who write one for sites they review. The only exception is that a good site. So before you submit to a directory. Yahoo!. and MSN AdCenter allow you to pay to show your ads on their search engine results page.com/). Inception and Planning ~ 14 ~ . and then editors review the submission. For e.imagine-msn. along with the click-through rate of the ad (CTR) and the relevance of the landing page. 4. Even then. especially for more obscure queries. Webmasters submit an address.. it also presents crawler-based results. Unless you sign up for a paid inclusion program. Keep in mind that these search engines usually still allow people to submit for free. Pay Per Click (sponsored results) PPC advertising is the name for the ads you see at the top or on the right of the organic results in most search engines. it is generally very difficult to change its search engine ranking.aspx) is more likely to present human-powered listings from LookSmart (http://search. with good content. Paid Inclusion Most directories offer some form of paid inclusion. now gets its information from the use of crawlers. there's no guarantee that your website will be accepted.g.looksmart. However.) A directory gets its information from submissions. Hybrid search engines Today. Techniques that are useful for improving a listing with a search engine have nothing to do with improving a listing in a directory.com/search/tour/moreprecise. There are companies such as Red Carpet Web Promotion that set up and manage PPC campaigns for companies that bid on many key phrases (which can number in the thousands). title. which include a short description to the directory for the entire site. it is extremely common for crawler-type and human-powered results to be combined when conducting a search. spend some time working on your titles and descriptions or hire a professional to submit to directories for you. determine the ranking of your PPC ads. and a brief description of their site. MSN Search (http://www. Services such as Yahoo SM. Google AdWords. Changing web pages. 3. which used to be a directory. Human-powered Directories Directories such as Open Directory depend on human editors to compile their listings. How much you pay (your bid).Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I 2. has no effect on how they are listed. 5. Paid inclusion guarantees your website gets reviewed and/or indexed promptly. A search looks for matches only in the descriptions submitted. it just takes longer. Usually. therefore. Website Creation Phases 1. it may take months for your website to be reviewed. After a website makes it into a directory however. might be more likely to get reviewed for free than a poor site. a hybrid search engine will favour one type of listings over another.

Computer Application-II o o o o o o o o Notes Unit-I Plan a theme . o Get some awards and post this fact on your site.Is the purpose of the web site clear? o Make any appropriate modifications to the main page. Promotion o Apply for awards for your site to organizations that review sites and give various awards. o Get other sites that have similar content (or sites that your site supplements) to link to your web site (especially high traffic web sites). o Submit news articles to news agencies about your new site or any significant events that may help your site. Browse the main page with several types of web browsers to determine whether there are any browser issues to resolve. Determine your basic color scheme. that's because even if you know what you are doing. 4. o Promote your site anyplace there are forums or discussion groups without being pushy. This is done so search engines will later categorize the page properly and help get traffic. how it is designed. how it functions. o Get more opinions about the completed site. o Be sure to set titles and meta tags for search correctly for each page's content. o o o Consider giving awards through your site. Consider and plan a layout . the promotion steps could be skipped and some other steps could be skipped with some sacrifice of quality. o Get opinions about the layout from other people. o Look at the main page using different screen resolutions. If you are planning to create a world class web site. . 2. 3. positioning. only post it then. Consider the types. Determine tools to use to create the website. If this all looks like it will involve a lot of work.Plan a layout appropriate to the theme of the website. o Make any necessary adjustments and get the site completely running. Construction o Make the site functional and complete the basic working prototype by adding additional pages or functionality. Consider text fonts to use. However. If you are just planning a personal website and don't care about promotion.Plan the purpose of the website. o Submit your site to search engines. o Place your site in webrings. and how easy it is to use. and amount of graphics to provide on the site. it can be fun and rewarding. Consider how the website should be navigated. it will not be worthwhile to skip some steps. If your site has useful information relevant to the discussion. ~ 15 ~ . it is a lot of work. Determine a web hosting provider and whether you want to use their tools. Design Create a main page and get it running on a webserver.

If the site is some organization with a group mission. The site purpose may be informational. it may be a non traditional business with attention grabbers.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Website Planning and Inception This is the most important part of setting up a website. much time may be wasted. The site may be business oriented and traditional. Website Content The website content should be supportive of your main theme but be broad enough to allow for excellent promotional capability. Business Interests Before beginning the task of planning and setting up the website. or it may contain some combination of themes and purposes. what are the available resources? What are the goals of the business? How much should be paid for web hosting or credit card services? Website Functionality Along with the business interests and objectives for the site. the site functionality must be considered initially. it may be built to sell products. The following should be thought about early in design: ~ 16 ~ . If this part is not done properly. Consider providing some chat groups or forums supportive of your main theme. Consider providing web site awards to sites with themes similar to yours or to a broad category of web sites. The type of information on the site and its purpose will help determine the theme. Is this a business site that will have a budget? If so. Website Layout Generally the layout of the site is influenced by its theme. Consider some of the following website content: • • • Consider providing free tutorials or information supportive of your site main theme. it may be an uncomplicated site stating group purpose and mission with contact information along with some public information. This includes site functions as listed below: • • • • • • • Will the site need a shopping cart? Will the site need a forums section? Will the site need the ability to post content by people that are not technical? Will the site need a an events calendar? Will the site need an ability for third parties to post links? Should the site have a guestbook? Should the site be able to take polls? Website Theme The type and purpose of the organization will have a great deal to do with determining the theme of the website. and navigational setup. purpose. the business interests and objectives must be considered.

navigation should be done. the eye starts viewing somewhere near. Should buttons be used for links? Should JavaScript or VBscript be used to create drop down links? Will Server Side Includes (SSI) be used to support the site with some common notices on multiple pages? Should server side script programs be used to support the site? Are any additional services required to support the site such as external credit card services? Will your website require access to a database for storage and retrieval of customer or other data? How much content will be displayed on each page? How far down will users need to scroll the page to see the bottom? This is a controversial characteristic of websites with some believing scrolling more than three screen lengths is too much. down the left side.Computer Application-II • • Notes Unit-I • • • • • • • • • Consider how many layers deep into the site. consider the fact that normally. someplace else or some combination? Should some items be highlighted? Should frames be used? The use of frames is very controversial. then down. Pages should not be long enough to cause a significant slowing in load time. Therefore these web pages may not be ~ 17 ~ . I normally use frames in documents. Website Navigation . One major drawback to using frames is that some webcrawlers can not search through pages that use frames. I think pages should be long enough to print roughly one to five pages on a normal printer and should be broken on some reasonably natural content breakoff point. I believe. depending on content. and others believing it is better to place as much content on the page as is reasonably possible to allow for easier viewing and printing without going through many links. Should the main navigation links be across the top.Frames? Setting up navigation is a very important part of web layout. Consider where links should be. Things to consider include: • • • Consider how many layers deep into the site. Consider how to organize the site into logical subcategories that make sense to the viewer. Should the main navigation links be across the top. It should be considered whether the user's browser will support these features. but below the upper left (the upper left center) then moves to the right. frames have their place. someplace else or some combination? Should some items be highlighted? Consider how many levels deep users can move by clicking on a single link. When considering these items. Normally I use frames so an index is in one frame with content in the other frame. but not on the main page. The web page should be designed to draw attention to its main theme. The user must be able to quickly and easily find the information they are looking for or they will probably go elsewhere. For instance normally documentation is placed separate from information about the organization. the type of browser the user will be using should be considered. Consider where links should be. down the left side. navigation should be done. The web page should not be too crowded and have a reasonable amount of white space and graphics to make it pleasing to the eye. During layout.

but I like greens. Another drawback is that older browsers did not support frames. It just means you are not using the latest standard. There should be enough graphic content to make the page pleasing to the eye. charts. Therefore.w3. The Arial font is easy to read. illustrative diagrams. If one is dark. Web designers should be aware of this. Text Fonts There are many different text fonts available. however. to avoid the possiblity of future work to bring it up to the standard. HTML HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language and is the format most web documents are placed in to be made available for viewing. If you write the ~ 18 ~ . The current web standard as set by the World Wide Web Consortium at http://www. Also. such as serial lines using modems. Website Graphics Most good websites should have a reasonable quantity of graphics. Text and backgrounds must have a high amount of contrast. When using graphics. It uses elements consisting of sets of tags (beginning and end tag) to mark the type of elements such as paragraphs. I'm not an expert on color. See the HTML Guide Page about XHTML for more information about XHTML. Graphic items may be drawn pictures. headers. the other must be light. I like light colors. It would be best to use the latest standard. and tables. but I like to use it to draw attention and for additional color. If your site is not written in XHTML. I like to use Arial for normal text and Times New Roman font for header text on my web site. it does not mean your site will not function properly. lists. There is one significant note about HTML that concerns you whether you are technical or not. Some rules involve proper nesting of elements and tags and using tags with lower case characters. and blues. I have noticed that dark text is easier to read on a light background than light text on a dark background. and Times New Roman has serifs on the letters. What this means is there are some additional construction rules for the markup language.org is XHTML. it is best to use text fonts that are commonly available. The text fonts that will show up on the client computer are dependent on the fonts that are installed on that computer. it is difficult to see light text on dark backgrounds. the designer should consider the time it will take to load over various internet media. Consider providing a site map to help your users and be sure search engine webcrawlers can find all your pages. Red usually indicates warning.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I • categorized by search engines and may not be available for user queries to search engines. different text fonts are not displayed the same with different browsers. When using a high resolution screen such as 1600 by 1200 resolution. or photographs. Color Scheme Color schemes are very important on websites. You will notice this if Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer are used to view the same page side by side. how to display the content. HTML is simply used to indicate to the web browser.

These include: • • • • • • • HTML editors or HTML page making tools such as Microsoft Front Page or the Netscape Communicator tool set. HTML validators that are used to validate your code. click on the link that says "Technical Forums". Following are some considerations for a web hosting service: • • • • • • Are you willing to pay a monthly service fee? File Transfer Protocol (FTP) can be used to transfer web content back and forth between your working computer and the on line website. Most who do not have this technical knowledge may not wish to take the time to learn it. with an HTML editor. If you use an HTML page making tool. Java applets may be used to create additional dynamic content and therefore a programming Integrated Development Environment (IDE) may be required. Several browsers to view your web pages such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer. guestbook. Additional programming capabilities may be required to create server side script programs for dynamic interfacing to the user. Under the "Technical Information" header. Does the service allow FTP access and do you require FTP access? How well does the FTP service work? Some FTP servers are inconsistent or unreliable. but validation of your code early can save trouble and much rework in the future. you should first evaluate them by reading reviews about them and ask other people who have used them such as can be done on forum and discussion websites. There are links to these types of websites in the main weblinks category at the Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages. Website Creation Tools There are several types of tools that may be used when creating a website. Many of these tools include spell checkers. What kinds of tools does the web hosting service provided for site building? What add on features are available from the web hosting service such as bulletin boards. The second half of the page has "Forum Sites for Website Owners" Web Hosting Provider It is just as important to pick the correct web hosting service as it is to pick the correct tools.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I code yourself. you should use the XHTML standard. it may be preferable to hand enter HTML. and mail features or services? How fast and reliable are the web hosting service servers? Is there enough storage space for the website and any data services? ~ 19 ~ . Will you require an FTP client program to allow the transfer of files between your website and working computer or will you use tools provided by your web host provider? The person who is doing the work to create the site will determine the tools to use. These tools allow you to edit the page as it is seen and takes care of the technical details of creating the page. it should either output pages in XHTML or expect to be upgraded in the future for XHTML. Validation means your code is written properly in HTML. Therefore it is fine to use tools such as Microsoft Front Page or the Netscape Communicator tool set. Graphic drawing programs that may be used to create still or dynamic graphic images. Whatever tools you use. If the person has good HTML knowledge. hit counters.

At this point the effort is mainly dependant on your originality talent and artistic skills. offline or online. with computers using resolutions from 640 by 480 at 256 colors to 1600 by 1200 with true color. Check Viewing of Main Page Viewers will look at your web page with several browsers and on computer screens with various resolutions. The Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages has a list of some providers under the header "Internet Services" in the link called "Web Page Hosting".Computer Application-II • • • • • Notes Unit-I Are database services required? Is there a limitation on the number of files that may be stored or how many layers deep the web pages may be embedded into subdirectories? Does the service support server side includes (SSI)? Are all SSI functions supported? Some may limit SSI functions for security reasons. Read reviews about the specific services and ask people at web hosting forum and other forum websites. content. and having to go back and fix multiple pages. Website Design Once you have determined the purpose and functionality of your website it is time to perform the actual website design starting with some web page layouts. Does the service support server side script programs? Is security on your website important? Will purchases or other confidential information be transmitted between your site and clients? As was done with the tools. You should view the site at a few intermediate resolutions. and layout of your website it is time to create your main page. After you have viewed your main page with different screens and browsers you may want to make some modifications to the page. These initial page layouts should establish the general look and feel of the website and are an important step in the website design process. then determining you need to make a change. You may want to create several experimental (prototype) website designs and get opinions of family or friends to see which are the best website designs. you may want to use a free web hosting service temporarily until you have firmed up the website design and are getting ready to go operational. ~ 20 ~ . Other web browsers that you may want to vies your pages with include Opera. Once you have settled on the major portion of your main page layout and created the main page. the web hosting service should be evaluated before making a final selection. Use websites listed at the Computer Documentation Document Project or others that you may find using search engines or other methods. Create Main Page Once you have determined the desired functionality. The reason to go to all this trouble is to prevent creating all your site pages. You should view your site at least with Mozilla and Internet Explorer at different resolutions. If creating prototype website designs. upload it to the web serving host you have chosen. You should view your website.

Website Construction The website construction phase is the phase during which the bulk of your work is done assuming your website is fairly large. Do not add all features unless they are required for a prototype or they should be reviewed by others before going final. As of this writing.For use in ~ 21 ~ . For example. if your website posts tutorials. Doing this can prevent validation and web crawlers from searching your site. but you can get opinions on how pleasing your main page is and whether it conveys the massage you intend. Hopefully the steps you have taken earlier in the process will keep you from needing to make any major changes to your web site from this point on. If you are using what you see is what you get tools. Most of the people are going to concentrate on telling you what they think you need to improve rather than what you have already done right. add one or two tutorials so viewers will get the idea how the website will work. They are doing this for your good. it should be one of the following: o o o <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4. you must still set proper META tags. it should be: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1. if using HTML 4. but do not create all pages unless it is necessary. If you are using FrontPage. if using XHTML (recommended). <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4. Any unique features should be added at this time. Don't be dissappointed if you get negative input. Make Modifications Getting opinions and making modifications may take about one week.01 Frameset//EN"> For use in documents that have frames defined in them. If you are writing your own HTML pages.01 Transitional//EN"> . you will want to be sure and do the following correctly the first time: • Use the correct DTD declaration for your documents. It is worth your while to go out to web hosting forums sites and ask others to view and critique your site. Complete Prototype To start this website construction phase you will want to build a minimum working prototype. like Microsoft FrontPage you may not have much technical control at this point.1//EN"> As of this writing.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I Get Opinions At this point your website has a main page with links that may not work.01.For use in normal documents.01//EN"> . <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4. I usually use more than one web hosting forums site at different phases of the website design and refinement in order to get more variety of opinions as I optimize the site.

web site construction"> o The title should be appropriate for your content. o ~ 22 ~ . and much more on all your pages or on all or several pages in one directory. Attributes may not be minimized. A DTD Declaration with head and body elements must be present in the document.All elements must be ended and nested properly including the HR tag which should appear as: <hr /> o o o o Tags must be in lower case letters. I believe the "DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC" may be in upper or lower case but be sure it validates early during the construction process if you change case. Normally I make the description and title the same. If someone wants to search on "web site construction" this page is likely to show up (except it is in a frame). Keywords seperated by commas are separate keywords. Values of attributes must be in quotes.Construction</title> • Use XHTML Standards to save upgrading later. and I use the same title and description as follows: <title>The CTDP Web Site Creation Guide . . Be sure to use the proper case as shown above in the declaration. I normally make the description the name of the document followed by a dash and the title of the current page as follows: <meta name="description" content="The CTDP Web Site Creation Guide . An example for this page is: <meta name="keywords" content="web site creation. One style sheet can control things like header colors and fonts. Keywords separated by spaces show up as one word. Set your meta descriptors and title properly when you create the page as follows: o Description . various special text classes.These words are used to help crawlers match your content to the subject. These key words should show up in your page content. This will enable you to make changes more easily in the future. and other colors on your pages. • • Use Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to control your text colors. fonts. The DTD can be Strict. Most of the time you should use the transitional DTD declaration for HTML. The following rules apply: o The XHTML document must be well formed.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I documents that adhere strictly to the standard. Transitional.Construction"> o Keywords .This discription is normally used by search engines to help categorize your content and may be used to describe your page to users so it is very important. This will also have the advantage of keeping your website with a more uniform look and feel. or Frameset (for Frames). The name attribute is replaced by the id attribute.

then integrate those phrases into appropriate documentation or site section pages. It may be necessary to pay a subscription to some sites that sell key word search information. XHTML. only the skeletal prototype will be reworked. Use the phrase on the page two to about thirteen times depending on the content and size of the page. Remember to not exceed too high of a percentage of the overall words on the page so your site is not penalized. Determine how many times to user the phrase on your page. Get More Opinions With the basic working prototype completed. Make Adjustments and Complete Site Functionality Make any required adjustments to make the site pleasing to users. If you make the keyword or phrase appear too many times. check every page to be sure it works properly. The search information may not only include single words. You should try to do some research on the internet to determine the popularity of the search phrase or search word. This should be done with more than one web browser. it is best to get more opinions about the site functionality. Construction steps: 1. The phrase or keyword should be up to about 2% of the words on your page. This page would be a descriptive page about your site or a site section. This is the last time external opinions about the websight are sought prior to submitting applications for web site awards. These types of pages should be well integrated into your site and if not done correctly may cause your site to be penalized by search engines. 2. 2. I recommend your page title and a header contains the key phrase. The key phrase should also be included in your keywords meta tag. the page should contain the favorite search phrases several times on your page. One way to get good example pages for the type of page you should build is to search the internet using your key phrase or word and look at the pages that are ranked the highest. Additional Construction to Aid Promotion 1. you may get penalized by search engines. but include word combinations such as "networking documentation" or "how to build a web site". Create a map file for your site that has links to every important page that you may want search engines to search. This way.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I See the CTDP HTML Guide for more information about CSS. if more changes are required. Whether you use a gateway page or integrate key phrases into pages on your site. look. Some people call these pages a "doors" page or "gateway" page to your site. and document type definitions. Select search phrases that are appropriate to the site or section you are going to create a doors page for. I have abandoned the idea of a specific gateway page on my site but choose to determine key phrases that relate to the site. The purpose of this page is to allow search engines to crawl all important pages on your site since many only crawl one layer deep. Determine ~ 23 ~ . then add all material and functionality to the site. Possibly create pages that contain search phrases to help people find your site. and feel. Once done.

Place the keyword combination in your meta tag such as: <meta name="keywords" content="web site creation. Search Engine and Web Directories There are two types of sites you should submit your site to: • Web directories catalog listings with weblinks to sites based on functional categories and subject. Many search engines have various packages for submissions. and a header near the top of the page. Submit to Internet Directories or Search Engines The most important part of website promotion is to submit your site to web directories. Obviously. to around two hundred dollars. Both the search engines and sites that submit to multiple search engines may allow anywhere from free submissions. Getting traffic to your site can be hard work. you have created a world class website. search engines and other websites. Make your main header contain that phrase.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I how many times the phrase or word appeared. it will count more to the search engine. It is time to get traffic to your site. As you are describing what will be in your tutorial. how to build a web site. For example if you are writing a tutorial about widgets and you know "widget tutorial" is a popular search phrase. paying is more likely to get your submission considered sooner. There are hundreds of search engines and internet directories on the web. You can submit to them individually or go to sites that allow submissions to multiple search engines or directories. Usually these sites such as Yahoo and Dmoz are entered by hand and may take a long time to list sites or make changes. Many search engines crawl Dmoz listed sites and use Dmoz for their indexed catalog list. 3. it may take six ~ 24 ~ . See the Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages and click on the link that says "Promote Your Web Site" for promotional sites or click on the "Search Engines" link to find search engines to submit to. Determine content of the page that will get as many keywords used as possible and create it. If the phrase is used in the page HTML META title or main header or near the top of the page. However. Use somewhat repetitious language but don't overdue it enough to make it annoying. promtion. and you should be proud. Some allow free submissions for official non profit sites. Use your keyword or phrase in the page title. say things like "this widget tutorial will describe" rather than saying "this document will describe". Remember however that some search engines may penalize your site if your keyword density is too high. Website Promotion At this point. One of the first steps is to get awards to impress others. web promotion"> Keep characters in lower case. to five dollars. web site construction. whether the phrase is in the page title and how many headers contain the phrase. 4. name your introduction page "Widget Tutorial".

It is important to get listed on Yahoo. These sites may also include a human entered catalog. Submit the URL of your map file to be crawled. in general your page ranking will go up.com. I have found that this is no longer the case. otherwise submit your main page. The index results are placed in a database catalog and used to provide search results for users. Many people love to review websites. either by using an email or filling out an on site form. Many experts say it is an essential part of website promotion. I believe this is partly due to the fact that they have cut their staffing to the bone. but you may never get listed this way. It is wise not to submit your site to search engines too often since this could be considered to be spamming and can cause your site to be banned. but many allow free submission of URLs (Universal Resource Locators which indicate the human readable name and location of a website page) for the webcrawler programs to index. If your site content can complement or add to other sites. You may want to keep a record of when you submit your site. they currently have many broken links due to the recent dot com business financial shakeups. Submit your site once to appropriate categories on web directories and do not submit too often or your site may be banned. and may not be able to crawl web pages that use frames. The more links you get. You can submit for free. Yahoo brags that they list the best sites on the web. Action Submit your site to Dmoz for free. Get Links to Your Site An important part of website promotion includes getting various sites that have a high profile or high amount of traffic to link to your site. These sites use webcrawlers which are programs that automatically go out to web pages and index the site and connecting links. It may take three weeks or more for results to show up. Some of these sites are search engines and also post a ~ 25 ~ . although I'm still trying. Go to sites like Exalead and Lycos and any others that allow free submissions to web crawlers. This is because yahoo has the most traffic of any other search engine. Getting links from any other sites may also help your website promotion because some search engines rank pages. but I'm not convinced that it is possible. it is worthwhile to ask them to link to your site. to get listed on Yahoo. if you created one during the construction phase. and the name of the site you submitted to. Not only are many sites they list not very informational. and cannot keep the site current. Also submit to other web site catalogs like Yahoo and pay a fee if it is within your budget and practical. Some sites that are listed on Yahoo may link to your site. Apply for Awards There are many websites that provide various awards in many categories for good websites. and some sections on Dmoz may lack an editor which can cause indefinate delay for websites in some categories. Web crawler based search engines such as Lycos and Exalead. the category it was submitted in. Some web crawler programs only go one link deep.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I • months or more to get on Yahoo unless a fee is paid.

Post Awards on Your Site You should brag about any awards you receive. the award is based on the opinion of the agency or person giving the award. See the Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages and click on the link that says "News Sources" under the "Information" header. Must be original. but usually criteria includes: • • • • Must be easy to navigate. Once you have some awards. Other Promotion If your site has useful information. Get in Webrings There are several webrings on the web. but not as helpful as getting links from multiple sites. Sometimes. other organizations will consider your site more credible and worthwhile and you should get better responses to site submissions. To find sites that give awards find the Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages and click on the link that says "Sites that Give Awards". Be careful to choose sites to advertise on that have high traffic and draw people who would have an interest in your products. Webrings are groups of sites that have a theme in common. Must have useful content. Additional Idea Create a offshoot of your site to give awards to other people's websites. Use News There are several sites that post news. Simply write your own news bulletin about your web site significant events such as the startup of your group. One condition of getting the award is that those who receive your award must link back to your site. Must have graphics or in some way be pleasing to the eye. In some ~ 26 ~ . Do not apply multiple times for the same awards. it is worthwhile and required to pay for advertising.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I link to your website. you can post it on various forum websites when the subject matter is appropriate. Awards should be placed on the main page or on another page with a link from the main page. See the Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages and click on the link that says "Forum Web Sites" Advertising If your organization requires traffic quickly and you have an advertising budget. These are helpful. You should apply for as many awards that are appropriate to your site. It is helpful to submit articles to these sites to get the word out about your site. The award should be a link back to the site that gave the award. See the Computer Technology Documentation Project Websites pages and click on the link that says "Web Ring Sites".

All you need to do is get some tools. 12. To make money. then start working. 10. more available storage. only to excellent sites. Started creating the site offline and got a basic working site. but is much more ethical and elegant. Continued expanding and updating the site. submit it to search engines. ~ 27 ~ . After all. It may be fun. Updated all my web pages and had to re-upload them to the web service provider. Found out that my web host provider did not allow enough files to be on their site to contain my entire web page although. graphics. they will come. or learn HTML. Figured out that the HTML document type letter case was incorrect in all my pages and I had not applied the three types of document types properly for framed documents or those that were not framed 8. Learned more about HTML and style sheets. Re-uploaded new pages that didn't use frames. 4. Found out it was easier to update and add style to pages using style sheets. Better still. If you are building a web site for your hobby or family and don't care who reads it. To increase links to the site to get better search engine listings. To actually give awards. My Experiences and Pitfalls I created my website manually. If you build it.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I ways an award site is like a link trading scheme. I chose to use providers that provided free webhosting with advertising on the site. 7. 3. Right? Wrong! If you want a world class web site. you built it. Since I had no budget. Website Creation Pitfalls Designing and building a great website is fun and easy. 15. and people will come to your site. it takes planning and work. it is a great site. So I did the following: 1. if it is not well planned and executed properly. Then the content was uploaded to a webhost provider. You just make the website. very useful. and you have great products. and allowed more files on the site. I changed web host providers to one that had better FTP access. 3. I had more file space available. Updated all pages to use style sheets and uploaded them again to the new web provider. 11. 14. 5. 16. you don't need to plan ahead. 2. 6. then fine. Asked opinions from outsiders about the web site and found out the layout. but didn't know why. Note: Award sites purposes are usually one or more of: 1. 2. Decided to move the main pages away from frames and modified the main pages to not use frames and left tutorials to use frames. It was created offline. Realized that web crawlers could not crawl past the first page. Chose the first convenient web service provider and uploaded the offline content. using a free HTML editor called Arachnophilia. It does not need to be a world class web site. 13. it is likely to fail. but like any other endeavor. Became unhappy with the first provider and moved to a provider with better tools and more storage. Continued expanding and updating the site. 9.

It uses elements consisting of sets of tags (beginning and end tag) to mark the type of elements such as paragraphs.org or they may be created by web crawlers. Many webcrawlers do not search to web pages that are linked from a frameset page. and color scheme needed improvement. HTML is simply used to indicate to the web browser. and updated more pages. Website Creation Tutorial Terms • • • • • Frames . 17. Made a few adjustments. and tables. 18. Some search engines are edited by humans and some are done with automatic programs such as webcrawlers. SSI . Search engines allow web surfers to find websites that have information based on keyword search criteria. how to display the content. and keywords found in the web page header and in the content. if the notice is changed. Ste the CTDP SSI manual for technical information about SSI.HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language and is the format most web documents are placed in to be made available for viewing. Web crawler . title. multiple pages do not need to be edited. headers. ~ 28 ~ .A search engine is a web site that searches web listings. The web listings may be provide by categorized sites such as dmoz.Server Side Includes are normally used to place the same notices on many pages.Computer Application-II Notes Unit-I navigation. lists. HTML . Updated the main pages and asked for opinions again. Search engine .Frames are a method of allowing more than one HTML file page to be loaded in a web browser window. It is obvious that a little foresight would have saved quite a bit of work and time. Only the notice page is changed. This way.A web crawler is a program that goes to web sites and creates an index of pages based on a description.