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San Beda College of Law

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MEMORY AID

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REMEDIAL LAW

CIVIL PROCEDURE
RULE 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS Statutes regulating the procedure of courts will be construed as applicable to actions pending and undetermined at the time of their passage so long as vested rights will not be impaired. Under the 1987 Constitution, the rulemaking power of the Supreme Court has the following limitations: 1. shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases; 2. Uniform for all courts of the same grade, and 3. Shall not diminish, increase or modify substantive rights (Art. VIII Sec. 5[5]). Section 3. Cases governed. ACTION CLAIM
An ordinary suit in a court of justice A right possessed by one against another

(B) ACTION IN REM


Directed against the thing itself

ACTION IN ACTION PERSONAM QUASI IN REM


Directed against particular persons Directed against particular persons

Judgment is Judgment is Judgment binding on the binding only binding upon whole world upon parties particular impleaded or persons, but their the real motive successors in is to deal with interest real property or to subject said property to certain claims. Ex. Land Ex. action to Ex. Unlawful registration recover detainer or case; probate damages; forcible entry; proceedings action for judicial for allowance breach of foreclosure of of a will. contract mortgage.

One party prosecutes The moment said another for the claim is filed before a enforcement or court, the claim is protection of a right converted into an or the prevention or action or suit. redress of a wrong.

The distinction determining the judgment. (C) REAL ACTION

is important in EFFECT of the

CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS. (A) ORDINARY CIVIL SPECIAL CIVIL ACTION ACTION


Governed by ordinary rules Also governed by ordinary rules but SUBJECT to specific rules prescribed (Rules 62 to 71).

PERSONAL ACTION

MIXED ACTION

Formal demand of Special features not ones legal rights in a found in ordinary civil court of justice in the actions manner prescribed by the court or by the law

Ownership or personal property is Both real and possession of sought to be personal real property is recovered or where properties are involved damages for breach involved of contract are sought Founded on Founded on privity Founded on privity of of contract both estate ex. Accion Ex. Action for a sum ex. Accion reinvidicatoria of money publiciana with a claim for damages

The distinction is significant in the determination of venue. With respect to mixed actions, the rules on venue of real actions shall govern, i.e., where the real property is located.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
(D) LOCAL ACTION
Must be brought in a particular place, in the absence of an agreement to the contrary Ex. Action to recover real property

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REMEDIAL LAW

TRANSITORY ACTION
Generally, must be brought where the party resides regardless of where the cause of action arose Ex. Action to recover sum of money

Section 6. Construction. General Rule: Liberal construction . Exceptions: a. reglementary periods b. rule on forum shopping

RULE 2 CAUSE OF ACTION Section 2. Cause of Action, defined. Essential elements of cause of action 1. Existence of a legal right of the plaintiff; 2. Correlative legal duty of the defendant to respect ones right; 3. Act or omission of the defendant in violation of the plaintiffs legal right; and 4. Compliance with a condition precedent. CAUSE OF ACTION RIGHT OF ACTION
delict or wrongful act remedial right or right or omission committed to relief granted by by the defendant in law to a party to violation of the institute an action primary rights of the against a person who plaintiff has committed a delict or wrong against him The reason for the the remedy or means action afforded or the consequent relief the formal statement right that is given of alleged facts the right to litigate because of the occurrence of the alleged facts Determined by facts determined by as alleged in the substantive law complaint and not the prayer therein

Section 5. Commencement of action. An action is commenced by: 1. filing of the complaint (the date of the filing determines whether or not the action has already prescribed); and 2. payment of the requisite docket fees (determined on the basis of the amount of the claim including the damages indicated in body or the prayer of the pleading) It is not simply the filing of the complaint or the appropriate initiatory pleading but also the payment of the prescribed docket fee that vests a trial court with jurisdiction over the subject matter or nature of the action. The court may allow the payment of the deficient docket fee within a reasonable period but not beyond the applicable prescriptive or reglementary period. An action can be commenced by filing the complaint by registered mail. In which case, it is the date of mailing that is considered as the date of filing, and not the date of the receipt thereof by the clerk of court. The date of the filing of an amended complaint joining additional defendant is the date of the commencement of the action with regard to such additional defendant.

RELIEF

REMEDY

SUBJECT MATTER

the redress, the the thing, protection, procedure or wrongful act, award or type of contract or coercive action which property which measure which may be is

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID

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REMEDIAL LAW

be one action for damages (Blossom & Co. vs. Manila Gas Corp., 55 Phil. 226)
the plaintiff prays the court to render in his favor as a consequence of the delict committed by the defendant availed of by directly the plaintiff involved in the as the means action, to obtain the concerning desired which the relief wrong has been done and with respect to which the controversy has arisen.

Section 5. Joinder of causes of action. Rule in this section is PERMISSIVE and the plaintiff can always file a separate action for each cause of action. Par. (a): The joinder of causes of action may involve the same or different parties. If the joinder involved different parties, it must comply with Sec. 6 Rule 3, thus, there must be a question of fact or law common to both parties joined arising out of the same or series of transactions. Par. (b) requires that: only causes of action in ordinary civil actions may be joined, obviously because they are subject to the same rules. Par. (c) As long as one cause of action falls within the jurisdiction of the RTC, the case can be filed there even if the MTC has jurisdiction over the others. Pars. (d) embodies the TOTALITY RULE Section 33 BP129, as amended by RA 7691 - Where there are several claims or causes of actions between the same or different parties, embodied in the same complaint, the amount of the demand shall be the totality of the claims in all the causes of actions, irrespective of whether the causes of action arose out of the same or different transactions. SPLITTING OF JOINDER OF CAUSE OF ACTION CAUSES OF ACTION
There is a single cause Contemplates several of action causes of action PROHIBITED. Causes multiplicity of suits and double vexation on the part of the defendant ENCOURAGED. Minimizes multiplicity of suits and inconvenience on the parties

Section 4. Splitting a single cause of action, effect of. SPLITTING OF CAUSE OF ACTION is the practice of dividing one cause of action into different parts and making each part subject of a separate complaint. Applies NOT only to complaints but also to counterclaims and crossclaims. Remedy against splitting a single cause of action: A. Motion to dismiss on the ground of: Litis pendentia, if the first complaint is still pending (Rule 16, Sec. 1[e]); or Res judicata, if any of the complaints is terminated by final judgment (Rule 16, Sec. 1[f]) B. An answer alleging either of the above-cited grounds as affirmative defense (Rule 16, Sec. 6) General Rule on Divisible Contract A contract to do several things at several times is divisible, and judgment for a single breach of a continuing contract is not a bar to a suit for a subsequent breach. Doctrine of Anticipatory Breach Even if the contract is divisible in its performance and the future periodic deliveries are not yet due, if the obligor has already manifested his refusal to comply with his future periodic obligations, the contract is entire and the breach total, hence there can only

Section 6. Misjoinder of causes of action. Not a ground for dismissal of an action. A misjoined cause of action may be

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


13

MEMORY AID
severed and proceeded with separately. There is no sanction against non-joinder of separate causes of action since a plaintiff needs only a single cause of action to maintain an action. RULE 3 PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS Section 1. Who may plaintiff and defendant. be parties;

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REAL PARTY IN INTEREST the party who stands to be benefited in the suit or the party entitled to the avails of the suit.

Impleading the beneficiary as a party in the suit is now mandatory, in cases allowed to be prosecuted or defended by a representative. CLASSIFICATION OF PARTIES IN INTEREST 1. Indispensable parties those without whom no final determination can be had of an action. (must be joined) 2. Necessary (or proper) parties those who are not indispensable but ought to be parties if complete relief is to be accorded as to those already parties, or for a complete determination or settlement of the claim subject of the action. (may or may not be joined) 3. Representative parties someone acting in fiduciary capacity. Maybe a trustee, guardian, executor or administrator, or a party authorized by law or these Rules. An agent acting in his own name and for the benefit of an undisclosed principal may sue or be sued without joining the principal except when the contract involves things belonging to the principal 4. Pro forma parties those who are required to be joined as co-parties in suits by or against another party as may be provided by the applicable substantive law or procedural rule such as in the case of spouses under Sec. 4. 5. Quasi parties those in whose behalf a class or representative suit is brought. Section 5. persons. Minor or incompetent

REQUIREMENTS FOR A PERSON TO BE A PARTY TO A CIVIL ACTION: 1. he must be a natural or juridical person or an entity authorized by law; 2. he must have a legal capacity to sue; and 3. he must be the real party in interest. PLAINTIFFS- Those having an interest in the subject matter of the action or in obtaining the relief demanded. DEFENDANTS: 1. persons who claim an interest in the controversy or the subject thereof adverse to the plaintiff; or 2. who are necessary to a complete determination or settlement of the questions involved therein; or 3. all those who ordinarily should be joined as plaintiffs but who do not consent thereto, the reason therefore being stated in the complaint. Neither a dead person nor his estate may be a party plaintiff in a court action Considering that capacity to be sued is correlative of the capacity to sue, to the same extent, a decedent does not have the capacity to be sued and may not be named a party defendant in a court action (Ventura vs. Militante 316 SCRA 226). Section 3. Representatives as parties.

Under the present rule, a person need not be judicially declared to be incompetent in order that the court may

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
appoint a guardian ad litem. It is enough that he be alleged to be incompetent. The suit can be brought by or against the minor or incompetent person personally BUT with the assistance of his parents or guardian.

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REMEDIAL LAW

without their presence made in their absence without affecting them

JOINT DEBTORS indispensable party with respect to own share and a necessary party with respect to the share of the others.

Section parties.

6.

Permissive

joinder

of SOLIDARY DEBTORS either is indispensable and the other is not even a necessary party because complete relief may be obtained from either. Section 9. Non-joinder of necessary parties to be pleaded. The non-inclusion of a necessary party may be excused only on meritorious grounds. The court may order the inclusion of the omitted necessary party if jurisdiction over his person may be obtained by ordering plaintiff to file an amended complaint impleading the necessary party therein as co-defendant. The only sanction for failure to implead a necessary party when ordered by the court and jurisdiction can be obtained over said party is a waiver of the claim against him. This is considered as an exception to the provision on penalties imposed on a disobedient party under Sec. 3 of Rule 17 which would have entailed the dismissal of the complaint itself. Section 11. Misjoinder and non-joinder of parties. Neither misjoinder nor non-joinder of parties is a ground for dismissal of the action. Objections to defects in parties should be made at the earliest opportunity the moment such defect becomes apparent by a MOTION TO STRIKE THE NAMES OF THE PARTIES impleaded.

PERMISSIVE JOINDER the aggregate sum of all the claims, determines the jurisdiction of the court. Requisites of permissive joinder of parties. 1. Right to relief arises out of the same transaction or series of transactions; 2. There is a question of law or fact common to all the plaintiffs or defendants; and 3. Such joinder is not otherwise proscribed by the provisions of the Rules on jurisdiction and venue. SERIES OF TRANSACTIONS transactions connected with the same subject of the action. INDISPENSABLE PARTIES
The action cannot proceed unless they are joined No valid judgment if indispensable party is not joined

NECESSARY PARTIES
The action can proceed even in the absence of some necessary parties The case may be determined in court but the judgment therein will not resolve the entire controversy if a necessary party is not joined They are those whose presence is necessary to adjudicate the whole controversy but whose interests are so far separable that a final decree can be

They are those with such an interest in the controversy that a final decree would necessarily affect their rights so that the court cannot proceed

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


15

MEMORY AID
If there is misjoinder, a separate action should be brought against the party misjoined. The absence of an indispensable party renders all subsequent actions of the court null and void for want of authority to act, not only as to the absent parties but even as to those present.

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5. amendment to the pleading when identity or true name is discovered 6. defendant is the defendant being sued, not a mere additional defendant Service of summons upon a defendant whose identity is unknown may be made by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in accordance with Section 14 of Rule 14.

Section 12. Class suit. REQUISITES OF A CLASS /REPRESENTATIVE SUIT. 1. subject matter of the controversy is one of common or general interest to many persons; 2. parties affected are so numerous that it is impracticable to bring them all before the court; 3. parties bringing the class suit are sufficiently numerous or representative of the class and can fully protect the interests of all concerned. Class Suit
There is one single cause of action pertaining to numerous persons

Section 15. Entity without juridical personality as defendant. They may be sued under the name by which they are generally known, but they cannot sue under such name for lack of juridical personality. The service of summons may be effected upon all the defendants by serving upon any of them, or upon the person in charge of the office or place of business maintained under such name. (Sec. 8, Rule 14) INSTANCES WHERE SUBSTITUTION OF PARTIES IS PROPER: A. Death of party; duty of counsel (Sec. 16) This provision applies where the claim is not thereby extinguished as in cases involving property and property rights such as: 1. recovery of real and personal property against the estate. 2. enforcement of liens on such properties 3. recovery for an injury to person or property by reason of tort or delict committed by the deceased. In this case, the heirs will be substituted for the deceased OR if no legal representative is named then the court will order the opposing party to procure the appointment of an executor or

Permissive Joinder of Parties


There are multiple causes of action separately belonging to several persons.

Section 14. Unknown identity or name of defendant. Requisites: 1. there is a defendant 2. his identity or name is unknown 3. fictitious name may be used because of ignorance of defendants true name and said ignorance is alleged in the complaint 4. identifying description may be used: sued as unknown owner, heir, devisee, or other designation

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


16

MEMORY AID
administrator for the estate of the deceased. In case of minor heirs, the court may appoint a guardian ad litem for them. The substitute defendant need not be summoned. The ORDER OF SUBSTITUTION shall be served upon the parties substituted for the court to acquire jurisdiction over the substitute party

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UNLESS there are several plaintiffs, in which case, the remaining plaintiffs can proceed with their own cause of action. Section 20. Action money claims. on contractual

Requisites: 1. The action must primarily be for recovery of money, debt, or interest thereon, and not where the money sought therein is merely incidental thereto. 2. The claim, subject of the action, arose from a contract, express or implied, entered into by the decedent in his lifetime or the liability for which had been assumed by or is imputable to him. If defendant dies before entry of final judgment in the court where it was pending at that time, the action shall not be dismissed but shall be allowed to continue until entry of final judgment thereon. However, execution shall not issue in favor of the winning party. It should be filed as a claim against the estate of the decedent. Section 21. Indigent party. Indigent one who has no property or income sufficient for his support aside from his labor, even if he is selfsupporting when able to work and in employment. He need not be a pauper to entitle him to litigate in forma pauperis. While the authority to litigate as an indigent party may be granted upon an ex parte application and hearing, it may be contested by the adverse party at any time before judgment is rendered. RULE 4 VENUE OF ACTIONS

If there is failure to notify the fact of death: the case may continue and proceedings will be held valid, and judgment will bind the successors in interest. B. Death or separation of a party who is a public officer (Sec. 17) The action may be maintained by and against his successor. The action contemplated here is one brought against the public officer in his official capacity. C. Supervening Incompetence or incapacity of a party (Sec. 18) The action shall continue to be prosecuted by or against him, personally or assisted by the corresponding guardian. D. Transfer of interest (Sec. 19) Substitution of parties in this section is NOT mandatory, it being permissible to continue the action by or against the original party in case of transfer of interest pendente lite. Unless the substitution by or the joinder of the transferee is required by the court, failure to do so does not warrant the dismissal of the case. A transferee pendente lite is a proper, and not an indispensable party. The case will be dismissed if the interest of plaintiff is transferred to defendant

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
VENUE the place where an action must be instituted and tried. VENUE JURISDICTION

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actions should be filed in each place unless properly joined. Section 2. Venue of personal actions. RESIDENCE the place where the party actually resides with continuity and consistency, whether permanent or temporary, at the time the action is instituted.

Place where the action Power of the court to is instituted hear and decide a case May be waived Jurisdiction over the subject matter and over the nature of the action is conferred by law and cannot be waived Substantive

Procedural

May be changed by the Cannot be the subject written agreement of of the agreement of the parties the parties

The rule on VENUE IS NOT APPLICABLE in cases 1) Where a specific rule or law provides otherwise; or 2) The parties have validly agreed in writing before the filing of the action on the exclusive venue thereof (Sec. 4). Requisites for venue to be exclusive 1. A valid written agreement 2. Executed by the parties before the filing of the action; and 3. Exclusive nature of the venue. In the absence of qualifying or restrictive words, venue stipulation is merely permissive meaning that the stipulated venue is in addition to the venue provided for in the rule (Polytrade Corp. vs. Blanco 30 SCRA 187) Section 1. Venue of real actions. If property is located at the boundaries of two places: file one case in either place at the option of the plaintiff. If case involves two properties located in two different places: 1. If the properties are the object of the same transaction, file it in any of the two places. 2. If they are the subjects of two distinct transactions, separate

Means of waiving venue: 1. failure to object via motion to dismiss 2. affirmative relief sought in the court where the case is filed 3. voluntary submission to the court where the case is filed 4. laches Section 3. Venue of actions against non-residents. RULES 1. NON-RESIDENT FOUND IN THE PHIL. a. for personal actions where the plaintiff resides; and b. for real actions where the property is located. 2. NON RESIDENT NOT FOUND IN THE PHIL. An action may be filed only when the case involves: a. Personal status of plaintiff venue: where plaintiff resides; b. Any property of said defendant located in the Phil. venue: where the property or any portion thereof is situated or found.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
The Supreme Court has the power to order a change of venue to prevent a miscarriage of justice. Dismissal of Action for Improper Venue The court may not motu propio dismiss a complaint on the ground of improper venue. An exception is provided in Section 4 of the Revised Rule on Summary Procedure.
Filing of verified complaint with the MTC

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SUMMARY PROCEDURE IN CIVIL CASES

court may summon the defendant

court may dismiss the case outright

W/in 10 days from receipt of summons, defendant answers, incoporating compulsory counterclaim or crossclaim, and serves a copy on plaintiff

If Defendant fails to answer in 10 days The court, motu propio or on plaintiffs motion, may render judgment based on facts alleged in the complaint w/o prejudice to R9, S3 (c)

The Court should not dismiss the complaint or counterclaim if they are not verified. The requirement is merely a formal one, and not jurisdictional. It should therefore simply direct the party concerned to have it verified. PROHIBITED PLEADINGS / MOTIONS UNDER THE RULE ON SUMMARY PROCEDURE. 1. Motion to dismiss the complaint or to quash the complaint or information except on the ground of lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter or failure to comply with prior barangay conciliation (referral to the Lupon) 2. Motion for a bill of particulars 3. Motion for a new trial or for reconsideration of a judgment or for reopening of trial 4. Petition for relief from judgment 5. Motion for extension of time to file pleadings, affidavits, or any other paper 6. Memoranda 7. Petition for certiorari, mandamus, or prohibition against any interlocutory order issued by the court 8. Motion to declare defendant in default

Answer to counterclaim and crossclaim w/in 10 days

Preliminary conference w/in 30 days after last answer is filed

If plaintiff fails to appear in prelim conference, complaint may be dismissed. Defendant entitled to decision based on his counterclaim. All crossclaims dismissed.

W/in 5 days after conference, court issues record of preliminary conference

If sole defendant fails to appear, plaintiff entitled to judgment based on complaint and what is proved therein

W/in 10 days from receipt of order, submission by the parties of affidavits and position papers

RULES ON SUMMARY PROCEDURE

REMEDIAL AW COMMITTEE Rendition ofL judgment CHAIRPERSON : Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae w/in 30 days from Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and receipt of last Special Proceedings); affidavit, or w/in 15 Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence) days after last
clarificatory paper

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
9. Dilatory motions postponement 10. Reply 11. Third party complaints 12. Interventions for cases, are

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executory.

IMMEDIATELY

KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY LAW


(Title One, Book III, RA 7160)

The filing of a prohibited pleading will not suspend the period to file an answer or to appeal. Although a motion to dismiss is a prohibited pleading, its filing after the answer had already been submitted does not constitute a pleading prohibited by the summary rules. What the rules proscribe is a motion to dismiss that would stop the running of the period to file an answer and cause undue delay. While a motion to declare the defendant in default is prohibited by the rules on summary procedure, the plaintiff may nevertheless file a motion to render judgment as may be warranted when the defendant fails to file an answer. The issuance of the pre-trial order is an important part of the summary procedure because it is its receipt by the parties that begins the ten-day period to submit the affidavits and other evidence. TRIAL PROCEDURE IN CIVIL CASES No trial date is set. No testimonial evidence is required nor crossexamination of witnesses allowed. All that is required is that within (10) days from receipt by the parties of the courts pre-trial order, they shall submit (1) the affidavits of their witnesses (2) and other evidence on the factual issues set forth in the pre-trial order, Together with their position papers setting forth the law and the facts relied upon by them. Judgments of inferior courts in cases governed by summary procedure are appealable to the RTC. The decision of the RTC in civil cases under this rule, including ejectment

No complaint, petition, action, or proceeding involving any matter within the authority of the lupon shall be filed or instituted directly in court or any other government office for adjudication UNLESS 1. there has been a confrontation between the parties before the lupon chairman or pangkat, AND 2. that no conciliation or settlement has been reached OR unless the settlement has been repudiated by the parties thereto.

CASES NOT COVERED BY THE KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY LAW: 1. Where one party is the government or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof; 2. Where one party is a public officer or employee, and the dispute relates to the performance of his official functions; 3. Offenses punishable by imprisonment exceeding 1 year or a fine exceeding P5,000.00; 4. Offenses where there is no private offended party; 5. Where the dispute involves real properties located in different cities or municipalities UNLESS the parties thereto agree to submit their differences to amicable settlement by an appropriate lupon; 6. Disputes involving parties who actually reside in barangays of different cities or municipalities, EXCEPT where such barangay units adjoin each other and the parties thereto agree to submit their differences to amicable

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
settlement by an appropriate lupon; 7. Such other classes of disputes which the President may determine in the interest of justice. However, the court may, at any time before trial, motu proprio refer the case to the lupon concerned for amicable settlement, non criminal cases not falling within the authority of the latter. While the dispute is under mediation, conciliation, or arbitration, the prescriptive periods for offenses and cause of action under existing laws shall be interrupted upon filing of the complaint with the punong barangay.

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violence, or intimidation. Such repudiation shall be sufficient basis for the issuance of the certification for filing a complaint in court or any government office for adjudication. RULES ON VENUE UNDER THE KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY LAW 1. Disputes between residents of the same barangay shall be brought for settlement before lupon of said barangay 2. Residents of different barangays within the same city or municipality in the barangay where the respondent or any of the respondents reside at the election of the complainant 3. Disputes involving real property or any interest therein- where real property or larger portion thereof is situated

THE PARTIES MAY GO DIRECTLY TO COURT IN THE FOLLOWING INSTANCES: 1. Where the accused is under detention; 2. Where the person has otherwise been deprived of personal liberty calling for habeas corpus proceeding; 3. Where the actions are coupled with provisional remedies such as preliminary injunction, attachment, delivery of personal property, and support pendente lite; and 4. Where the action may otherwise be barred by the statute of limitations. The parties may, at any stage of the proceedings, agree in writing to have the matter in dispute decided by arbitration by either the Punong Barangay or Pangkat. In such case, arbitrational hearings shall follow order of adjudicative trials. The settlement and arbitration agreement may be repudiated on the ground that consent is vitiated by fraud,

4. Disputes arising at the WORKPLACE where the contending parties are employed or at the INSTITUTION where such parties are enrolled for study in the barangay where such workplace or institution located.
CHART ON KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY, SEE PAGE 22.

PROCEDURE IN REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS RULE 6 KINDS OF PLEADINGS Section 1. Pleadings defined. PLEADINGS the written allegations of the parties of their respective claims and defenses submitted to the court for appropriate judgment. A motion to dismiss is NOT a pleading. It is the allegations or averments in the pleading that determines the jurisdiction

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


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MEMORY AID
of the court and the nature of the action. PLEADING MOTION

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It relates to the cause An application for an of action; interested order not included in in the matters to be the judgment included in the judgment. May be initiatory Cannot be initiatory as they are always made in a case already filed in court May be filed even after judgment

TEST OF SUFFICIENCY: if upon admission or proof of the facts being alleged, a judgment may be properly given. A fact is essential if it cannot be stricken out without leaving the statement of the cause of action insufficient. Section 4. Answer ANSWER the pleading where the defendant sets forth his affirmative or negative defenses.

Always filed before judgment

Section 3. Complaint. COMPLAINT is a concise statement of the ultimate facts constituting the plaintiffs cause or causes of action, with

a specification of the relief sought, but it may add a general prayer for such further relief as may be deemed just or equitable. ULTIMATE FACTS - essential facts constituting the plaintiffs cause of action. What are NOT ultimate facts: 1. Evidentiary or immaterial facts. 2. Legal conclusions, conclusions or inferences of facts from facts not stated, or incorrect inferences or conclusions from facts stated. 3. The details of probative matter or particulars of evidence, statements of law, inferences and arguments. 4. An allegation that a contract is valid or void is a mere conclusion of law.

2 kinds of defenses that may be set forth in the answer: a. AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES allegation of a new matter which while hypothetically admitting the material allegations in the pleading, would nevertheless prevent or bar recovery by him. It is in the nature of Confession and Avoidance b. NEGATIVE DEFENSES specific denial of the material facts or facts alleged in the pleading Insufficient denial or denial amounting to admissions: 1. General denial 2. Denial in the form of a negative pregnant Section 6. Counterclaim COUNTERCLAIM any claim which a defending party may have against an opposing party.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


22

MEMORY AID
Nature of counterclaim: A counterclaim is in the nature of a cross-complaint. Although it may be alleged in the answer, it is not part of the answer. Upon its filing, the same proceedings are had as in the original complaint. For this reason, it must be answered within ten (10) days from service. Section 7. Compulsory Counterclaim
Filing of complaint w/ the Punong Barangay (PB)

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RULES ON COUNTERCLAIM A counterclaim before the MTC must be within the jurisdiction of said court, next working and day nature both asW/in to the the amount thereof (De Chua vs. IAC).
Issuance of summons to the parties and the witnesses

At any time during the Proceedings

Parties agree to submit the dispute for arbitration

Mediation (hearing) Failure of mediation efforts

DOCTRINE OF ANCILLARY JURISDICTION In an original action before the RTC, the counterclaim may be considered Arbitration Hearings compulsory regardless of the amount (Sec. 7, Rule 6 ). If a counterclaim is filed in the MTC in excess of its jurisdictional amount, the excess is considered waived (Agustin vs. Bacalan). Award to be of l, the remedy In Calo Repudiation vs. Ajax Int where made after the arbitration a counterclaim is beyond the jurisdiction lapse of the agreement of the within 5 days period to MTC is to set off the claims and a agreement w/infile 10 days separate action to collect the balance. thereafter COMPULSORY COUNTERCLAIM PERMISSIVE COUNTERCLAIM
from date of repudiate and

KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY PROCEDURE Settlement

Constitution of the Pangkat

Execution w/in 6 months from date thereof

Pangkat convenes not later than 3 days from its constitution and summons the parties
Pangkat must arrive at a settlement w/in 15 days from the day it convenes

Conciliation (hearing)

Execution w/in One which arises out It does not arise out of 6 months from of or is necessarily nor is it necessarily the date of the connected with the connected with the award transaction or subject matter of the occurrence that is the opposing partys subject matter of the claim. opposing partys claim. Repudiation of settlement w/in 10 days from date thereof It does not require for It may require for its Note: Repudiation shall its adjudication the adjudication the only be allowed on ground presence of third presence of third of vitiation of consent by parties of whom the parties over whom the fraud, violence or court cannot acquire court cannot acquire intimidation.

Settlement

Failure of Conciliation ISSUANCE OF hearings at the Pangkat REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE Level and of Arbitration CERTIFICATION FOR CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae FILING OF A hearings shall also lead to Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia COMPLAINT (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and the issuance of IN COURT Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence) certification for filing a complaint in court.

Execution w/in 6 months from the date of settlement

San Beda College of Law


23

MEMORY AID
jurisdiction. It is barred if not set up in the action. Need not be answered; no default. jurisdiction. It is NOT barred even if not set up in the action. Must be answered, otherwise, the defendant can be declared in default.

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GENERAL RULE: A compulsory counterclaim not set up in the answer is deemed barred. EXCEPTION: If it is an after-acquired counterclaim, that is, such claim matured after filing of the answer. In this case, it may be pleaded by filing an amended answer or a supplemental answer or pleading.

Must arise out May arise out of Must be in of the or be necessarily respect of transaction connected with the that is the the transaction opponents subject matter or that is the claim of the orig. subject matter (Plaintiff) action or of a of the opposing counterclaim partys claim, in therein. which case, it is called a compulsory counterclaim, or it may not, in which case it is called a permissive counterclaim.

Section 10. Reply. REPLY - the response of the plaintiff to the defendants answer. EFFECT OF FAILURE TO REPLY: new facts that were alleged in the answer are deemed controverted. Hence, the filing of the reply is optional except for the denial of the genuineness and due execution of an actionable document used as defense in the answer. Section 11. Third (fourth, etc.) party complaint. THIRD (FOURTH,ETC.) PARTY COMPLAINT a claim that a defending party may, with leave of court, file against a person not a party to the action for contribution, indemnity, subrogation or any other relief, in respect of his opponents claim. THIRD-PARTY COMPLAINT
Brings into the action a third person who was not originally a party.

Section 8. Cross-claim CROSS-CLAIM any claim by one party against a co-party arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter either of the original action or counterclaim. If it is not set up in the action, it is barred, except: 1. when it is outside the jurisdiction of the court or; 2. if the court cannot acquire jurisdiction over third parties whose presence is necessary for the adjudication of said cross-claim. In which case, the considered permissive. cross-claim is

The dismissal of the complaint carries with it the dismissal of a cross-claim which is purely defensive, but not a cross-claim seeking affirmative relief. Cross Claim Counterclaim 3rd-party Complaint

COMPLAINT IN INTERVENTION
Same

Initiative is with the Initiative is with a person already a party non-party who seeks to the action. to join the action.

Against a co- Against an Against a party opposing party person not a party to the action

TESTS to determine whether the thirdparty complaint is in respect of plaintiffs claim:

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


24

MEMORY AID
1. Where it arises out of the same transaction on which the plaintiffs claim is based, or, although arising out of another or different transaction, is connected with the plaintiffs claim; 2. Whether the third-party defendant would be liable to the plaintiff or to the defendant for all or part of the plaintiffs claim against the original defendant; and 3. Whether the third-party defendant may assert any defenses which the third-party plaintiff has or may have to the plaintiffs claim. Leave of court to file a third-party complaint may be obtained by motion under Rule 15. Summons to new party (third, fourth, etc.) is needed for the court to obtain jurisdiction over his person, since he is not an original party. Where the trial court has jurisdiction over the main case, it also has jurisdiction over the third party complaint, regardless of the amount involved as a third party complaint is merely auxiliary to and is a continuation of the main action (Republic v. Central Surety & Insurance Co. L-27802, Oct. 26, 1968). Section 12. Bringing new parties. Distinguished from 3rd-party complaint: A 3rd-party complaint is proper when not one of the third-party defendants therein is a party to the main action. But if one or more of the defendants in a counterclaim or cross-claim is already a party to the action, then the other necessary parties may be brought in under this section. RULE 7 PARTS OF A PLEADING Section 3. Signature and address.

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The signature of the counsel is a certification that: 1. That he has read the pleading; 2. There is good ground to support it; and 3. It is not interposed for delay Only the original copies must be signed. UNSIGNED PLEADING may be stricken out as sham and false, and the action may proceed as though the pleading has not been served. It has no legal effect. Section 4. Verification. Pleadings need NOT be verified EXCEPT when otherwise provided by the law or rules. A verification must now be based on personal knowledge or based on authentic records.

Section 5. Certification against forum shopping. FORUM SHOPPING the filing of a two or more cases based on the same cause of action in different courts for the purpose of obtaining a favorable decision in either. Test to determine the presence of forum-shopping: whether in the two (or more) cases pending, there is identity of (a) parties, (b) rights or causes of action, and (c) reliefs sought. The certificate is to be executed by petitioner, and not by counsel. Required ONLY for initiatory pleadings. complaints or

Certificate of non-forum shopping is not required in a compulsory counterclaim (UST Hosp. vs. Surla). EFFECT OF FAILURE TO COMPLY: 1. Not curable by amendment of said pleading 2. shall be cause for the dismissal of the case, without prejudice,

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


25

MEMORY AID
unless otherwise provided, upon motion and after hearing EFFECT OF SUBMISSION OF FALSE CERTIFICATION OR NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE UNDERTAKINGS THEREIN: 1. indirect contempt 2. administrative and criminal actions EFFECT OF WILFULL AND DELIBERATE FORUM SHOPPING: 1. shall be ground for summary dismissal of the case with prejudice; 2. direct contempt. RULE 8 MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN A PLEADING Pleadings should state ultimate facts essential to the right of action. ULTIMATE FACTS: those which directly form the bases of the right sought to be enforced or the defense relied upon. If the ultimate facts are NOT alleged, the cause of action would be insufficient. Section 4. Capacity. Capacity to sue and be sued either personally or in representative capacity must be specifically averred by the party suing or being sued, and specifically denied by the party questioning such capacity. Capacity is challenged by specific denial, motion to dismiss or bill of particulars. Section 5. Fraud, mistake, condition of the condition FACTS THAT MAY BE AVERRED GENERALLY: 1. Conditions precedent (BUT there must still be an allegation that the specific condition precedent has been complied with, otherwise, it will be dismissed

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REMEDIAL LAW

for failure to state a cause of action) 2. Malice, intent, knowledge, or other condition of the mind 3. Judgments of domestic or foreign courts, tribunals, boards, or officers (no need to show jurisdiction) 4. Official document or act FACTS THAT MUST BE AVERRED PARTICULARLY: 1. Circumstances showing fraud or mistake in all averments of fraud or mistake 2. Capacity ACTIONABLE DOCUMENT written instrument upon which the action or defense is based.

Two permissible ways of pleading an actionable document: 1. By setting forth the substance of such document in the pleading and attaching said document thereto as an annex (contents of the document annexed are controlling, in case of variance in the substance of the document set forth in the pleading and in the document attached); or 2. By setting forth said document verbatim in the pleading. Where the actionable document is properly alleged, the failure to specifically deny under oath the same results in: 1. The admission of the genuineness and due execution of said document, EXCEPT that an oath is not required: a. When the adverse party was not a party to the instrument; and b. When an order for the inspection of the original

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


26

MEMORY AID
document was not complied with. 2. The document need not be formally offered in evidence. GENUINENESS That the document is not spurious, counterfeit, or of different import on its face from the one executed by the party, or that the party whose signature it bears has signed it and that at the time it was signed it was in words and figures exactly as set out in the pleadings. DUE EXECUTION That the document was signed voluntarily and knowingly by the party whose signature appears thereon. Defenses that the opposing party may set up even after failure to deny under oath: 1. Mistake; 2. fraud; 3. compromise; 4. payment; 5. prescription; 6. want or illegality of consideration; or 7. estoppel BUT the following defenses are waived: a. forgery in the signature; b. want of authority of an agent or corporation; c. want of delivery; or d. the party charged signed the instrument in some other capacity Section 10. Specific Denial THREE WAYS OF MAKING A SPECIFIC DENIAL: 1. By specifically denying each material allegation of the other party and, whenever possible, setting forth the substance of the matters relied upon for such denial; 2. Part admission or part denial; 3. By an allegation of lack of knowledge or information

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sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the averment in the opposing partys pleading (must be made in good faith). A denial must not be general. A general denial is regarded as an admission of the facts stated in the complaint and entitles plaintiff to a judgment on the pleadings. NEGATIVE PREGNANT a form of denial which at the same time involves an affirmative implication favorable to the opposing party; It is in effect, an admission of the averment to which it is directed; It is said to be a denial pregnant with an admission of the substantial facts in the pleading responded to. Section 11. Allegation not specifically denied deemed admitted. GENERAL RULE: Allegations NOT specifically denied deemed admitted (such as allegations of usury in the complaint, and the authenticity and due execution of actionable documents). EXCEPTIONS: 1. Allegations as to the amount of unliquidated damages 2. Immaterial allegations; 3. Incorrect conclusions of fact. RULE 9 EFFECT OF FAILURE TO PLEAD Section 1. Defenses and objections not pleaded. GENERAL RULE: Defenses and objections that are not pleaded in a MOTION TO DISMISS or in the answer are deemed waived. EXCEPTIONS (not waived even if not raised): 1. Lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter 2. Litis pendentia 3. Res judicata 4. Prescription of the action These defenses may be raised at any stage of the proceedings even for the

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


27

MEMORY AID
first time on appeal EXCEPT that lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter may be barred by laches. (Tijam vs. Sibonghanoy). The presence of these grounds authorizes the court to motu proprio dismiss the claims. These grounds must, however, appear from the pleadings or the evidence on record. Section 3. DEFAULT the failure of the defendant to answer within the proper period. It is not his failure to appear nor failure to present evidence. ORDER OF DEFAULT JUDGMENT BY DEFAULT

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1. Failure to answer within the proper period 2. Non-compliance with the order of the court to file a bill of particulars or in case of insufficient compliance therewith (Rule 12, Section 4) 3. Refusal to comply with the modes of discovery (Rule 29, Section 3, par. c) 4. Failure to furnish plaintiff with a copy of the answer If the defendant was declared in default upon an original complaint, the filing of the amended complaint resulted in the withdrawal of the original complaint, hence, the defendant was entitled to After the file of answer lapse time to the amended complaint as to to which file an he was not in default.
answer, the Motion denied: plaintiff may EFFECT OF ORDER OF DEFAULT: Defendant move to 1. While the party in default cannot allowed to file an declare the answer take part in the trial, he is defendant in default nonetheless entitled to notice of

issued by the court, Rendered by the court on plaintiffs motion following a default for failure of the order or after it defendant to file his received, ex parte, responsive pleading plaintiffs evidence. seasonably. Interlocutory - not Final appealable appealable

subsequent proceedings. 2. He may still be called on as a Defendant witness, in behalf of the nonanswers defaulting defendants.
Motion granted: Court issues order of default and renders judgment, or require plaintiff to submit evidence ex parte.

NO default may be declared in the following actions: 1. Annulment of marriage 2. Declaration of nullity of marriage 3. Legal Separation 4. Special civil actions of certiorari, prohibition and mandamus where comment instead of an answer is required to be filed The court cannot motu proprio declare a defendant in default. For defendant to be declared in default, the plaintiff must: 1. File a MOTION to declare defendant in default 2. Prove that summons have been properly served on the defendant 3. Prove that the defendant really failed to answer within the proper period. CAUSES OF DEFAULT

DEFAULT

Court maintains Before judgment by default is rendered, defendant may: move to set aside order of default upon showing: FAME He has a meritorious defense Avail of Rule 65 in proper cases order of default

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE

Court sets aside order of default and defendant is allowed to file an answer If plaintiff

Presentation of plaintiffs evidence exparte

CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS : Martessa proves his Nuylan, Charissimae fails to prove Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and allegations, his allegaSpecial Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

If plaintiff

Case set for pre-trial

judgment by default.

tions, case is dismissed.

San Beda College of Law


28

MEMORY AID

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REMEDIAL LAW

PARTIAL DEFAULT: 1. The pleading asserting a claim states a common cause of action against several defending parties 2. some of the defending parties answer and the others fail to do so 3. the answer interposes a common defense EFFECT OF PARTIAL DEFAULT: The court will try the case against ALL defendants upon the answer of some EXCEPT where the defense is personal to the one who answered, in which case, it will not benefit those who did not answer. REMEDY FROM JUDGMENT BY DEFAULT (FLOW CHART)
Judgment by default

EXTENT OF RELIEF TO BE AWARDED IN A JUDGMENT BY DEFAULT: Shall not exceed the amount OR be different in kind from that prayed for NOR award unliquidated damages. RULE 10 AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS AMENDMENTS Section 1. Amendments in general. When the complaint is amended, 2 situations may arise: 1. If the complaint merely corrects or modifies the original complaint, then the action is deemed commenced upon the filing of the original complaint; 2. If the amended complaint alleges a new cause of action, then that cause of action is deemed commenced upon the filing of the amended complaint. Section 2. Amendments as a matter of right. Amendment for the first time is a matter of right before a responsive pleading is filed, or in case of a Reply, within 10 days after it was served. Since a motion to dismiss is NOT a responsive pleading, an amendment may be had even if an order of dismissal has been issued as long as the amendment is made before order of dismissal becomes final. Section 3. Amendments by leave of court. Instances when amendment by leave of court may not be allowed: 1. When cause of action, defense or theory of the case is changed; 2. Amendment is intended to confer jurisdiction to the court; 3. Amendment to cure a premature or non-existing cause of action;

Motion for new trial or reconsideration at any time after service of judgment by default and within 15 (30) days therefrom

Failure to file motion for new trial/


Denial of said motion

Perfect appeal from said judgment by default within the balance of said 15 (30) - day period

Failure to appeal without defendants faulk

Petition for relief from judgment within 60 days from notice of the judgment but within 6 months from entry thereof

Annulment of Judgment under Rule 47

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


29

MEMORY AID
4. Amendment for purposes of delay. Section 5. Amendment to conform to or authorize presentation of evidence. 1ST PART: refers to amendment to conform to evidence when issues NOT raised by the pleadings are tried with the express or implied consent of the parties - but failure to amend does NOT affect the result of the trial of these issues 2ND PART: refers to amendment to authorize presentation of evidence if evidence is objected to at the trial on the ground that it is not within the issues made by the pleadings. SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS A cause of action which accrued after the filing of the original complaint may, in the discretion of the court, be pleaded in a supplemental complaint if there was a valid subsisting cause of action at the time the original complaint was filed. AMENDED PLEADING SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADING

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which expired after service of the original complaint. EFFECT OF AMENDED PLEADING: 1. Admissions in the superseded pleading can still be received in evidence against the pleader; 2. Claims or defenses alleged therein but not incorporated or reiterated in the amended pleading are deemed waived. The amended or superseded, original pleading is not expunged but remains on the record although the admission of the amended pleading amounts to withdrawal of the original pleading. RULE 11 WHEN TO FILE RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS Answer to the complaint 1. Within 15 days after service of summons, UNLESS a different period is fixed by the Court (Sec. 1) 2. In case the defendant is a foreign private juridical entity: a. if it has a resident agent within 15 days after service of summons to him b. if it has no resident agent, but it has an agent or officer in the Philippines within 15 days after service of summons to said agent or officer c. if it has no resident agent nor agent nor officer in which case service of summons is to be made on the proper government office which will then send a copy by registered mail to the home office of the foreign private corporation within 30 days after receipt of summons by the home office of the foreign private entity. 3. In case of service of summons by publication within the time specified in the order granting leave

Refers to facts Refers to facts arising existing at the time of after the filing of the the commencement original pleading. of the action. Take the place of the Taken together with original pleading. the original pleading. Can be made as a Always with leave of matter of right as court when no responsive pleading has yet been filed

Section 7. Filing of amended pleadings. The amended pleading supersedes the original pleading. An amendment which merely supplements and amplifies facts originally alleged in the complaint relates back to the date of the commencement of the action and is not barred by the statute of limitations

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


30

MEMORY AID
to serve summons by publication, which shall NOT be less than 60 days after notice (Rule 14, Sec.15). 4. In case of a non-resident defendant on whom extraterritorial service of summons is made, the period to answer should be at least 60 days. The court may extend the time to file the pleadings BUT may NOT shorten them. The 15-day period begins to run from receipt of summons. Section 3. Answer to amended complaint. 1. If the filing of an amended complaint is a matter of right within 15 days from service of the amended complaint. 2. If the filing of the amended complaint is NOT a matter of right within 10 days counted from notice of the court order admitting the same. If no new answer is filed by the defendant in case an amendment has been made after he had filed his answer, the original answer of the defendant may serve as the answer to the amended complaint, and hence, cannot be declared in default. Section 5. Answer to third (fourth, etc.)-party complaint. The third-party defendant is served with summons just like the original defendant, hence, he also has 15, 30, 60 days from service of summons, as the case may be, to file his answer. Section 7. Answer to supplemental complaint. Leave of court is required in filing, the court may fix a different period for answering the supplemental complaint in lieu of the reglementary 10-day period. Section 10. Omitted counterclaim or cross-claim.

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The pleader may set up a counterclaim or cross-claim by amendment before judgment when he fails to set it up by reason of oversight, inadvertence, or excusable neglect ort when justice requires. Leave of court is necessary. RULE 12 BILL OF PARTICULARS BILL OF PARTICULARS- a more definite statement of any matter which appears vague or obscure in a pleading. PURPOSE: to aid in the preparation of a responsive pleading. Motion for bill of particulars must be filed within the reglementary period for the filing of a responsive pleading. The filing of a motion if sufficient in form and substance, will interrupt the time to plead. The motion for bill of particulars may be granted in whole or in part as not all the allegations questioned by the movant are necessarily ambiguous as to require clarification. A bill of particulars may be filed either in a separate or an amended pleading. A bill of particulars becomes part of the pleading which it supplements. EFFECTS OF MOTION 1. If the motion is granted, the movant can wait until the bill of particulars is served on him by the opposing party and then he will have the balance of the reglementary period within which to file his responsive pleading. 2. If his motion is denied, he will still have such balance of the reglementary period to do so, counted from service of the order denying his motion. In either case, he will have at least 5 days to file his responsive pleading. Effect of non-compliance:

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


31

MEMORY AID
1. If the Order is not obeyed or in case of insufficient compliance therewith, the court: a. may order the striking out of the pleading or the portion thereof to which the order is directed; or b. make such order as it may deem just. 2. If plaintiff, his compliant will be stricken off and dismissed (Rule 12, sec. 4; Rule 17, sec. 3) 3. If defendant, his answer will be stricken off and his counterclaim dismissed, and he will be declared in default upon motion of the plaintiff (Rule 12, sec. 4; Rule 17, sec. 4; Rule 9, sec. 3). RULE 13 FILING AND SERVICE OF PLEADINGS, JUDGMENTS AND OTHER PAPERS Notice given to a party who is duly represented by counsel is a nullity, unless service thereof on the party himself was ordered by the court or the technical defect was waived. Section 3. Manner of filing. 1. Personally 2. by registered mail Filing by mail should be through the registry service which is made by deposit of the pleading in the post office, and not through other means of transmission. If registry service is not available in the locality of either sender or addressee, service may be done by ordinary mail. If a private carrier is availed of by the party, the date of actual receipt by the court of such pleading and not the date of delivery to the carrier, is deemed to be the date of the filing of that pleading.

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NOTE: PERSONAL and SUBSTITUTED service as applied to pleadings have a different meaning compared to summons under Rule 14.

MODES OF SERVICE PLEADINGS 1. PERSONAL SERVICE a. Delivering personally a copy to the party or his counsel or; b. Leaving a copy in counsels office with his clerk or with a person having charge thereof or; c. Leaving the copy between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. at the partys or counsels residence, if known, with a person of sufficient age and discretion residing therein--if no person found in his office, or if his office is unknown, or if he has no office. 2. SERVICE BY MAIL If no registry service is available in the locality, of either sender or addressee, service may be done by ordinary mail. 3. SUBSTITUTED SERVICE Delivering the copy to the clerk of court with proof of failure of both personal and service by mail. JUDGMENTS, FINAL ORDERS, RESOLUTIONS (Sec.9) 1. By personal service; or 2. By registered mail; 3. By publication, if party is summoned by publication and has failed to appear in the action. They can be served only under the three modes. They CANNOT be served by substituted service. NOTE: A resort to modes other than by personal service must be accompanied by a written explanation why the

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


32

MEMORY AID
service or filing was not done personally (Sec. 11). Section 10. Completeness of service. 1. Personal service a. by handling a copy to defendant; or b. tendering him copy if he refuses; c. complete upon actual delivery 2. Service by ordinary mail: Complete upon expiration of 10 days after mailing, unless the court provides otherwise. 3. Service by registered mail: a. Complete upon actual receipt by the addressee; or b. After 5 days from the date he received the 1st notice of the postmaster, whichever date is earlier. Section 12. Proof of filing. Filing is proved by its existence in the record of the case. If it is not in the record, and: If filed personally: proved by the written or stamped acknowledgment of its filing by the clerk of court on a copy of the same; or If filed by registered mail: proved by -the registry receipt and the affidavit of the person who did the mailing. Section 13. Proof of service 1. Proof of personal service: a. Written admission of the party served; or b. Official return of the server; or c. Affidavit of the party serving. 2. Proof of service by ordinary mail: Affidavit of the person mailing; 3. Proof of service by registered mail: a. Affidavit, and b. Registry receipt issued by the mailing office. Section 14. Notice of lis pendens.

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LIS PENDENS - a notice of a pendency of the action between the parties involving title to or right of possession over real property. It serves as a warning to all persons, prospective purchasers or encumbrancers of the property in litigation to keep their hands off the property in litigation unless they are prepared to gamble on the result of the proceedings. The defendant may also record a notice of lis pendens when he claims an affirmative relief in his answer. Notice of lis pendens CANNOT be cancelled on an ex parte motion or upon the mere filing of a bond by the party on whose title the notice is annotated, as section 14 provides that such cancellation may be authorized ONLY upon order of court, after proper showing that: 1. The notice is for the purpose of molesting the adverse party; or 2. It is not necessary to protect the rights of the party who caused it to be recorded. RULE 14 SUMMONS PURPOSE OF SUMMONS: 1. to acquire jurisdiction over the person of the defendant, and; 2. to give notice to the defendant that an action has been commenced against him. EFFECT OF NON-SERVICE: Unless there is waiver, non-service or irregular service renders null and void all subsequent proceedings and issuances in the action from the order of default up to and including the judgment by default and the order of execution. Where the defendant has already been served with summons on the original complaint, no further summons is required on the amended complaint if it does not introduce new causes of action.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


33

MEMORY AID
But where the defendant was declared in default on the original complaint and the plaintiff subsequently filed an amended complaint, new summons must be served on the defendant on the amended complaint, as the original complaint was deemed withdrawn upon such amendment.
Service upon minors and incompetents

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Section 3. By whom served. Summons may be served by: 1. Sheriff 2. Sheriffs deputy, or 3. Other proper court officers, or 4. For justifiable reasons, by any suitable person authorized by the court issuing the summons. Enumeration is EXCLUSIVE. ALIAS SUMMONS issued when original has not produced its effect because it is defective in form or manner of service, and when issued, supersedes the first (Section 5). KINDS OF SERVICE OF SUMMONS: 1. personal service 2. substituted service 3. by publication In actions in personam where the defendant cannot be served with summons personally or by substituted service, the case must first be converted into an in rem or quasi in rem action by attaching the property of the defendant found in the Philippines before summons can be served by publication. If no property can be found, the action shall be archived but shall not be dismissed. (Citizens Surety vs. Court Appeals) SERVICE OF SUMMONS ON DIFFERENT ENTITIES
Service on entity Upon any or all w/o juridical defendants being sued personality under common name; or person in charge of office

In case of minors: by serving upon the minor, regardless of age, AND upon his legal guardian, or also upon either of his parents. In case of incompetents: by serving on him personally AND upon his legal guardian, but not upon his parents, unless when they are his legal guardians IN ANY EVENT, if the minor or incompetent has no legal guardian, the plaintiff must obtain the appointment of a guardian ad litem for him.

Service upon prisoner Service upon domestic private juridical entity ENTITY

Serve on officer having management of the jail or prison To the president, managing partner, general manager, corporate secretary, treasurer, or in-house counsel. NOTE: Service upon a person other than those mentioned is invalid and does not bind the corporation. The enumeration is EXCLUSIVE. Serve on resident agent ; or if none; on govt official designated by law; or on any officer or agent of the corporation within the Philippines. in case defendant is the Republic of the Philippines - by serving upon the Solicitor General in case of a province, city or municipality, or like public corporations by serving on its executive head, or on such other officer or officers as the law or the court may direct. Requisites

Service upon foreign private juridical entity

Service upon public corporations

Extraterritorial

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


34

MEMORY AID
service a. defendant does not reside or is not found within the Phil. b. he action either: affects the personal status of plaintiff; relates to or the subject of which is property within the Philippines in which defendant has a lien or interest; demands a relief which consists wholly or in part in excluding the defendant from any interest in any property within the Phil; or property of defendant has been attached in the Phil. Mode of service a. with leave of court served outside the Phil. By personal service; or b. with leave of court serve by publication in a newspaper of general circulation, in which case copy of the summons and order of court must also be sent by registered mail to the last known address of defendant; or c. any other manner the court deem sufficient. Service upon a resident temporarily out of the Phil. Service upon an unknown defendant or whose whereabouts are Substituted service or with leave of court, personal service out of the Phil. as under extraterritorial service With leave of court, by publication in a newspaper of general circulatiuon unknown

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Section 20. Voluntary appearance. Any form of appearance in court, by the defendant, by his agent authorized to do so, or by attorney, is equivalent to service of summons EXCEPT where such appearance is precisely to object to the jurisdiction of the court over the person of the defendant. Inclusion in a motion to dismiss of other grounds aside from lack of jurisdiction over the person of the defendant shall NOT be deemed a voluntary appearance. RULE 15 MOTIONS MOTION is an application for relief other than by a pleading. GENERAL RULE: Motions must be in writing. EXCEPTION: Those made in open court or in the course of hearing or trial. KINDS OF MOTIONS a. motion EX PARTE- made without the presence or a notification to the other party because the question generally presented is not debatable. b. motion OF COURSE where the movant is entitled to the relief or remedy sought as a matter of discretion on the part of the court. c. LITIGATED motion one made with notice to the adverse party to give an opportunity to oppose. d. SPECIAL motion- motion addressed to the discretion of the court.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


35

MEMORY AID
GENERAL RULE: A motion cannot pray for judgment. EXCEPTIONS: 1. Motion for judgment on the pleadings 2. Motion for summary judgment 3. Motion for judgment on demurrer to evidence. Section 4. Hearing on motion. 3-DAY NOTICE RULE GENERAL RULE: Service of the copy of motions should be made in such a manner as shall ensure its receipt at least 3 days before the hearing. EXCEPTIONS: 1. Ex parte motions 2. Urgent motions 3. Motions agreed upon by the parties to be heard on shorter notice or jointly submitted by the parties, and 4. Motions for summary judgment which must be served at least 10 days before its hearing 5. Non-litigated motions. Section 5. Notice of hearing. NOTICE OF HEARING shall: 1. Be addressed to all parties concerned 2. Specify the time and date of the hearing which must not be later than 10 days after the filing of the motion NOTE: Any motion that does not comply with Sections 4, 5 and 6 of this Rule is a mere scrap of paper, should not be accepted for filing and, if filed, is not entitled to judicial cognizance and does not affect any reglementary period involved for the filing of the requisite pleading. Omnibus Motion Rule - All available grounds for objection in attacking a pleading, order, judgment, or proceeding should be invoked at one time, otherwise, they shall be deemed waived. Motion for leave to file a pleading or motion shall be accompanied by the pleading or motion sought to be

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admitted, otherwise, the latter will be denied. RULE 16 MOTION TO DISMISS A Motion to Dismiss is NOT a responsive pleading. Section 1. Grounds. 1. No jurisdiction over the person of the defending party 2. No jurisdiction over the subject matter of the claim 3. Improper venue 4. No legal capacity to sue 5. Litis pendentia 6. Res judicata 7. Prescription 8. States no cause of action 9. Claim or demand has been paid, waived, abandoned, or otherwise extinguished 10. Claim is unenforceable under the Statute of Frauds 11. Non-compliance with a condition precedent for filing claim MOTION TO DISMISS MOTION TO DISMISS UNDER RULE 16 UNDER RULE 33 (demurrer to evidence)
Grounded on preliminary objections. based on insufficiency of evidence.

may be filed by any May be filed only by defending party the defendant against against whom a claim the complaint of the is asserted in the plaintiff. action. should be filed within May be filed only after the time for but prior the plaintiff has to the filing of the completed the answer of the presentation of his defending party to the evidence. pleading asserting the claim against him. If denied, defendant If denied, defendant answers, or else he may present evidence may be declared in if granted, plaintiff default appeals and the Order

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


36

MEMORY AID
If granted, plaintiff may appeal or if subsequent case is not barred, he may re-file the case of the dismissal is reversed, the defendant loses his right to present evidence.

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pleadings (Rule 34); a summary judgment (Rule 35); or an order of dismissal under Section 3 of Rule 17. When the ground for dismissal is that the complaint states no cause of action, such fact can be determined only from the facts alleged in the complaint. Where the plaintiff has not exhausted all administrative remedies, the complaint not having alleged the fact of such exhaustion, the same may be dismissed for failure to state a cause of action. Non-compliance with P.D. 1508 (Katarungang Pambarangay Law) may result to dismissal of the case on the ground of non-compliance with a condition precedent. An action cannot be dismissed on the ground that the complaint is vague or indefinite. The remedy of the defendant is to move for a bill of particulars or avail of the proper mode of discovery. GENERAL TYPES OF A MOTION TO DISMISS 1.motion to dismiss before answer under Rule 16 2.motion to dismiss under Rule 17 a.upon notice by plaintiff b. upon motion of plaintiff c.due to fault of plaintiff 3.motion to dismiss on demurrer to evidence after plaintiff has rested his case under Rule 33 4.motion to dismiss the appeal filed either in the lower court (Rule 41,Sec. 13) or in the appellate court (Rule 50, Sec.1 ). EFFECTS OF ACTION ON MTD
Order granting motion to dismiss is final order Order denying the motion to dismiss is interlocutory

Effect of motion to dismiss: A motion to dismiss hypothetically admits the truth of the facts alleged in the complaint. However, such admission is limited only to all material and relevant facts which are well pleaded in the complaint. An action cannot be dismissed on a ground not alleged in the motion even if said ground is provided for in Rule 16. EXCEPT: 1. Those cases where the court may dismiss a case motu proprio (Sec. 1, Rule 9) 2. Such ground appears in the allegations of the complaint or in plaintiffs evidence REQUISITES OF LITIS PENDENTIA 1. Parties to the action are the same 2. There is substantial identity in the cause of action and relief sought 3. The result of the first action is determinative of the second in any event and regardless of which party is successful Motion to dismiss may be filed in either suit, not necessarily in the one instituted first. REQUISITES OF RES JUDICATA 1. Previous final judgment 2. Jurisdiction over the subject matter and the parties by the court rendering it 3. Judgment upon the merits 4. In a case prosecuted between same parties 5. Involving the same subject matter 6. Same cause of action There could be res judicata without a trial, such as in a judgment on the

REMEDY
Appeal from the order of dismissal Certiorari and prohibition if there is grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction under Rule 65

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


37

MEMORY AID

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REMEDIAL LAW

Section 4. Time to plead. Defendant is granted only the balance of the reglementary period to which he was entitled at the time he filed his motion to dismiss, counted from his receipt of the denial order, but not less than 5 days in any event. The same rule of granting only the balance of the period is followed where the court, instead of denying the motion to dismiss, orders the amendment of the pleading challenged by the motion, in which case, the balance of the period to answer runs from his receipt of the amended pleading.

Dismissal is effected not by motion but by mere NOTICE of dismissal which is a matter of right BEFORE the defendant has answered or moved for a summary judgment. But notice of dismissal requires an order of the court confirming the dismissal. Such dismissal is WITHOUT PREJUDICE, EXCEPT: 1. Where the notice of dismissal so provides; 2. Where the plaintiff has previously dismissed the same case in a court of competent jurisdiction (TWO-DISMISSAL RULE); 3. Even where the notice of dismissal does not provide that it is with prejudice but it is premised on the fact of payment by the defendant of the claim involved. Section 2. Dismissal upon motion of plaintiff. Where the plaintiff moves for the dismissal of his complaint to which a counterclaim has been interposed, the dismissal shall be limited to the complaint. Such dismissal shall be without prejudice to the right of the defendant to either: 1. Prosecute his counterclaim in a separate action, In this case, the court should render the corresponding order granting and reserving his right to prosecute his claim in a separate complaint. -OR2. To have the same resolved in the same action. In such case, defendant must manifest such preference to the trial court within 15 days from notice to him of plaintiffs motion to dismiss.

Section 5. Effect of dismissal GENERAL RULE: The action or claim may be refiled. EXCEPTION: The action cannot be refiled if it was dismissed on any of these grounds: 1. Res judicata; 2. Prescription; 3. Extinguishment of the claim or demand; 4. Unenforceability under the Statute of Frauds. Section 6. Pleading grounds as affirmative defenses. If no motion to dismiss had been filed, any of the grounds for dismissal provided for in Rule 16, INCLUDING IMPROPER VENUE, may be pleaded as affirmative defenses and preliminarily heard in the discretion of the court. Dismissal under this section WITHOUT prejudice to the prosecution in the same or separate action of a COUNTERCLAIM pleaded in the answer RULE 17 DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS Section 1. Dismissal upon notice by plaintiff.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


38

MEMORY AID
These alternative remedies of the defendant are available to him REGARDLESS OF WHETHER HIS COUNTERCLAIM IS COMPULSORY OR PERMISSIVE. Dismissal under this rule is WITHOUT PREJUDICE, EXCEPT: 1. When otherwise stated in the motion to dismiss; 2. When stated to be with prejudice in the order of the court. The approval of the court is necessary in the dismissal or compromise of a class suit. Section 3. Dismissal due to fault of plaintiff. CAUSES FOR DISMISSAL 1. Plaintiff fails to appear for no justifiable cause on the date of the presentation of his evidence in chief on the complaint 2. Plaintiff fails to prosecute his action for an unreasonable length of time (NOLLE PROSEQUI) 3. Plaintiff fails to comply with these Rules or any order of the court. Unjustifiable inaction on the part of plaintiff to have the case set for trial is a ground for dismissal for failure to prosecute. Complaint may be dismissed 1. Upon motion of the defendant, or 2. Upon courts own motion. Dismissal shall have the effect of an ADJUDICATION UPON THE MERITS (WITH PREJUDICE), unless otherwise declared by the court.

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him;

Dismissal is a matter Dismissal is a matter of procedure, without of evidence, an prejudice unless adjudication on the otherwise stated in merits; the order of the court or on plaintiffs motion to dismiss his own complaint; Dismissal is without Dismissal is without prejudice to the right prejudice to the right of the defendant to of the defendant to prosecute his prosecute his counterclaim in a counterclaim on the separate action unless same or separate w/in 15 days from action. notice of the motion he manifests his intention to have his counterclaim resolved in the same action

RULE 18 PRE-TRIAL PRE-TRIAL- a mandatory conference and personal confrontation before the judge between the parties and their respective counsel. The plaintiff must promptly move ex parte that the case be set for pre-trial , and this he must do upon the service and filing of the last pleading. The pre-trial and trial on the merits of the case must be held on separate dates. When non-appearance of a party may be excused (Sec.4): 1. If a valid cause is shown therefore 2. If a representative shall appear in his behalf fully authorized in writing to: a. Enter into an amicable settlement b. Submit to alternative modes of dispute resolution

SECTION 2
Dismissal is at the instance of the plaintiff;

SECTION 3
Dismissal is not procured by plaintiff though justified by causes imputable to

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


39

MEMORY AID
c. Enter into stipulations or admissions of facts and of documents A special authority for an attorney to compromise is required under Sec. 23, Rule 138. Under Art. 1878 (c) of the Civil Code, a special power of attorney is required.

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A party is deemed to have waived the delimitations in a pre-trial order if he failed to object to the introduction of evidence on an issue outside of the pretrial order, as well as in cross-examining the witness in regard to said evidence.
FOR CHART ON PRE-TRIAL PLS. SEE THE NEXT PAGE.

EFFECT OF NON-APPEARANCE OF PLAINTIFF: Cause for dismissal of the action, with prejudice, unless otherwise ordered by the court.

PRE-TRIAL

EFFECT OF NON-APPEARANCE OF DEFENDANT: Cause to allow the plaintiff to present Agreements evidence ex parte and the court to made by parties; render judgment on the basis thereof. of the parties to seasonably file their pre-trial briefs under the conditions and with the sanctions provided therein.

No Settlement

Amicable Settlement

Failure to Appear

Amendments to pleading; Pre-trial brief. It is the mandatory duty Schedule of trial

If plaintiff is Absent, when so required to attend, the court may dismiss the case

If defendant is absent, court may hear evidence of plaintiff ex parte

Failure to file pre-trial brief has the same effect as failure to appear at TRIAL the pre-trial. Record of pre-trial. The contents of the PRE-TRIAL order shall control the subsequent course of the action, UNLESS modified before trial to prevent manifest injustice.
Court renders decision If evidence is insufficient to prove plaintiffs cause of action or defendants counterclaim, court rules in favor of either one or dismisses the case

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


40

MEMORY AID

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intervenor will either gain or lose by the direct legal operation and effect of the judgment. RULE 19 INTERVENTION WHO may intervene? 1. One who has legal interest in the matter in litigation 2. One who has legal interest in the success of either of the parties, 3. One who has an interest against both parties 4. One who is so situated as to be adversely affected by a distribution or other disposition of property in the custody of the court or of an officer thereof. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED BY THE COURT 1. Whether or not the intervention will unduly delay or prejudice the adjudication of the rights of the original parties; INTERVENTION
An ancillary action. Proper in any of the four situations mentioned in this Rule.

INTERPLEADER
An original action. Presupposes that the plaintiff has no interest in the subject matter of the action or has an interest therein, which in whole or in part, is not disputed by the other parties to the action.

Defendants are Defendants are being already original sued precisely to parties to the pending implead them suit

Section 2. Time to intervene. At any time before rendition judgment by the trial court.

of

JUSTIFICATION: Before judgment is rendered, the court, for good cause shown, may still allow the introduction of additional evidence and that is still within the liberal interpretation of the period for trial. Since no judgment has yet been rendered, the matter subject of the intervention may still be readily resolved and integrated in the judgment disposing of all claims in the case. REMEDIES FOR THE DENIAL OF INTERVENTION: 1. APPEAL 2. MANDAMUS if there is grave abuse of discretion If there is improper granting of intervention, the remedy of the party is certiorari. RULE 21 SUBPOENA SUBPOENA
an order to appear and

2. Whether or not the intervenors rights may be fully protected in a separate proceeding. The interest which entitles a person to intervene in a suit must be on the matter in litigation and of such direct and immediate character that the

SUMMONS
Order to answer

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


41

MEMORY AID
testify or to produce books and documents may be served to a non-party needs tender of kilometrage, attendance fee and reasonable cost of production fee complaint Served on the defendant does not need tender of kilometrage and other fees

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cost for the production of the articles desired. B. Subpoena AD TESTIFICANDUM may be quashed if the witness is not bound thereby. In EITHER case, the subpoena may be quashed for failure to tender the witness fees and kilometrage allowed by the Rules. GENERAL RULE a. The court which issued the subpoena may issue a warrant for the arrest of the witness and make him pay the cost of such warrant and seizure, if the court should determine that his disobedience was willful and without just cause (Sec. 8); The refusal to obey a subpoena without adequate cause shall be deemed a contempt of the court issuing it (Sec.9). Exceptions: Provisions regarding the compelling of attendance (Sec. 8) and contempt (Sec. 9) does not apply where:

SUBPOENA AD TESTIFICANDUM a process directed to a person requiring him to attend and to testify at the hearing or the trial of an action, or at any investigation conducted by competent authority, or for the taking of his deposition. SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM a process directed to a person requiring him to bring with him books, documents, or other things under his control. Section 2. By whom issued WHO may issue 1. Court before whom the witness is required to attend 2. Court of the place where the deposition is to be taken 3. Officer or body authorized by law to do so in connection with investigations conducted by said officer or body 4. Any Justice of the SC or of the CA in any case or investigation pending within the Philippines. SUBPOENA TO A PRISONER must be for a valid purpose; if prisoner required to appear in court is sentenced to death, reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment and is confined in prison must be authorized by the SC. Section 4. QUASHING A SUBPOENA. A. Subpoena DUCES TECUM may be quashed upon proof that: 1. It is unreasonable and oppressive; 2. The articles sought to be produced do not appear prima facie to be relevant to the issues; 3. The person asking for the subpoena does not advance the

b.

a. Witness resides more than 100


km from his residence to the place where he is to testify by the ordinary course of travel, generally, by overland transportation (VIATORY RIGHT). b. Permission of the court in which the detention prisoners case is pending was not obtained. RULES OF DISCOVERY DISCOVERY - is the procedure by which one party in an action is enabled to obtain before trial knowledge of relevant facts and of material evidence in the possession of the adverse party or of a witness. Rationale of discovery: to enable the parties to obtain the fullest possible

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


42

MEMORY AID
knowledge of the issues and evidence long before the trial to prevent such trial from being carried on in the dark. Modes of discovery under the Rules of Court 1. Depositions pending action (Rule 23). 2. Depositions before action or pending appeal (Rule 24). 3. Interrogatories to parties (Rule 25). 4. Admission by adverse party (Rule 26). 5. Production or inspection of documents, or things (Rule 27). 6. Physical and mental examination of persons (Rule 28). Discovery before answer. It is only in the exceptional or unusual case that the need for discovery arises, or that it should be allowed before service of answer. Modes of Discovery are intended to be CUMULATIVE, and not alternative nor mutually exclusive. Discovery is NOT MANDATORY but failure to avail carries sanctions in Rules 25 and 26.

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2. Depositions DE BENE ESSE 3.


those taken for purposes of a pending action (Rule 23) ; and Depositions IN PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM - those taken to perpetuate evidence for purposes of anticipated action, or in the event of further proceedings in a case on appeal, and to preserve it against danger of loss (Rule 24).

WHEN TAKEN WITH LEAVE OF COURT 1. after jurisdiction has been obtained over any defendant or over the property which is the subject of the action and BEFORE answer. 2. Deposition of a person confined in prison. WITHOUT LEAVE OF COURT AFTER answer AND deponent is not confined in prison. Section 4. Use of depositions. Where the witness is available to testify and the situation is not one of those excepted under Sec. 4, his deposition is inadmissible in evidence and he should be made to testify. It can be used as evidence by a party for any purpose under the specific conditions in Sec. 4. DEPONENT
Any person

RULE 23 DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTION DEPOSITION is a written testimony of a witness given in the course of a judicial proceeding in advance of the trial or hearing upon oral examination or in response to written interrogatories and where an opportunity is given for crossexamination. Depositions are intended as a means to compel disclosure of facts resting in the knowledge of a party or other person, which are relevant in a suit/proceeding. CLASSIFICATIONS OF DEPOSITIONS 1. Depositions on ORAL EXAMINATION and Depositions upon WRITTEN INTERROGATORIES

USE
By any party for contradicting or impeaching the testimony of deponent as witness

A party or any one By an adverse party for who at the time of any purpose the deposition was an OFFICER, DIRECTOR, or MANAGING AGENT of a public or private corp., partnership, or association which

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


43

MEMORY AID
is a party Witness, whether or not a party By any party for any purpose if the court finds the 5 instances occurring

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2. before such person or officer as may be appointed by commission or letters rogatory 3. any person authorized to administer oaths, as stipulated by the parties in writing Section 12. rogatory. Commission or letters

SCOPE OF INQUIRY IN DEPOSITIONS: 1. Matter which is relevant to the subject of the pending action; 2. Not privileged 3. Not restricted by a protective order Certiorari will not lie against an order admitting or rejecting a deposition in evidence, the remedy being an appeal from the final judgment. Section 7. Effect of taking depositions. A party shall not be deemed to make a person his own witness for any purpose by taking his deposition because depositions are taken for discovery and not for use as evidence. Exception: If a party offers the deposition in evidence, then he is deemed to have made the deponent his witness (Sec.8) Exception to the Exception: Unless the deposition is that of any adverse party, and unless, of course, the deposition is used for impeaching or contradicting the deponent (Sec.8). Section 10 and 11. Persons before whom depositions may be taken. WITHIN THE PHILIPPINES: 1. judge 2. notary public 3. any person authorized to administer oaths, as stipulated by the parties in writing OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES: 1. on notice, before a secretary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice-consul, or consular agent of the Phil.

COMMISSION

LETTERS ROGATORY

Issued to a nonIssued to the judicial foreign officer appropriate judicial who will directly take officer of the foreign the testimony country who will direct somebody in said foreign country to take down testimony Applicable rules of Applicable rules of procedure are those of procedure are those of the requesting court the foreign court requested to act Resorted to if Resorted to if the permission of the execution of the foreign country is commission is refused in given the foreign country Leave of court is not Leave of court is necessary necessary

Section 18. Motion to terminate or limit examination. MAY BE FILED: 1. any time during the taking of the deposition 2. on motion or petition of any party or of the deponent; or 3. upon showing that the examination is conducted in : a. bad faith b. in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or party RULE 24 DEPOSITIONS BEFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL Depositions under this Rule are also taken conditionally, to be used at the trial only in case the deponent is not available. Depositions under this Rule do not prove the existence of any right and the testimony perpetuated is not in itself

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


44

MEMORY AID
conclusive proof, either of the existence of any right nor even of the facts to which they relate, as it can be controverted at the trial in the same manner as though no perpetuation of testimony was ever had. However, in the absence of any objection to its taking, and even if the deponent did not testify at the hearing, the perpetuated testimony constitutes prima facie proof of facts referred to in the deposition. Section 6. Use of deposition. If deposition is taken under this Rule, it may be used in any action involving the SAME SUBJECT MATTER subsequently brought. Section 7. Depositions pending appeal. Sec. 7 is the procedure in perpetuating testimony AFTER JUDGMENT IN THE RTC and DURING THE PENDENCY OF AN APPEAL.

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disputed facts are not yet clear, when more than one set of interrogatories is to be served.) A judgment by default may be rendered against a party who fails to answer written interrogatories Only one set of interrogatories by the same party is allowed. Leave of court is necessary for succeeding sets of interrogatories. Section 6. Effect of failure to serve written interrogatories. Rule 25 and Rule 26 are directed to the party who fails and refuses to RESORT to the discovery procedures, and should not be confused with the provisions of Rule 29 which provides for sanctions or other consequences upon a party who refuses or fails to COMPLY with discovery procedures duly availed of by opponent.

RULE 25 INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES PURPOSE of Written Interrogatories: to elicit facts from any adverse party (answers may also be used as admissions of the adverse party) Written interrogatories and the answers thereto must both be FILED and SERVED. Interrogatories Bill of Particulars

The justification for this provision is that the party in need of relevant facts having foregone the opportunity to inquire into the same from the other party through means available to him, he should not thereafter be permitted to unduly burden the latter with courtroom appearances or other cumbersome processes. Unless a party had been served written interrogatories, he may not be compelled by the adverse party: 1. to give testimony in open court, or 2. give a deposition pending appeal. The only exception is when the court allows it for GOOD CAUSE shown and to prevent a failure of justice. Depositions Upon Interrogatories to Written Parties under Rule Interrogatories to 25 Parties under Rule 23 Sec. 25

A party may properly A party may properly seek disclosure of seek disclosure only of matters of proof matters which define which may later be the issues and become made a part of the a part of the records as evidence. pleadings.

A party may serve written interrogatories: 1. WITHOUT LEAVE OF COURT after answer has been served, for the first set of interrogatories. 2. WITH LEAVE OF COURT before answer has been served (REASON: at that time, the issues are not yet joined and the

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


45

MEMORY AID
As to Deponent Party or ordinary witness As to Deponent party only

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As to Procedure As to Procedure With intervention of no intervention. the officer authorized Written by the Court to take interrogatories are deposition directed to the party himself As to Scope Direct, cross, redirect, re-cross Interrogatories no fixed time As to Scope only one set of interrogatories Interrogatories 15 days to answer unless extended or reduced by the court

in detail the reasons why he cannot truthfully admit or deny those matters must be filed and served upon the party requesting the admission. Section 3. Effect of admission. USE: An admission under this section is for the purpose of the pending action only and cannot be used in other proceedings. The party who fails or refuses to request the admission of facts in question is prevented from thereafter presenting evidence thereon UNLESS otherwise allowed by the court (Sec.5). RULE 27 PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR THINGS Production of documents affords more opportunity for discovery than a subpoena duces tecum because in the latter, the documents are brought to the court for the first time on the date of the scheduled trial wherein such documents are required to be produced. The TEST to be applied in determining the relevancy of the document and the sufficiency of their description is one of reasonableness and practicality. PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR THINGS SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

RULE 26 ADMISSION BY ADVERSE PARTY Section 1. Request for admission. PURPOSE OF written request for admission is to expedite trial and relieve the parties of the costs of proving facts which will not be disputed on trial and the truth of which can be ascertained by reasonable inquiry. When request may be made: at any time after the issues have been joined. What request may include 1. Admission of the genuineness of any material and relevant document described in and exhibited with the request. 2. Admission of the truth of any material and relevant matter of fact set forth in the request. 3. Under this rule, a matter of fact not related to any documents may be presented to the other party for admission or denial. Section 2. Implied Admission. The effect of a FAILURE to make a reply to a request for admission is that each of the matters of which an admission is requested is deemed admitted. A sworn statement either denying specifically each matter or setting forth

Essentially a mode of means of compelling discovery production of evidence The Rules is limited to may be directed to a the parties to the person whether a action party or not The order under this may be issued upon an Rule is issued only ex parte application. upon motion with notice to the adverse party

RULE 28 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION OF PERSONS

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


46

MEMORY AID
The mental condition of a party is in controversy in proceedings for GUARDIANSHIP over an imbecile or insane person, while the physical condition of the party is generally involved in PHYSICAL INJURIES cases. Since the results of the examination are intended to be made public, the same are not covered by the physician-patient privilege. Section 4. Waiver of privilege. Where the party examined requests and obtains a report on the results of the examination the consequences are: 1. he has to furnish the other party a copy of the report of any previous or subsequent examination of the same physical and mental condition, AND 2. he waives any privilege he may have in that action or any other involving the same controversy regarding the testimony of any other person who has so examined him or may thereafter examine him. RULE 29 REFUSAL TO COMPLY WITH MODES OF DISCOVERY SANCTIONS 1. Contempt; 2. Payment of reasonable fees; 3. The matters regarding which the questions were asked, character or description of land et al., be taken to be in accordance with the claim of party obtaining the order; 4. Prohibition on the refusing party to produce evidence or support or oppose designated claims or defenses; 5. Striking out pleadings, order the dismissal of the action or stay the action until compliance or to render judgment by default. 6. Order the arrest of the refusing party except in cases of physical or mental examination.

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RULE 30 TRIAL TRIAL judicial process of investigating and determining the legal controversies starting with the production of evidence by the plaintiff and ending with his closing arguments. GENERAL RULE: when an issue exists, trial is necessary. Decision should not be made without trial. EXCEPTIONS: when there may be judgment without trial: 1. Judgment on the Pleading (Rule 34) 2. Summary Judgment (Rule 35) 3. Judgment on Compromise 4. Judgment by Confession 5. Dismissal with Prejudice (Rule 17) Section 3. Requisites of motion to postpone trial for absence of evidence. There must be an affidavit showing: 1. materiality or relevance of such evidence; and 2. due diligence in procuring it. If the adverse party admits the facts for which evidence is to be presented, the Plaintiff presents trial will not be postponed. evidence Section 4. Requisites of motion to postpone trial for illness of files party or Defendant Defendant presents counsel. demurrer to evidence to There be an affidavit or sworn evidence supportmust his certification showing: defense/countercla 1. presence of party or counsel at im/crossclaim/ the trial is indispensable; and third party complaint 2. character of his illness is such as to render his non-attendance excusable.
Third Section 5. Order of If court party by the court. directed grants motion: Renders dismisal

trial

defendant presents eidence, if any

If court unless denies motion: Continues with hearing

After Presentation of CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae evidence: Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and oral arguments Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence) submission of memoranda DECISION REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE

Rebuttal Evidence by Parties

San Beda College of Law


47

MEMORY AID

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REMEDIAL LAW

Unless the court for special reasons otherwise directs, the trial shall be limited to the issues stated in the pretrial order. Section 6. Agreed statements of facts. This is known as STIPULATION OF FACTS and is among the purposes of a pre-trial. The parties may also stipulate verbally in open court. Such stipulations are binding unless relief therefrom is permitted by the court on good cause shown, such as error or fraud. But counsel cannot stipulate on what their respective EVIDENCE consists of and ask that judgment be rendered on the basis of such stipulation. Stipulations of facts are not permitted in actions for ANNULMENT OF MARRIAGE and for LEGAL SEPARATION. Section 8. Suspension of actions. Art. 2030 of the Civil Code. Every civil action or proceeding shall be suspended 1. If willingness to discuss a possible compromise is expressed by one or both parties; or 2. If it appears that one of the parties, before the commencement of the action or proceeding, offered to discuss a possible compromise but the other party refused the offer. Section 9. Judge to receive evidence; delegation to clerk of court. GENERAL RULE: the judge must himself personally receive and resolve the evidence of the parties. However, the reception of such evidence may be delegated under the following conditions:

1. The delegation may be made only in defaults or ex parte hearings, or an agreement in writing by the parties. 2. The reception of evidence shall be made only by the clerk of that court who is a member of the bar. 3. Said clerk shall have no power to rule on objections to any question or to admission of evidence or exhibits; and 4. He shall submit his report and transcripts of the proceedings, together with the objections to be resolved by the court, within 10 days from the termination of the hearing. RULE 31 CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE GENERAL RULE: Consolidation is discretionary upon the court EXCEPTIONS: Consolidation becomes a matter of duty when: 1. if the cases are pending before the same judge OR 2. if filed with different branches of a court and one of such cases has NOT been partially tried. REQUISITES FOR CONSOLIDATION: 1. When actions involving a common question of law or fact, and 2. The actions are pending before the same court if filed with DIFFERENT courts, authorization from the SC is necessary. 3 WAYS OF CONSOLIDATING CASES: 1. by RECASTING THE CASES ALREADY INSTITUTED, conducting only one hearing and rendering only one decision; 2. by CONSOLIDATING THE EXISTING CASES and holding only one hearing and rendering only one decision; and 3. by HEARING ONLY THE PRINCIPAL CASE and suspending the hearing on the others until judgment has

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


48

MEMORY AID
been rendered in the principal case. (TEST-CASE METHOD) Consolidation of cases on appeal and assigned to different divisions of the SC and the CA is also authorized. Generally, the case which was appealed later and bearing the higher docket no. is consolidated with the case having the lower docket no. RULE 32 TRIAL BY COMMISSIONER COMMISSIONER- a person to whom a cause pending in court is referred, for him to take testimony, hear the parties and report thereon to the court, and upon whose report, if confirmed, judgment is rendered. Reference to a commissioner may be had by the written consent of both parties. Situations when reference to a Commissioner may be made on motion (Sec.2): 1. Examination of a long account 2. Taking of an account is necessary 3. Question of fact, other than upon the pleading arises; or 4. Carrying a judgment or order into effect. Disobedience to a subpoena issued by the commissioner is deemed a contempt of the court which appointed the latter. RULE 33 DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE Section 1. Demurrer to evidence. DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE
It is presented after the plaintiff has rested his case

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MOTION DENIED

MOTION GRANTED BUT REVERSED ON APPEAL

Movant shall have the Movant is deemed to right to present his have waived his right evidence to present evidence. The decision of the appellate court will be based only on the evidence of the plaintiff as the defendant loses his right to have the case remanded for reception of his evidence. denial is order of the court is INTERLOCUTORY. Sec. an ADJUDICATION ON 1 , Rule 36 (that THE MERITS, hence, judgment should state the requirement in clearly and distinctly Sec. 1, Rule 36 the facts and the law should be complied on which it is based), with. will not apply. The denial is NOT appealable.

CIVIL CASES

CRIMINAL CASES

MOTION TO DISMISS

presented before a responsive pleading (answer) is made by the defendant The ground is based it may be based on any on insufficiency of of those enumerated evidence in Rule 16

2 Scenarios

Defendant need not ask leave of court is for leave of court; necessary so that the accused could present his evidence if the demurrer is denied if the court finds if the court finds the plaintiffs evidence prosecutions insufficient, it will evidence insufficient, grant the demurrer by it will grant the dismissing the demurrer by complaint. The rendering judgment judgment of dismissal is acquitting the appealable by the accused. Judgment of plaintiff. If plaintiff acquittal is not appeals and judgment appeallable; double is reversed by the jeopardy sets-in appellate court, it will decide the case on the basis of the plaintiffs evidence with the consequence that the defendant already loses his right to present evidence no res judicata in dismissal due to demurrer if court denies if court denies the demurrer, defendant demurrer: will present his If demurrer was with evidence leave, accused may present his evidence If the demurrer was

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


49

MEMORY AID
without leave, accused can no longer present his evidence and submits the case for decision based on the prosecutions evidence

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2. Annulment of marriage 3. Legal Separation

Motion to Dismiss

Motion for judgment on the pleadings

JUDGMENT ON DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE is a judgment rendered by the court dismissing a case upon motion of the defendant, made after plaintiff has rested his case, on the GROUND that upon the facts presented by the plaintiff and the law on the matter, plaintiff has not shown any right to relief. RULE 34 JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS A judgment on the pleadings must be on motion of the claimant. (NO SUPPORTING PAPERS ARE REQUIRED BECAUSE EVERTHING IS BASED ON THE PLEADINGS.) HOWEVER, if at the pre-trial the court finds that a judgment on the pleadings is proper, it may render such judgment motu proprio. GROUNDS: 1. Answer fails to tender an issue because of: a. general denial of the material allegations of the complaint; b. insufficient denial of the material allegations of the complaint ; or 2. Answer admits material allegations of the adverse partys pleading By moving for judgment on the pleading, plaintiff waives his claim for unliquidated damages. Claim for such damages must be alleged and proved.

Filed by a defendant Filed by the plaintiff to a complaint, if the answer raises counterclaim, cross- no issue. claim or 3rd-party complaint If the complaint states no cause of action, a motion to dismiss should be filed and not a motion for judgment on the pleading.

RULE 35 SUMMARY JUDGMENTS SUMMARY JUDGMENT One granted by the court for the prompt disposition of civil actions wherein it clearly appears that there exists NO genuine issue or controversy as to any material fact. Who can File 1. Plaintiff: he must wait for the answer to be filed and served, and thus for the issue to be joined, before he can move for summary judgment. 2. Defendant: he can move for summary judgment at anytime, that is, anytime after filing and service of the complaint even before he answers The motion for summary judgment must be supported by (1) affidavit, (2) depositions of the adverse party or a third party, or (3) admissions of the adverse party, all intended to show that: a. there is no genuine issue as to any material fact, except damages which must always be proved, and b. the movant is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law.

NO JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS IN ACTIONS FOR 1. Declaration of nullity of marriage

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


50

MEMORY AID
The summary judgment may be a judgment on the merits, in which case, an appeal may be taken therefrom. SUMMARY JUDGMENT JUDGMENT JUDGMENT ON THE BY DEFAULT PLEADINGS (Rule 9)

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3. It should contain a dispositive part and should be signed by the judge and filed with the clerk of court. PROMULGATION- the process by which a decision is published, officially announced, made known to the public or delivered to the clerk of court for filing, coupled with notice to the parties or their counsel. MEMORANDUM DECISION- a decision of the appellate court which adopts the findings and the conclusion of the trial court. JUDICIAL COMPROMISE A judgment based on a compromise which has the force of law and is conclusive between parties. Not appealable. A JUDGMENT is considered RENDERED Upon filing of the signed decision. This includes an amended decision because an amended decision is a distinct and separate judgment and must follow the established procedural rule. The power to amend a judgment is inherent to the court before judgment becomes final and executory. After judgment has become executory, the court cannot amend the same EXCEPT:

Based on the based solely on based on the pleadings, the pleadings. complaint and depositions, evidence, if admissions presentation is and affidavits required. Available to generally Available to both plaintiff available only plaintiff. and defendant to the plaintiff, unless the defendant presents a counterclaim. There is The answer no issues as no no genuine fails to tender answer is filed issue between an issue or by the the parties, there is an defending i.e. there may admission of party. be issues but material these are allegations. irrelevant 10-day notice 3-day notice 3-day notice required required rule applies. May be On the merits On the merits interlocutory or on the merits

RULE 36 JUDGMENTS, FINAL ORDERS AND ENTRY THEREOF JUDGMENT- final consideration and determination by a court of the rights of the parties, upon matters submitted to it in an action or proceeding. The date of finality of the judgment or final order shall be deemed to be the date of its entry. REQUISITES OF A JUDGMENT: 1. It should be in writing, personally and directly prepared by the judge 2. Must state clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based

1. To

make corrections of clerical errors, not substantial amendments, as by an amendment nunc pro tunc. 2. To clarify an ambiguity which is borne out by and justifiable in the context of the decision. 3. In judgments for support, which can always be amended from time to time. MANNER OF ATTACKING JUDGMENTS: 1. Direct attack a. before finality

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


51

MEMORY AID
1. motion for new trial or reconsideration; 2. appeal b. after finality 1. relief from judgment, rule 38 2. annulment of judgment, Rule 47. 2.Collateral attack

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rendered but has not been entered as thus rendered its only function is to record some act of the court which was done at a former time, but which was not then recorded, in order to make the record speak the truth, without any changes in substance or any material respect.

PROMULGATION OF JUDGMENT
Court Renders Decision

Judgment upon Agreement or Compromise A compromise agreement between the parties to a case on which the decision of the court was based has upon the parties the effect and authority of res judicata. It is immediately executory. Judgment by Confession Judgment upon confession is one which is rendered against a party upon his petition or consent. It usually happens when the defendant appears in court and confesses the right of the plaintiff to judgment or files a pleading expressly agreeing to the plaintiffs demand. Two kinds of judgment by confession 1. A judgment by COGNOVIT ACTIONEM here, the defendant after service instead of entering a plea, acknowledged and confessed that the plaintiffs cause of action was just and rightful. 2. A judgment by CONFESSION RELICTA VERIFICATIONE after pleading and before trial, the defendant both confessed the plaintiffs cause of action and withdrew or abandoned his plea or other allegations, whereupon judgment was entere against him without proceeding to trial. Judgment upon Compromise Judgment by Confession

Losing Party

Filing appeal within 15/30 days from notice of judgment

Accepts decision without further Section 4. Several contest

Several liability separable and distinct from his coparties such that the claims against each Court of them could have been the subject of maintains decision Court grants motion: separate suits, and the judgment for or 1.modifies decision; or against one of them will not necessarily 2.grants new trial affect the other.
If no appeal is taken or did A several judgment is NOT proper in not avail of actions against solidary debtors. remedies, judgment becomes final Losing party may Section 6. Separate Judgments and executory appeal within the Proper when more than one claim period for remaining

Within 15/30 days from notice of judgment: judgments. Motion for judgment is proper where the reconsideration; or motion new trial of each party is for clearly

relief is presented in an action and a determination as to the issues material to the claim has been made. The action shall proceed as to the remaining claims.

Judgment NUNC PRO TUNC (literally means now for then) rendered to enter or record such judgment as has been formerly

The provisions and An affirmative and terms are settled and voluntary act of the agreed upon by the defendant himself. parties to the action, The court exercises a and which is entered certain amount of in the record by the supervision over the consent of the court. entry of judgment.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


52

MEMORY AID
Clarificatory Judgment rendered by the court, upon motion, when a judgment previously rendered is ambiguous and difficult to comply with. AMENDED OR CLARIFIED JUDGMENT
It is an entirely new decision and supersedes the original judgment Court makes a thorough study of the original judgment and renders the amended and clarified judgment only after considering all the factual and legal issues

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WHEN to file: within period for taking appeal. WHERE to file: with the trial court which rendered the questioned judgment.
RECONSIDERATION The grounds are: fraud, The grounds are: the accident, mistake or damages awarded are excusable negligence or excessive, that the newly discovered evidence is insufficient evidence which could to justify the decision not, with reasonable or final order, or that diligence, have the decision or final discovered and produced order is contrary to at the trial, and which if law. presented would probably alter the result Second motion may be Second motion from allowed same party is prohibited If a new trial is granted if the court finds that the trial court will set excessive damages aside the judgment or have been awarded or final order that the judgment or final order is contrary to the evidence or law, it may amend such judgment or final order accordingly

SUPPLEMENTAL DECISION
Does not take the place of or extinguish the original judgment Serves to bolster or add to the original judgment

MOTION FOR A NEW TRIAL

MOTION FOR

RULE 37 NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION


Order denying motion for new trial

Second motion for new trial based on grounds not existing or available when 1st motion was filed

Appeal from the judgment or final order and assign as one of the errors the denial of the motion for new trial

An order denying a motion for new trial is not appealable. NEW TRIAL - the rehearing of a case already decided by the court but before the judgment rendered thereon becomes final and executory, whereby errors of law or irregularities are expunged from the record, or new evidence is introduced, or both steps are taken. Purpose: to set aside the judgment or final order and grant a new trial.

REQUISITES for NEWLY-DISCOVERED EVIDENCE 1. Must have been discovered after trial 2. Could not have been discovered and produced at the trial 3. If presented, would alter the result of the action 4. Otherwise it is called FORGOTTEN EVIDENCE. A motion suspends or tolls the running of the reglementary period for appeal except when the same is pro-forma. PRO-FORMA MOTION - when it does not comply with Rule 15 and Rule 37, e.g. it does not point out specifically the findings or conclusions of the judgment as are contrary to law, making express reference to the testimonial or documentary evidence or to the provisions of law alleged to be contrary

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


53

MEMORY AID
to such findings or conclusions, and is merely intended to delay the proceedings OR if there is no affidavit of merit. Section 6. Effect of granting of motion for new trial When motion is granted, the original judgment is thereby vacated and the action stands for trial de novo, but the recorded evidence taken upon the former trial so far as the same is material and competent to establish the issues, shall be used at the new trial taking the same. The order denying a motion for new trial is NOT appealable. MOTION FOR NEW MOTION FOR TRIAL REOPENING OF THE TRIAL
Not mentioned in the Rules but is nevertheless a recognized procedural recourse or device deriving validity and acceptance from long established usage NOTE: It is actually mentioned in the Rules of Criminal Procedure Proper only after May properly be promulgation of presented only after judgment either or both the parties have formally offered and closed their evidence before judgment Based upon specific Controlled by no other grounds set forth rule than the under Rule 37 in civil paramount interests of cases and Rule 121 in justice, resting entirely criminal cases on the sound discretion of a trial court, the exercise of which discretion will not be reviewed on appeal UNLESS a clear abuse thereof is shown Specifically mentioned in the Rules

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WHERE to file: with the trial court which rendered the judgment or final order sought to be reconsidered RULE 38 RELIEF FROM JUDGMENTS, ORDERS, OR OTHER PROCEEDINGS REMEDIES AGAINST FINAL AND EXECUTORY JUDGMENTS OR ORDERS 1. Petition for Relief from Judgment (Rule 38) 2. Annulment of judgments or final orders or resolutions (Rule 47) on the ground of: o Extrinsic fraud, to be filed within 4 years from the discovery of the fraud; o Lack of jurisdiction, before it is barred by laches or estoppel 3. Direct or collateral attack against a void or voidable judgment o DIRECT ATTACK when the validity of the judgment itself is the main issue of the action, a petition for certiorari and action to annul judgment on the ground of extrinsic fraud or lack of jurisdiction o COLLATERAL ATTACK if the judgment can be resisted in any other action in which it is involved. RULE 37
Available BEFORE judgment becomes final and executory Applies to JUDGMENTS or FINAL ORDERS only

RULE 38
Available AFTER judgment has become final and executory Applies to judgments, final orders and other proceeding: 1.Land Registration 2.Special Proceedings 3. Order of Execution

MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION Purpose: To reconsider or amend judgment or final order WHEN to file: within period for taking an appeal

GROUNDS: i. FAME ii. Newly discovered evidence WHEN AVAILED OF:

GROUNDS: FAME WHEN AVAILED OF:

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


54

MEMORY AID
Within the time to appeal within 60 days from knowledge of the judgment AND within 6 months from entry of judgment If denied, the order denying a petition for relief is NOT appealable; the remedy is appropriate civil action under Rule 65 Equitable remedy Petition must be verified

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court but to enforce by execution what has been determined. EXECUTION OF JUDGMENT

If denied, the order of denial is NOT appealable, hence remedy is appeal from the judgment Legal remedy Motion need not be verified

TWO HEARINGS UNDER RULE 38 1. Hearing to determine whether the judgment should be set aside 2. If yes, a hearing on the merits of the case. The period fixed by Rule 38 is nonextendible and is never interrupted. RULE 39 EXECUTION, SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS EXECUTION remedy provided by law for the enforcement of a final judgment. AGAINST WHOM ISSUED: execution can only issue against a party and not against one who has not had his day in court. WRIT OF EXECUTION: judicial writ issued to an officer authorizing him to execute the judgment of the court. ESSENTIAL REQUISITE OF A WRIT OF EXECUTION: a writ of execution to be valid, must conform strictly to the decision or judgment which gives it life. It cannot vary the terms of the judgment it seeks to enforce FINAL JUDGMENT OR ORDER- one which disposes of the whole subject matter or terminates the particular proceedings or action, leaving nothing to be done by the

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


55

MEMORY AID
Judgment is executed by motion within 5 years from date of its entry If the winning party does not move for execution w/in 5 years but before 10 years from the date of entry of judgment, the same can only be revived by means of a new action / petition

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2. The sale of real or personal property Section 1. Execution Upon Judgments and Final Orders. EXECUTION ISSUES AS A MATTER OF RIGHT: 1. on motion 2. upon a judgment or order that disposes of the action or proceeding AND 3. upon expiration of the period to appeal therefrom and NO appeal has been duly perfected. GENERAL RULE: court cannot refuse execution UNLESS: 1. Execution is UNJUST OR IMPOSSIBLE 2. Equitable grounds like a CHANGE IN SITUATION of the parties which makes execution inequitable 3. Judgment NOVATED by parties 4. Execution is enjoined 5. Judgment has become DORMANT QUASHAL OF WRIT PROPER WHEN: 1. Improvidently issued 2. Defective in substance 3. Issued against the wrong party 4. Judgment already satisfied 5. Issued without authority Section 2. Discretionary Execution DISCRETIONARY EXECUTION
May issue before the lapse of period to appeal Discretionary upon the court; there is inquiry on whether there is GOOD REASON for execution

Execution is a matter of right after expiration of period to appeal and no appeal is perfected

Discretionary execution upon good reasons stated in a special order after due hearing

Sheriff enforces writ of execution

Losing party is made to indemnify thru: payment with interest; levy and sale of personal property; levy and sale of real property; delivery of personal and real property

EXECUTION AS A MATTER OF RIGHT


Period to appeal has already lapsed and no appeal is perfected Ministerial duty of the court PROVIDED there are no supervening events

TEST TO DETERMINE WHETHER A JUDGMENT OR ORDER IS FINAL OR INTERLOCUTORY: The test is whether the judgment or order leaves nothing more for the court to do with respect to the merits of the case. SPECIAL JUDGMENT one that requires the performance of an act OTHER THAN: 1. The payment of money; and

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


56

MEMORY AID

IN

REMEDIAL LAW

GROUNDS FOR EXECUTION PENDING APPEAL: 1. Insolvency of the judgment debtor. 2. Wastage of asset by judgment debtor. Section 3. Stay of Discretionary Execution. The party against whom an execution is directed may file a supersedeas bond to stay discretionary execution. SUPERSEDEAS BOND- one filed by a petitioner and approved by the court before the judgment becomes final and executory and conditioned upon the performance of the judgment appealed from in case it be affirmed wholly or in part. Supersedeas bond guarantees satisfaction of the judgment in case of affirmance on appeal, not other things like damage to property pending the appeal The court may, in its discretion, order an execution before the expiration of the time within which to appeal provided: 1. There is a motion for execution filed by the winning party 2. There is notice of said motion to the adverse party; and 3. There are good reasons stated in a special order after due hearing. GENERAL RULE: an order of execution is NOT appealable otherwise there would be no end to the litigation between the parties. EXCEPTIONS: 1. When the terms of the judgment are not very clear; 2. When the order of execution varies with the tenor of the judgment. Section 4. Judgments NOT Stayed By Appeal 1. INJUNCTION 2. RECEIVERSHIP

3. ACCOUNTING 4. SUPPORT 5. Such other judgments declared to be immediately executory unless otherwise ordered by the trial court. Section 6. Execution By Motion Or Independent Action. MODE OF ENFORCEMENT 1. By motion within 5 years from date of its entry 2. By independent action after 5 years from entry AND before it is barred by statute of limitations Judgment for support does not become dormant, thus it can always be executed by motion. 5-year period may be extended by the conduct of judgment debtor. A revived judgment is a new judgment thus another 5/10-year period to execute and revive is given the party. Section 7. Execution In Case Of Death Of Party. If the obligor dies AFTER entry but BEFORE LEVY on his property, execution will be issued for recovery of real or personal property or enforcement of a lien thereon. But for a sum of money, judgment cannot be enforced by writ but as a claim against his estate/probate proceedings. If he dies AFTER a VALID LEVY has been made, execution sale proceeds. Section 8. Issuance, Form and Contents of a Writ of Execution. Remedies in an order granting or denying the issuance of a writ of execution Appeal is the remedy for an order denying the issuance of a writ of execution. Section 10. Execution Of Judgments For Specific Act. If party REFUSES TO VACATE PROPERTY, remedy is NOT contempt. The Sheriff

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


57

MEMORY AID
must oust the party. But if demolition is involved, there must be a special order. If party REFUSES TO DELIVER, sheriff will take possession and deliver it to winning party. When the party REFUSES TO COMPLY, court can appoint some other person at the expense of the disobedient party and the act done shall have the same effect as if the required party performed it, the disobedient party incurs no liability for contempt. Section 11. Execution of Special Judgments. When judgment requires the performance of any act other than for money and delivery of property. The writ of execution shall be served upon the party required to obey the same and such party may be punished for contempt if he disobeys. LEVY - act by which an officer sets apart or appropriates a part of the whole of the property of the judgment debtor for purposes or the execution sale. The levy on execution shall create a lien in favor or the judgment creditor over the right, title and interest of the judgment debtor in such property at the time of the levy. The levy on execution creates a lien in favor of the judgment creditor subject to prior liens and encumbrances. GARNISHMENT - act of appropriation by the court when property of debtor is in the hands of third persons The garnishee or the 3rd person who is in possession of the property of the judgment debtor is deemed a forced intervenor.
Refers to corporeal property in the possession of the judgment debtor.

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REMEDIAL LAW

refers to money, stocks, credits and other incorporeal property which belong to judgment debtor but is in the possession or under the control of a third person

Section 16. Proceedings Where Property Claimed By Third Person. REMEDIES of THIRD PARTY CLAIMANT 1. Summary hearing before the court which authorized the execution; 2. TERCERIA or third party claim filed with the sheriff; 3. Action for damages on the bond posted by judgment creditors; or 4. Independent reinvidicatory action. The remedies are cumulative and may be resorted to by third party claimant independently of or separately from the others. If winning party files a bond, it is only then that the sheriff can take the property in his possession. IF NO BOND, cannot proceed with the sale. SALE ON EXECUTION Notice of sale is required before levied property can be sold at public auction (Sec. 15). Remedy against an irregular sale is MOTION TO VACATE OR SET ASIDE THE SALE to be filed in the court which issued the writ. REDEMPTION (Secs. 27 & 28) Right of Redemption: 1. Personal Property NONE; sale is absolute 2. Real Property there is a right of redemption WHO may redeem (Sec. 27) Only the following:

ATTACHMENT

GARNISHMENT

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


58

MEMORY AID
a. Judgment obligor, or his successor in interest, in whole or any part of the property; OR b. Redemptioner who is a creditor having a: 1) Lien by attachment on the property sold subsequent to the lien under which the property was sold, 2) Lien by judgment on the property sold subsequent to the lien under which the property was sold; 3) Lien by mortgage on the property sold subsequent to the lien under which the property was sold. WHEN CAN REDEMPTION BE MADE? BY THE JUDGMENT OBLIGOR: Within one (1) year from the date of registration of the certificate of sale. BY THE REDEMPTIONER: 1. Within one year from the date of registration of the certificate of sale; or 2. Within sixty days from the last redemption by another redemptioner If the judgment obligor redeems, no further redemption is allowed (Sec. 29). The period of redemption is NOT suspended by an action to annul the foreclosure sale. CAN REDEMPTION BE PAID IN OTHER FORMS THAN CASH? YES. The rule is liberality in allowing redemption (aid rather than defeat the right) and it has been allowed in the case of a cashiers check, certified bank checks and even checks. The offer to redeem must be accompanied with a bona fide tender or delivery of the redemption price. However, a formal offer to redeem with a tender is not necessary where the right to redeem is exercised through the filing

IN

REMEDIAL LAW

of a complaint to redeem in the courts, within the period to redeem. RIGHTS OF THE JUDGMENT DEBTOR: 1. Remain in possession of the property 2. Collect rents and profits 3. Cannot be Ejected 4. Use the property in the same manner it was previously used 5. Make necessary repairs Section 33. Deed and possession to be given at expiration of redemption period; by whom executed or given. The PURCHASER is entitled to a CONVEYANCE AND POSSESSION of the property if there is no redemption. He is substituted to and acquires all the rights, title, interest and claims of the judgment obligor to the property at the time of levy. The deed of conveyance is what operates to transfer to the purchaser whatever rights the judgment debtor had in the property. The certificate of sale after execution sale merely is a memorial of the fact of sale and does not operate as a conveyance. The purchaser acquires no better right than what the judgment debtor has in the property levied upon. Thus, if the judgment debtor had already transferred the property executed prior to the levy and no longer has an interest in the property, the execution purchaser acquires no right. WHEN A THIRD PERSON IS IN POSSESSION, The procedure is for the court to order a hearing and determine the nature of such adverse possession. Section 34. Recovery of price if sale is not effective; revival of judgment. THE PURCHASER MAY RECOVER THE PURCHASE PRICE WHEN

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


59

MEMORY AID
1. The purchaser or his successorin-interest FAILS TO RECOVER POSSESSION of the property or; 2. Purchaser after having acquired possession is evicted due to: a. Irregularities in the proceedings concerning the sale. b. Reversal or setting aside of judgment. c. The fact that the property was exempt from execution. d. A third person has vindicated his claim to the property. REMEDIES OF THE JUDGMENT CREDITOR IN AID OF EXECUTION

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6. If the court finds that the


judgment debtor has an ascertainable interest in real property either as mortgagor, mortgagee, or otherwise, and his interest can be ascertained without controversy, the court may order the sale of such interest. (Section 42)

7. If the person alleged to have


the property of the judgment debtor or be indebted to him, claims an adverse interest in the property, or denies the debt, the court may authorize the judgment-creditor to institute an action to recover the property, forbid its transfer and may punish disobedience for contempt (Section 43) Section 46. When Principal Bound By Judgment Against Surety. The principal is bound by the same judgment from the time he has notice of the action or proceeding and has been given an opportunity at the suretys request, to join the defense. Section 47. Effect Of Judgment Or Final Orders. Refers to judgments which are considered as conclusive and may be rebutted directly by means of relief from judgment or annulment of judgment or indirectly by offering them in evidence under the parole evidence rule. Par (A) refers to rule ON RES JUDICATA in judgments IN REM JUDGMENT or FINAL ORDER
Against a specific thing Probate of a will or administration of the estate of a deceased person

1. If the execution is returned


unsatisfied, he may cause examination of the judgment debtor as to his property and income (Section 36)

2. He may cause examination of


the debtor of the judgment debtor as to any debt owed by him or to any property of the judgment debtor in his possession (Section 37)

3. If after examination, the court


finds that there is property of the judgment debtor either in his own hands or that of any person, the court may order the property applied to the satisfaction of the judgment (Section 37)

4. If the court finds the earnings


of the judgment debtor are more than sufficient for his familys needs, it may order payment in installments (Section 40)

EFFECT: CONCLUSIVE AS TO
Title to the thing Will or administration However, ONLY prima facie evidence of the death of the testator or intestate

5. The court may appoint a


receiver for the property of the judgment debtor not exempt from execution or forbid a transfer or disposition or interference with such property (Section 41)

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


60

MEMORY AID
In respect to the personal, political, or legal condition or status of a particular person Condition, status or relationship of the person

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REMEDIAL LAW

There is identity of There is ONLY identity of parties, subject PARTIES AND SUBJECT matter and causes MATTER of action The first judgment The first judgment is constitutes as an conclusive only as to ABSOLUTE BAR TO matters directly adjudged ALL MATTERS and actually litigated in directly adjudged the first action. Second and those that action can be prosecuted. might have been adjudged.

Par (B) is referred to as bar by former judgment or RES JUDICATA in judgments IN PERSONAM RES JUDICATA - final judgments on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction is conclusive as to the rights of the parties or their privies in all later suits on points determined in the former judgment. REQUISITES: 1. A FINAL judgment or order 2. JURISDICTION over the subject matter and the parties by the court rendering it 3. Judgment UPON THE MERITS 4. Between the two cases: IDENTITY OF PARTIES IDENTITY OF SUBJECT MATTER IDENTITY OF CAUSE OF ACTION THERE IS IDENTITY OF CAUSE OF ACTION when the two actions are based on the same delict or wrong committed by the defendant even if the remedies are different. Under the doctrine of res judicata, no matter how erroneous a judgment may be, once it becomes final, it cannot be corrected. The only grounds are lack of jurisdiction, collusion or fraud. Par. (C) is known as conclusiveness of judgment or rule of AUTER ACTION PENDENT CONCLUSIVENESS OF JUDGMENT has the effect of preclusion only of issues. parties in both actions may be the same but the causes of action are different. BAR BY FORMER CONCLUSIVENESS OF JUDGMENT JUDGMENT

Section 48. Effect Of Foreign Judgment Or Final Orders: THE EFFECT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS Provided that the foreign tribunal had jurisdiction: 1. IN CASE OF JUDGMENT AGAINST A SPECIFIC THING, the judgment is CONCLUSIVE upon the TITLE TO THE THING; 2. IN CASE OF A JUDGMENT AGAINST A PERSON, the judgment is PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE of a right as between the parties and their successorsin-interest by a subsequent title. In both instances, the judgment may be repelled by evidence of want of jurisdiction, notice, collusion, fraud or decision of MTC by filing notice of clearAppeal mistake of law or fact.
appeal and pay appellate court docket fee in the same MTC within 15 days from RULE 40 receipt of judgment

APPEAL FROM MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS TO THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS


15 days from perfection of appeal, MTC clerk transmits record RTC APPEAL FROM MTC TO to RTC

Notice to parties that an appeal is being taken from the decision of MTC

ORDINARY APPEAL - an appeal by notice of appeal from a judgment or final order of a lower on questions of fact and Withincourt 15 days from notice of appeal: law. appellant submits memorandum to
the RTC files his own memorandum APPEALappellee TO THE RTC 15 days from receipt of appellants memorandum

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE

Any partyCharissimae may CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, If Oronea uncontested, appeal by filing a Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and judgment is petition for Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence) entered in the book of entries review with the RTC

San Beda College of Law


61

MEMORY AID
Mode of Appeal Notice of Appeal within fifteen (15) days from receipt of decision. After an appeal to the RTC has been perfected, the MTC loses its jurisdiction over the case and any motion for the execution of the judgment should be filed with the RTC. The Summary Rules no longer apply when the cases is on appeal. Section 2. When to Appeal. 1. Within 15 days after notice of judgment or final order; 2. Where a record on appeal is required, within 30 days from notice of judgment or final order by filing a notice of appeal and a record on appeal; 3. Period to appeal shall be interrupted by a timely motion for new trial or reconsideration. 4. No motion for extension of time to file a motion for new trial or reconsideration shall be allowed. Section 3. How to Appeal. By Notice of Appeal: 1. File a notice of appeal with the trial court. 2. The notice of appeal must indicate: a. parties b. judgment or final order appealed from c. material date showing timeliness of appeal 3. A copy served on the adverse party. 4. Payment in full of docket fees and other lawful fees
court of origin Notice of record on appeal is filed with the court of origin

IN

REMEDIAL LAW

court decrees it Filed with the CA

By Record on appeal: 1. for special proceedings such as probate; and 2. in such other cases where multiple appeals are allowed as in partition and in expropriation. Section 4. Perfection of Appeal; effect thereof. Appeal is deemed perfected: 1. by notice of appeal: as to him, upon the filing of the notice of appeal in due time; 2. by record on appeal: as to him, upon the approval of the record on appeal filed in due time. Effect of a perfected appeal: The court loses jurisdiction upon the perfection or approval of appeal and when the period of appeal for other parties expire. Residual power of the court prior to the transmittal of the original record or record on appeal: 1. to issue orders for the preservation of the rights of the parties which do not involve matters litigated by appeal; 2. to approve compromise prior to the transmittal of the record; 3. permit appeal by an indigent; 4. order execution pending appeal under Rule 39, Sec.2 ( motion for execution was filed before the expiration of the period to appeal; 5. allow withdrawal of the appeal.

ORDINARY APPEAL
Matter of right All the records are elevated from the

PETITION FOR REVIEW


Discretionary No records are elevated unless the

Section 8. Appeal from orders dismissing case without trial; lack of jurisdiction

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


62

MEMORY AID
If lower court dismissed case without trial on the merits: RTC may: 1. Affirm, or 2. Reverse, in which case, it shall remand the case for further proceedings. If dismissal is due to lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter: RTC may: 1. Affirm; if RTC has jurisdiction, shall try the case on the merits as if the case was originally filed with it, or 2. Reverse, in which case, it remand the case for further proceedings. If the case was tried on the merits by the lower court without jurisdiction over the subject matter: RTC shall not dismiss the case if it has original jurisdiction, but shall decide the case, and shall admit amended pleadings or additional evidence. RULE 41 APPEAL FROM REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS APPEALABLE CASES 1. Judgments or final orders that completely disposes of the case. 2. A particular matter in a judgment declared by the Rules to be appealable. NON APPEALABLE CASES
1. 2. 3. Order dismissing an action without prejudice Order of Execution Judgments or final orders for or against one or more of several parties or in separate claims while the main case is pending Orders disallowing or dismissing an Appeal Interlocutory orders Orders denying: a. Petition for relief; b. Motion for new trial or reconsideration; and c. Motion to Set aside a judgment, by consent,

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confession or compromise on the ground of fraud, mistake, duress or any ground vitiating consent.

Remedy in cases where appeal is not allowed Special civil action of certiorari or prohibition if there is lack or excess of jurisdiction or grave abuse of discretion or mandamus if there is no performance of duty. INTERLOCUTORY ORDER An order which does not dispose of the case but leave something else to be done by the trial court on the merits of the case. A judgment based on compromise is not appealable and is immediately executory. Section 2. Modes of appeal.
Ordinary Petition for appeal review (appeal by writ [Rule 42] of error) Case is decided Case is by the RTC in decided by its original the MTC. jurisdiction Appealed to Appealed to the the RTC. CA Petition for review with the CA File a notice of File a verified appeal or a petition for record on review with appeal with the the CA. Pay court of origin the docket (RTC) and give and lawful a copy to the fees, and P adverse party. 500 as deposit for costs with the CA. Furnish RTC and adverse party copy of such (R 42). Petition for review on certiorari [Rule 45] The case raises only a question of law

4. 5. 6.

File a verified petition for review on certiorari with the SC (R 45) Pay docket and lawful fees and P 500 for costs. Submit proof of service of a copy to the lower court and adverse party.

Within 15 days Within 15 days Within 15 from the notice from notice of days from of the judgment the decision notice of the

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


63

MEMORY AID
for notice of to be judgment or appeal and reviewed or order or within 30 days from the denial of the for records on denial of a MR MR or new appeal. The or new trial. trial. period for filing is interrupted by a timely motion for reconsideration or new trial.

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PETITION FOR REVIEW FROM THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS TO THE COURT OF APPEALS Petition for review is not a matter of right but discretionary on the CA. It may only give due course to the petition if it shows on its face that the lower court has committed an error of fact and/or law that will warrant a reversal or modification of the decision or judgment sought to be reviewed; OR dismiss the petition if it finds that it is patently without merit, or prosecuted manifestly for delay, or the questions raised therein are too unsubstantial to require consideration. It is merely discretionary on the CA to order the elevation of the records. This is because until the petition is given due course, the trial court may still issue a warrant of execution pending appeal and in some cases such as ejectment and those of Summary Procedure, the judgments are immediately executory. It is only when the CA deems it necessary that the Clerk of the RTC will be ordered to elevate the records of the case. RULE 43 APPEALS FROM THE COURT OF TAX APPEALS AND THE QUASI-JUDICIAL AGENCIES TO THE CA Judgments and final orders or resolutions of the NLRC are reviewable by the COURT OF APPEALS in an original action for certiorari under Rule 65 (St. Martin Funeral Home vs. NLRC, Sept. 16, 1998). A party adversely affected by a decision or ruling of the CTA en banc may file with the Supreme Court a verified petition for review on certiorari pursuant to Rule 45 (Sec. 12, RA 9282).

Section 7. Approval of record on appeal. Procedure if the appeal is through a record on appeal 1. file record on appeal 2. appellee may file an objection within 5 days from his receipt thereof 3. if there is no objection the court may: approve it as presented; OR direct its amendment on its own or upon the motion of the adverse party 4. if an amendment is ordered the appellant must redraft the record within the time ordered or if there is no time, within 10 days from receipt 5. submit the record for approval with notice on the adverse party The period to appeal is MANDATORY and JURISDICTIONAL. Failure to appeal on time makes the decision final and executory and deprives the appellate court of jurisdiction. However in few instances the court has allowed due course to such appeals on strong and compelling reasons of justice.

RULE 42

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


64

MEMORY AID
RULE 44 ORDINARY APPEALED CASES Section 9. Appellants reply brief. Failure to file appellant's brief on time is a ground for dismissal of the appeal. If a motion to dismiss an appeal has been filed, it suspends the running of the period for filing the appellant brief, as the same would be unnecessary should the motion be granted. The failure of the appellant to make specific assignment of errors in his brief or page references to the record as required in this section is a ground for dismissal of his appeal. Section 15. Questions that may be raised on appeal. The appeal can raise only questions of law or fact that 1. were raised in the court below; and 2. are within the issues framed by the parties thereon. BRIEF vs. MEMORANDUM BRIEF
Ordinary appeals

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RULE 45 APPEAL BY CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME COURT


RTC, Sandiganbayan or CA renders decision

Any party files a petition for review on certiorari w/in 15 days from notice of final judgment or order of lower court or notice of denial of motion for reconsideration or new trial

Appellant serves copies of petition on adverse parties and to the lower court, and pay the corresponding docket fees

SC may dismiss the petition or require the appellee to comment

Section 1. Filing of Supreme Court

petition

with

If given due course, parties may submit memoranda

Appeals to the SC can be taken from a


SC may affirm, reverse, or modify judgment of the lower court

MEMORANDUM
Certiorari, Prohibition, Mandamus, Quo Warranto and Habeas Corpus cases

Filed within 45 days Contents specified by Rules

within 30 days Shorter, briefer, only one issue involved - no subject index or assignment of errors just facts and law applicable

judgment or final order or resolution of the CA, the Sandiganbayan, the RTC or such other courts as maybe authorized by law and only by verified petition for review on certiorari on questions of law except only in appeals from judgments of the RTC in criminal cases wherein the penalty imposed is life imprisonment or reclusion perpetua which shall be elevated by ordinary appeal, or wherein the death penalty is imposed which is subject to automatic review.

GENERAL RULE: the findings of fact of the CA are final and conclusive and cannot be reviewed on appeal to the SC.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


65

MEMORY AID
EXCEPTIONS to CONCLUSIVENESS OF FACTS:

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1. When the finding is grounded


entirely on speculations, surmise or conjecture; 2. When inference made is manifestly absurd, mistaken or impossible; 3. When the judgment is premised on a misrepresentation of facts; 4. When there is grave abuse of discretion in the appreciation of facts; 5. When the findings of fact are conflicting; 6. When the CA in making its findings went beyond the issues of the case and the same is contrary to both the admissions of appellants and appellees; 7. When the findings of fact of the CA are at variance with those of the trial court, the SC has to review the evidence in order to arrive at the correct findings based on the record; 8. When the findings of fact are conclusions without citation of specific evidence on which they are based; 9. When the facts set forth in the petition as well as in the petitioners main and reply briefs are not disputed by the respondents; 10. The findings of fact of the CA is premised on the supposed evidence and is contradicted by the evidence on record; 11. When certain material facts and circumstances have been overlooked by the trial court which, if taken into account, would alter the result of the case in that they would entitle the accused to acquittal.

Certiorari under Rule 45 vs. certiorari under Rule 64/65 ( special civil action) CERTIORARI UNDER CERTIORARI UNDER RULE 45 RULE 64/65
petition is based on questions of law petition raises the issue as to whether the lower court acted without jurisdiction or in excess of jurisdiction or with grave abuse of discretion Special civil action

It is a mode of appeal

Involves the review of Directed against an the judgment award interlocutory order of or final order on the the court or where merits there is no appeal or any other plain, speedy or adequate remedy Must be made within filed not later than 60 the reglementary days from notice of period judgment, order or resolution appealed from Stays the judgment or Unless a writ of order appealed from preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order is issued does not stay the challenged proceeding QUESTIONS OF LAW QUESTIONS OF

The petitioner and the doubt The parties are the doubt or controversy or difference respondent are the aggrieved party as to what the law is arises as to the truth original parties to the against the lower on certain facts or falsehood of facts, action, and the lower court or quasi-judicial or as to probative court or quasi-judicial value agency and the of the evidence agency is not prevailing parties presented impleaded if the appellate court the determination can determine evaluation or Motion for the involves Motion for issue raised without review of evidence reconsideration is not reconsideration or for reviewing or required new trial is required evaluating the If a motion for evidence reconsideration or new Can involve questions query invites trial is filed, the of interpretation of calibration of the period shall not only the law with respect whole evidence be interrupted but to certain set of facts considering the another 60 mainly days shall credibility of witnesses, existence and relevancy of REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE specific surrounding CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae circumstances and Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions relation to each and other Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence) and the whole probabilities of the situation

FACT

San Beda College of Law


66

MEMORY AID
be given to the petitioner ( SC Admin. Matter 002-03 )

IN

REMEDIAL LAW

The court is in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction and power of review

Court exercises original jurisdiction

RULE 46 ORIGINAL CASES Section 2. To what actions applicable. Under B.P. Blg. 129, the CA has original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, habeas corpus and quo warranto, and auxiliary writs or processes, whether or not they are in aid of its appellate jurisdiction, and it has exclusive original jurisdiction over actions for annulment of judgments of Regional Trial Courts.

3. Require respondents to file COMMENT within 10 days from NOTICE 4. Court may require the filing of a REPLY or such other pleadings as it may deem necessary 5. Determination of FACTUAL ISSUES, the court may delegate the reception of evidence on such issues to any of its members. RULE 47 ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS Annulment of judgment is a remedy in law independent of the case where the judgment sought to be annulled was rendered and may be availed of though the judgment has been executed. One important condition for the availment of this remedy - the petitioner failed to move for new trial in, or appeal from, or file a petition for relief against, or take other appropriate remedies assailing the questioned judgment or final order or resolution through no fault attributable to him. If he failed to avail of those other remedies without sufficient justification, he cannot resort to annulment provided in this Rule, otherwise he would benefit from his own inaction or negligence. Grounds for ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENT 1. extrinsic fraud or collateral fraud; 2. lack of jurisdiction; Extrinsic fraud shall not be a valid ground if it was availed of, or could have been availed of, in a motion for new trial or petition for relief. EXTRINSIC OR COLLATERAL FRAUD is any fraudulent act of the prevailing party in the litigation which is committed outside of the trial of the case, whereby the defeated party has been prevented from exhibiting fully and fairly presenting his side of the case.

Section 4. Jurisdiction over person, how acquired. JURISDICTION IS ACQUIRED:

1. Over the PETITIONER - by filing


of the petition.

2. Over the RESPONDENT - by the


service on the latter of the order or resolution indicating the courts initial action on the petition and NOT by the service on him of the petition or by his voluntary submission. Section 5. Action by the court. PROCEDURAL OUTLINE (original cases in the Court of Appeals) 1. Filing of the petition 2. Order to acquire jurisdiction over respondents OR Outright dismissal for failure to comply to requirements also form and payment of docket and other legal fees.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


67

MEMORY AID
EXTRINSIC FRAUD
Period of Filing action Effect of judgment

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LACK OF JURISDICTION

4 years from Before it is barred discovery by laches or estoppel Trial court will try the case Original action may be refiled

arguments will be heard in support thereof; and if the appellate court desires to hold a hearing thereon, it will itself set the date with notice to the parties. RULE 50 DISMISSAL OF APPEAL Section 1. Grounds for dismissal of appeal With the exception of Section 1 (b) dismissal of an appeal is directory and not mandatory. Other grounds for the dismissal of an appeal are: 1. by agreement of the parties, as where the case was amicably settled by them. 2. where the appealed case has become moot or academic. 3. where the appeal is frivolous or dilatory. Section 2. Dismissal of improper appeal to the Court of Appeals No transfer of appeals, erroneously taken to it or to the Court of Appeals, whichever of these tribunals has appropriate appellate jurisdiction, will be allowed. Also, elevating such appeal by the wrong mode of appeal shall be a ground for dismissal. A resolution of the Court of Appeals dismissing the appeal and remanding the case to the trial court for further proceedings is merely interlocutory, hence a motion for its reconsideration filed year later may be entertained and granted Section 3. Withdrawal of Appeal Court of Appeals may dismiss the appeal outright even without motion. The remedy if dismissed for improper appeal is to refile it in the proper forum but has to be within the prescribed period. RULE 51 JUDGMENT

Section. 5. Action by the court. Two stages: 1. A preliminary evaluation of the petition for prima facie merit therein, and 2. The issuance of summons as in ordinary civil cases and such appropriate proceedings thereafter as contemplated in Sec. 6. The rule allows the CA to dismiss the petition outright as in special civil actions. For the court to acquire jurisdiction over the respondent, the rule requires the issuance of summons should prima facie merit be found in the petition and the same is given due course. RULE 48 PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE Section 3. Binding effect of the results of the conference In the CA, this procedural device may be availed of not only in original actions but also in cases on appeal wherein a new trial was granted on the ground of newly discovered evidence. The CA can act as a trier of facts, hence the preliminary conference authorized is a convenient adjunct to such power and function. RULE 49 ORAL ARGUMENT Section 3. No hearing or oral argument for motions Motions in the SC and the CA do not contain notices of hearing as no oral

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


68

MEMORY AID
Law of the Case the opinion delivered on a former appeal. It means that whatever is once irrevocably established, as the controlling legal rule or decision between the same parties in the same case, continues to be the law of the case, whether correct on general principles or not, so long as the facts on which such decision was predicated continue to be the facts before the court. But this rule does not apply to resolutions rendered in connection with the case wherein no rationale has been expounded on the merits of that action. Section 5. Form of Decision The requirement for the statement of facts and the law refers to a decision or for that matter a final resolution. The same are not required on minute resolutions since these usually dispose of the case not on its merits but on procedural or technical considerations. Although the court may, if it feels necessary, briefly discuss the matter on the merits in an extended resolution.

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over the subject matter. To this exception has now been added errors affecting the validity of the judgment appealed from or the proceedings therein. Even if the error complained of by a party is not expressly stated in his assignment of errors but the same is closely related to or dependent on an assigned error and properly argued in his brief such error may now be considered by the court. RULE 52 MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION The rules now prohibit a second motion for reconsideration. Sec. 3 provides a time limit of 90 days for the resolution of a motion for reconsideration filed with the Court of Appeals from the date the same was submitted for resolution, which is normally the filing of the last pleading required by the rules of court or the expiration of such period. Rules now requires the service of the motion to the adverse party RULE 53 NEW TRIAL Filing of a motion for new trial is at any time after the perfection of the appeal from the decision of the lower court and before the Court of Appeals loses jurisdiction over the case The ground is newly discovered evidence which could not have been discovered prior to the trial in the court below by the exercise of due diligence and of such character as would probably alter the result. RULE 56 PROCEDURE IN THE SUPREME COURT A. ORIGINAL CASES

With respect to petitions for review and motions for reconsideration, the Constitution merely requires a statement of the legal basis for the denial thereof or refusal of due course thereto. The court may opt, but it is not required to issue an extended resolution thereon. Section 6. HARMLESS ERROR The court, at every stage of the proceeding, must disregard any error or defect which does not affect the substantial rights of the parties such as error in admission or exclusion of evidence or error or defect in the ruling or order. Section 8. Questions that may be decided Only errors claimed and assigned by a party will be considered by the court, except errors affecting its jurisdiction

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


69

MEMORY AID
Rule specifically states what cases may be originally filed with the Supreme Court 1. petition for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, habeas corpus; 2. disciplinary proceedings against members of the judiciary and attorneys 3. cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls B. APPEALED CASES Mode of Appeal In criminal cases where the penalty imposed is death or reclusion perpetua, an appeal made to the Supreme Court is through a notice of appeal filed with the RTC in all other cases, an appeal made to the supreme court is through a petition for review on certiorari. PROVISIONAL REMEDIES Also known as ancillary or auxiliary remedies, are writs and processes available during the pendency of the action which may be resorted to by a litigant to preserve and protect certain rights and interests therein pending rendition, and for purposes of the ultimate effects, of a final judgment in the case.

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RULE 57 PRELIMINARY ATTACHMENT The proper party may have the property of the adverse party attached at the commencement of the action or at any time before entry of judgment. WHEN issued 1. In actions for recovery of a specified sum of money or damages, except moral and exemplary, on a cause of action arising from law, contract, quasi-contract, delict or quasidelict against a party about to depart from the Phils. with intent to defraud his creditors; 2. In actions for recovery of money or property embezzled or fraudulently converted to his own use by a public officer, or an officer of a corp., or an attorney, factor, broker, agent or clerk, in the course of his employment as such, or by any person in a fiduciary capacity; 3. In actions to recover property unjustly taken or concealed, when the property or any of its part, has been concealed or disposed of to prevent its being found by the applicant or any authorized person; 4. In actions against a person guilty of fraud in incurring or performing an obligation upon which the action is based; 5. In actions against a party who has removed or disposed of his property, or is about to do so, with intent to defraud his creditors; 6. In actions against non-residents not found in the Phils., or on whom summons is served by publication.

The following are the provisional remedies provided for in the Rules of Court 1. Preliminary Attachment (Rule 57) 2. Preliminary Injunction (Rule 58) 3. Receivership (Rule 59) 4. Replevin (Rule 60) 5. Support Pendente Lite (Rule 61) PD 1818 prohibits the issuance of injunctive writs not only against government entities but also against any person or entity involved in the execution, implementation, and operation of government infrastructure projects.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


70

MEMORY AID
RULE 58 PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION Preliminary Injunction an order granted at any stage of an action or proceeding prior to the judgment requiring a party or a court, agency or a person to refrain from a particular act or acts. PRELIMINARY MANDATORY Injunction an order requiring the performance of a particular act or acts. Grounds 1. applicant is entitled to the relief demanded; or 2. commission, continuance or nonperformance of the act complained of would work injustice to the applicant if not enjoined; or 3. the acts sought to be enjoined probably violates the rights of the applicant respecting the subject of the action and tending to render the judgment ineffectual. Section 5. There must be prior notice to the person sought to be enjoined and a hearing before preliminary injunction may be granted. If great or irreparable injury would result to the applicant, the court may issue ex parte a temporary restraining order, effective only for 20 days from service on the party sought to be enjoined. If the matter is of extreme urgency and the applicant will suffer grave injustice and irreparable injury, the judge may issue a TRO effective only for 72 hours from issuance. Its effectivity may be extended after conducting a summary hearing w/in the 72-hrs period until the application for preliminary injunction can be heard. The total period of effectivity of the TRO shall not exceed 20 days, including the 72 hours.

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If application is denied or not resolved within said period, the TRO is deemed automatically vacated. Effectivity of TRO is not extendible. There is no need of a judicial declaration to that effect. A TRO issued by the CA or any of its members is effective for 60 days from service on the party sought to be enjoined. A TRO issued by the SC or a member therof is effective until further orders. GROUNDS FOR OBJECTION 1. insufficiency; 2. if injunction would cause irreparable damage to the person enjoined while the applicant can be fully compensated for such damages, PROVIDED the former files a BOND. Distinctions INJUNCTION
directed against a party in the action

PROHIBITION
Directed against a court, tribunal or a person exercising judicial powers Based on the ground that the court against whom the writ is sought had acted without or in excess of jurisdiction Always the main action

does not involve jurisdiction of the court

it may be the main action itself or just a provisional remedy

RULE 59 RECEIVERSHIP WHEN MAY BE GRANTED 1. applicant has an interest in the property or fund subject of the proceeding and such property is in danger of being lost or materially injured unless a receiver is appointed;

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)

San Beda College of Law


71

MEMORY AID
2. in foreclosure of mortgage, when the property is in danger of being wasted or dissipated and that its value is probably insufficient to discharge the mortgage debt or that it has been agreed upon by the parties; 3. after judgment, to preserve the property during the pendency of an appeal or to dispose of it accdg. to the judgment or to aid execution; 4. when appointment of receiver is the most convenient and feasible means of preserving, administering or disposing of the property in litigation. A person who refuses or neglects to deliver property within his control and which is the subject of the action to the receiver may be punished for contempt and liable to the receiver for the money or the value of the property PLUS damages. The receiver shall also file a bond before entering upon his duties separate from the bond filed by the applicant. RULE 60 REPLEVIN The sheriff shall retain the property for 5 days. Within such period, the adverse party may object to the sufficiency of the applicants bond or surety or he may file a counter-bond. After 5 days and the adverse party failed to object or his counter-bond is insufficient, the sheriff shall deliver the property to the applicant. Distinctions
REPLEVIN May be sought only when the principal action is recovery of personal property. ATTACHMENT Available even if recovery of property is only incidental to the relief sought.

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Can be sought only when May be resorted to even defendant is in actual if the property is in possession of the possession of a third property. person. CANNOT be availed of Can be AVAILED of even when property is in if property is in custodia legis CUSTODIA LEGIS. Available before defendant answers Available from commencement but before entry of judgment Bond is FIXED by the court

Bond is DOUBLE the value of the property

RULE 61 SUPPORT PENDENTE LITE When may be applied for: at the commencement of the action or at any time before judgment or final order. Failure to comply with an order granting support pendente lite may warrant the issuance of an order of execution against the non-complying party. He may likewise be liable for contempt. See matrix on provisional remedies more detailed information.

REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EDPS: Martessa Nuylan, Charissimae Ventura, Jocelyn Zabala SUBJECT HEADS: Jona Obia (Civil Procedure); Alnaiza Hasiman (Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings); Jeenice de Sagun (Criminal Procedure); Elaine Masukat (Evidence)