WET AND DRY DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AROUND COAL MINING…

Proceedings of the XI International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology (MPT-2010) Editors: R. Singh, A. Das, P.K. Banerjee, K.K. Bhattacharyya and N.G. Goswami © NML Jamshedpur, pp. 1137–1146

WET AND DRY DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AROUND COAL MINING AREA OF DHANBAD AND BOKARO DISTRICTS
G.C. Mondal, Abhay Kumar Singh, T.B. Singh, B.K. Tewary and A. Sinha
Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, CSIR, Barwa Road, Dhanbad - 826015

ABSTRACT This paper provides baseline information about the wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants in and around Dhanbad and Bokaro region. Rain water and free dust fall samples were collected on seasonal basis at six sites and analyzed for major ions and elemental composition to assess the wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants. The analytical results show seasonal and spatial variation in elemental chemistry and rate of deposition of pollutants during monitoring months. On average, the ion composition of the rainwater follows the concentration sequence as: Ca2+>SO42–>Cl–>NH4+>Mg2+>Na+>F–>K+>NO3–. The calculated wet deposition fluxes were dominated by Ca2+, SO42– and NH4+; together contributing 60–65% of the total annual wet deposition flux. The dust fall rate was comparatively high in the summer months and highest dust deposition rate was observed at Jharia and lowest at the CMRI site. The concentration of measured elements in the free dust fall of the area shows the general abundance order as: Ba>Mn>Sr>Zn>Cr>V>Cu>Ni>Pb>Co. The average dry elemental depositional fluxes were dominated by Ba (2.75–10.0 kg/km2/month), Mn (3.19–11.68 kg/km2/month), Zn (0.45–8.54 kg/km2/ month) and Cr (0.34–1.72 kg/km2/ month) along with minor contribution from Cu (0.72 kg/km2/month), Ni (0.61 kg/km2/month), Pb (0.45 kg/km2/month) and Co (0.23 kg/km2/month). Keywords: Atmospheric pollutants, Free dust fall, Deposition fluxes, Elemental composition, Dhanbad, Bokaro.

INTRODUCTION Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is a serious threat to human environment, such as vegetation, soil, water, forestry etc. and therefore, the research on deposition monitoring and its effects on human environment are going on extensively in many countries of the world. Emission of sulphur and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere in Asia, Europe and North America has resulted in wide spread environmental effects including acidification of soils, surface waters, ground waters, injury to vegetation, corrosion of building materials and decreased in visibility (Fujita et al., 2000; Tsuruta, 1989; Weng, 1993; Ayers et al., 2002; Hooper and Peters, 1989). Atmospheric deposition is not just a domestic concern; it is also a regional environmental problem that transcends national boundaries. As emphasized in Chapter 9 on Agenda- 21 (on transboundary atmospheric pollution) adopted at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, acid deposition is a problem that requires international cooperative efforts for its solution. Dhanbad and Bokaro, known as coal cities of India, lies in the eastern part of the 1137

a study was undertaken to carry out an elemental chemistry of atmospheric dust and rain water and estimation of the dry and wet deposition of atmospheric pollutants in the Dhanbad-Bokaro region.75. refractory and miscellaneous other industries. August and September with smaller amounts in winter. sometimes laden with dust (the dust storm) in the region. There are many working and abandoned coal mines in and around Dhanbad and Bokaro cities. the largest coalfield in India comprising more than 200 opencast and underground coal mines.861 km2.961. ABHAY KUMAR SINGH. industrial and mining operations. The Archean metasedimentaries consisting of schists. 1). known as coal capital of India. The Dhanbad district covers an area of 2509. December and January are very cold. A regular pre-monsoon feature is hot weather winds locally called ‘andhi’. lies in the west of Dhanbad and bounded by 23°04’ to 23°09’ N latitude and longitude of 85°06’ to 86°04’ E. steel plants. The air pollutants encountered in these coal mines are both particulate and gaseous in nature and the principal causes of high SPM are vehicular emission. hard coke oven plants. The Jharia coalfield (JCF). These consolidated groups of rocks occupy greater part of the Tundi.5 km2 and having a total population of 23. causing the deterioration of air quality. The Archeans and Gondwanas rocks constitute the major parts of the area. Konar and Bokaro Rivers. the important industrial district of Jharkahnd and known as steel city. Considering the importance of acid rain and greater concern over the particulate and gaseous emission of pollutants in this region. The region experiences tropical climate and is characterized by very hot summer and cold winters. Topchanchi blocks. mine fire are the other major source of emission of gaseous pollutants in the region. 1138 . Jamunia. The younger geological formations of the area belong to the Gondwana System known for his coal bearing formations. granites and gneisses with igneous intrusives and associated bands of quartzites and amphibolites occupy a lager part of the districts. 102 (Census 2001). Dhanbad. lies between 23°37’ and 24°04’ N latitude and 86°06’ and 86°50’ E longitude. bounded by latitude of 86°00’ – 87°00’ N and longitude of 23°30’ – 24°00’ E (Fig. SINHA Jharkhand state and are actively associated in mining activities for more than a century. is located 5 km south of the Dhanbad town. out of which 75–80% fall during the three months of July. The mean monthly temperature varies from 7°C in January to 36°C in May. northern parts of the Govindpur block as a continuous chain of low hills and small isolated hillocks. B. West Bokaro. The region is characterised by high value of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Jharia coalfield is the India’s major source of prime coking coal. while thin veneer of Quaternary alluvial deposits occurs in the topographic depressions along the Damodar. The months of May and June are very hot and dry. T.K. Jharia and Raniganj coalfields. coal washeries. TEWARY and A. The hill apart from those made up of quartzites consists of either of huge dome–shaped masses of granites-gneiss or of irregular masses of dark hornblend gneiss. Bokaro. Fog is not very common except in the industrial coal belts where heavy coal burning smokes hangs over the area.G. These industries emit particulate matters and various gaseous pollutants in to the atmosphere. 2007). Mondal et al.B. emission from different industrial and mining processes and loading and unloading of coal at various sites (Jain and Saxena 2002. Barakar. beehive coke ovens. MONDAL. SINGH. The total population of the Bokaro district is 17. Besides. The present study area covers a number of coal mines of the East Bokaro. The study area is underlain by a wide range of geological formations ranging in age from Archean to Recent. Major air polluting industries in the area include thermal power stations. It covers a geographical area of 2. high dust deposition and increase the potential for acid rains. The climate is pleasant climate from February to March and October to November. 97.C. The annual rainfall occurs about 1200–1400 mm. STUDY AREA The present study area lies in the coal mining dominated regions of Dhanbad and Bokaro districts in eastern part of the Jharkhand state.

the collector was opened only during the period of precipitation and it was washed by distilled water in every 24 hour interval. and were replaced by fresh collection jar after duration of thirty days. Major anions (F–. four separate samplers in different directions at a radial distance of 50m were placed for the sake of most precise sampling. SGR-1) and Canadian soil standards (SO-I and SO-II). In each sampling site.WET AND DRY DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AROUND COAL MINING… 24 00' 0 DUMRI 86 15 ' Rainwater Sampling Sites Dust Sampling Sites Thermal Power Coal Washery Cook Oven Plant Steel Plant 0 86 0 30' 86 45' 0 5 0 SCALE 5 KM S-6 DHORI 230 45' S-2 CMRI S-3 BANK MORE GOBINDPUR S-7 DHANBAD JHARIA S-8 S-4 CFRI S-1 Maithon Reservoir NIRSA CHANDRAPURA POOTKEE S-9 S-5 BALIAPUR DISHERGARH BOKARO CHAS S-10 INDIA STUDY AREA Panchet Reservoir SANTHALDIH J H A R K H A N D WEST BENGAL 23 0 30' Fig. Free dust fall samples were collected in a cylindrical shape glass jar having 15 cm diameter and 45 cm height at six sites. thus. The collectors were then placed in position in guard frame at an elevation of 5–15m above the ground level. nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid on a hot plate at 130–150°C. the average of four sampling. 1). Major cations (Ca2+. All values obtained at a particular sampling site were. Analytical precision for cations and anions were within 10%. K+) were also measured by ion chromatograph by using cation column (CS12A/CS12G) and cation self-regenerating suppressor in recycle mode. The duration of each sampling was 24 hours on each site. METHODOLOGY Wet deposition (rainwater) were collected by using a high density polypropylene funnel of 30 cm diameter fitted on a 5-liter polyethylene bottle mounted on iron stands (1-m high) on the roof of buildings at six sampling sites (Fig. Distilled water was placed in each of the collector to prevent sample loss by blowing air. A reasonable precision of the dust and particulate matter was maintained by simultaneously analyzing the USGS rock standards (MAG-I. NO3–. The jars were inspected every week. For elemental analysis. Cl–. 1: Location of sampling sites. Na+. To avoid the dry deposition. The month wise measurements of dust fall rate were calculated on each site. the dried free dust fall samples were digested in a Teflon beaker by adding hydrochloric acid. The digested solutions were analysed for selected heavy metals with the help of ICP-AES. SO42–) were analysed on ion chromatograph (Dionex Dx-120) using anions columns (AS12A/AG12) coupled to an anion self-regenerating suppressor in recycle mode. 1139 . Mg2+. SCO-I.

ABHAY KUMAR SINGH. Monthly and total wet deposition fluxes of individuals ions at six monitoring sites have been calculated by considering average volume weighted concentration and average monthly rainfall data (Table 1). T. Na+. SO42– is the predominant contributing 55% to the total anionic mass balance followed by Cl– (23%). after that it follows the decreasing trends with increasing rainfall depth. in general.C.4–107. so it can be presumed that the monitoring months (six months) represents the major share (90–95%) of the annual bulk wet deposition of major ions. 1140 . Table 1 shows that the wet deposition fluxes were clearly dominated by Ca2+ (71. This may be due to rapid below cloud scavenging of components of local origin and the low precipitation in the initial phase of rain.9 meq m–2) and these two ions together with NH4+ (21. contributing 47% and 21% of the total cations and 26% and 11% of the total ionic mass respectively. On average. three months i. suggesting that below cloud scavenging of NH4+ is not the only process that is contributing to the rain. The study area receives 90–95% of the total annual rainfall during June-October. Cl–. Seasonal concentrations of major anions (SO42–. The removal of particulates in late monsoon phase cause the decrease in concentration of dissolved ions and increase the acidity of rainwater.B. MONDAL. Mg2+. Ionic concentrations of the rainwater are relatively higher at the early phase of rain (May and June). K+ and NH4+) towards the total ion mass balance is 54% and acidifying components (SO42–. No specific trend in the ionic deposition rate has been observed. the deposition rate of the most of the ions is lower during the early and late phase of the monsoon and higher during the peak monsoon months (June–September). Mg2+. July and August accounts 69% of the total rainfall and about 66% of the wet deposition fluxes. June. Such seasonal pattern might be caused by the least mean precipitation and enhanced suspended particulates in the lower atmosphere during the dry periods. F– and NO3–) accounts 46% of total ionic mass. Na+ and K+ during early phase of rain events. The higher ionic concentration in the early phase of monsoon (June) may cause the higher deposition rate for dissolved ions.. however.G. The other processes such as diffusion of gaseous NH3 or rainout may also contribute to build up the NH4+ concentration (Naik et al. Among anions. concentration of the ions decreases while the amount of precipitation increases which control the ionic deposition rate. the ion composition of the rainwater of studied region follows the sequence Ca2+>SO42–>Cl–>NH4+>Mg2+>Na+>F–>K+>NO3–. Mg2+.7–234 meq m–2) and SO42– (64. Na+ (13%) and K+ is the least dominating cation (6%). The higher residence period of particulates in the atmosphere favor the reactions with the acids in rainwater and causing the increase of concentration of ionic species especially the dust derived components like Ca2+. The study shows a sharp increase in concentration of Ca2+. However. The percentage contribution of cationic components (Ca2+. The slight cationic excess is probably due to some unaccountable anions (HCO3–). F– and NO3–) are also characterized by monsoon minima and non-monsoon maxima. It follows by Mg2+ (13%). SINGH. B. TEWARY and A. Cl–.e. F– (18%) and NO3– (4%).7–63.5 meq m–2) contributed 60–65% of the total wet deposition flux. Na+ and K+ during the dry months of pre-monsoon (March-June) and post-monsoon (December-February) and low concentration in wet months (July-October).K. while in the later phase. 2002). The monthly variation in ionic deposition rate is influenced by rainfall intensity and concentration of ions. the concentration of NH4+ did not follow the decreasing trend with increasing rain depth. On an average. SINHA RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The analytical results show that Ca2+ and NH4+ are the dominant cations.

2 7.4 3. +Rain fall (in mm).9 Cl– 6.7 4.5 6.6 2.9 0.3 5.2 7.5 0.4 6.4 6.2 5.8 6.4 4.1 1.6 33.6 2.9 1.1 6.6 1.5 1.1 2.1 0.1 7.6 6.9 15.2 1.7 41.9 111.0 234.2 1.4 15.7 22.1 0.3 4.0 7.5 6.4 5.6 4.9 19.7 10.3 7.5 7.1 1.4 46.7 20.1 5.0 6.8 1.9 4.3 21.3 1.3 20.8 29.6 0.1 1.8 6.4 1.3 3.3 6.1 23.0 6.6 4. Total May June July Aug Sept Oct.5 10.4 14.5 4.5 0.6 1.9 28.4 0.2 2.4 10.6 0.8 3.8 6.8 0.4 3.0 5.6 32.7 2.2 12.7 38.6 2.1 1.3 1.6 5.8 5.2 1.0 4.2 115.6 6.9 5.3 4.0 20.4 30.5 4.7 0.3 4.0 NO3– 1.5 10.WET AND DRY DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AROUND COAL MINING… Table 1: Variation in rainfall* and deposition of major ions at different sampling sites Sites Nirsa Months May June July Aug Sept Oct.2 3.8 8.5 7.1 7.0 2.9 8.8 2.9 5.8 12.1 0.2 0.1 18.1 4.1 4.5 – 34.7 2.9 26.4 6.8 1.8 0.1 1.7 6.0 3.9 1.3 0.1 0.6 4.8 95.3 1.5 9.2 12.1 2.3 1.2 1.4 29.7 4.4 29.1 20.4 17.7 4.2 5.0 5.2 5.7 3. Total May June July Aug Sept Oct.0 2.2 3.6 0.6 2.8 3.9 8.3 0.4 20.6 21.6 16.9 13.5 – 4.8 4.5 2.7 24.2 25.2 27.8 63.5 95.8 19.2 21.0 0.7 SO42– 9.9 3.5 1.4 – 4. Total May June July Aug Sept Oct.4 14.7 74.6 22.0 4.9 1.4 8.2 1.6 9.2 2.9 12.3 10.3 3.3 4.3 41.9 8.5 2.0 1.0 5.6 4.1 2.6 30.9 123.3 4.2 1.1 17.9 – 8.9 14.5 3.7 17.3 1.0 1.7 1.6 1.8 10.5 3.1 6.6 3.2 3.7 1.3 3.9 1.5 0.3 11.3 4.7 5.7 7.6 4.4 1.8 9.3 5.8 3.4 6.5 – 1.7 21.0 0.8 1.1 7.3 Mg2+ 4. Total Rainfall 48 215 320 285 242 88 1198 55 192 327 312 218 98 1200 46 168 354 335 229 87 1219 37 146 240 312 233 93 1060 47 178 339 360 250 109 1282 53 199 385 341 243 109 1330 F– 1.9 71.3 1.9 107.6 10.1 3.0 0.6 24.0 11.5 Na+ 4.0 46.5 17.7 0.3 4.3 2.7 0.2 66.2 18.8 5.4 0.5 4.0 21.3 3.9 2.4 25.1 10.4 11.1 4. *Deposition of major ions calculated from volume weighted ionic concentration.8 3.4 10.8 113.9 0.6 1.1 7.6 6.5 2.7 1.9 8.1 2.9 4.9 – 34.0 26.2 14.7 NH4+ 1.5 27.4 1.3 2.7 9.3 Ca2+ 21.8 4.8 2.3 6.7 9.1 27.0 40.9 – 5.0 2.7 15.6 1.9 21.7 2.9 10.7 15.4 5.7 4.9 6.9 5.2 36.2 8.4 14.7 2.9 20.5 7.3 4.5 12.7 K+ 5. Total May June July Aug Sept Oct.9 13.5 5. 1141 .3 0.1 51.1 1.7 3.3 0.9 4.0 1.6 5.4 29.9 5.4 80.4 9.6 – 2.8 4.7 10.5 20.5 50.7 0.6 1.9 22.7 9.9 6.7 28.4 4.6 20.6 5.3 11.7 1.4 17.4 3.9 9.8 2.8 12.2 13.7 0.2 3.6 6.5 2.1 20.9 2.3 1.0 CMRI Bank More CFRI Bokaro Dhori Units: meq m–2.4 0.4 7.6 – 0. Total May June July Aug Sept Oct.3 3.4 3.6 2.4 2.2 3.7 23.3 2.5 49.0 26.2 27.3 30.9 64.1 5.5 8.5 0.3 22.7 11.2 2.

Annually 237. 1. The elemental deposition rate of measured metals at different monitoring sites is presented in Figs. High dust fall rate in the summer months is due to high wind velocity (6–15 km/hour) and atmospheric turbulence.G. Mn. 5. km/month with a maximum values at Jharia site (12. 6. km/month). No.K. 2.7 Tons/Year).C.9 tons of Mn and 112 Tones of Zn were deposited over Dhanbad district followed by Cr (41. T. ABHAY KUMAR SINGH. Ba.79 Tons/Year). The annual depositional flux of different elements at district level were also calculated on the basis of average elemental composition of dust fall and district area of Dhanbad (2509.4 Tons/Year). Ni and Co is usually low and found below 100 µg g–1. B.93 11.56 19. the average dust fall varies between 2.98–12. dry and humid weather and vehicular movements also enhance the dust fall rate during the summer months. It is high in the summer months (March–June) and low during post-monsoon season.76 16. TEWARY and A. MONDAL.25 26. km/months) was observed at Jharia site. 1142 . Table 2: Dust fall rate of different sites during summer and winter seasons S.85 20.8 Tons/Year). 2(a–j).5 Tons/year) and Co (6.18 The heavy metals concentration in the free dust fall in the study area is given in Table 3). The free dust fall of the region show the elemental concentrations in the order Ba>Mn>Sr>Zn>Cr >V>Cu>Ni>Pb>Co.5 km2) and given in Fig.B. Concentration of Zn and Cr ranges between 75 to 770 µg g–1 and 44 –156 µg g–1 with the annual average values of 255 µg g–1 and 106 µg g–1 respectively. SINHA The calculated dust fall rate at different sampling sites in the study area during summer and winter seasons are given in Table 2.68 9. Sr. The average dust fall rate varies between 5.23 7. Pb (13. It is observed that dust fall rate in the study area varies from place to place and also in season to season. During winter season. Ni (18.69 6. 8.58 Winter Season (Tons km–2 month–1) 8. Cu (21. Station Site Nirsa Govindpur CMRI Bankmore Jharia CFRI Pootkee Chas Summer Season (Tons km–2 month–1) 17. Pb. Zn Cr and V are the dominant heavy metals in the free dust fall of this region. The poor road condition.25 tons/sq. The dust fall rate is comparatively low at CMRI as compared to the other sites both in summer and winter seasons. SINGH.46 24.93 5. 3. 7.85–26. Concentration of Cu.7 Tons of Ba.38 2.68 tons/sq. 3.68 tons/sq.98 8.km/month and a maximum dust fall rate (26. 4. 222.74 14.25 tons/sq.79 12.

CFRI. Dust fall in the study area varies from place to place and also season to season. the deposition rate of the most of the ions is lower during the early and late phase of the monsoon and higher during the peak monsoon months (June–September). Ca2+ and SO42– dominate the bulk ionic deposition and these two ions together with NH4+ account for about 60–65% of the total ionic mass deposition for the study area. It is high in the summer months. The monthly variation in ionic deposition rate is influenced by variation in rainfall and concentration of ionic species. 1143 .WET AND DRY DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AROUND COAL MINING… Table 3: Heavy metal concentration and seasonal variation in free dust fall at different monitoring sites Site Nirsa Sample Code DS–5 DS-6 DS-7 Govindpur DS-1 DS-3 DS-4 Bank More DS-8 DS-9 DS-10 CMRI D-11 D-13 D-15 CFRI DS-16 DS-14 DS-15 Pootkee DS-11 DS-12 DS-13 Minimum Maximum Average Std. Units: µg g–1 Samp. Bankmore. The study has shown that Jharia was the most polluted site followed by Pootkee. in general. Dev. Nirsa. Period Monsoon Winter Summer Monsoon Winter Summer Monsoon Winter Summer Monsoon Winter Summer Monsoon Winter Summer Monsoon Winter Summer Cu 59 66 69 55 59 59 61 68 69 28 29 22 60 55 41 65 58 58 22 69 55 15 Zn 191 254 220 542 267 212 254 216 301 75 109 100 177 212 770 261 225 211 75 770 255 162 Cr 128 122 134 113 107 156 113 120 139 44 88 71 104 95 77 125 85 91 44 156 106 27 Ni 53 56 56 43 41 49 59 55 60 20 45 35 48 46 35 56 51 45 20 60 47 10 Co 19 19 21 17 17 18 20 22 23 10 14 12 18 17 13 21 16 17 10 23 17 4 Pb 52 55 49 34 28 35 77 43 43 39 58 43 23 28 25 40 26 25 23 77 40 14 Ba 879 897 689 583 723 736 505 549 552 888 516 677 585 655 579 619 568 544 505 897 652 128 Sr 203 165 167 164 193 194 115 103 119 136 172 190 131 141 131 193 195 179 103 203 161 32 V 97 109 111 96 108 96 111 181 252 57 84 70 209 90 82 127 80 78 57 252 113 51 Mn 697 587 774 697 619 464 789 464 387 619 619 776 546 697 542 697 703 625 387 789 628 114 CONCLUSION Wide seasonal and spatial variation in elemental chemistry and rate of deposition of pollutants has been observed during monitoring months. At the CMRI site dust fall is comparatively less during both the seasons. Chas. No specific trend in the ionic deposition rate has been observed. Govindpur and CMRI. however.

15 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.B.2 0 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More Winter 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Nirsa Summer Average 2 2 CMRI CFRI Pootkee Govindpur Bank More CM RI CFRI Pootkee Cr (c) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) 3 Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) 1.4 0.5 1 0.6 Winter 1.C.2 0 Nirsa Govindpur Bank M ore CM RI CFRI Pootkee Winter 2.7 0.5 0 Summer Average 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 2 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More CM RI CFRI Pootkee Nirsa Govindpur Bank M ore CM RI CFRI Pootkee V (i) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) 6 18 Mn (j) Winter Summer Average Winter 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Summer Average 5 2 4 3 2 1 0 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More CMRI CFRI Pootkee 2 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More CMRI CFRI Pootkee Monitoring Sites Monitoring Sites Fig.4 0.5 0. 2 (a–j): Elemental depositional fluxes at different monitoring sites.2 0.4 0.25 0. SINHA Cu (a) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) Zn (b) Summer Average Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) 16 1.35 0.6 0.8 0.G. T.3 0.6 0.4 1.4 0.1 0 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More CMRI CFRI Pootkee 0.5 2 1.2 1 0.05 0 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More CMRI CFRI Pootkee Winter Summer Average 2 Ba (g) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) 16 5 2 Sr (h) Winter Summer Average Winter 4.2 0.K. SINGH.5 0 Nirsa Govindpur Bank More CMRI Summer Average 2 CFRI Pootkee Co (e) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) Elemental Deposition Rate (Kg/Km /month) 2 Pb (f) Winter Summer Average 1 0. MONDAL.2 1 0.5 1 0.5 3 2. ABHAY KUMAR SINGH.9 0.5 4 3.8 0. TEWARY and A. 1144 .45 0. B.4 Ni (d) Summer Average Winter 1.5 2 1.

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