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AE201 Approaches to Archaeological Survey in the Old World

Prof. John Cherry, Fall 2006 Bibliography


Despite a length that might seem to imply comprehensiveness, this bibliography is only a very partial listing of publications from the enormous (and fuzzily defined) fields of survey, landscape archaeology, and settlement pattern studies. It is also personal, in that it concentrates heavily on Greece and Italy (the areas I know best), with some coverage of other circum-Mediterranean regions, but little for western Asia or areas beyond the Classical lands, and virtually nothing from the New World (for which there is also a huge literature): we can explore these areas, as your interests dictate. The bibliography begins with some of the more important general literature; works its way through methodology, interpretation, and comparison; and then offers a selective listing of some sources relevant to topics and themes on which survey might be able to shed some light. At the end there is a very eclectic list of some survey case-studies; I will try to suggest bibliography for other areas not covered here, if you have particular geographical interests you would like to explore further. For regional survey data on-line, please see the second category in this bibliography (Internet Resources), which directs you to a recent (2003) list of all the web-based resources of which I was then aware. JFC/September 2006

Selected general literature:


Ammerman, A.J. 1981. Surveys and archaeological research. Annual Review of Anthropology 10: 63-88. Ashmore, W. and Knapp, A.B., eds. 1999. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives. Oxford. Athanassopoulos, E.F., and Wandsnider, L. eds., Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes: Current Issues. Philadelphia. Banning, E. B. 2002. Archaeological Survey (Manuals in Archaeological Method, Theory, and Technique). New York. Barker, G. 1985. Landscape archaeology in Italy. In C. Malone and S. Stoddart, eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology IV, Part I (BAR 243), 1-19. Oxford. Barker, G. 1991. Approaches to archaeological survey. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, eds., Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 1-9. London. Barker, G. 1995. A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley. London. Barker, G. 1996. Regional archaeological projects: trends and traditions in Mediterranean Europe. Archaeological Dialogues 3.2: 160-75. Barker, G. and Hodges, R. 1981. Archaeology in Italy, 1980: new directions and misdirections. In G. Barker and R. Hodges, eds., Archaeology and Italian Society: Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval Studies (BAR Int. 102), 1-16. Oxford. Barker, G. and Lloyd, J., eds. 1991. Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region. London. [See also reviews by S.E. Alcock, Journal of Field Archaeology 20 (1993) 190-92; B. Hitchner, American Journal of Archaeology 98 (1994) 347-351.] Barker, G., and Mattingly, D., general eds. 1999-2000. The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, 5 vols. Oxford. [Review article on this series: J.F. Cherry, Vox POPULI? Landscape archaeology in Mediterranean Europe, Journal of Roman Archaeology 15: 561-73.] Barnes, G., ed. 1992. Analytical Field Survey [=World Archaeology 24.2, October 1992]. London.

Billman, B.R. and Feinman, G.M., eds. 1999. Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years since Vir. Washington. Bintliff, J.L., ed. 1990. Archaeology and the Annales School. Leicester. Bintliff, J.L. 2000. Beyond dots on the map: future directions for surface artefact survey in Greece. In J.L. Bintliff, M. Kuna and N. Venclov, eds., The Future of Surface Artefact Survey in Europe, 3-20. Sheffield. Bintliff, J.L., Kuna, M. and Venclov, N., eds. 2000. The Future of Surface Artefact Survey in Europe. Sheffield. Bintliff, J.L. and Sbonias, K., eds. 1999. Reconstructing Past Population Trends in Mediterranean Europe (3000 BC - AD 1800). Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume I). Cherry, J.F. 1983. Frogs around the pond: perspectives in current archaeological survey projects. In D. Keller and D. Rupp, eds., Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (BAR Int. 155), 375-416. Oxford. Cherry, J.F. 1995. Regional survey in the Aegean: the New Wave (and after). In P.N. Kardulias, ed., Beyond the Site: Regional Studies in the Aegean Area, 91-112. Lanham, MD. Cherry, J.F. 2003. Archaeology beyond the site: regional survey and its future. In R. Leventhal and J. Papadopoulos, eds., Archaeology in the Mediterranean: The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline (UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph Series), 137-59. Los Angeles. Cherry, J.F. 2004. Cyprus, the Mediterranean, and survey: current issues and future trends. In M. Iacovou, ed., Archaeological Field Survey in Cyprus: Past History, Future Potentials (BSA Studies). London. Cherry, J.F. 2005. Survey. In C, Renfrew and P. Bahn, eds., Archaeology: The Key Concepts, 248-54. London. Cherry, J.F., Davis, J.L. and Mantzourani, E. 1991. Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands. Los Angeles. Collins, J.M., and Molyneaux, B.L. 2003. Archaeological Survey. (Archaeologists Toolkit, vol. 2). Walnut Creek, CA. Davis, J.L. 1991. Contributions to a Mediterranean rural archaeology: historical case studies from the Ottoman Cyclades. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 4: 131-216. Doukellis, P.N. and Mendoni, L.G., eds. 1994. Structures rurales et socits antiques. Paris. Doukellis, P.N. and Mendoni, L.G., eds. 2004. Perception and Evaluation of Cultural Landscapes. Athens. Dyson, S. 1982. Archaeological survey in the Mediterranean basin: a review of recent research. American Antiquity 47: 87-98. 1990. Reconstructing the landscape of rural Italy. In W.M. Kelso and R. Most, Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, 245-63. Charlottesville. Ebert, J.I. 1992. Distributional Archaeology. Albuquerque. Everson, P., and Williamson, T., eds. 1998. The Archaeology of Landscape. Manchester. Ferdire, A. and Zadora Rio, E., eds. 1986. La Prospection Archologique, Paysage et Peuplement. Paris. Fish, S.K. and Kowalewski, S.A., eds. 1990. The Archaeology of Regions: A Case for Full-coverage Survey. Washington, D.C. Fotiadis, M. 1995. Modernity and the past-still-present: politics of time in the birth of regional archaeological projects in Greece. American Journal of Archaeology 99:59-78. 1997 Cultural identity and regional archaeological projects: beyond ethical questions. Archaeological Dialogues 4:102-13 Francovich, R. and Patterson, H., eds. 2000. Extracting Meaning from Ploughsoil Assemblages. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume V). Gaffney, V. and Tingle, M. 1989. The Maddle Farm Project: an integrated survey of prehistoric and Roman landscape on the Berkshire Downs. (BAR British 200). Oxford. Gillings, M., Mattingly, D., and van Dalen, J., eds. 1999. Geographical Information Systems and Landscape Archaeology. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume III). Greene, K. 1986. The Archaeology of the Roman Economy. London. (esp. chapter 5). Haselgrove, C., Millett, M. and Smith, I., eds. 1985. Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data. Sheffield. 2

Hodder, I. and Orton, C. 1976. Spatial Analysis in Archaeology. Cambridge. Hole, F. 1987. The Archaeology of Western Iran: settlement and society from prehistory to the Islamic conquest. Washington, D.C. Horden, P. and Purcell, N. 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford. Jameson, M.H., Runnels, C.N., and van Andel, T.J. 1994. A Greek Countryside: The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present Day. Stanford. Johnson, G.A. 1977. Aspects of regional analysis in archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 6: 479-508. Kardulias, P.N., ed., Beyond the Site: Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. Lanham, MD. Keller, D. and Rupp, D., eds. 1983. Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (BAR International Series 155). Oxford. Kelso, W.M. and Most, R., eds., 1990. Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology. Charlottesville. Knapp, A.B., ed. 1992. Archaeology, Annales and Ethnohistory. Cambridge. Leveau, P., Sillires, P., and Vallat, J.-P. 1993. Campagnes de la Mditerrane romaine. Paris. Leveau, P., Trment, F., Walsh, K. and Barker, G., eds. 1999. Environmental Reconstruction in Mediterranean Landscape Archaeology. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume II). Macready, S. and Thompson, F., eds. 1985. Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad. London. O'Brien, M. and Lewarch, D., eds. 1981. Plowzone Archaeology: contributions to theory and technique. Nashville. Pasquinucci, M. and Trment, F., eds. 2000. Non-Destructive Techniques Applied to Landscape Archaeology. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume IV). Potter, T.W. 1979. The Changing Landscape of Southern Etruria. London. Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J.M., eds. 1982. An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos. Cambridge. Rosen, S.A. 2003. Settlement and survey archaeology: a view from a periphery. In R. Leventhal and J. Papadopoulos, eds., Archaeology in the Mediterranean: The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline (UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph Series), 173-79. Los Angeles. Rossignol, J. and Wandsnider, L.A., eds. 1992. Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes. New York. Rupp, R.J. 1966. The archaeological survey: a defense. American Antiquity 31: 313-33. Schofield, A.J., ed. 1991. Interpreting Artifact Scatters: contributions to ploughzone archaeology . Oxford. Shipley, G. and Salmon, J. 1996. Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity. London. Smith, C.A., ed. 1976a. Regional Analysis Volume I: economic systems. Volume II: I. New York. 1976b. Regional Analysis Volume II: Social Systems. New York. Snodgrass, A.M. 1982. La prospection archologique en Grce et dans le monde mediterranen. Annales ESC 37: 800-812. Snodgrass, A.M. 1987. An Archaeology of Greece: the present state and future scope of a discipline . Berkeley. [Esp. chs. 2-4.] Snodgrass, A.M. 1990. Survey archaeology and the rural landscape of the Greek city. In O. Murray and S. Price, eds., The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, 113-36. Oxford. Snodgrass, A.M. 1991. Archaeology and the study of the Greek city. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 1-23. London. Snodgrass, A.M. and Cherry, J.F. 1988. On not digging up the past. The Cambridge Review 109: 9-13. Stanish, C. 2003. A brief Americanist perspective on settlement archaeology. In R. Leventhal and J. Papadopoulos, eds., Archaeology in the Mediterranean: The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline (UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph Series), 161-71. Los Angeles. Sullivan, A.P. III, ed. 1998. Surface Archaeology. Albuquerque. Spoery, P., ed. 1992. Geoprospection in the Archaeological Landscape. (Oxbow Monograph 18.) Oxford. Terrenato, N. 2000. Surface thoughts: future directions in Italian field surveys. In J.L. Bintliff, M. Kuna and N. Venclov, eds., The Future of Surface Artefact Survey in Europe, 21-28. Sheffield. Ucko, P.J., and Layton, R., eds. 1999. The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape. London Wagstaff, J.M., ed. 1987. Landscape and Culture: geographical and archaeological perspectives. Oxford. 3

Wilkinson, T.J. 2003. Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson. Wilkinson, T.J. 2004. The archaeology of landscape. In J.L. Bintliff, ed., A Companion to Archaeology, 334-56. Oxford.

Internet Resources:
Gates, J., Alcock, S.E., and Cherry, J.F. 2004. Internet resources for Mediterranean regional survey projects: a preliminary listing. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 243-51. Oxford. CGMA (Collaboratory for GIS and Mediterranean Archaeology). 2002. http://www.depauw.edu/acad/geology/website/cgma/index.html

Methodology:
Ammerman, A.J. and Feldman, M.V. 1978. Replicated collection of site surfaces. American Antiquity 43: 73440. Binford, L.R. 1964. A consideration of archaeological research design. American Antiquity 29: 425-41. Blanton, R.E. 2001. Mediterranean myopia. Antiquity 75: 627-29. Cherry, J.F. 1982. A preliminary definition of site distribution on Melos. In Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J., eds., An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos, 10-23. Cambridge. Cherry, J.F., Davis, J.L. and Mantzourani, E. 1991. Part I: Theory and Methods. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands , 3-54. Los Angeles. Francovich, R. and Patterson, H., eds. 2000. Extracting Meaning from Ploughsoil Assemblages. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume V). Gaffney, C. and Gaffney, V. 1988. Some quantitative approaches to site territory and land use from the surface record. In J. Bintliff et al., eds., Conceptual Issues in Environmental Archaeology, 82-90. Edinburgh. Gaffney, V. and Tingle, M. 1984. The tyranny of the site: method and theory in field survey. Scottish Archaeological Review 3: 134-40. 1989. The Maddle Farm Project: an integrated survey of prehistoric and Roman landscape on the Berkshire Downs. (BAR British 200). Oxford. Gillings, M., Mattingly, D., and van Dalen, J., eds. 1999. Geographical Information Systems and Landscape Archaeology. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume III). Given, M., and Knapp, A.B., eds. 2002. The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project: Social Approaches to Regional Archaeological Survey (UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph Series). Los Angeles. Hayes, J. 2000. The current state of Roman ceramic studies in Mediterranean survey, or, handling pottery from surveys. In R. Francovich and H. Patterson, eds., Extracting Meaning from Ploughsoil Assemblages (POPULUS 5), 105-109. Oxford. Hope-Simpson, R. and Cherry, J.F. 1984. The analysis of data from surface surveys. Journal of Field Archaeology 11: 115-20. Kirkby, A. and Kirkby, M. 1976. Geomorphic processes and surface survey of archaeological sites in semi-arid areas. In J. Davidson and M. Shackley, eds., Geoarchaeology: earth science and the past, 229-53. London. Mattingly, D. 2000. Methods of collection, recording and quantification. In R. Francovich and H. Patterson, eds., Extracting Meaning from Ploughsoil Assemblages (POPULUS 5), 5-15. Oxford. Lewarch, D. and O'Brien, M. 1981. The expanding role of surface assemblages in archaeological research. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 4: 297-342. Plog, S., Plog, F. and Wait, W. 1978. Decision making in modern surveys. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 1: 383-421. Redman, C. and Watson, P.J. 1970. Systematic intensive surface collection. American Antiquity 35: 279-91. Sarris, A., and R.E. Jones. 2000. Geophysical and related techniques applied to archaeological survey in the Mediterranean: a review. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 13.1: 3-75.

Schiffer, M.B., Sullivan, A.P., and Klinger, T.C. 1978. The design of archaeological surveys. World Archaeology 10: 1-29. Shennan, S. 1985. Experiments in the collection and analysis of archaeological survey data: the East Hampshire survey. Sheffield. Terrenato, N., and Ammerman, A.J. 1996. Visibility and site recovery in the Cecina Valley Survey, Italy. Journal of Field Archaeology 23: 91-109

Off-site data:
Alcock, S.E., Cherry, J.F. and Davis, J.L. 1994. Intensive survey, agricultural practice and the classical landscape of Greece. In I. Morris, ed., Classical Greece: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies, 135168. Cambridge. Bintliff, J. and Snodgrass, A.M. 1988. Off-site pottery distributions: a regional and inter-regional perspective. Current Anthropology 29: 506-13. Cherry, J.F., Davis, J.L. and Mantzourani, E. 1991. Data evaluation and offsite distributions. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 37-54. Los Angeles. Dunnell, R.C. and Dancey, W.S. 1983. The siteless survey: a regional scale data collection strategy. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 6: 267-87. Ebert, J. 1992. Distributional Archaeology. Albuquerque. Foley, R. 1981. Off-site archaeology: an alternative approach for the short-sited. In I. Hodder et al., eds., Pattern of the Past, 157-83. Cambridge. Francovich, R. and Patterson, H., eds. 2000. Extracting Meaning from Ploughsoil Assemblages. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume V). Gallant, T.W. 1986. 'Background noise' and site definition: a contribution to survey methodology. Journal of Field Archaeology 13: 403-18. Given, M. 2004. Mapping and manuring: can we compare sherd density figures? In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 13-21. Oxford. Stoddart, S. and Whitehead, N. 1991. Cleaning the Iguvine stables: site and off-site analysis from a central Mediterranean perspective. In A.J. Schofield, ed., Interpreting Artifact Scatters: contributions to ploughzone archaeology, 141-48. Oxford. Thomas, D.H. 1975. Non-site sampling in archaeology: up the creek without a site. In J.W. Mueller, ed., Sampling in Archaeology, 61-81. Tucson. Wilkinson, T.J. 1982. The definition of ancient manured zones by means of extensive sherd-sampling techniques. Journal of Field Archaeology 9: 323-33. Wilkinson, T.J. 1988. The archaeological component of agricultural soils in the Middle East: the effects of manuring in antiquity. In W. Groenman van Waateringe and M. Robinson, eds., Man-made soils: symposia of the association for environmental archaeology 6 (BAR Int. 410), 93-114. Oxford. Wilkinson, T.J. 1989. Extensive sherd scatters and land use intensity: some recent results. Journal of Field Archaeology 16: 31-46.

Sampling:
Cherry, J.F. 1982. A preliminary definition of site distribution on Melos. In Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J., eds., An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos, 10-23. Cambridge. Cherry, J.F., Gamble, G. and Shennan, S., eds. 1978. Sampling in Contemporary British Archaeology (BAR British Series 50). Oxford. Cherry, J.F. and Shennan, S. 1978. Sampling cultural systems: some perspectives on the application of probabilistic regional survey in Britain. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Sampling in Contemporary British Archaeology (BAR British Series 50), 17-48. Oxford.

Fish, S.K. and Kowalewski, S.A., eds. 1990. The Archaeology of Regions: a case for full-coverage survey. Washington, D.C. Judge, J., Ebert, J. and Hitchcock, R. 1975. Sampling in regional archaeological survey. In J.W. Mueller, ed., Sampling in Archaeology, 82-123. Tucson. Mueller, J.W. 1974. The use of sampling in archaeological survey. American Antiquity 39: 1-91. Mueller, J.W., ed. 1975. Sampling in Archaeology. Tucson. Nance, J.D. 1983. Regional sampling in archaeological survey: the statistical perspective. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 6: 289-356. Orton, C. 2000. Sampling in Archaeology (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology). Cambridge. Plog, S. 1976. Relative efficiencies of sampling techniques for archaeological surveys. In K.V. Flannery, eds., The Early Mesoamerican Village, 136-58. New York. 1978. Sampling in archaeological surveys: a critique. American Antiquity 43: 280-85. Plog, S., Plog, F. and Wait, W. 1978. Decision making in modern surveys. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 1: 383-421. Read, D.W. 1986. Sampling procedures for regional surveys: a problem of representativeness and effectiveness. Journal of Field Archaeology 13: 477-91. Redman, C.L. 1974. Archaeological Sampling Strategies (Addison-Wesley Module in Anthropology 55). Reading, MA. Rogg, A.E. and Fuller, S.L. 1977. Probabilistic survey sampling: making parameter estimates. In M.B. Schiffer, and G.J. Gumerman, eds., Conservation Archaeology, 227-38. London. Schiffer, M.B., Sullivan, A.P., and Klinger, T.C. 1978. The design of archaeological surveys. World Archaeology 10: 1-29. Shennan, S. 1985. Experiments in the collection and analysis of archaeological survey data: the East Hampshire survey. Sheffield. Shennan, S. 1988. Ch. 14: Probabilistic sampling in archaeology. In S. Shennan, Quantifying Archaeology. Edinburgh. Tartaron, T. F. 2003. The archaeological survey: sampling strategies and field methods. In J. Wiseman and K. Zachos, eds., Landscape Archaeology in Southern Epirus, Greece: I (Hesperia Supplement 32), 23-46. Princeton. Terrenato, N. 2004. Sample size matters! The paradox of global trends and local surveys. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World , 36-48. Oxford. van de Velde, P. 2001. An extensive alternative to intensive survey: point sampling in the Riu Mannu Survey Project, Sardinia. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 14.1: 24-52.

Formation processes and the accuracy of the surface record:


Baker, C.M. 1978. The size effect: an explanation of variability in surface artefact assemblage content. American Antiquity 43: 288-93. Binford, L.R. 1983. In Pursuit of the Past: Decoding the Archaeological Record. New York. Bintliff, J., Howard, P. and Snodgrass, A. 1999. The hidden landscape of prehistoric Greece. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 12.2: 139-68 (with responses by G. Barker, C. Mee and W. Cavanagh, R. Schon, and S.M. Thompson in Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 13.1: 100-123). Bintliff, J., Farinetti, E., Howard, P., Sarri, K., and Sbonias, K. 2002. Classical farms, hidden prehistoric landscapes and Greek rural survey: a response and an update. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15.2: 259-65. Boismeier, W.A. 1997. Modelling the Effects of Tillage Processes on Artefact Distributions in the Ploughzone: A Simulation of Tillage-induced Pattern Formation (BAR British Series 259). Oxford. Davis, J.L. 2004. Are the landscapes of Greek prehistory hidden? A comparative approach. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World , 22-35. Oxford. 6

Halstead, P. et al. 1978. Behavioral archaeology and refuse patterns: a case study. Norwegian Archaeological Review 11: 118-31. Haselgrove, C. 1985. Inference from ploughsoil artefact samples. In C. Haselgrove et al., eds., Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data , 7-29. Sheffield. Hirth, K. 1978. Problems in data recovery and measurement in settlement archaeology. Journal of Field Archaeology 5: 125-31. Hope Simpson, R. 1983. The limitations of surface surveys. In D.R. Keller and D.W. Rupp, eds., Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (BAR Int. 155), 45-47. Oxford. Hope-Simpson, R. and Cherry, J.F. 1984. The analysis of data from surface surveys. Journal of Field Archaeology 11: 115-20. Leveau, P., Trment, F., Walsh, K. and Barker, G., eds. 1999. Environmental Reconstruction in Mediterranean Landscape Archaeology. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume II). Lloyd, J. and Barker, G. 1981. Rural settlement in Roman Molise: problems of archaeological survey. In G. Barker and R. Hodges, eds., Archaeology and Italian Society: Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval Studies (BAR Int. 102), 281-304. Oxford. Murray, P. 1980. Discard location: the ethnographic data. American Antiquity 45: 490-501. Nash, D. and Petraglia, M., eds. 1987. Natural Formation Processes and the Archaeological Record. (BAR Int. 352). Oxford. Pettegrew, D. 2001. Chasing the Classical farmstead: assessing the formation and signature of rural settlement in Greek landscape archaeology. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 14.2 (in press). Popham, M. 1990. Reflections on An Archaeology of Greece: surveys and excavations, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 9: 29-35. Runnels, C.N. and Van Andel, T.H. 1987. The evolution of settlement in the Southern Argolid, Greece: an economic explanation. Hesperia 56: 303-34. Schiffer, M.B. 1983. Toward the identification of formation processes. American Antiquity 48: 675-706. Schiffer, M.B. 1987. Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. Albuquerque. Schofield, A.J. 1989. Understanding early medieval pottery distributions: cautionary tales and the implications for further research. Antiquity 63: 460-70. Shott, M.J. 1995. Reliability of archaeological records on cultivated surfaces: a Michigan case study. Journal of Field Archaeology 22: 475-90. Tolstoy, P. and Fish, S.K. 1975. Surface and subsurface evidence for community size at Coapexco, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 2: 97-104. Wandsnider, L. and Camilli, E.L. 1992. The character of surface archaeological deposits and its influence on survey accuracy. Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 169-88. Wood, W. and Johnson, D. 1978. A survey of disturbance processes in archaeological site formation. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 1: 315-81. New York.

Interpretation of surface finds:


Darvill, T.C. and McWhirr, A.D. 1984. Brick and tile production in Roman Britain: models of economic organization. World Archaeology 15: 239-61. DeBoer, W.R. 1974. Ceramic longevity and archaeological interpretation: an example from the Upper Ucayali, Peru. American Antiquity 39: 335-43. DeBoer, W.R. and Lathrap, D.W. 1979. The making and breaking of Shipibo-Conibo ceramics. In C. Kramer, eds., Ethnoarchaeology: implications of ethnography for archaeology, 102-38. New York. Gaffney, V. 2000. Ceramics and the site: is survey enough? In R. Francovich and H. Patterson, eds., Extracting Meaning from Ploughsoil Assemblages (POPULUS 5), 29-43. Oxford Gaffney, C., Gaffney, V. and Tingle, M. 1985. Settlement, economy or behavior? Micro-regional land use models and the interpretation of surface artefact patterns. In C. Haselgrove et al., eds., Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data , 95-107. Sheffield. 7

Gaffney, V. and Tingle, M. 1985. The Maddle Farm (Berks.) Project and Micro-Regional Analysis. In S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds., Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad, 67-73. London. Haselgrove, C., Millett, M. and Smith, I. 1985. Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data. Sheffield. (especially Haselgrove, Millett, Mills, Gaffney et al). Mattingly, D., Stone, D., Stirling, L. and Ben Lazreg, N. 2001. Leptiminus (Tunisia): a producer city? In D Mattingly and J. Salmon, eds., Economies Beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, 66-89. London. Millett, M. 1985. Field survey calibration: a contribution. In C. Haselgrove et al., eds., Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data , 31-37. Sheffield. Millett. M. 1991. Roman towns and their territories: an archaeological perspective. In J. Rich and A. WallaceHadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 169-89. London. Millett. M. 1991. Pottery: population or supply patterns? The Ager Tarraconensis approach. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 18-26. London. Millett. M. 2000. The comparison of surface and stratified artefact assemblages, in M. Pasquinnuci and Frdric Trement, eds., Non-Destructive Techniques Applied to Landscape Archaeology (POPULUS 4), 216-22. Oxford.. Pettegrew, D.K. 2001. Chasing the Classical farmstead: assessing the formation and signature of rural settlement in Greek landscape archaeology. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 14.2: 189-209 (with responses by R. Osborne and L. Foxhall, and a rejoinder by Pettegrew in Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15.2 [2002] 267-73). Roberto, C. et al. 1985. The chronology of the sites of the Roman period around San Giovanni: methods of analysis and conclusions. In S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds., Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad, 136-45. London. Runnels, C.N. 1983. Lithic artefacts from surface sites in the Mediterranean area. In D. Keller and D. Rupp, eds., Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (BAR Int. 155),143-48. Oxford. Runnels, C.N. 1985. Trade and the demand for millstones in Southern Greece in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. In A.B. Knapp and T. Stech, eds., Prehistoric Production and Exchange: the Aegean and east Mediterranean, 30-43. Los Angeles. Rutter, J.B. 1983. Some thoughts on the analysis of ceramic data generated by site surveys. In D. Keller and D. Rupp, eds., Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (BAR Int. 155),137-42. Oxford. Schofield, A.J. 1991. Artefact distributions as activity areas: examples from south-east Hampshire. In A.J. Schofield, ed., Interpreting Artifact Scatters: contributions to ploughzone archaeology , 117-28. Oxford. Schofield, A.J., ed. 1991. Interpreting Artifact Scatters: contributions to ploughzone archaeology . Oxford. (esp. papers in sections 1 and 3). Williams-Thorpe, O. 1988. Provenancing and archaeology of Roman millstones from the Mediterranean area. Journal of Archaeological Science 15: 253-305.

Urban surveys:
Alcock, S.E. 1991. Urban survey and the polis of Phlius. Hesperia 60: 421-63. Bennet, J. 1999. Pylos: the expansion of a Mycenaean palatial center. In M.L. Galaty and W.A. Parkinson, eds., Rethinking Mycenaean Palaces: New Interpretations of an Old Idea (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 41), 9-18. Los Angeles. Bintliff, J. L. and Snodgrass, A.M. 1988. Mediterranean Survey and the City. Antiquity 62: 57-71. Cavanagh, W.G., Hirst, S.,and Litton, C.D. 1988. Soil phosphate, site boundaries, and change point analysis. Journal of Field Archaeology 15: 67-83. Cavanagh, W.G., Mee, C., and James, P. 2005. The Laconia Rural Sites Project (BSA Supplementary vol. 36). London. Gehrke, H.-J. 1986. Jenseits von Athen und Sparta: Das dritte Griechenland und seine Staatenwelt. Munich. Vanhaverbeke, H., and Waelkens, M. 2003. Chora of Sagalassos: The Evolution of the Settlement Pattern from Prehistoric until Recent Times (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 5). Turnhout.

Keay, S., Creighton, J. and Jordan, D. 1991. Sampling ancient towns. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 10: 37183. Keay, S., Creighton, J. and Remesal Rodriguez, J. 2000. Celti (Peaflor). The Archaeology of a HispanoRoman Town in Baetica: Survey and Excavations, 1987-1992. Oxford Mattingly, D.J. The field survey: strategy, methodology, and preliminary results. In Lazreg, N.B. and Mattingly, D.J., Leptiminus (Lamta): A Roman Port City in Tunisia, Report no. 1 (Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. 4), 89-114. Ann Arbor. Moody, J., Nixon, L., Price, S., and Rackham, O. 1998. Surveying poleis and larger sites in Sphakia. In W.G. Cavanagh and M. Curtis, eds., Post-Minoan Crete: Proceedings of the Colloquium Organised by the British School at Athens and the Institute of Archaeology, UCL, November 1995 (BSA Studies 2), 87-95. London. Nixon, L. and Price, S. 1990. The size and resources of Greek cities. In O. Murray and S. Price, eds., The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, 137-70. Oxford. Perkins, P., and Walker, L. 1990. Survey of an Etruscan city at Doganella in the Albegna Valley. PBSR 58: 1143. Pounds, N.J.G. 1969. The urbanization of the Classical world. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 59: 135-57. Romano, D.G. and Schoenbrun, B.C. 1993. A computerized architectural and topographical survey of ancient Corinth. Journal of Field Archaeology 20:177-190. Snodgrass, A.M. 1985. The site of Askra. In G. Argoud and P. Roesch, eds., La Botie antique, 87-95. Paris. Snodgrass, A.M. and Bintliff, J.L. 1991. Surveying ancient cities. Scientific American 264: 64-69. Sparkes, B. and Cherry, J.F. 1982. A note on the topography of the ancient settlement of Melos. In C. Renfrew and J.M. Wagstaff, eds., An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos, 53-57. Cambridge. Summers, G., and Summers, F. 1998. The Kerekenes Dag Project. In R. Matthews, ed., Ancient Anatolia: Fifty Years Work by the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 177-94. London. Walker, L. 1985a. The site at Doganella in the Albegna Valley: spatial patterns in an Etruscan landscape. In S. Stoddart and C. Malone, eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology IV, Part III, 243-54. Oxford. Walker, L. 1985b. Survey of a settlement: a strategy for the Etruscan site of Doganella in the Albegna Valley. In C. Haselgrove et al., eds., Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data, 87-94. Sheffield. Whitelaw, T. and Davis, J. 1991. The polis center of Koressos. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 265-84. Los Angeles. Whitley, J., Prent, M. and Thorne, S. 1999. Praisos IV: a preliminary report on the 1993 and 1994 survey seasons. BSA 94: 305-323.

Survey and ethnoarchaeology:


Ammerman, A.J. 1985. Ploughzone experiments in Calabria, Italy. Journal of Field Archaeology 12: 33-40. Ammerman, A.J. 1995. The dynamics of modern land use and the Acconia survey. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8.1: 77-92 (with response by J.L. Davis and S.B. Sutton, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8.2: 113-23). Chang, C. 1992. Archaeological landscapes: the ethnoarchaeology of pastoral landuse in the Grevena region of Greece. In J. Rossignol and L. Wandsnider, eds., Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes, 65-90. New York. Creighton, O.H., and Segui, J.R. 1998. The ethnoarchaeology of abandonment and post-abandonment behaviour in pastoral sites: evidence from Famorca, Alacant Province, Spain. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 11.1: 31-52. Crowther, D. 1983. Old land surfaces and modern ploughing: implications of recent work at Maxey, Cambridge. Scottish Archaeological Review 2: 31-44. Diacopoulos, L. 2004 The archaeology of modern Greece. In E.F. Athanassopoulos and L.Wandsnider, eds., Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes: Current Issues, 183-98. Philadelphia.

Galaty, M., Stocker, S.R. and Watkinson, C. 1999. Beyond bunkers: dominance, resistance and change in an Albanian regional landscape. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 12.2: 197-214 Hinchcliffe, J. and Schadla-Hall, R.T., eds. 1980. The Past under the Plough. London. Kardulias, P.N. and Murray, P. 1986. A modern site survey in the Southern Argolid, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology 13: 21-41. Lee, W.E. 2001. Pylos Regional Archaeological Project, Part IV: change and the human landscape in a modern Greek village in Messenia. Hesperia 70: 49-98. Lewarch, D. and O'Brien, M. 1981. Effect of short-term tillage on aggregate provenance surface pattern. In M. O'Brien and D. Lewarch, eds., Plowzone Archaeology: contributions to theory and technique, 7-49. Nashville. Mientjes, A., Pluciennik, M., and Giannitrapani, E. 2002. Archaeologies of recent rural Sicily and Sardinia: a comparative approach. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15.2: 139-66. Odell, P. and Cowan, F. 1987. Estimating tillage effects on artefact distributions. American Antiquity 52: 45684. Reynolds and Schadla-Hall, R.T. 1980. Measurement of plough-damage and the effects of plough-damage on archaeological material. In J. Hinchcliffe and R.T. Schadla-Hall, eds., The Past under the Plough. 114-19. London. Roper, D. 1976. Lateral displacement of artefacts due to plowing. American Antiquity 41: 372-75. Sutton, S.B., ed. 2000. Contingent Countryside: Settlement, Economy, and Land Use in the Southern Argolid Since 1700. Palo Alto, CA. Vroom, J. 1998. Early modern archaeology in Central Greece: the contrast of artefact-rich and sherdless sites. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 11.2: 131-64. Whitelaw, T. 1991. The ethnoarchaeology of recent rural settlement and land use in post-Revolutionary Keos. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 403-54. Los Angeles. Whitelaw, T. 1994. An ethnoarchaeological study of rural land-use in North-West Keos: insights and implications for the study of past Aegean landscapes. In P.N. Doukellis and L.G. Mendoni, eds., Structures rurales et socits antiques, 163-186. Paris. Yorston, R. et al. 1990. Simulation of artefact movement due to cultivation. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 67-83.

Geomorphological and environmental change:


Bell, M. 1982. The effects of land use and climate on valley sedimentation. In A. Harding, ed., Climatic Change in Later Prehistory, 127-42. Edinburgh. Bintliff, J.L. 1975. Mediterranean alluvation: new evidence from archaeology. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 41: 78-84. 1982. Climatic change, archaeology and quaternary science in the eastern Mediterranen region. In Harding, A.F., ed., Climatic Change in Later Prehistory, 143-61. Edinburgh. Blackman, D.J. 1973. Evidence of sea-level change in ancient harbours and coastal installtions. In Blackman, D.J., ed., Marine Archaeology, 114-37. Butzer, K. 1982. Archaeology as Human Ecology. Cambridge. Chester, D.K. and James, P.A. 1999. Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape development in the Algarve region, southern Portugal. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 12.2: 169-96. Davidson, D. and Tasker, C. Geomorphological evolution during the late Holocene. In Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J., eds., An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos, 82-94. Cambridge. Forbes, H.A. and Koster, H.A. 1976. Fire, axe and plow: human influence on local plant communities in the Southern Argolid. In M. Dimen and E. Friedl, eds., Regional Variation in Modern Greece and Cyprus: Toward a perspective on the ethnography of Greece (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 268), 109-26. New York. Hughes, J.D. 1983. How the ancients viewed deforestation. Journal of Field Archaeology 10: 437-45. 10

Huntington, E. 1910. The burial of Olympia: a study in climate and history. Geographical Journal 36: 675-86. Jameson, M.H., Runnels, C.N., and van Andel, T.J. 1994. A Greek Countryside: The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present Day. Stanford. [Esp. chs. 3 & 6.] Judson, S. 1963. Erosion and deposition of Italian stream valleys during historic times. Science 140: 898-99. King, R.H. 1983. Soils and archaeological surveys: case of the Canadian Palaipaphos Survey Project. In D. Keller and D. Rupp, eds., Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (BAR Int. 155),101-107. Oxford. Kraft, J.C. et al. 1987. The pass at Thermopylae, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology 14: 181-98. Leveau, P., Trment, F., Walsh, K. and Barker, G., eds. 1999. Environmental Reconstruction in Mediterranean Landscape Archaeology. Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume II). Mariolopoulos, E.G. 1962. Fluctuation of rainfall in Attica during the years of the erection of the Parthenon. Geofisica Pura e Applicata 51: 243-50. Neumann, J. 1985. Climatic change as a topic in the Classical Greek and Roman literature. Climatic Change 7: 441-54. Pope, K.O. and van Andel, T.H. 1984. Late Quaternary alluviation and soil formation in the Southern Argolid: its history, causes and archaeological implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 11: 281-306. Rackham, O. 1982. Land use and the native vegetation of Greece. In M. Bell, and S. Limbrey, eds., Archaeological Aspects of Woodland Ecology (BAR Int.), 177-98. Oxford. 1983. Observations on the historical ecology of Boeotia. ABSA 78: 291-51. 1990. Ancient landscapes. In O. Murray and S. Price, eds., The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, 85-111. Oxford. Rackham, O. and Moody, J. 1996. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Manchester, U.K. and New York. Schoenwetter, J. 1990. A method for the application of pollen analysis in landscape archaeology. In W.M. Kelso and R. Most, Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, 277-96. Charlottesville. Semple, E.C. 1932. The Geography of the Mediterranean Region: its relation to ancient history . London. Shackleton, J. 1984. Coastal paleogeography of the central and western Mediterranean during the last 125,000 years and its archaeological implications. Journal of Field Archaeology 11 (1984): 307-14. Shackleton, J. and van Andel, T.H. 1980. Prehistoric shell assemblages from Francthi cave and the evolution of the adjacent coastal zone. Nature 288: 357-59. 1986. Prehistoric shore environments, shellfish availability and shellfish gathering at Francthi, Greece. International Journal of Geoarchaeology 1: 127-43. Shaw, B.D. 1981. Climate, environment and history: the case of Roman North Africa. In Wigley, T., Ingram, M. and Farmer, G., eds., Climate and History: studies in past climates and their impact on man, 379-403. Cambridge. van Andel, T.H., Runnels, C.N. and Pope, K.O. 1986. Five thousand years of land use and abuse in the Southern Argolid, Greece. Hesperia 55: 103-28. van Andel, T.H. and Shackleton, J. 1982. Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic coastlines of Greece and the Aegean. Journal of Field Archaeology 9: 445-54. van Andel, T.H., Zangger, E. and Demitrack, A. 1990. Land use and soil erosion in prehistoric and historic Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology 17: 379-96. Vermeulen, F., and De Dapper, M., eds., 2000. Geoarchaeology of the Landscapes of Classical Antiquity (International Colloquium, Ghent, 23-24 October 1998). Leiden. Vita-Finzi, C. 1966. The New Elysian fields. American Journal of Archaeology 70: 175-78. 1969. The Mediterranean Valleys: Geological Change in Historical Time. Cambridge. 1980. Archaeological Sites in their Setting. London. Wagstaff, J.M. 1981. Buried assumptions: some problems in the interpretation of the 'younger fill' raised by recent data from Greece.' Journal of Archaeological Science 8: 247-64. Wallen, C.C., ed. 1977. The Climate of Central and Southern Europe. (papers by Furlan on Greece and Cantu on Italy).

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Wertime, T.A. 1983. The furnace vs. the goat: the pyrotechnologic industries and Mediterranean deforestation in antiquity. Journal of Field Archaeology 10: 445-52. Wilkinson, K. 1998. Geoarchaeological studies of the Spartan acropolis and Evrotas valley: some preliminary conclusions. In W.G. Cavanagh and S.E.C. Walker, eds., Sparta in Laconia: Proceedings of the 19th British Museum Classical Colloquium (BSA Studies 4), 149-56. London. Wilkinson, K., Gerrard, C., Aguilera, I., Bailiff, I., and Pope, R. 2005. Prehistoric and historic landscape change in Aragn, Spain: some results from the Moncayo Archaeological Survey. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18: 31-54. Wilkinson, T.J. 2003. Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson. Zangger, E. 1991. Prehistoric coastal environments in Greece: the vanished landscapes of Dimini Bay and Lake Lerna. Journal of Field Archaeology 18: 1-15. Zangger, E. 1994. Landscape changes around Tiryns during the Bronze Age. American Journal of Archaeology 98: 189-212. Zangger, E., Thompson, M.E., Yazvenko, S.B., Kuhnke, F., and Knauss, J. 1997. The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project, Part II: landscape evolution and site preservation. Hesperia 66.4: 549-642.

Comparative survey:
Adams, R. McC. 1981. Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates. Chicago Alcock, S.E. 1989. Roman imperialism in the Greek landscape. Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 5-34. Alcock, S.E. 1993. Graecia capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge. Alcock, S.E. 1994. Breaking up the Hellenistic World: survey and society. In I. Morris, ed., Classical Greece: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies. Cambridge. Alcock, S.E. and Cherry, J.F., eds. 2004. Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World. Oxford. Attema, P., and van Leusen, M. 2004. Intraregional and interregional comparison of occupation histories in three Italian regions. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 86-100. Oxford. Barker, G. and Lloyd, J., eds. 1991. Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region. London. Bintliff, J.L. 1997. Regional survey, demography, and the rise of complex societies in the ancient Aegean: coreperiphery, neo-Malthusian, and other interpretive models. Journal of Field Archaeology 24:1-38. Blanton, R.E. 2000. Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Settlement Patterns of the Coast Lands of Western Rough Cilicia (BAR International Series 879). Oxford. Blanton, R.E. et al. 1981. Ancient Mesoamerica: A Comparison of Change in Three Regions. Cambridge. Cavanagh, W.G. 1999. Revenons nos moutons: surface survey and the Peloponnese in the Late and Final Neolithic. In J. Renard, ed., Le Peloponnse: archologie et histoire, 31-65. Rennes. Cherry, J.F., and Davis, J.L. 2001. Under the sceptre of Agamemnon: the view from the hinterlands of Mycenae. In K. Branigan, ed., Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age, 141-59. Sheffield. Cherry, J.F., and Parkinson, W.A. 2003. Lithic artifacts from surveys: a comparative evaluation of recent evidence from the southern Aegean. In P.N. Kardulias and R.W. Yerkes, eds., Written in Stone: The Multiple Dimensions of Lithic Analysis, 35-59. Lanham. Cunningham, T., and Driessen, J. 2004. Site by site: combining survey and excavation data to chart patterns of socio-political change in Bronze Age Crete. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 101-113. Oxford. Davis, J.L., and Cherry, J.F. 1998. Northern Keos in context. In L.G. Mednoni and A. Mazarakis Ainian, eds., Kea-Kythnos: History and Archaeology, 217-26. Paris. Driessen, J. 2001. History and hierarchy: preliminary observations on the settlement pattern in Minoan Crete. In K. Branigan, ed., Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age, 51-71. Sheffield.

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Halstead, P. 1994. The north-south divide: regional paths to complexity in prehistoric Greece. In C. Mathers and S. Stoddart, eds., Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age, 195-219. Sheffield. Leveau, P., Sillires, P., and Vallat, J.-P. 1993. Campagnes de la Mditerrane romaine: occident. Paris. Lloyd, J. 1991. Farming the highlands: Samnium and Arcadia in the Hellenistic and Early Roman imperial periods. Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 180-93. London. Mee, C. 1999. Regional survey projects and the prehistory of the Peloponnese. In J. Renard, ed., Le Peloponnse: archologie et histoire, 67-79. Rennes. Patterson, J. 1991. Settlement, city and elite in Samnium and Lycia. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 146-68. London. Thompson, S. 2004. Side-by-side and back-to-front: exploring intra-regional latitudinal and longitudinal comparability in survey data. Three case studies from Metaponto, southern Italy. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 65-85. Oxford. Wilkinson, T.J. 2000. Regional approaches to Mesopotamian archaeology: the contribution of archaeological surveys. Journal of Archaeological Research 8:219-267. Wilkinson, T.J. 2003. Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson. Wilinson, T.J. 2004. The disjunction between Mediterranean and Near Eastern survey: is it real? In E.F. Athanassopoulos and L.Wandsnider, eds., Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes: Current Issues, 5568. Philadelphia. Wiklinson, T.J., Ur, J., and Casana, J. 2004. From nucleation to disperal: trends in settlement pattern in the northern fertile crescent. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 189-205. Oxford. Wright, J.C. 2004. Comparative settlement patterns during the Bronze Age in the northeastern Peloponnesos. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 114-31. Oxford.

Demography:
Bintliff, J.L. and Sbonias, K., eds. 1999. Reconstructing Past Population Trends in Mediterranean Europe (3000 BC - AD 1800). Oxford. ( = G. Barker and D. Mattingly, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Landscapes, Volume I). Carothers, J. and McDonald, W. 1982. Size and distribution of the population in Late Bronze Age Messenia: some statistical approaches. Journal of Field Archaeology 6 (1979): 433-53. Cowgill, G.L. 1975a. On the causes and consequences of ancient and modern population changes. American Anthropologist 77: 505-55. 1975b. Population pressure as a non-explanation. American Antiquity 40: 127-31. De Roche, C.D. 1983. Population estimates from settlement areas and number of residences. Journal of Field Archaeology 10: 187-92. Feinman, G. et al. 1985. Long-term demographic change: a perspective from the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 12: 333-62. Fletcher, R. 1981. People and space: a case study on material behavior. In I. Hodder et al., eds., Pattern of the Past, 97-128. Cambridge. Forbes, H. 2000. Security and settlement in the mediaeval and post-medievaeval Peloponnese, Greece: hard history versus oral history. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 13.2: 204-224. Gallo, L. 1984. Alimentazione e demografia della grecia antica. Salerno. Hassan, F. 1981. Demographic Archaeology. New York. Millett, M. 1985. Field survey calibration: a contribution. In C. Haselgrove et al., eds., Archaeology from the Ploughsoil: studies in the collection and interpretation of field survey data , 31-37. Sheffield. 1991a. Pottery: population or supply patterns? The Ager Tarraconensis approach. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 18-26. London.

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1991b. Roman towns and their territories: an archaeological perspective. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 169-89. London. Osborne, R. 1991. The potential mobility of human populations. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 10: 231-52. Osborne, R. 2004. Demography and survey. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 163-72. Oxford. Potter, T.W. 1978. Population hiatus and continuity: the case of the South Etruria survey. In H. Blake et al., eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology I: The Lancaster Seminar, Part I (BAR Suppl. 41.1), 99-116. Oxford. Sanders, W.T. 1972. Population, agricultural history and societal evolution in Mesoamerica. In B. Spponer, ed., Population Growth: Anthropological Implications, 101-53. Cambridge, MA. Schact, R.M. 1981. Estimating past population trends. Annual Review of Anthropology 10: 119-40. Wagstaff, J.M. 1975. A note on settlement numbers in ancient Greece. JHS 95: 163-68. Wagstaff, J.M. and Cherry, J.F. 1982. Settlement and population change. In Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J., eds., An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos, 136-55. Cambridge.

Agricultural regimes and settlement on the land:


Acheson, P.E. 1997. Does the economic explanation work? Settlement, agriculture and erosion in the territory of Halieis in the Late Classical-Early Hellenistic period. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 10: 165-90. Alcock, S.E. 1989. Roman imperialism in the Greek landscape. Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 5-34. Alcock, S.E., Cherry, J.F. and Davis, J.L. 1994. Intensive survey, agricultural practice and the classical landscape of Greece. In I. Morris, ed., Classical Greece: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies, 135168. Cambridge. Amouretti, M.-C. 1986. Le pain et l'huile dans la Grce antique. Paris. Bentley, J.W. 1987. Economic and ecological approaches to land fragmentation: in defense of a much maligned phenomenon. Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 31-67. Bommelj, S., and Vroom, J. 1995. Deserted and untilled lands: Aetolia in Roman times. Pharos 3: 67-130. Burford Cooper, A. 1977-78. The family farm in Greece. CJ 73: 162-75. Byres, T.J. 1983. Historical perspectives on sharecropping. The Journal of Peasant Studies 10: 7-40. Cherry, J.F., Davis, J. and Mantzourani, E. 1991a. Greek and Roman settlement and land use. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 327-47. Los Angeles. 1991b. Patterns in the landscape of Keos. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 457-79. Los Angeles. Chisholm, M. 1968. Rural settlement and land use. Second edition. London. Clark, C. and Haswell, M. 1970. The Economics of Subsistence Agriculture. (4th edition). London. Davis, J.L. Contributions to a Mediterranean rural archaeology: historical case studies from the Ottoman Cyclades. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 4: 131-216. Duncan-Jones, R.P. 1976. Some configurations of landholding in the Roman empire. In M.I. Finley, ed., Studies in Roman Property, 7-33. Cambridge. Finley, M.I. 1973. Problmes de la terre en Grce ancienne. Paris. (especially Pecirka and Adamesteanu) Forbes, H.A. 1976. 'We have a little of everything': the ecological basis of some agricultural practices in Methana, Troezenia. In M. Dimen and E. Friedl, eds., Regional Variation in Modern Greece and Cyprus: Toward a perspective on the ethnography of Greece (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 268), 236-50. New York. Foxhall, L. 1990. The dependent tenant: land-leasing and labour in Italy and Greece. JRS 80: 97-114. Gallant, T.W. 1991. Risk and Survival in Ancient Greece: reconstructing the rural domestic economy . Cambridge. Garnsey, P. 1979. Where did Italian peasants live? Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 25: 125. 1988. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World. Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge.

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Garnsey, P., Hopkins, K. and Whittaker, C.R. 1983. Trade in the Ancient Economy. London. (note especially Hopkins) Green, S.W. 1980. Toward a general model of agricultural systems. In M.B. Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 3: 311-55. Haggis, D.C. 1993. Intensive survey, traditional settlement patterns, and Dark Age Crete: the case of Early Iron Age Kavousi. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 6.2: 131-74. Halstead, P. 1987. Tradition and ancient rural economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus a change? JHS 107: 77-87. 1990. Waste not, want not: traditional responses to crop failure in Greece. Rural History 1: 147-64. Halstead, P. and Jones, G. 1989. Agrarian ecology in the Greek islands: time stress, scale and risk. JHS 109: 41-55. Hanson, V.D. 1983. Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece, Pisa. Jameson, M. 1977-78. Agricultural and slavery in Classical Athens. CJ 73: 122-44. Jameson, M. 1992. Agricultural labor in classical Greece. In B. Wells, ed., Agriculture in Classical Greece. Stockholm. Jones, J. et al. 1962. The Dema House in Attica. ABSA 57: 75-114. Jones, J. et al. 1973. An Attic country house below the Cave of Pan at Vari. ABSA 68 (1973): 355-452. Mattingly, D.J. 1994. The landscape of imperialism. Antiquity 68: 162-165. Mee, C.B., and Cavanagh, W.G. 1998. Diversity in a Greek landscape: the Laconia Survey and Rural Sites Project. In W.G. Cavanagh and S.E.C. Walker, eds., Sparta in Laconia: Proceedings of the 19th British Museum Classical Colloquium (BSA Studies 4), 141-48. London. Miller, N.F. and Gleason, K.L. 1994. The Archaeology of Garden and Field. Philadelphia. Osborne, R. 1985. Buildings and residence on the land in Classical and Hellenistic Greece: the contribution of epigraphy. ABSA 80: 119-28. 1987. Classical Landscape with Figures: The ancient Greek city and its countryside . London. 1988. Social and economic implications of the leasing of land and property in classical and hellenistic Greece. Chiron 18: 225-70. 1991. Pride and prejudice, sense and subsistence: exchange and society in the Greek city. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 119-45. London. Pettegrew, D. 2001. Chasing the Classical farmstead: assessing the formation and signature of rural settlement in Greek landscape archaeology. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 14.2 (in press) (with responses in Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 14.2 by R. Osborne and L. Foxhall). Ponsich, M. 1974-79. Implantation rurale antique sur le Bas-Guadalquivir, I-II. Madrid Roper, D.C. 1979. The method and theory of site catchment analysis: a review. In M.B. Schiffer, ed. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 2: 119-40. Sallade, J. and Braun, D. 1982. Spatial organization of peasant agricultural subsistence territories: distance factors and crop location. In E. Tooker, ed., Ethnography by Archaeologists (1978 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society), 19-41. Washington, D.C. Sallares, J.R. 1991. The Ecology of the Ancient Greek World. London. Spurr, M.S. 1986. Arable cultivation in Roman Italy, c. 200 B.C. - A.D. 100. London. Wagstaff, J.M. 1982. The Development of Rural Settlement: a study of the Helos plain in Southern Greece . Amersham. Wells, B. ed. 1993. Agriculture in Classical Greece. Stockholm. Wood, E.M. 1988. Peasant-Citizen and Slave. The Foundations of Athenian Democracy. London.

Survey and animal husbandry:


Alcock, S.E., Cherry, J.F. and Davis, J.L. 1994. Intensive survey, agricultural practice and the classical landscape of Greece. In I. Morris, ed., Classical Greece: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies, 135168. Cambridge.

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Barker, G. 1989. The archaeology of the Italian shepherd. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 215: 1-19. Barker, G. and Grant, A., eds. 1991. Ancient and modern pastoralism in central Italy: an interdisciplinary study in the Cicolano mountains. PBSR 59: 15-88. Chang, C. 1984. The ethnoarchaeology of herding sites in Greece. MASCA Journal 3: 44-48. Chang, C. 1992. Archaeological landscapes: the ethnoarchaeology of pastoral landuse in the Grevena region of Greece. In J. Rossignol and L.A. Wandsnider, eds., Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes, 65-90. New York. Chang, C. and Koster, H. 1986. Beyond bones: towards an archaeology of pastoralism. In M.B. Schiffer, ed. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 9: 97-148. Chang, C. and Tourtellotte, P.A. 1993. Ethnoarchaeological survey of pastoral transhumance sites in the Grevena region, Greece. Journal of Field Archaology 20: 249-264. Cherry, J.F. 1988. Pastoralism and the role of animals in the pre- and proto-historic economies of the Aegean. In C.R. Whittaker, ed., Pastoral Economies in Classical Antiquity, 6-34. Cambridge. Doorn, P., and Bommelj, S. 1990. Transhumance in Aetolia, Central Greece: a mountain economy caught between storage and mobility. In R. Maggi, R. Nisbet and G. Barker, eds., Archeologia della pastorizia nellEuropa meridionale, I (Rivista di Studi Liguri 56), 81-97. Bordighera. Forbes, H.A. 1994. Pastoralism and settlement structures in ancient Greece. In P.N. Doukellis and L.G. Mendoni, eds., Structures rurales et socits antiques, 187-196. Paris. Gamble, C. 1982. Animal husbandry, population and urbanisation. In Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J., eds., An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos, 161-71. Cambridge. Hodkinson, S. 1988. Animal husbandry in the Greek polis. In C.R. Whittaker, ed., Pastoral Economies in Classical Antiquity, 35-74. Cambridge. Jameson, M. 1988. Sacrifice and animal husbandry in Classical Greece. In C.R. Whittaker, ed., Pastoral Economies in Classical Antiquity, 87-119. Cambridge. Koster, H.A. and Koster, J.B. 1976. Competition or symbiosis? Pastoral adaptive strategies in the Southern Argolid. In M. Dimen and E. Friedl, eds., Regional Variation in Modern Greece and Cyprus: Toward a perspective on the ethnography of Greece (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 268), 275-85. New York. Maggi, R., Nisbet, R. and Barker, G., eds. 1991 Atti della Tavola rotonda internazionale: Archeologia della pastorizia nellEuropea meridionale (Rivista di Studi Liguri 57.1-4). Mee, C., Gill, D., Forbes, H. and Foxhall, L. 1991. Rural settlement change in the Methana Peninsula, Greece. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, eds., Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 223-32. London. Murray, P. and Chang, C. 1981. An ethnoarchaeological study of a contemporary herder's site. Journal of Field Archaeology 8: 372-88. Robertshaw, P.T. 1978. The archaeology of an abandoned pastoralist campsite. South African Journal of Science 74: 29-31.

Town-country relations:
Abrams, P. and Wrigley, E.A., eds. 1978. Towns in Societies: essays in economic history and historical sociology. Cambridge (esp. Abrams and Hopkins). Barker, G. and Lloyd, J. 1991. Section III: Towns and Territories. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, eds., Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 77-132. London. Barnish, S. 1987. Pigs, plebeians and potentes: Rome's economic hinterland, c. 350-600 A.D. PBSR 55: 157-85. Brunet, M., ed. 1999. Territoires des cits grecques (BCH Suppl. 34). Paris. Carret, J.-M., S. Keay, and M. Millett. 1995. A Roman Provincial Capital and its Hinterland: The Survey of the Territory of Tarragona, Spain, 1985-1990 (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Vol. 15). Ann Arbor.

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Driessen, J. 2001. Regional dynamics: town and territory in eastern Crete. In K. Branigan, ed., Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Sheffield (in press). Finley, M.I. 1977. The ancient city: from Fustel de Coulanges to Max Weber and beyond. Comparative Studies in Sociology and History 19: 305-27. Garnsey, P. 1983. Grain for Rome. In P. Garnsey, K. Hopkins and C.R. Whittaker, eds., Trade in the Ancient Economy, 118-30. London. 1988. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World. Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge. Humphreys, S.C. 1978. Town and country in ancient Greece. In S.C. Humphreys, Anthropology and the Greeks, 130-35. London. Leveau, P. 1984. Caesarea de Maurtanie: une ville romaine et ses campagnes. Rome. Millett, M. 1991. Roman towns and their territories: an archaeological perspective. In J. Rich and A. WallaceHadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 169-89. London. Morley, N. 1996. Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 B.C.- A.D. 200. Cambridge. Mller, S. 1992. Delphes et sa rgion lpoque mycnienne. BCH 114(II): 445-96. Murray, O. and Price, S., eds. 1990. The Greek City from Homer to Alexander. Oxford. Osborne, R. 1987. Classical Landscape with Figures: The ancient Greek city and its countryside . London. Parsons, J. 1968. Teotihuacan, Mexico, and its impact on regional demography. Science 162: 872-77. Patterson, J. 1987. Crisis, what crisis? rural change and urban development in imperial Apennine Italy. PBSR 55: 115-46. Potter, T.W. 1979. The Changing Landscape of Southern Etruria. London. 1991. Towns and territories in southern Etruria. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 191-209. London. Rich, J. and Wallace-Hadrill, A., eds. 1991. City and Country in the Ancient World. London. Snodgrass, A.M. 1990. Survey archaeology and the rural landscape of the Greek city. In O. Murray and S. Price, eds., The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, 113-36. Oxford. 1991. Archaeology and the study of the Greek city. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 1-23. London. Ward-Perkins, B., Delano-Smith, C., Gadd, D. and Mills, N. 1986. Luni and the ager Lunensis: the rise and fall of a Roman town and its territory. PBSR 54: 81-146.

'Romanization' of the countryside:


Alcock, S.E. 1989a. Roman imperialism in the Greek landscape. Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 5-34. 1989b. Archaeology and imperialism: Roman expansion and the Greek city. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 2: 87-135. Barker, G. and Lloyd, J., eds. 1991. Section II: The Romanization of the Countryside. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, eds., Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 27-75. London. Chouquer, G., Clavel-Lvque, M. and Favory Fr. 1982. Cadastres, occupation du sol et paysages agraires antiques. Annales ESC 5-6: 847-82. Clavel-Lvque, M. 1983. Pratiques imprialistes et implantations cadastrales. Ktema 8: 185-251. Clavel-Levque, M., ed. 1983. Cadastres et espace rural. Paris. Doukellis, P.N. and Mendoni, L.G., eds. 1994. Structures rurales et socits antiques. Paris. [Numerous papers in this volume, from throughout the Roman world.] Keay, S., and Terrenato, N. 2001. Italy and the West: Comparative Issues in Romanization. Oxford. Leveau, P., Sillires, P., and Vallat, J.-P. 1993. Campagnes de la Mditerrane romaine. Paris. Millett, M. 1990. The Romanization of Britain: an essay in archaeological intepretation. Cambridge. Nicolet, C. 1988. L'inventaire du monde: gographie et politique aux origines d'Empire romain. Paris. Purcell, N. 1990. The creation of provincial landscape: the Roman impact. In T. Blagg and M. Millett, eds., The Early Roman Empire in the West, 7-29. Oxford.

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Colonization:
Adamesteanu, D. 1973. Le suddivisioni di terra nel metapontino. In M.I. Finley, ed., Problmes de la terre en Grce ancienne, 50-61. Paris. Adamesteanu, D. and Vatin, C. 1976. L'Arriere pays de Metaponte. CRAcad. Inscr.: 110-23. Asad, A., ed. 1973. Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter Bintliff, J. and Gaffney, V. 1988. The Ager Pharensis/Hvar Project 1987. In J.C. Chapman et al., eds., Recent Developments in Yugoslav Archaeology (BAR Int. 431), 151-75. Oxford. Boardman, J. 1980. The Greeks Overseas. (Revised edition). London. Carter, J.C. 1980a. A classical landscape: rural archaeology at Metaponto. Archaeology 33: 23-32. Carter, J.C. 1980b. Rural settlement at Metaponto. In G. Barker and R. Hodges, eds., Archaeology and Italian Society: Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval Studies (BAR Int. 102), 167-77. Oxford. Carter, J.C. 1985. Population and agriculture in Magna Grecia in the fourth century B.C. In C. Malone and S. Stoddart, eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology IV: The Human Landscape. (BAR Int. Series 243), 281-312. Oxford. Carter, J.C. 1990a. Between the Bradano and Basento: archaeology of an ancient landscape. In W.M. Kelso and R. Most, Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, 227-43. Charlottesville. Carter, J.C. 1990b. Metapontum land, wealth and population. In J.-P. Descoeudres, ed. Greek colonists and native populations: proceedings of the first Australian congress of classical archaeology , 405-21. Oxford. Carter, J.C. n.d. The territory of Metaponto, 1981-82. Preliminary report. Austin. Carter, J.C. and D'Annibale, C. 1985. Metaponto and Croton. In S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds., Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad, 146-57. London. Clavel-Levque, M., ed. 1983. Cadastres et espace rural. Paris. Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England Descoeudres, J.-P., ed. 1990. Greek colonists and native populations: proceedings of the first Australian congress of classical archaeology. Oxford. Dougherty, C. 1993. The Poetics of Colonization: From City to Text in Archaic Greece Doukellis, P.N. and Mendoni, L.G. eds., Structures rurales et socits antiques. Paris. Dufkova, M. and Pecirka, J. 1970. Excavations of farms and farmhouses in the chora of Chersonesos in the Crimea. Eirene 8: 123-74. Gaffney, V., Bintliff, J. and Slapsak, B. 1991. Site formation processes and the Hvar Survey Project, Yugoslavia. In A.J. Schofield, ed., Interpreting Artifact Scatters: contributions to ploughzone archaeology , 59-77. Oxford. Hayes, J. and Kirigin, B. 1994. Methods and results of the systematic field survey in the karst area of the Adriatic island of Hvar. In P.N. Doukellis and L.G. Mendoni, eds., Structures rurales et socits antiques, 243-254. Paris. Jameson, M. 1990. Private space in the Greek city. In O. Murray and S. Price, eds., The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, 171-95. Oxford. Kirigin, B. 1990. The Greeks in Central Dalmatia: some new evidence. In J.-P. Descoeudres, ed., Greek colonists and native populations: proceedings of the first Australian congress of classical archaeology , 291321. Oxford. Morphy, H. 1993. Colonialism, history and the construction of place: the politics of landscape in Northern Australia. In B. Bender, ed. Landscape: Politics and Perspectives. Oxford. Nikolaenko, G., and Marchenko, L. 2004. Khersonesos Taurike National Reserve: creation of an archaeological park in the territory of the ancient city (Crimea, Sevastopol). In P.N. Doukellis and L.G. Mendoni (eds.), Perception and Evaluation of Cultural Landscapes, 109-116. Athens. Noyes, J. 1992. Colonial Space: Spatiality, Subjectivity and Society in the Colonial Discourse of German South West Africa 1884-1915. Tsetskhladze, G.R. and De Angelis, F. 1994. The Archaeology of Greek Colonisation. Oxford.

Synoecisms:
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Cavanagh, W.G. 1991. Surveys, cities and synoecisms. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 97-118. London. Cherry, J.F. and Davis, J.L. 1991. The Ptolemaic base at Koressos on Keos. ABSA 86: 9-28. Cherry, J.F., Davis, J. and Mantzourani, E. 1991. Greek and Roman settlement and land use. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 327-47. Los Angeles. Hodkinson, S. and Hodkinson, H. 1981. Mantineia and the Mantinike: settlement and society in a Greek polis. ABSA 76: 239-96. Whitelaw, T. and Davis, J. 1991. The polis center of Koressos. In J.F. Cherry et al., eds., Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, 265-84. Los Angeles.

Landscapes, Ceremonial and Ideological:


Alcock, S.E. and Osborne, R., eds. 1994. Placing the Gods. Oxford. Ashmore, W. and Knapp, A.B., eds. 1999. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives. Oxford. [Esp. ch. 1.] Barrett, J., Bradley, R. and Green, M. 1991. Landscape, Monuments and Society: the prehistory of Cranborne Chase. Cambridge. Bender, B., ed. 1993. Landscape: Politics and Perspectives. Oxford. Blagg, T. 1986. Roman religious sites in the British landscape. Landscape History 8: 15-25. Bradley, R. 1984. The Social Foundations of Prehistoric Britain: themes and variations in the archaeology of power. London. Bradley, R. 1990. Monuments and the Monumental ( = World Archaeology 22.2). Bradley, R. 1993. Altering the Earth. Edinburgh. Bradley, R. 1998. The Significance of Monuments. London. Bradley, R. 2000. An Archaeology of Natural Places. London. Buxton, R. 1994. Imaginary Greece: The Contexts of Mythology. Cambridge. Carrasco, D. ed. 1991. To Change Place: Aztec Ceremonial Landscapes Cherry, J.F. 1987. Power in space: archaeological and geographical studies of the state. In J.M. Wagstaff, ed., Landscape and Culture: geographical and archaeological perspectives, 146-72. Oxford. Cosgrove, D.E. 1984. Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. London. Cosgrove, D.E. and Daniels, S., eds. 1988. The Iconography of Landscape: essays on the symbolic representation, design and use of past environments. Cambridge. Crumley, C.L. 1999. Sacred landscapes: constructed and conceptualized. In W. Ashmore and A.B. Knapp, eds. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives, 269-76. Oxford. Farringdon, I.S. 1992. Ritual geography, settlement patterns and the characterization of the provinces of the Inka heartland. World Archaeology 23: 368-85. Feld, S. and Basso, K. 1996. Senses of Place. Santa Fe. Galaty, M., Stocker, S.R. and Watkinson, C. 1999. Beyond bunkers: dominance, resistance and change in an Albanian regional landscape. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 12.2: 197-214 Given, M. 2004. From density counts to ideational landscapes: intensive survey, phenomenology, and the Sydney Cyprus Survey Project. In E.F. Athanassopoulos and L.Wandsnider, eds., Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes: Current Issues. Philadelphia. Hall, R.L. 1976. Ghosts, water barriers, corn and sacred enclosures in the eastern woodlands. American Antiquity 41: 360-64. Hodder, I. 1987. Converging traditions: the search for symbolic meaning in archaeology and geography. In J.M. Wagstaff, ed., Landscape and Culture: geographical and archaeological perspectives, 134-45. Oxford. Ingold, T. 1986. The Appropriation of Nature: Essays on Human Ecology and Social Relations. Manchester. Knapp, A.B. 1999. Ideational and industrial landscape on prehistoric Cyprus. In W. Ashmore and A.B. Knapp, eds. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives, 229-52. Oxford. 19

Leone, M. 1984. Interpreting ideology in historical archaeology: using the rules of perspective in the William Paca Garden in Annapolis, Maryland. In D. Miller and C. Tilley, eds., Ideology, power and prehistory, 2535. Cambridge. Leone, M. 1987. Rule by ostentation: the relationship between space and sight in 18th century landscape architecture in the Chesapeake region of Maryland. In S. Kent, ed., Method and Theory for Activity Area Research, 605-32. New York. Ortiz, A. 1969. The Tewa World: Space, Time and Being in a Pueblo Society Polignac, F. de 1995. Cults, Territory and the Origins of the Greek City-State. Chicago. Richards, J.E. 1999. Conceptual landcapes in the Egyptian Nile Valley. In W. Ashmore and A.B. Knapp, eds. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives, 83-100. Oxford. Scully, V. 1979. The Earth, The Temple and the Gods (Revised edition). New Haven. Tilley, C. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments. Oxford. Tilley, C. 1999. Landscapes and a sense of place. In C. Tilley, ed., Metaphor and Material Culture, 175-273. Oxford. Tuan, Y.-F. 1974. Topophilia: a study of environmental perceptions, attitudes and fears. Englewood Cliffs. Tuan, Y.-F. 1977. Space and place: the perspective of experience. London. Williamson, T., and Bellamy, L. 1987. Property and landscape: a social history of land ownership and the English countryside. London. Yamon, R. and Metheny, K.B., eds. 1996. Landscape Archaeology: Reading and Interpreting the American Historical Landscape. Knoxville. Zukin, S. 1991. Landscapes of Power: From Detroit to Disney World. Berkeley.

A FEW SELECTED CASE STUDIES [These are mainly from Greece and Italy; other areas will be covered by later bibliographies.] Aetolia Bommelj, S. and Doorn, P.K., eds. 1987. Aetolia and the Aetolians (Studia Aetolica 1). Utrecht. Bommelj, S., and Vroom, J. 1995. Deserted and untilled lands: Aetolia in Roman times. Pharos 3: 67-130. Doorn, P., and Bommelj, S. 1990. Transhumance in Aetolia, Central Greece: a mountain economy caught between storage and mobility. In R. Maggi, R. Nisbet and G. Barker, eds., Archeologia della pastorizia nellEuropa meridionale, I (Rivista di Studi Liguri 56), 81-97. Bordighera. Ager Cosanus Brown, F.E. 1980. Cosa: The Making of a Roman Town. Ann Arbor. Dyson, S.L. 1978. Settlement patterns in the Ager Cosanus: the Wesleyan University survey, 1974-76. Journal of Field Archaeology 5: 251-68. 1981 Settlement reconstruction in the Ager Cosanus and the Albegna valley: Wesleyan University Research, 1974-79. In G. Barker and R. Hodges, eds., Archaeology and Italian Society: Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval Studies (BAR Int. 102), 269-74. Oxford. 1990. Reconstructing the landscape of rural Italy. In W.M. Kelso and R. Most, Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, 245-63. Charlottesville. McCann, A.M. 1987. The Roman Port and Fishery of Cosa. Princeton. Ager Lunensis Ward-Perkins, B., Mills, N., Gadd, D. and Delano-Smith, C. 1986. Luni and the Ager Lunensis: the rise and fall of a Roman town and its territory. Papers of the British School at Rome 54: 81-146. 20

Ager Tarraconensis Keay, S. 1991. The ager Tarraconensis in the late Empire: a model for the economic relationship of town and country in eastern Spain? In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, eds., Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 79-87. London. Keay, S. and Millett, M. 1991. Surface survey and site recognition in Spain: the ager Tarraconensis survey and its background. In A.J. Schofield, ed., Interpreting Artifact Scatters: contributions to ploughzone archaeology, 129-39. Oxford. Millett, M. 1991. Pottery: population or supply patterns? The Ager Tarraconensis approach. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 18-26. London. Ager Veientanus Kahane, A., Murray-Threipland, L. and Ward-Perkins, J.B. 1968. The Ager Veientanus, north and east of Veii. Papers of the British School at Rome 36: 1-218. Agro Pontino Voorrips, A., Loving, S.H. and Kammermans, H., eds. 1991. The Agro Pontino Survey Project: Methods and Preliminary Results (Studies in Prae- en Protohistorie 6). Amsterdam. Albania Davis, J.L. et al. 2003. Archaeological survey in the territory of Epidamnus/Dyrrachium (Albania). Hesperia 72: 41-119. Davis, J.L. et al. n.d. The Mallakastra Regional Archaeological Project. Available at: http://river.blg.uc.edu/mrap/MRAP.html Amuq Valley (Turkey) Yener, K.A. 2005. The Amuq Valley Regional Projects, Vol. 1: Surveys in the Plain of Antioch and Orontes Delta, Turkey, 1995-2002. (University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publication 131). Chicago. Asea Forsn, J., and Forsn, B. 2003. The Asea Valley Survey: An Arcadian Mountain Valley from the Palaeolithic Period until Modern Times. Stockholm. Berbati Wells, B., Runnels, C., and Zangger, E. The Berbati-Limnes Archaeological Survey, the 1988 season. Opuscula Atheniensia 18: 207-238. Boeotia Bintliff, J. 1985. Greece: the Boeotia survey. In S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds., Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad, 196-216. London. 1991. The Roman countryside in Central Greece: observations and theories from the Boeotia survey. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 122-32. London. Bintliff, J. and Snodgrass, A.M. 1985. The Cambridge/Bradford Boeotian Expedition: the first four years. Journal of Field Archaeology 12: 123-61. 1988. The end of the Roman countryside: a view from the east. In R. Jones et al., eds., First Millennium Papers: Western Europe in the First Millennium A.D. (BAR Int. 401), 175-217. Oxford. 1989. From polis to chorion in south-west Boeotia. In H. Beister and J. Buckler, eds., Boiotika, 285-99. Munich. Calabria 21

Ammerman, A.J. 1985. The Acconia Survey: Neolithic Settlement and the Obsidian Trade(Institute of Archaeology Occasional Publication 10). London. Ammerman, A.J. 1995. The dynamics of modern land use and the Acconia Survey. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8.1: 77-92. Ammerman, A.J. 1985. Modern land use versus the past. In C. Malone and S. Stoddart, eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology IV. The Cambridge Conference, Part 1: The Human Landscape (BAR Int. series 243), 27-39. Oxford. Ammerman, A.J. and Bonardi, S. 1981. Recent developments in the study of Neolithic settlement in Calabria. In G. Barker and R. Hodges, eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology II. Archaeology and Italian Society (BAR Int. series 102), 335-42. Oxford. Cyprus Iacovou, M., ed. 2004. Archaeological Field Survey in Cyprus: Past History, Future Potentials (BSA Studies 11). London. [Contains individual chapters that summarize most of the surveys conducted on Cyprus in recent decades.] Diacopoulos, L. 2004. Investigating social complexity through regional survey: second-generation analysis of Bronze Age data from the Canadian Palaipaphos Survey Project, southwestern Cyprus. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 17.1: 59-85. Given, M. and Knapp, B., eds. 2003. The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project: Social Approaches to Regional Archaeological Survey (Monumenta Archaeologica 21). Los Angeles. Hayes, P.P. 1995. The field survey: its role and methodology. In J. Fejfer, ed., Ancient Akamas I: Settlement and Environment, 171-186. Aarhus. Kardulias, P.N., and Yerkes, R.W. 2004. World-systems theory and regional survey: the Malloura Valley survey on Cyprus. In E.F. Athanassopoulos and L.Wandsnider, eds., Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes: Current Issues, 143-64. Philadelphia. Manning, S.W and Conwell, D.H. 1992. Maroni Valley Archaeological Survey Project: preliminary report on 1990-1991 seasons. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 1992: 271-283. Manning, S.W. et al. 1994. Maroni Valley Archaeological Survey Project: preliminary report on 1992-1993 seasons. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 1994: 345-367. Rupp, D.W. 1982. The Canadian Palaipaphos Survey Project: an overview of the 1979 and 1980 seasons. EMC/CV n.s.1: 179-85. 1984. The Canadian Palaipaphos Survey Project: an overview of the 1982 and 1983 seasons. EMC/CV n.s.3: 147-56. 1986. The Canadian Palaipaphos (Cyprus) survey project third preliminary report, 1983-85. Acta Archaeologica 57: 27-45. 1987. The Canadian Palaipaphos survey project: an overview of the 1986 season. EMC/CV n.s. 6: 217-24. Rupp, D.W., Srensen, L.W., King, R.H. and Fox. W.A 1984. Canadian Palaipaphos (Cyprus) Survey Project: Second Preliminary Report, 1980-1982. Journal of Field Archaeology 11: 133-54. Srensen, L.W. 1983. Canadian Palaepaphos survey project: preliminary report of 1980 ceramic finds. RDAC: 283-99. Srensen, L.W., Guldager, P., Korsholm, M., Lund, J. and Gregory, T.E. 1987. Canadian Palaepaphos survey project: second preliminary report of the ceramic finds 1982-83. RDAC: 259-78. Toumazou, M.K., Yerkes, R.W., and Kardulias, P.N. 1998. Athienou Archaeological Project: investigations in the Malloura Valley, Cyprus, 1990-1995. Journal of Field Archaeology 25: 163-82. Dalmatia Batovic, S. and Chapman, J.C. 1985. The 'Neothermal Dalmatia' Project. The Maddle Farm (Berks.) Project and Micro-Regional Analysis. In S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds., Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad, 158-95. London. Chapman, J.C. and Shiel, R. 19941. Settlement, soils and societies in Dalmatia. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 62-75. London. 22

Chapman, J.C., Shiel, R. and Batovic, S. 1987. Settlement patterns and land use in Neothermal Dalmatia, Yugoslavia: 1983-84 seasons. Journal of Field Archaeology 14: 123-46. 1988. The Neothermal Dalmatia Project: archaeological survey results. In J.C. Chapman et al., eds., Recent Developments in Yugoslav Archaeology (BAR Int. 431), 1-30. Oxford. Shiel, R. and Chapman, J.C. 1988. The extent of change in the agricultural landscape of Dalmatia. In J.C. Chapman et al., eds., Recent Developments in Yugoslav Archaeology (BAR Int. 431), 31-44. Oxford. Epirus Wiseman, J., and Zachos, K., eds., Landscape Archaeology in Southern Epirus, Greece: I (Hesperia Supplement 32). Princeton. Etruria Potter, T.W. Potter, T.W. 1978. Population hiatus and continuity: the case of the South Etruria survey. In H. Blake et al., eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology I: The Lancaster Seminar, Part I (BAR Suppl. 41.1), 99116. Oxford. 1979. The Changing Landscape of Southern Etruria. London. 1991. Towns and territories in southern Etruria. In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., City and Country in the Ancient World, 191-209. London. Farfa, Italy Moreland, J. 1986. Ricognizione nei dintorni di Farfa, 1985. Resoconto preliminare. Archeologia Medievale 13: 333-43. Moreland, J. 1987.The Farfa survey: a second interim report. Archeologia Medievale 14: 409-418. Moreland, J. 1992. Restoring the dialectic: settlement problems and documents in medieval central Italy. In A.B. Knapp, ed., Archaeology, Annales, and Ethnohistory, 112-29. Cambridge. Gordion, Turkey Kealhofer, L. 2005. Settlement and land use: the Gordion Regional Survey. In L. Kealhofer, ed., The Archaeology of Midas and the Phrygians: Recent Work at Gordion, 137-48. Philadelphia. Gubbio, Italy Malone, C. and Stoddart, S., eds. 1994. Territory, Time, and State: The Archaeologicl Development of the Gubbo Basin. Cambridge. Hacimusalar, Turkey Foss, P.W. n.d. The Hacimusalar Project: The Regional Survey, 1997-2001. http://www.choma.org/choma/index.php?view=doc&file=hmsurvey.html Keos Cherry, J.F., Davis, J.L. and Mantzourani, E. 1991. Landscape Archaeology as Long-term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands. Los Angeles. Kommos, Crete Hope Simpson, R. et al. 1995. The archaeological survey of the Kommos area. In J.W. Shaw and M.C. Shaw, eds., Kommos I. The Kommos Region and Houses of the Minoan Town. Part 1: The Kommos Region, Ecology, and Minoan Industries, 325-402. Princeton. Kythera Bevan, A. 2002. The rural landscape of Neopalatial Kythera: a GIS perspective. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15.2: 217-255. Broodbank, C. 1999. Kythera survey: preliminary report on the 1998 season. BSA 94: 191-214. 23

Lasithi, Crete Watrous, L.V. 1982. Lasithi: A History of Settlement on a Highland Plain in Crete. (Hesperia Suppl. 18). Princeton. Laconia Cavanagh, W.G., Crouwel, J., Catling, R.W.V., and Shipley, G. 2002. Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape: The Laconia Survey. Vol. I: Methodology and Interpretation. (BSA Supplementary vol. 26). London. Cavanagh, W.G., Crouwel, J., Catling, R.W.V., and Shipley, G. 1996. Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape: The Laconia Survey. Vol. II: Archaeological Data. (BSA Supplementary vol. 26). London. Cavanagh, W.G., Mee, C. and James, P. 2005. The Laconia Rural Sites Project (BSA Supplementary vol. 36). London. Libya Barker, G. and Jones, G.D.B. The UNESCO Libyan Valleys Survey 1980. Libyan Studies 12: 9-48. Barker, G. and Jones, G.D.B. 1982. The UNESCO-Libyan Valleys Survey: palaeoeconomy and environmental archaeology in the Libyan pre-desert. Libyan Studies 13: 1-34. Barker, G. and Jones, G.D.B. 1984. The UNESCO-Libyan Valleys Survey: investigations of a Romano-Libyan farm, Part I. Libyan Studies 15: 1-44. Barker, G. and Jones, G.D.B. 1985. Investigating ancient agriculture on the Saharan fringe: the UNESCO Libyan Valleys survey. In S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds., Archaeological Field Survey in Britain and Abroad, 225-41. London. Buck, D. and Mattingly, D.J., eds. 1985. Town and Country in Roman Tripolitania (BAR Int. 274). Oxford. Mattingly, D.J. 1989. Field survey in the Libyan Valleys. Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 275-80. Van der Veen, M. 1985. The UNESCO-Libyan Valleys Survey: botanic evidence for ancient farming in the predesert. Libyan Studies 16: 15-28. Melos Renfrew, C. and Wagstaff, J.M., eds. 1982. An Island Polity: the archaeology of exploitation in Melos. Cambridge. Mesara Plain, Crete Watrous, L.V., Hadzi-Vallianou, D., and Blitzer, H., eds. 2004. The Plain of Phaistos: Cycles of Social Complexity in the Mesara Region of Crete (Monumenta Archaeologica 23). Los Angeles. Metaponto, Italy Carter, J.C. 2005. Discovering the Greek Countryside at Metaponto. Ann Arbor. [See also references to J.C. Carter listed above, s.v. Colonization.] Thompson, S. 2004. Side-by-side and back-to-front: exploring intra-regional latitudinal and longitudinal comparability in survey data. Three case studies from Metaponto, southern Italy. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, 65-85. Oxford. Methana Mee, C., and Forbes, H., eds. 1997. A Rough and Rocky Place: The Landscape and Settlement History of the Methana Peninsula, Greece. Liverpool. [Review by J.F. Cherry, Under the volcano: survey on Methana, Journal of Roman Archaeology 12 (1999) 499-506.] Molise, Italy Barker, G. 1981. Landscape and Society: Prehistoric Central Italy. London. 24

Barker, G., Lloyd, J. and Webley, D. 1978. A classical landscape in Molise. PBSR 46: 35-51. Lloyd, J. and Barker, G. 1981. Rural settlement in Roman Molise: problems of archaeological survey. In G. Barker and R. Hodges, eds., Archaeology and Italian Society: Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval Studies (BAR Int. 102), 281-304. Oxford. Barker, G. 1977. The archaeology of Samnite settlement in Molise. Antiquity 51: 20-24. Barker, G. 1991. Two valleys, one valley: an Annaliste perspective. In J. Bintliff, ed., The Annales School and Archaeology, 34-56. Leicester. Barker, G., ed. 1995 A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in Biferno Valley . London. Barker, G. ed. 1995. The Biferno Valley Survey: The Archaeological and Geomorphological Record. London. Lloyd, J. 1991. Farming the highlands: Samnium and Arcadia in the Hellenistic and early Roman Imperial periods. In G. Barker & J. Lloyd, eds., Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 180-93. London. Montarrenti Barker, G. 1983. The Montarrenti survey, 1982. Archeologia Medievale 10: 339. Barker, G. and Symonds, J. 1984. The Montarrenti survey, 1982-3. Archeologia Medievale 11: 278-89. Nemea Cherry, J.F. et al. 1988. Archaeological survey in an artefact-rich landscape: a Middle Neolithic example from Nemea, Greece. American Journal of Archaeology 92: 159-76. Wright, J.C. et al. 1990. The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project: a preliminary report. Hesperia 59: 579659. Cherry, J.F., and Davis, J.L. 2001. Under the sceptre of Agamemnon: the view from the hinterlands of Mycenae. In K. Branigan, ed., Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age, 141-59. Sheffield. North Africa Dietz, S., Seba, L.L., and Ben Hassen, H., eds. 1995. Africa Proconsularis: Regional Studies in the Segermes Valley of Northern Tunesia [sic], 2 vols. Copenhagen. Leveau, P., Sillires, P., and Vallat, J.-P. 1993. Campagnes de la Mditerrane romaine, 155-200 (LAfrique du Nord). Paris. Stone, D.L. 2004. Problems and possibilities in comparative survey: a North African perspective. In S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World , 132-46. Oxford. Pylos Davis, J.L., Alcock, S.E., Bennet, J., Lolos, Y.G., and Shelmerdine, C.W. 1997. The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project: Part I, overview and the archaeological survey. Hesperia 68: 391-494. Zangger, E., Timpson, M.E., Yazvenko, S., Kuhnke, F., and Knauss, J. 1997. The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project: Part II, landscape evolution and site preservation. Hesperia 68: 548-641. Davis, J.L., Alcock, S.E., Bennet, J., Lolos, Y.G., and Shelmerdine, C.W., and Zangger, E. n.d. The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project: internet edition. Available at: http://river.blg.uc.edu/prap/PRAP.html Pseira, Crete Betancourt, P.P., Davaras, C, and Hope Simpson, R., eds. 2004. The Archaeological Survey of Pseira Island. (Pseira series, vol. 8). Philadelphia. Sagalassos, Turkey Vanhaverbeke, H., and Waelkens, M. 2003. Chora of Sagalassos: The Evolution of the Settlement Pattern from Prehistoric until Recent Times (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 5). Turnhout.

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Southern Argolid Runnels, C.N. and van Andel, T.H. 1987a. Beyond the Acropolis: the archaeology of the Greek countryside. Stanford. Runnels, C.N. and van Andel, T.H. 1987b. The evolution of settlement in the Southern Argolid, Greece: an economic explanation. Hesperia 56: 303-34. Jameson, M.H., Runnels, C.N., and van Andel, T.J. 1994. A Greek Countryside: The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present Day. Stanford. [Review by C. Broodbank, Journal of Field Archaeology 24: 37174.] Runnels, C.N., Pullen, D.J. and Langdon, S., eds. 1995. Artifact and Assemblage: The Finds from a Regional Survey of the Southern Argolid, Greece. Stanford. Sutton, S.B., ed. 2000. Contingent Countryside: Settlement, Economy, and Land Use in the Southern Argolid since 1700. Stanford. Acheson, P.E. 1997. Does the economic explanation work? Settlement, agriculture and erosion in the territory of Halieis in the Late Classical-Early Hellenistic period. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 10: 165-90. Tiber Valley Patterson, H., ed. 2004. Bridging the Tiber: Approaches to Regional Archaeology in the Middle Tiber Valley (Archaeological Monographs of the British School at Rome 13). London. Tuscania Barker, G. 1988. The archaeology of the Etruscan countryside. Antiquity 62: 772-85. Barker, G. and Rasmussen, T. 1988. The archaeology of an Etruscan polis: a preliminary report on the Tuscania Project (1986 and 1987 season). PBSR 56: 25-42. Rasmussen, T. 1991. Tuscania and its territory. In G. Barker and J. Lloyd, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region, 106-14. London. Gilbertson, D.D., and C.O. Hunt, C.O. 1987. An outline and synthesis of the geoarchaeological development of the southern Montagnola Senese, Tuscany. Archeologia Medievale 14: 349-408. Hunt, C., Gilbertson, D.D. and Donahue, D.E. 1992. Palaeobiological evidence for late Holocene soil erosion in the Montagnola Senese, Tuscany, Italy. In M. Bell and J. Boardman, eds., Past and Present Soil Erosion: Archaeological and Geographical Perspectives (Oxbow Monograph 22), 163-74. Oxford.

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