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Design and Deployment of Outdoor Wireless Networks

BRKAGG-2017

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Your Sessions Presenters


From Cisco Systems George Manuelian
Senior Manager WW SP Mobile Practice

Navdeep Johar
Technical Marketing Engineer
Wireless Networking Business Unit (WNBU)

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Before this Session Starts...


Please turn off your phone

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Agenda
Role of Broadband Wireless
WiFi Mesh WiMAX Service Exchange Framework

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Associated Sessions and Recommended Readings


Associated Sessions
TECAGG-2002U Advanced Enterprise WLAN Deployment

Prerequisites
BRKAGG-2010 Design and Deployment of Enterprise WLANs

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Role of Broadband Wireless

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Ciscos Vision for Service Providers


Linking People, Businesses, Cultures, and Countries Through Networks and Services to Deliver the Connected Life

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Wireless Coverage EVDO, HSPA, WIMAX,Wi-Fi


WIMAX/ LTE

Wi-Fi Mesh/Pico

Wi-Fi/ Femto Home

AP
High Density

Outdoor

Indoor

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WiFi-Mesh or WiMAX?
Positioning WiFi-Mesh and WiMAX

WiMAX and WiFi Mesh are broadband wireless solutions serving distinct market segments and are used as complimentary technologies
WiMAX
Spectrum Basestation Coverage Characterization Markets Licensed 1.5 to 3 kilometers WAN / MAN Digital inclusion Wireless broadband for business and consumer services 3G spectrum offload Unlicensed 100-300 meters LAN / MAN Municipal WiFi deployments Enterprise, university, and government campuses

WiFi Mesh

Interested Parties

Greenfield operators Incumbent operators for quad-play service delivery Mobile operators whove not invested in 3G spectrum
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Municipalities for safety, efficiency, and competitive services Large enterprises, campuses Challenger service providers

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IP Next Generation Networks


IP Forms the Foundation for True Mobility
Subscriber Radio Networks Mobile Service Exchange
Packet Gateways IP Anchor Point IP Service Control

Multiservice IP/MPLS Core

Internal Services and Operations

External Services

UMTS / HSPA

News Portals Location Services

VoD

Corporate VPNs

CDMA

Broadcast

Internet

GGSN

Content Services Gateway

VoIP Music Roaming Exchanges

WiMAX PDSN Mobile IP Home Agent ASN-GW

Service Control

Wireless Mesh

Session Border Controller


ITP

Billing

AAA

Applicatio n Partners IP Media Partners

WiFi

DNS

Policies

Wireless LAN Controller

IP Transfer Point

Logging Subscriber Profiles

Signaling Networks

Persistent Roaming Across Wireless Access Networks


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Subscriber-Differentiated IP Service Delivery


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Wireless Connectivity

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Connecting with Different Wireless Options


Repeater (lan-to-lan)

B
f1 f1

Multi-Band Distribution and Access

A C
Relay (lan-to-lan)

5.x GHz

5.x GHz

E
f1 f2

D F
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2.4 GHz
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Advanced Wireless Bridging/Mesh Architectures

Switch

RAP RAP

MAP Controller MAP

Controller
MAP

Backhaul MAP 5 GHz

Access 2.4 GHz


MAP

RAP: Root Access Point


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MAP: Mesh Access Point


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Going Further with Wireless Mesh Access

Internet
OR WiMAX

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Mesh Overview

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Ciscos Intelligent Wireless Mesh Solution


Engineered for ease of deployment and management
Identical indoor/outdoor management Based on CAPWAP

Self-configuring, self-healing Mesh


Zero-touch configuration
Ciscos Adaptive Wireless Path (AWPP) Protocol for fault-tolerant Mesh deployments (base of future 802.11s)

Robust embedded security


EAP Fast encrypted Backhaul links Embedded 802.11i

Controller

Provides seamless L3 mobility


Fast, secure intra and inter subnet roaming, maintaining 802.1x security
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Wireless Mesh Solution Components


MAP

RAP

Mesh Access Point


802.11b/g client access Connects to Root AP via 802.11a AC/DC power; PoE capable Ethernet port for connecting peripheral devices (POE) Battery backup

Root Access Point


Serves as Root AP to the wired network Typically located on roof-tops or towers Connects up to 35 Mesh APs using 802.11a Access QoS and encryption

Wireless LAN Controller


7600 Module links Wireless Mesh APs to wired network Handles RF algorithms and optimization Seamless WiFi mobility Provides security/ mobility mgt

Wireless Control System (WCS)


Wireless Mesh Management System enables network-wide policy configuration and device management\ SNMPv3, Syslog, IPSec, AAA, etc

Back Office Systems


Bandwidth Monitoring and Management Policy Definitions Subscriber Database Management Billing and OSS Systems

Industry Proven Devices at Every Layer


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Reliable Hardware
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Mesh Easily Scales as the Network Grows


Increase AP density

Add additional RAPs


Mesh APs will join new RAPs with better path metrics

VLANs
Police
City Public Traffic

32 MAPs per RAP

Easily add Controllers


Up to 72 Controllers can be part of an N+1 cluster

Up to 3 Mobility Groups (24 Controllers in each Mobility Group) Architecture is ready for additional radios when extra capacity is required Mesh radio links can be viewed and managed graphically using WCS WCS Navigator manages up to 20 WCSs & 20,000 APs
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72 WLCs per domain

16 MBSSIDs

8 Hops Deep (34 Recommended)

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Indoor and Outdoor Deployment with Single Controller Seamless Roaming


iMesh AP1131 AG & AP1242
Managing Indoor and Outdoor Mesh Wireless Network

Controllers: All controller types Grgich Hill (5.2) and later


Single Controller Cisco WCS

Across indoors and outdoors All controller platforms supported

RAP/MAP: 1522 & 1524


RAP RAP1

MAP1

iMesh
MAP

Network Connectivity

MAP3

MAP2

Indoor AP: Mesh & Non Mesh APs Indoor Wireless Network (Mesh & Non Mesh)
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Outdoor Wireless Mesh Network


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Centralized Wireless LAN Architecture


What Is CAPWAP ?
CAPWAP - Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points is used between APs and WLAN Controller and based on LWAPP with split MAC architecture. CAPWAP carries control and data traffic between the two
Control plane is AES-CCM encrypted Data plane is DTLS encrypted (Optional).

LWAPP-enabled access points can discover and join a CAPWAP controller, and conversion to a CAPWAP controller is seamless CAPWAP is not supported on Layer-2 mode deployment
Business Application Data Plane Controller

Access Point WiFi Client

CAPWAP

Control Plane
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Mesh Platform Options

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Wireless Products
Cisco has a comprehensive suite of products for Outdoor/Indoor Wireless connectivity
AP1524 MESH AP1522 MESH

AP1242/AP1131 indoor Mesh (iMesh)


BR1310 2.4GHz Bridging BR1410 5GHz Bridging 3200 Mobile Access Router

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5508/9- NEW!

Cisco Wireless Controller Family 500


Network Device Limits
375 150 3750G WLC Switch 25-50AP 75 Cisco 4404 100 APs Cisco 4402-50 50 APs

License per AP

4400 (100 APs)


RAPs 1 MAPs 149

Cisco WiSM 300 APs

50
75

100
50 18

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ISR WLC Module 12 6 AP

Cisco 4402-12 12 APs

Cisco 2106 6 APs


REAP H-REAP

Cisco 4402-25 25 APs RAPS Are Counted as 1, Since MAPs Are Not Connected Directly to the Controller, Each MAP Is Considered as .5 (Half) an AP for the Purposes of Supported Controller Count

X + 0.5 Y = Supported AP Count Key: X = RAP, Y = MAP


>=12 APs >=25 APs >=100 APs 500 APs

12 APs

>=26 APs

Deployment Size
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Announcing: Next Generation Wireless Broadband Platform


Versatile
Cisco Aironet 1520 Series

Extensible

Fortified
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Cisco Aironet 1520 Series: Platform Introduction


Versatile
Universal radio slot allows rapid deployment of new radio technology Radio modularity provides flexibility to meet dynamic customer requirements

Extensible
Cisco Aironet 1520 Series
Easily extends services integrating 3rd party applications IP devices (video cameras, automated meter reader, etc.)

Rugged NEMA 4X enclosure Hazardous Location Certified Cisco Unified Wireless Network/Cisco Self-Defending Network Architecture

Fortified
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Modularity
Motherboard
Chassis

PEM Cover

Modem Modem Cover

PEM Board

Power In Board

Radio Assembly (2X)

RF Cover

PEM Plate

Fiber Spools

PEM Cover
SFP Module
PS Cover

Power Supply

Riser Assembly (2X)

Fiber In
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Cable Routing Area


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Cisco 1520 Series: Platform Overview (Cont.)


N-Connector Antenna Ports (6X) Labeled Ruggedized enclosure
40 to +55C with solar loading
IP67, NEMA-4X Hazardous safe option Class 1, zone 2/division 2

LEDs for troubleshooting Integrated Battery backup

Reset Button
PoE out (802.3af) to connect and power devices LEDs Aux/Console Cable DC Input Multiple Power Options Paintable chassis FIPS-140-2 certifiable Flexible backhaul/uplink options
Fiber interface with SFP port 1000BT Gig Ethernet Cable modem DOCSIS 2.0 with cable power

PoE Out
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PoE In

Fiber

AC Input
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Cisco 1520 Multi-Radio Platform


AP1524-PS AP1524 5.8
Multi-radio mesh platform

SIMO/MRC

5 levels of transmit power


5.8GHz: 28 dBm 2.4GHz: 28 dBm / 14dBm ETSI 4.9GHz: 26 dBm (Mask M), 20/10/5 MHz channels

2.4 4.9
AP1524-SB 5.8 2.4 5.8

Multiple Antennas for Maximizing Rx Sensitivity (MRC) AP1524 PS (Public Safety)-3 Radios
Band-specific radios 802.11b/g-2.4GHz (Access), 802.11a4.9 GHz (Access), 802.11a-5.8GHz (Backhaul)

AP1524 SB (Serial Backhaul)-3 Radios

AP1522

Band-specific radios 802.11b/g-2.4GHz (Access), 802.11a5.8GHz (Access/Backhaul), 802.11a-5.8GHz (Backhaul)

AP1522 -2 Radios
802.11b/g 2.4 GHz (Access), 802.11a4.9 to 5.8 GHz (Backhaul)

Cable SKU
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Fiber SKU
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Current State of 5 GHz Bridging Spectrum


1524 AP
4.94 4.99 5.15

1524 AP
5.825 5.850

1522 AP
5.25 5.35 5.470
8 Channels
Txmax 19 dBm

5.725

4 Channels 3 Channels

33 dBm + Unlimited Radiated Power Antenna EIRP (with Antenna) Gain Txmax 26 dBm Mask M

US (FCC)

Txmax 19 dBm

UNII-1
17 dBm

UNII-2
27 dBm

17 dBi Not Allowed

5 Channels ISM 30 dBm+Unltd. Ant. Gain Txmax 28 dBm


UNII-3, 30 dBm

UNII-2 Extended 27 dBm


Txmax 22 dBm

Europe
Radiated Power EIRP (with Antenna)

23 dBm

30 dBm

11 Channels 30 dBm

4 Channels

Japan

DFS + TPC
Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) Target Power Control (TPC)

Dynamic Range of 6 dB provided for every Antenna for Static TPC


Hub Radios Licensed
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Support of Workgroup Bridges (WGBs)


1522 1524

CAPWAP Infrastructure will associate Cisco IOS WGBs Connects multiple wired devices to the WLAN
WGBs 1240, 1230 1130, 1120 1300

3200 WMICs as WGB (release 12.4(3)JK): 3201 - 2.4 GHz

This is NOT Mesh AP acting as a WGB

3205 - 5.0 GHz 3202 - 4.9 GHz

Cisco IOS WGBs must be upgraded to 12.4(3)JA or later


WCS support of WGB device management in 4.2 or later
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Outdoor Video Surveillance Architecture


3G Cellular Network
Client uplink To mesh

Wireless Mesh with Cisco 152x

Cisco 3200 2.4 & 4.9GHz Access Points

2.4/4.9/5GHz bridging

3G Cellular

In-Vehicle Network
3200 Mobile Router

Cisco 3200

Expand citywide coverage with 2.4 & 4.9GHz Mesh; Cisco 3200 video nodes become clients to Mesh
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Serial BackhaulLinear Deployment


(Straight Line Deployment eg. Trains )
RAP Slot 2
Ch 149

Map1 Slot 2
Ch 157

Map2 Slot 1

Ch 165

Map3 Slot 2
Ch 153

Map4 Slot 1 Slot 2

Slot 1

Slot 1

Slot 2

Slot 1

To avoid AP internal channel coupling 2 channel separation is maintained


A=CH149 X=CH153

Channel Reuse after 4 Hops


1524 Multi-radio

5.8 GHz Backhaul

B=CH157
Y=CH161 C=CH165

5.8 GHz Backhaul

5.8 GHz Access

2.4 GHz Access

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Optimizing Antenna Options


2.4 GHz Antennas
Part Number AIR-ANT2450V-N AIR-ANT2450V-N AIR-ANT2480V-N Description 2.4 GHz, 5 dBi Compact Omni-Directional 2.4 GHz, 5 dBi Compact Omni-Directional 2.4 GHz, 8 dBi Omni-Directional

4.9/5 GHz Antennas


Part Number AIR-ANT5240V-N AIR-ANT5180V-N Description 5.25 to 5.85 GHz, 4 dBi Right Angle OmniDirectional 4.9 to 5.85 GHz, 8 dBi Compact OmniDirectional

AIR-ANT58G10SSA-N AIR-ANT5114P-N AIR-ANT5117S-N

5.725 to 5.825 GHz, 9.5 dBi Sector 4.9 to 5.85 GHz, 14 dBi Patch 4.9 to 5.85 GHz, 17 dBi 90o Sector

Compact Antennas Mount Directly on the Access Point (10.8) Right Angle Antennas Mount Directly to the side of Access Point (5)
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Non-Cisco Antenna/Cable Support


RF connectivity and compliance is customers responsibility Cisco doesn't track or have any idea about the quality, performance or reliability of the Non Certified Antennas/Cables Cisco Technical Assistance Center will have no training or customer history with regard to non-Cisco antennas/cables Cisco's compliance is only guaranteed with Cisco antennas or antennas that are of the same design and gain as Cisco antennas The Cable Loss reduces the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power coming out from Antenna

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Real World Installation

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InstallationRAP Is All About Location


Mount Your Root AP on a Roof Top or Tower That Has a Good View of the Coverage Area Ideally, You Should See Your RAP Site from the Streetlight or Coverage Area Looking Up

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InstallationFresnel Zone Clearance


The Fresnel zone is an imaginary ellipsoid which surrounds the straight line path between the antennas The required beam clearance is called Fresnel zone The antennas must be high enough to allow the first Fresnel zone to clear the hills, earth bulge, buildings or trees D1 D2

Fresnel Zone
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Understanding RAP Coverage Areas

RF Shadow Close to Building; Poor SNR

Beyond RF Coverage Area; Poor SNR

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RAP Deployment
Maintain the recommended distances between the RAPs/Maps to avoid overloading of the Receiver
If on a Tower, Vertical separation is the best Antenna proximity must be obeyed, even if on Adjacent and Alternate Adjacent Channels
Antennas 17 dBi/7.5 dBi
17dBi/7.5 dBi 17dBi/7.5 dBi

AP Collocation Adjacent Channel


Alternate Adjacent Channel Cable Spacing

Vertical Separation 40 feet


10 feet 3 feet

Damage Level: 0 dBm Lab Testing: Minimum Attenuation 60 dB


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Mesh RolesMesh Access Point MAP

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Vertical/Horizontal Pole Mount

AIR-ACCPMK1520=
2 Steel Straps

Pole Diameter Range supported from 2 to 16

Mounts to pole using Band-It strap system

Allows for pivot up to 45 Deg. for support pole applications


Allows full access to hinged cover and lets used pivot the box 90 to access rear panel (Radios and Battery) Quick mount and pivot

AIR-BAND-INST-TL= Horizontal pivot to 45 Pivot and quick mount


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Cable Strand Mount


2.4GHz (Tx/Rx) 5GHz (Tx/Rx) 2.4GHz(Rx)

All equipment, antennas and enclosure to be mounted within legal limits of right-of-way.

Allow for mount adjust up to 20 degree cable slope. (Antenna stay vertical while cable is sloped).
Also allows for enclosure mount to be adjusted so antennas hang vertical. (center of gravity below cable).
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Antennas Installed on the Top of Pole

5Ghz Antenna 2,4Ghz Antenna

Mesh AP

Left View

Front View

Equipment Inside
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Grounding and Lightening Arrestor

1- Outdoor Light Control 2- Streetlight Adapter 3-Copper Grounding wire

10 AWG or Larger Ground Wire

Street Light Power Tap supports 100 to 480 VAC


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Site Survey Tools


Air Magnet Planner & Surveyor
Indoor and Outdoor GPS assisted 802.11a/b/g 4.9 GHz

Advantages

Cisco Spectrum Expert WCS Planning Tool EDX SurveyPro

Form factor

Device identification
Device finding Record and playback Ease of use

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InstallationSite Survey
Before installing multiple mesh APs, one should perform a site survey to determine the optimum location of the mesh APs before installation takes place Range is effected by the following factors
1. Data rate: sensitivity and range is inversely proportional to data rate 2. Freznel zone clearance: It is recommended that you provide the enough Fresnel zone clearance for the radio signal

3. Antenna type and placement: higher the gain of the antenna, more is the range; height of the antenna should be sufficient to clear Freznel zone clearance and Earth bulge

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InstallationNode Placement
Path Loss Exponent 2.5 to 3.0 600 Feet (Typical Distance)

Link Budget Window 109 ~115 dB


MAP MAP

One Square Mile, 25 Cells

MAP

FOR GREENFIELDS

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Establishing Mesh

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How Is the Network Formed?


No Parent Found Failed If MAP

Path Selection/Least Cost Algorithm

Best Parent
Scan Seek
Found a Parent

Start

Sync

Finding Route Back to RAP

If RAP Success
Maintain

Success

Authenticate

If RAP or MAP (With a Valid Parent)

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Ease Values (AWPP)


Routing uses a concept of ease (inverse of cost)
Route with the highest adjusted ease is taken Adjusted ease is a Hop count adjusted ease
Minimize latency Minimize errors
Ease 873812 20 dB RAP

To Prevent Flopping of the Link, a Premium of 20% Is Given to the Selected Parent

MAP 20 dB Ease 873812

Ease 262144
18 dB

MAP

Preferred Path, Adjusted Ease = 436906 > 262144

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AWPP Passive Scanning with DFS


AWPP has Passive Scanning
Wired Network

RAP_2

MAP_1

MAP_3

MAP_2

Ch
149

Neighbors
MAP_1 MAP_2 RAP_2 Blocked MAP_3 Blocked

BGN
MySecret MySecret MySecret X Mesh

Status
Neighbor Discard (LowSNR) Parent Blacklist Neighbor DFS_Block

Ease
117384 83211 332129

153 157 161 165

Passive Scanning- Based on Mesh Beaconing in SCAN state RAP/MAP broadcast NEIGHBOR_UPDATE after connecting to the Network at every 500ms Each node scans all the 802.11a channels spending 3 seconds on EACH irrespective of the BGN Beacons from Neighbors with Low SNRs are discarded unless no other neighbors can be found

284974

Faster Channel Scanning + Less Channels to Scan


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Bridge Group Name (BGN)-Sectorization


Logically groups APs and controls the association of the radios For adding capacity we recommend that you have more than one RAP in the same sector, with the same BGN, but on different channels A factory default BGN is empty (NULL VALUE). BGN is a string of Eleven characters maximum Mesh APs with incorrect BGN, can still join a running network using BGN as the word Default AP using default BGN
Associate any clients, and will form mesh relationships After 15 minutes APs will go to SCAN state rather than Rebooting

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Primary Backhaul Setting Algorithm


MAP always sets 802.11a as Primary Backhaul
MAP will give preference to the Parent which has the same BGN MAP after exhausting all neighbors on 802.11a, will make Ethernet port as Primary Backhaul . This allows one to recover the MAP in house MAP connected to the Controller on the Ethernet Port does not build a Mesh Topology (unlike RAP)

RAP sets Ethernet Port as Primary Backhaul and switches to 802.11a wireless backhaul, and then it goes to SCAN state after 15 minutes
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Ethernet VLAN Tagging


Ethernet ports can be configured in one of the three modes:
Normal Mode - default mode which exists in absence of any config
Access Mode Trunk Mode

A global setting can be made which determines the behavior of AP with respect to the VLAN tags on Ethernet bridged traffic (VLAN transparent and Non-VLAN transparent)

Benefits
Allows Ethernet ports to be configured as Access or Trunk. Works both in Indoor and Outdoor Mesh APs. Works on non-Backhaul Ethernet Ports.
LEDs Aux/Console

16 VLANs per sector

DC Input

GigabitEthernet0 GigabitEthernet1 GigabitEthernet2 GigabitEthernet3


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PoE In

PoE Out Fiber

AC Input
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Supporting VLANs on Child AP


Mesh Link 1

Bridge Groups to support Child VLANs

Switch

RAP

Mesh Link 2

Mesh Link 3

Ethernet Interface Tbridge

MAP1

MAP3

802.11 A Interface
VLAN Red VLAN Orange VLAN Green Native VLAN AWPP Header

MAP2 Parent AP needs to support the VLANs from Child AP also Local Switching of packets supported.

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Blacklisting Neighbors
Honeypot Detection Honeypot Conviction Non- Honeypot Credit Honeypot Reporting
Blacklisting time depends upon the loyalty of the Parent
Show mesh neigh
Controller MAP_1 X.509 Certificate Ch = 153 Ease = 332129 BGN=AlphaSecret

Alpha Wired Network

RAP_1

AES Encrypted Connection Any neighbors for BGN=AlphaSecret?


MAP_1

Ch = 157 Ease = 198324 BGN=OmegaSecret


RAP_2

Ch
153 157

Neighbors
RAP_1 Blocked

BGN
AlphaSecret X

Status
Parent Blacklist

Ease
332129

Omega Wired Network

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Anti Stranding
Stranded AP latches the 802.11b radio to a channel (1,6,11), enables debugs, broadcasts the standard debug messages as distress beacons, sends latest Crash info file The mesh APs deployed constantly look for stranding APs and send a list of stranded APs to the controller periodically The controller maintains a list of the stranded APs When the command "debug mesh astools troubleshoot <macaddr> start" is run, the controller will run through the list to find the stranded AP <mac-addr> A message is sent to the best neighbor to start listening to the stranded AP The listening AP will get the distress beacons from the stranded AP and sends it to the controller
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WCSManagement Platform

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WCS Mesh Management


Mesh Info on mouse roll over Neighbor AP Info Ping Test from Controller to AP Link Test from AP to AP

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WCS Mesh Alarms and Events


Trap
Poor SNR Link Parent Change Child Moved MAP Changes Parent Frequently Console Port Event MAC Authorization Failure Queue Overflow Child Excluded Parent Default Bridge Group Name Excessive Hop Count Excessive Children Excessive Association

Description
Generated if link SNR falls below 12db Generated when the child moved to another parent When parent AP detected its lost of a child and not able to communicate with that child, it will send Child lost trap to WCS When MAP parent-change-counter exceeds the threshold within a given duration, it will send a trap to WCS Generated if user has successfully logged in to the AP console port, or if he has failed 3 consecutive tries Generated when AP tries to join the mesh but fails to authenticate because its not in the MAC filter list Generated when any 802.11e queue overflows due to channel capacity limitations Generated when a child blacklisted a parent Generated when MAP mesh node joins parent using 'default bridge group name Generated when the number of hops from the MAP node to the RAP exceeds 4 Generated when the child count exceeds 20 for a RAP and 10 for a MAP Generated when cumulative association counter at parent mesh node exceeds 25

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WCS Reports

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AP Mesh Tree
AP Mesh Info Option to Display Mesh Tree on Map

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Mesh Link Information


Link SNR Information displayed Link test can be run for the specified link

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Mesh AP Information
Mesh Info displayed under AP Info tab Mesh neighbors can be viewed If has IP address then ping test can also be initiated

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View Mesh Neighbors


Neighbor types and link SNR are shown in labels Selected AP shown in lighter color and neighbors cleared by clicking on Clear link

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WCSGoogle Earth Integration


Install Google Earth Pro product separately Launch Google Earth from WCS to show topology and coverage of outdoor mesh APs Show information such as heatmaps, link status, SNR, Packet Stats, etc. upon hovering mouse over APs/Links

Show mesh map information in various map views (inclined plane, top view, etc)

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Summary
WCS allows for the management of indoor and outdoor access points and controllers from the same system
Granular MESH AP metrics can be displayed Integration with Google Earth allows for view of large outdoor networks

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WIMAX

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What Is WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
More info: www.wimaxforum.org Standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL. IEEE 802.16
Fixed WiMAX (802.16-2004 a.k.a 802.16d) No handoff between Base Stations Mobile WiMAX (802.16e-2005 a.k.a 802.16e) Can be used to deliver both fixed and mobile services

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WiMAX End to End Reference Model


R2

NAP
R6

BS
MSS
R1 R8

AAA

AAA
R5

R1: 802.16e (MSS-ASN) R2: MSS CSN R3: ASN GW HA R4: Inter-ASN R5: CSN-CSN

ASN GW
ASN ASN
R4

R3

HA DHCP DNS
CSN
V-NSP

HA DHCP DNS
CSN
H-NSP

BS

R6: BS - ASNGW R8: Inter BS

Another ASN

ASP Network Or Internet


ACCESS SERVICE NETWORK (ASN)
Access gateway (ASN GW) provides the micro-mobility anchor point and supports bearer services. Also supports the Foreign Agent. Base station (BS) provides the radio dependent functions and has limited IP functionality

MSS Mobile Subscriber Station NAP Network Access Provider NSP Network Service Provider

CORE SERVICES NETWORK (CSN)


Home agent (HA) provides the macro-mobility anchor point and supports bearer services , if roaming/mobility is desired. Other Network Elements such as AAA, DHCP servers and more are also in the CSN.

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WiMAX QoS and Scheduling Schemes


Specifications and Applications
QoS Category Applications QoS Specifications Maximum Sustained Rate Maximum Latency Jitter Tolerance

UGS Unsolicited Grant Service

VoIP

Service Flows:
Mechanism defined in Mobile WiMAX to provide QoS
Uni-directional flow of packets associated with certain defined QoS parameters for traffic

rtVR Real-Time Variable Rate Service

Streaming Audio or Video

Minimum Reserved Rate Maximum Sustained Rate Maximum Latency Traffic Priority
Minimum Reserved Rate Maximum Sustained Rate Maximum Latency Jitter Tolerance Traffic Priority Minimum Reserved Rate Maximum Sustained Rate Traffic Priority Maximum Sustained Rate Traffic Priority

Packet Classifiers:
Each service flow also has packet classifiers associated with it to determine criteria used by the MAC layer to associate packets into service flows

ErtVR Extended Real-Time Variable Rate Service

Voice with Activity Detection (VoIP)

nrtVR Non-Real-Time Variable Rate Service BE Best-Effort Service

FTP File Transfer Protocol

Mobile WiMAX scheduling based on QoS service Flows associated with each packet

Data, Web Browsing, etc.

*Not all of these QoS Categories are supported by Cisco Base station
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Ciscos WiMAX Portfolio

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Cisco Broadband Wireless Access


Mobile WiMAX Networking Cisco BWX 8300 Series Broadband Wireless Access System

BWX 8305 / 2305 Mobile WiMAX Basestations

WiMAX 802.16e-2005 certifiable Industry-leading RF Link-Budget First Mobile WiMAX with Adaptive Beamforming; Advanced Antenna Systems (AAS) Combines Beamforming+MIMO for capacity & class-leading performance
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BWX 8305 / 2305 Mobile WiMAX Antennas

BWX 8305 8-element array provides 120 sector coverage with Beamforming & MIMO BWX 2305 2-element antenna provides in-fill coverage with MIMO & diversity
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Customer Premise Equipment


Residential Access
Linksys WRP400 Triple-Play Router
Linksys SPA2102 Phone Adapter

Small / Medium Business Access


Integrated Services Routers
(800 through 3800 Series)
Integrated Services Router

WiMAX Modem
Integrated Beam forming and MIMO

Linksys SPA8000 Phone Adapter

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Cisco Broadband Wireless Access


Mobile WiMAX Beamforming Innovation
Beamforming Uses Antenna Array and Signal Processing Techniques to Maximize Signal Strength for Subscriber Devices
No Beamforming Energy is dispersed across an entire 90 or 120 sector Gain decreases quickly with distance, degrading performance Limited coverage. Cells must be tightly spaced for good performance Inter-cell interference adversely affects frequency reuse Array is recalibrated every 5ms, energy is focused at individual subscribers Gain (64x) remains high over long distances, improving performance Expanded Coverage. Cells can be widely spaced while providing good performance Inter-cell interference is minimized, allowing maximum frequency reuse

Sector Antenna

0 dB

Ciscos Beamforming Implementation

+9 dB

+18 dB
Cisco 8-Element 120 Beamforming Array
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How Beamforming Works


8-antennas

WiMAX CPE
BTS-MX8

Signal from CPE bounces off of buildings & arrives at the 8-antenna system.
Each antenna sees the signal a bit differently. All 8 signals are manipulated to have he equivalent effect of an antenna system with a very narrow beam pointing exclusively at that particular CPE.
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How Beamforming Works


8-antennas

WiMAX CPE
BTS-MX8

Signal from CPE bounces off of buildings and arrives at the 8-antenna system Each antenna sees the signal a bit differently All 8 signals are manipulated to have he equivalent effect of an antenna system with a very narrow beam pointing exclusively at that particular CPE
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Cisco Broadband Wireless


ASN Gateway Services
Cisco Broadband Wireless Gateway (BWG)A High Performance Open Profile-C ASN Gateway for Mobile WiMAX Access
Enables open Mobile WiMAX ASN architectures for maximum design & deployment flexibility Built on the Cisco 7600 Series the carrier-class converged services platform providing access to thousands of IOS features The most powerful ASN-GW platform available scalable from 5 to 45 Gbps

MPLS and IPSec VPNs enables secure residential and business services over a common infrastructure
Part of the Cisco Service Exchange Framework, enabling precise control over each subscribers quality of experience

Performance, Scalability, and Sophisticated Features Ensure Maximum Value for Service Providers
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Service Exchange Framework

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Subscriber and Service Management

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Service Exchange Framework


Provides the Information Service Providers Need to Guide And Measure Each Subscribers Experience
Who?
Who Is the User?
Subscriber identification Device identification Subscriber and Device Profiles Presence and availability

Where?
Where Can the User Go?
Track devices across carriers Maintain sessions across networks Provide service consistency

What?
What Can the User Do?
Within what timeframes To what networks To what services Under what conditions or restrictions
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Service Exchange Framework

How?

How Are Resources Allocated?


Network interworking Rich media control Service awareness and control Per-service, per-subscriber charging

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Intelligent Services Gateway (ISG)


The Intelligent Services Gateway Coordinates Policy Management and Service Control For Consumer Services
Identity Tracking

Tracks subscriber identity to enable personalized services


Applies and distributes policies for tiered service delivery
Service Management

Service Control

ISG
Operations Integration

Enables low-touch, no-touch, and self-service subscriber provisioning Mediates access to 3rd-party application partners to maximize service innovation and revenue Enables monetization of any serviceinternal, blended, or over-the-top

Network Operations and Provisioning


OSS/BSS Radius DHCP Billing Identity

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Building the First Mile Aggregation/Control


Aggregation Intelligent Edge
Broadhop SME WCS

Service ControlISG

WiSM

ISG

SCE

Metro- 7600 Ethernet

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Captive Portals for ServiceMesh Access Intercept Customers and Force Them to Log On
Broadhop SME

AAA Server Billing System Internet

Capture web sessions on start up or at configurable intervals Target advertising to identified subscribers Match content to identified subscribers
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ISG Layered Policy Control and Enforcement Policy Enforcement


Key to Scalable Session Control
Business Policy Decisions: Centralized Event
Point (PEP)

Central Services (Application & Policy)


Multiple Layers through ISP SP etc.
Event Signaling/Network Policy Decisions: Distributed Control Policy plane plane

Enhanced Scalability of Policy Signaling and Control; Distributed Processing Data

ISG Network Element Services (Access/ Aggregation)

Event

Identification/ Flow Feature Network Classification Service (ACL) (route/forward)


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ISG Active/Active Redundancy Configuration

Aggregation/Control
Broadhop SME Aggregation Router ISG Router 7301 7301 Internet Gateway Router

7600 SLB

7600 FLB

Walled/Open Garden
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IP Address Management
Map SSIDs to VLAN in 1:1 and 1:N Relationships

SSID= OpenWIFI IP scope 10.1.1.1 10.1.2.255

Option 2 DHCP Server

Internet
SSID= OpenWIFI IP scope 10.1.3.1 10.1.4.255 VLAN =1 VLAN =2 VLAN =3 MetroEthernet WiSM

ISG
Option 1 DHCP in IOS

VPN VoIP Service

SSID= OpenWIFI IP scope 10.1.5.1 10.1.6.255

Rogue AP
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User Mobility
AP-10

AA-AA

WC-A AP-22

Tunnel B to A
MetroEthernet

VLAN =1 VLAN =2 VLAN =3 WiSM WC-B

ISG

AP-47

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WC
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VLAN 2

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ISG for Wireless Mesh User Authentication


Captive portal for PWLAN billing and targeted advertising VLAN-to-MPLS mapping

Internet Municipal Applications


Si

WPA2 & WPA2 & AES encryptionfor for AES encryption greater security greater security

WMM to DSCP QoS Mapping

Public Agency

User Directory

User Directory

AAA queries departmental user directories

Fire Dept VLAN

Police Dept VLAN


PWLAN VLAN

Non-Broadcast SSID=PublicSafety Security = WPA2

Parking VLAN

Inspection VLAN

802.1x and Dyn VLAN Assignment

Non-Broadcast SSID = City Applications Security = WEP

Broadcast SSID = Public Security = Open

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Building the First Mile Aggregation/Control


Aggregation Intelligent Edge
Broadhop SME WCS

Service Control Broadhop SME

WiSM

ISG

SCE

Metro- 7600 Ethernet

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Residential Portal and Self Care


Example of Service Definition and Enforcement

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SME PlatformBack Office Services


Powerful Linux-based appliance GUI-driven Service & Policy management Subscriber service managementAdvanced broadband services TriplePlay service delivery platform High-performance and highly scalable architecture
TriplePlay Advanced Services New Services

Usage & Billing Service Selection Portal Service & Policy Management

Dynamic Session Management


Subscriber Service Profile Management Identification, Authentication & Authorization

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Leverage SME for Subscriber Management Across Multiple Networks

Usage & Billing

Multi Access Network

Service Selection Portal

ISG
Service & Policy Management

ISG

Carrier Class

Dynamic Session Management

Multi Service
Subscriber Service Profile Management

Back Office

Back Office Integration

Identification, Authentication & Authorization

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Building the First Mile Aggregation/Control


Service ControlSCE
Aggregation Intelligent Edge
Broadhop SME WCS

WiSM

ISG

SCE

Metro- 7600 Ethernet

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Service Control in a ServiceMesh Network


Application Layer Visibility and Control

SCE
Internet

Usage Analysis

Bandwidth Management

Internet Service Creation


Subs Profile
DHCP

Enable better network management and capacity planning Uncover service and revenue opportunities
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Improve customer experience Manage network OPEX/CAPEX

Portal

P oli cy

AAA

Market tuned serviceplans (power-users, gamers, family-friendly)

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P2P TrafficOptimize Network for End-User Experience


1%

25%

No Action Optimized for heavy P2P users Customer Satisfaction

Intelligent P2P Control Balances network capacity to users needs

Native P2P Control Poor experience for P2P users

74%
P2P heavy user P2P casual user Not a P2P user

SCE provides tools for SP to manage network capacity inline with its full subscriber bases needs

No Action

Intelligent P2P Control

Native P2P Control

Blocking all P2P Traffic

Massive P2P Users Casual P2P Users Not P2P Users


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Applications

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Cisco ServiceMesh Applications


Municipal Pubic safety (video&voice) Land management RFID tracking applications Surveillance Meter reading (utility/parking) Traffic management Residential Data connectivity Choice of payment method Turbo-button Family member additions Parental Control Location-based applications

Businesses Data connectivity Guest access Hospitality offerings

Tourism Convention directions City events and sightseeing Emergency help

Many More Application Examples and Partners Available at wwwin.cisco.com/go/servicemesh


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Location-Based Services
Web Portal Advertising Insertion
Local Banner

Local Search Local Content Local Ads

Local Roaming

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Deployments

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City of Austin, TX
The Challenges
Attract new business to stimulate economic growth Improve communications for city employees, while reducing cost

Increase safety response

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City of Austin, TX, (Cont.)


The Solution
Wireless Infrastructure-Based on the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA):
Cisco Wi-Fi solution in and around the convention center for free wireless access for attendees and more efficient management and maintenance of buildings Cisco wireless IP telephony solution in convention center Cisco 1500 APs in the downtown area for free wireless access to citizens and businesses

Wireless network access and IP connectivity for the citys emergency response vehicle

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City of Austin, TX, (Cont.)


Customer Benefits
Wireless mesh network is providing the foundation for new services and applications that will enhance public safety and staff productivity, and help the city generate economic growth Increased efficiency for city employees

New infrastructure provides a field-testing environment that businesses and city departments can utilize for new application and product development
Improved communication in the case of emergencies since the citys emergency vehicle can directly communicate with police, fire, ambulance services, or the Red Cross

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City of Madison, WI
The Challenges
Wi-Fi broadband connectivity service for the community at a low subscription fee based model Enable new government services more effectively across the city. Private + Public services on shared network.

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City of Madison, WI, (Cont.)


The Solution
Cisco Wireless Mesh Network:
200+ Cisco Aironet 1500 Series mesh access points. More will be added for phase 2 build out

Cisco 4400 Series Wireless LAN controller and Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS).
ServiceMesh Subscriber Management
Pre-paid IPASS Roaming

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CablevisionOptimum WIFI NY and Long Island


Cable Service Provider
Wi-Fi broadband connectivity free to all 3 million Cablevision subscribers Continuous coverage for NY metro area with more than 15,000 Aps Enables new service models over extended area Increases customer stickiness with a differentiated service

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Optimum WiFi (Cablevision)


The Solution
Cisco Wireless Mesh Network: ~15,000+ Access points Cisco Aironet 1520 Series mesh access points with built in cable modem Cisco 7600 with WISM controllers

Cisco ServiceMesh subscriber and service management


Opportunity for white labeling other Service Providers with common back end.

http://www.optimum.net/WiFi/Find
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Summary
Cisco Broadband Wireless Enables the Connected Life, and Service Provider Success by Helping Them Deploy Networks
For higher growth and faster time to market

Deliver Services
For faster ROI, increased SP revenue

Accelerate Demand
For increased relevance and retention

Optimize Business
To decrease capital and operational expenses

Using easily deployed broadband wireless networks

Using an end-to-end service-enabled IP NGN architecture

By delivering data, voice, and video services at home, at work, on the move

Using Carrier Ethernet and Service Exchange Framework

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Additional Information

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Additional Information
WiFi Mesh Product Information
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6548/index.html http://www.cisco.com/go/servicemesh

Cisco Mesh Networking Solution Configuration Guide


http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6548/products _technical_reference_book09186a008062b50e.html

WiMAX Forum
http://www.wimaxforum.org

Intelligent Services Gateway (ISG)


http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6588/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

Service Control Engine (SCE)


http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6151/index.html

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Q and A

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Recommended Reading
BRKBBA-2016

Source: Cisco Press


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