Human Rights' violations in Syria (figures and facts

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March 2011 to 21 of August 2013 Prepared by Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) Introduction: Based on the efforts of its investigation and documentation team, the Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) consistently documented human rights violations in Syria according to the international standards generally recognized in the description, verification and investigation of all human rights violations in Syria by a team of unique independent human rights activists with no political or ideological trend. Their main job is to document human rights violations in Syria based on the testimonies of victims of such violations or eyewitnesses; and relatives of the victims themselves or people existed at the time and place of the violation. In many cases, they depend on the testimonies of medical staff in various areas of Syria who are continuously witnessing the horrible and terrifying human rights violations in Syria. It should be mentioned that the work mechanism of Syrian Network for Human Rights' Group is based on a precise verification and documentation method, and on our members who are deployed on the Syrian territory to gather facts and record written testimonies, live images and videos, oral and registered interviews audio and video interviews so as to complement the efforts exerted to documenting human rights violations under the restrictions imposed by the Syrian government on the network members as well as the arrest and assassination of any of them if direct or indirect relation with the network is recognized. This reflected in serious and frequent losses of the network's activists while doing their duty in Syrian territory. SNHR’s documentation policy depends on documenting a name from at least two different sources unconnected with each other. SNHR does not issue any statistics without supported files containing very precise details of each death case fully identified by the name of the victim, as well as the date and location of death. By those standards SNHR was adopted as one of the most important resources in UN statistics for the victims of the Syrian conflicts, as well as adopted as the main source for many news agencies and television stations.

SNHR documented civilian casualties from both sides, in addition to free army victims as a result of the possibility to apply the network's criteria in documentation and verification, this criteria can't be applied to Syrian Government's Armed Forces members who were killed due to the prosecution, ban, and restrictions. Since the first moment of the Popular Syrian Revolution against the rule of Bashar AlAssad, Syrian Security Forces and Syrian Government's Armed Forces accompanied with Shabiha handled with excessive violence the civilian protestors, arrested hundreds, and killed dozens of them, not a day goes by without documentation the kill of civilian victims or arrest female or male activist, even killed large number of them. Since the early days of the revolution, Syrian government's Armed forces used different kinds of weapons against the Syrian people. They used live bullets, after a while the Syrian army came down to the cities and towns and started to shell it using tanks. Then they used air forces: helicopters then warplanes, scud missiles and unguided weapons such as mortars, TNT that was dropped by warplanes, in addition to the use of internationally prohibited poisonous gases in 14 cites . This was a deliberate gradual escalation by the Syrian government to monitor the reaction of the international community and Security Council, and led to increase the level of escalation the more international silence on the crimes committed by them. Contents: First: violations against children Second: violations against women Third: violations against medical staffs Fourth: violations against media activists Fifth: torture and torture to death victims Report's Details: Since the beginning of the Syrian uprising in March 2011 to 21 August 2013 , SNHR documented by name, place, cause of death, and photo or video, the killing of 101,513 people, 89,664 of them are civilians (88% civilian victims), which is a very high rate. In World War 2, the proportion of civilian victims was 4/57%. Among the 89,664 civilians' victims: 10,914 children, the proportion of child victims is 12%, which is a very high figure and indicate the deliberate targeting and systematic killing of the civilians, in addition, the number of child detainees is almost 9,000 children. Among the 89,664 civilian victims: 9,911 women, the proportion of women victims is 11%, which is a very high figure and indicate the deliberate targeting and systematic killing of the

civilians, the number of woman detainees are almost 6500 women , more than 5000 women have been raped by Syrian Government's Armed Forces 2964 victims have been tortured to death in prisons and detentions, where they subjected to very violent torture leading to loss of life. The following link contains all victims' details since the beginning of the revolution to 21/8/2013: http://www.syrianhr.org/reports/All_21_8_2013.pdf In Syria, each hours 6 citizen killed by Government's Troops, with a daily average of 135 citizen Every two hours a child killed Every three hours a woman killed As a reference this what we were able to document by name, location, photo, and video within the available possibilities under embargo and censorship imposed by the Syrian Government , although our estimation suggest that the real number of victims could reach fold of this number. (Chart #1: The following chart shows the distribution of the victims in the Syrian governorates)

During clashes and fighting between armed rebel and government forces 11,849 of armed rebel have been killed, the real numbers in this field maybe more than that and because the great difficulty in getting the names and photos of the victims during battles, and the difficult of presence of SNHR's member or associate with them in all fighting in various Syrian governorate. The proportion of armed rebels' victims is 12%

Civilians killed by Armed Rebels Syrian network for Human Rights documented the civilian victims who were killed by armed groups independently from the archive of the victims (civilians or armed rebels) killed by Government forces. SNHR documented the kill of 118 civilian citizens in all of the Syrian Governorate including 22 children and 9 women, the following link show all details: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B9Bj18tlYYKBV3FXU0RETVZHSzg/edit?usp=sharing We have document the killing of 3 arrested of Shabiha, where armed opposition arrest them and tortured them to death, to know these cases please view the following attach https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B9Bj18tlYYKBN0VQdW55TU85SGs/edit?usp=sharing Most prominent child victims' names during the revolution Child Hamza Al-Khatib 13 years old, who went out of his hometown Jiza'/ Daraa to join the protests launched to lift the siege imposed on the people of Daraa, was arrested at Syrian security forces' checkpoint near Sidon housing in Daraa 29/4/2011. After few days, his body was delivered to his family with signs of cruel torture and distortion (Chart #2: The following chart shows the distribution of the children victims on the Syrian governorates)

Infant: Afaf Mahmoud Alsrakbi Four month-old infant from Karm El-Zeitoun/Homs, was tortured in front of her parents in order to pressure them. She died after torture on 10/1/2012 and her body was handed over to her uncle, signs of torture were apparent. Her parents were detained until now.

Girl child Ryan Al-Ghamyan A sniper of the Syrian government army targeted a civilian car carrying Ryan and her mother during their displacement from the city of Daraa on 08/07/2012, killing her in her mother's lap.

(Chart #3: The following chart shows the distribution of the women victims on the Syrian governorates)

Syrian female victims killed by Syrian Government's Armed Forces Engineer Nada Al-Masry She appears in the following photo with her son Abdullah Tarsha, they were killed by Syrian government's Armed forces in 27/1/2012 when an armored of the military forces shot their car.

Ms. Fatima Khosrf She was killed with her infant Abdul Majid Khalid Al Kassim, when Syrian government forces shelled Al Eastern Boaida village in Homs, 04/09/2012

Sisters Alaa and Israa Tohma Eng. Isaraa Toham with her sister Alaa killed in Bosraa Alsham by a sniper bullet when they were crossing the street in 18/11/2012

Razan Al-Qasis She was killed during the random shelling by Syrian Government's Armed Forces on Bloudan/Damascus countryside. She is married and has two children that were wounded by shelling in 13/08/2012; a foot of one of them was amputated.

Female victims arrested by Syrian Government's Armed Forces Jumana Abdul Hakim Fist year of Civil Engineering, she was arrested in 15/5/2012 by air security forces who stormed the campus.

Rama Yasser Al-Asas Born in Damascus 1/4/1986 An arrest warrant was issued by the Palestine Branch against her that is why she was forced to escape until 27/08/2012, where she was ambushed by the security men who requested a ransom to release her. And even after paying two millions Syrian pounds, all contact channels with her were cut and nobody knows anything about her.

Third: violations against medical staffs: Syrian Network for Human Rights documented 312 medical staff victims including: 143 Physician of different specialization 54 pharmacists 87 paramedics, 23 of them were working for the Syrian Red Crescent 6 women worked in medical staff killed A clear sign of evidence for being systematically targeted by Syrian Government's Armed Forces is the execution of 7 medical staff in field hospitals. The forces stormed the field hospitals and killed wounded people and doctors treating them. We have 4 cases documented accurately in different regions. Most shockingly, Syrian Government's Armed Forces arrested at least 3,000 of medical staff, 18 of them have been tortured to death.

Most prominent physician victims Dr. Mohamed Nur Maktaby Air Force Intelligence in Aleppo arrested him for more than five months as he was helping the wounded and injured people in field hospitals, which the Syrian government considers as a serious charge. He was tortured violently and systematically led to kill him, his body was delivered to his family in 15/11 /2012 . Dr. Nur was married and has 5 children

Khaldoun Al-Sawah A field doctor from Khalidia, Homs, he provided medical services in the hardest conditions, he excelled in first aids and saving lives. He moved from Rastan, to Zafarana, to Karm Al Zeitoun to Deir Balaba and was killed by Syrian Government's Armed Forces in 05/04/2012; while he was examine a girl child shot by a bullet http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRUKSumwXEc

Dr. Ahmed Al-Fattih He is from Deir Elzzor, he effectively contributed in providing first aids for injured and wounded people. He also participated in the establishment of field hospitals in various districts of Damascus. He was moving to Mademya Asham and Darya to heal the wounded

people until his death on 28/11/2012 by Syrian Military Forces when they targeted his car in Mademya/Damascus

Dr. Isa Ajaj A political activist opposed the regime before the revolution; he was arrested several times on charges related to political views. He was fired from Daraa National Hospital upon a decision of the Intelligence. Following the outbreak of the revolution, he was arrested twice by the Air Force Intelligence for the treatment of wounded people in the demonstrations. He was severely tortured, threatened to be executed by Syrian Intelligence Forces if he continued to treat the wounded people. They assassinated him when he was leaving his house in Daraa on 1/9/2012.

Detained Doctors : Dr. Omar Mohamed Mamoun Arnous ( dentist ) , his wife Dr. Maria Jawkhaddar and his child (two years and half) were arrested without any charge in Sunday 7/10/2012. He is a relief activist , Master degree , teaching in a private university in Damascus , preparing for PhD Personal photo for Dr. Omar

Dr. Mohamed Bachir Arab A laboratory doctor born in 1980, sole son for his mother, former detained in 2004 for 11 months, where he was tried before the Supreme State Security Court because of his activities with the students at the University of Aleppo. Following the breakout of the Syrian

revolution, Mohammed Arab participated in field activities like peaceful demonstrations and others. He was chased for a long time and lived for six months using several nicknames. He was arrested on 01/11/2011 with his colleagues, and there were certain news that he was tortured systematically and severely led to make him entre Al-Mojtahid Hospital, Damascus on 12th of January where he died.

Most prominent victims of paramedics: Hakm Drak Al-Sibai Hakm Hatem Drak Al-Sibai, a young man of 27-year-old, a graduate of Business Administration, and a sole son for his parents. He volunteered at the Red Crescent and conducted courses on first aids and psychological rehabilitation. He was wounded on 9/7/2012 while providing the first aids to a wounded person in Bustan Al-Diwan / Homs, where Syrian Government's Armed Forces shot the ambulance ; he was injured by 9 bullets and died after one week.

Ziad Abu Salah Ziad Abdel Qader Abu Salah, a resident in Khaldiya, he is under 16 years, one of the youngest Red Crescent volunteers. He killed as a result of random shelling of Khalidiya neighborhood , he was providing first aids to the wounded people on 4th of February 2012.

The most prominent detainees of paramedics: Sultan Jamal Sultan

A young man born in 1989, from Al-Qariatin in Homs, a graduate of Dentistry Faculty with a very good grade, a Red Crescent medic and trainer, he was arrested in 23/9/2011 while he was going to perform his duty in the Red Crescent in Al-Fakhoura where he lives, taking into account that he suffers from respiratory problems (asthma attacks).

Jihad Hakmi Jihad was arrested at a checkpoint near to the Cultural Center in Homs , in 11/5/2012 while he was on his way to rescue injured people, and he is still detained so far

Osama Almudbak Paramedic Osama Almudbak was arrested in the city of Damascus in 29/7/2012, the network confirmed that he was arrested for being a member of the Syrian Red Crescent, and is providing medical care for wounded people.

Mahmoud Khabiah and Imad Al-Haja The two paramedics Mahmoud Khbaih and Imad Al-Haja, from the of city Doma, were arrested on 2/12/2012 during an official mission for the Syrian Red Crescent, and are still being held so far.

Fourth: violations against media activists Syrian Network for Human Rights and through our monitoring noted that Syrian Government consider media activist and medical staffs as the most dangerous on it , so persecuted them vigorously and when they get arrested , exposed to very cruel way even more than other detainees The Syrian network documented, since the beginning of the Syrian revolution and to this date , the killing of 226 media professionals documented by name , photo , place and date and how they get killed , Including : 6 journalist have been arrested and tortured to death 3 women 12 foreign journalists Following link contains all the needed details https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B9Bj18tlYYKBS195cFlWUE4wVmM/edit (Chart #4: The following chart shows the distribution of the 226 media victims on the Syrian governorates)

Most Prominent media activist's victims Basil Shehadeh A well known movie director, he was studying at Syracuse University in the United States, he returned to Syria in order to participate in the peaceful movement against the government. He was arrested when he was in one of the demonstrations in Damascus by the Intelligence forces in Damascus, and then released. He used his camera to document the attacks of the Syrian army on city of Homs' neighborhoods. He was killed in 29/5/2012 in Safsafa neighborhood in Homs after it shelled by the Syrian Government's Armed Forces .

Rami Al-Saied A revolutionary prominent media activist in Homs, where he was filming the live broadcast of the demonstrations, he was documenting the victims of the Syrian Government's Armed Forces' shelling ; those killed and wounded along with abuses against civilians. He was killed near blockade Bab Amr neighborhood cause of heavy shelling by the Syrian government's Armed forces in 21/2/2012.

Tamer Al-Awaam A film director and a political activist from Al-Swidaa. He made many documentations about the Syrian Revolution activities, the most prominent was “Memories at the Checkpoint” . He died cause of shell's shrapnel cause of random shelling on Radio neighborhood in Aleppo by Syria Government's Armed Forces in 9/9/2012.

Mary Colvin An American journalist, works for the British Sunday Times Newspaper. She was killed in 22/02/2012 as a result of targeting the Media Center for Bab Amr neighborhood in Homs by Syrian Government's Armed Forces. Thus, Mary was killed with her French photographer colleague Remi Ochlik.

Remi Ochlik A French photographer. He worked in all the Arab Spring countries in 2011. He witnessed the Tunisian and the Egyptian Revolutions, then the war in Libya. His staling photos that are full of humanity were published in Paris Match and Time Magazines and in The Wall Street

Journal. He was awarded the first prize for the young photographers in the “Visa Pour L’Image” photojournalism festival. He was killed with his colleague the journalist Mary Colvin in Homs, Bab Amr neighborhood in 22/2/2012.

Mika Yamamoto A Japanese journalist. A pioneer in the field of video journalism , she was awarded many prizes , worked for the Independent Media Group (Japan Press).killed cause of shelling on by the Syrian Government's Armed Forces while fulfilling her media duty in covering the current events there in 21/08/2012.

Media Activist in Prisons Mazen Darwish A journalist, member in the International Federation of Journalists, founder and head of “The Syrian Center for Media and Freedom of Expression.” He was arrested in 16/2/2012 after breaking into the center by the Air Force Intelligence Forces. He still arrested and not accused of any crime, suffering from several health problems.

Activist, Ali Othman: One of the most famous media activists in Homs. He participated in documenting tens of crimes and violations against the Syrian citizens. One of his most famous and important works was the first video for shelling when he commented: “Baba Amr is being shelled, where are you Arabs?”

He was arrested in 28/3/2012 by military security branch in Al-Bab neighborhood / Aleppo. He was then sent to the military security branch to end in Palestine branch after only days from being arrested, and he is still so far.

Fifth: victims who were tortured to death Syrian Government's Armed Troops arrested at least 215,000 Syrian citizens, including almost 9,000 under the age of 18, 4,500 women (1200 of them are female colleague students) and 35,000 male colleague students, according to the last survey conducted by Syrian Network for Human Rights. 85,000 of the detainees are enforced disappearance Syrian Government's Armed Troops systematically and intentionally violated these laws and international conventions using violent torture methods against detainees, which led to the death of 2,963 Syrian citizens under torture, including 87 children, 27 women, 51 aged (more than 60 years old), and 128 armed rebels (less than 5% of the toll victims under torture) The following link shows all details: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B9Bj18tlYYKBNVZ4WWgyZlcyLVU/edit SNHR has noticed the rise of torture and tortured-to-death frequency in the last four months which led to the increase in the number of victims tortured to death since the Syrian upraise to unprecedented high levels. April 2013: the highest rate of torturing to death was in this month, 186 citizens killed under torture, an average of 5 citizens every day. There is a high number of cases for those who were tortured to death that we were not able to document because of restrictions and deprivation of work on Syrian territory, this means the real number could be far greater, especially since there are prisons who torture people to death and then throw the bodies into vacant land or in rivers, so it will decompose and disintegrate and blur the crime.

(Chart #5: The following chart shows the distribution of the 2963 tortured to death victims on the Syrian governorates)

Documented torturing methods which claimed the lives of 2963 citizens are 42 methods divided into three positions: First: torture methods: SNHR could document 9 positions Second: Various kinds of torturing (22 cases) Third: Psychological torture (12 cases) First: torture methods: SNHR could document 9 positions 1Ghost Technique (Shabeh position): hanging victims to the bathroom ceiling from the wrists while the victim stands on a chair, then removing the the chair so the victim will stand on the groung by his/her big toe. Another case of Shabeh, known as fly ghost, where they tightened one of his/her feet with the victims hand using the same rope for many hours and even day or two, causing hands to be inflamed or even cut. 2Tire position (Dulab) the victim is forced to bend at the waist and stick his head, neck, legs and sometimes arms into the inside of a car tire, then stat beating him on different parts of his body 3Flying Carpet position (Basat Al-reeh) involves tying the victim down to a two sections flat so that the detainee’s hands and feet get tied to the front and back of the plank, and his face on the ground of it. Then, the front side of the plank is lifted as to fold it so that the body of the detainee gets folded until his head touches his feet. This leads to a dangerous stretch in the ligaments and nerves of the spine, which results the most dreadful kind of pain a person can suffer from. Meanwhile, another person is beating the detainee. 4Crucifiction: the hands and legs of the detainee are tightened like a crucified person then they beat him/her specifically on genitals 5Hanging: the hands are tied behind the back, then the detainee is hanged up and beaten with sticks and wires. 6Smashing, where a detainee head is placed between the wall and the door of the prison, the door is closed on the head of the detainee.

7Electrocution: a metal chair, the detainee is seated on it, then they put on the electric current. 8Electric shocks to various parts of body 9The German chair (Al-kursi al-Almani): a metal chair with moving parts to which the victim is tied by hands and feet. The prackrest of the chair bebds backwords causing acute hyperextension of the spine and severe pressure on the vicitms neck and limbs Second: Various kinds of torturing (22 cases) 1Using all methods of beating on all body parts by different tools such as stake and electric cables, called colloquially (Robai), to beat on the soles and tread on the head. 2Completely uprooting fingernails. 3Removing hair from different parts of the body 4Cutting out flesh by forceps from sensitive organs 5Rapping male and femal detainees 6Forcing the detainee to rape his/her cell mate 7Cutting out some parts of the detainee body; such as finger, flesh, or stabbing in the back or stomach 8burning detinee`s skin using chemical acids or cigarettes. 9exposing the detainee after being enforced to take off all clothes and covers to extreme cold. 10- depriving the detainee from medical care totally as there is a lack of medical care in large number of prisons. 11- Prevnting the detainee to use the toilet but once or twice a day, forcing him/her sometimes to urinate on himself/herself. If the detainee is allowed to use toilet, the period may not exceed a minute. The detainee is also prevented from taking shower, going out and breathing fresh air. 12- Keeping a large number of detainees in a small cell (keeping 45 detainees in a 15 meter cell, Air Force Intelligence, Aleppo). 13- Pouring cold water over the body after being hit and wounded. 14- Cracking ribs. 15- insufficient amount of water and food which are not enough for a quarter of detainees. 16- Standing up on foot and hung up from hands for successive days. 17Using underground cells without ventilation. 18- Pouring boiling oil or water over legs 19- Cutting the ear using the clipper used to trim the trees. 20- Stressing ears and nose using mallet. 21- Hanging up and then tying something heavy to the penis. 22- Electric shocking, specialy in breasts, knees, and elbows. Third: Psychological torture (14 cases): SNHR documented the most systematic and practice 14 cases: 12Forcing the detainee to watch his/her mate being raped. Threatening the detainee that they will rape him/ her .

3Force the detainee to watch his/her mates tortured and tortured to death. 4Threatening the detainee with arresting his wife, mother or sister and rapping or torturing her in front of his eyes then make him see naked femal detainees in the prison. 5Threatening the detainee of torturing to death or slaughtering with knifes. 6Offensing and assaulting the detainee`s religious beleifs. 7Putting male and femal detainees in the same prison and in some cases strip them in front of the executioners 8Putting detainee with dying person in the same cell 9Putting detainee with dead person in the same cell 10Assaulting the detainee and his family by obscene insult 11- Forcing the detainee to admit crimes he did not commit or they will double the torture. 12- Commanding the detainee to prostrate for Assad`s portraite. 13- Deluding the detainee that he/she is going to be released and opening the cell's door, then bringing him/her back for torture. 14- Taking the detainee to the prison's doctor for treatment. The doctor hits him/her on the painful part, then the detainee is taken back to be re-tortured. So that none ask again for doctor. Finally, the Syrian Network for Human Rights wants to confirm its constant belief that the violations against human rights in Syria is to be classified as crimes against humanity, which necessitates the referral of all the responsible to The International Criminal Court without any delay cause of the political interests of the major countries in the Security Council. What have took place and is still taking place in Syria now are atrocities deserve to be referred to The International Criminal Court to be investigated in the same way that was during the Libyan Revolution during two weeks only. This hasn’t been yet done despite the expiration of twenty six months or more of the flagrant violations against human rights in Syria. The Syrian Network for Human Rights emphasizes its constant and deep-rooted readiness, through its members of experts in investigating, documenting and following up, to cooperate with the investigators of The International Criminal Court to present everyone contributed by giving orders or committing crimes of violation against human rights in Syria to a fair hearing which could avenge for those who suffered and are still suffering in Syria from the injustice, absolutism and pain of violating their human rights which were guaranteed by the international legitimacy for human rights, and which the International Legitimacy that is mired in dubious silence hasn’t yet seen. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------For any illustration or more information, you can contact the founder & manager of the Syrian Network for Human Rights Eng. Fadl Abdel Ghany via the official mail for the Network: mail@syrianhr.org The Official Site:

http://www.syrianhr.org/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/syrianhr Skype: SYRIANHR Fa.engineer1