You are on page 1of 40

Created by Amy L. Diem AP Human Geography Instructor: A.


Class, you have a vocab. card for almost all of these terms.

List of Concepts for AP Human Geography Exam Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and PerspectivesBasic Vocabulary and Concepts Basic Concepts Changing attributes of place (built landscape, sequent occupance) Built landscapesyn. built environment. 1) That part of the physical surroundings which are people-made or peopleorganized, such as buildings and other major structures, roads, bridges, and the like, down to lesser objects such as traffic lights, telephone and pillar boxes. 2) That part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; the buildings roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape. Sequent occupance1) Derwent Whittleseys term for a succession of stages in the human occupance of an area (he was also the guy that did the world climate map). 2) The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. Cultural attributes Cultural landscape1) Modifications to the environment by humans, including the built environment and agricultural systems, that reflect aspects of their culture. 2) The humanmodified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society. Culture traitA defining characteristic of the culture that is shared by most, if not all, members. (ex: wearing a turban) Density (arithmetic, physiological)The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. ArithmeticThe total number of people divided by the total land area. PhysiologicalThe number of people per unit area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. Diffusion (hearth, relocation, expansion, hierarchical, contagious, stimulus)Diffusion is the spread of some phenomenon over space and through time from a limited number of origins. Hearth1) The region from which innovative ideas originate. 2) The area where an idea or cultural trait originates. Relocation diffusion1) A process in which items being diffused leave the originating areas as they move to new areas

Created by Amy L. Diem (i.e. the items diffuse with people migrating). 2) The spread of a feature or trend through the bodily movement of people from one place to another. 3) Spreading through physical movement; sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate old areas and relocate to new ones. Expansion diffusion1) A process in which the items being diffused remain and often intensify in the origin area as new areas are being affected. (i.e. the items diffuse from person to person) (ex: religions) 2) The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process. 3) The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population resulting in an expanding area of dissemination. Hierarchical diffusion1) Diffusion of a disease, cultural trait, idea, or innovation from larger to smaller places, leaping over nearby but small places in the early stages. Hierarchical diffusion emphasizes the size distribution of urban places (i.e. the urban hierarchy) in explaining the spread of things over time and space. (ex: diffusion of AIDs to West Palm Beach, FL) 2) The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places. 3) The spread from authority or power to other people. (ex: hip hop music from big cities to small cities) Contagious diffusion1) Diffusion of a disease, cultural trait, idea, or innovation that spreads outward from a node or epicenter in wavelike fashion. Contagious diffusion emphasizes the frictional force of distance in explaining the spread of things in time and space. 2) The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural trait through direct contact with another person or another place. 3) The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout the population. (Ex: influenza) Stimulus diffusionThe spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. (ex: diffusion of a computer mouse from Apple computers to IBM computers) Direction (absolute, relative) Absolute direction Relative direction Dispersion/concentration (dispersed/scattered, clustered/agglomerated)1) Geographers are also concerned with the spread of objects in the spatial dimension. The degree of dispersion can be describe in terms of a continuum ranging from clustered on one end, through random, to uniform at the other end. 2) Concentration is the extent of a features spread over space; ranges from clustered if close together to dispersed if far apart. 3) In spatial distributions, the clustering of a phenomenon around a central location. Dispersed/scatteredfar apart

Created by Amy L. Diem Clustered/agglomeratedclose together Distance (absolute, relative) Absolute distanceThe distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer. Relative distanceA measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating tow places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places. Distribution1) The arrangement of something across the Earths surface. 2) The arrangement of a feature in space; three main properties of distribution across Earth include density, concentration, and pattern. Environmental determinismsyn. environmentalism. 1) A 19th and early 20th c. approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities. 2) The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Location (absolute, relative, site, situation, place name) Absolute locationThe exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system. Relative locationThe position of a place relative to places around it. SiteThe absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics. SituationThe relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a places spatial context. Place nameToponym. Pattern (linear, centralized, random)1) The geometric or regular arrangements of something in a study area. 2) The design or arrangement of phenomena in earth space. Linear Centralized Random Physical attributes (natural landscape) PossibilismGeographic viewpoint (a response to environmental determinism) that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. Nonetheless, possibilists view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits the possibilities of human choice. Region (formal/uniform, functional/nodal, perceptual/vernacular)A region is an area characterized by similarity or by cohesiveness that sets it apart from other areas. 3

Created by Amy L. Diem Formal/uniform regionAn area of near uniformity in one or several characteristics (ex: Wheat belt, Corn belt, Rust belt, Latin America. Anglo-America) Functional/nodal region1) A region created by the interactions between a central node and surrounding locations. (ex: broadcasting zone); 2) A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it; area organized around a focal point. Perceptual/vernacular regionAn area defined by subjective perceptions that reflect the feelings and images about key place characteristics. (ex: the South) When these perceptions come from the local, ordinary folk, a perceptual region can be called a vernacular region. Scale (implied degree of generalization) Size Spatial--of or pertaining to space on or near Earths surface. Spatial interaction (accessibility, connectivity, network, distance decay, friction of distance, time-space compression) AccessibilityThe relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place. ConnectivityThe degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places. NetworksA set of interconnected nodes without a center. Distance decay-- The declining intensity of an activity with increasing distance from its point of origin.; The decrease in interaction between two phenomenon, people, or places as the distance between them increases. Friction of distanceA measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places. Time-space compressionA term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity. Geographic Tools Distortion Geographic Information System (GIS)A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze and display geographic data. Global Positioning System (GPS) A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on the earths surface with a portable electronic device. Grid (North and South Poles, latitude, parallel, equator, longitude, meridian, prime meridian, international date line)the set of imaginary lines that intersect at right angles to forma coordinate reference system for locating points on the surface of the earth.

Created by Amy L. Diem Latitudethe angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels. Parallelsanother name for lines of latitude; east-west lines of latitude that run parallel to the equator and that mark distance north or south of the equator. equator Longitudethe angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians. Meridiansanother name for lines of longitude; lines of longitude that run north-south; all lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles. Prime MeridianAn imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwhich, England, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude. International Date LineThe line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian. MapA two dimensional graphical representation of the surface of the earth (or of events that occur on the earth). Maps are the tool most uniquely identified with geography; the ability to use and interpret maps is an essential geographic skill. Map scale--distance on a map relative to distance on Earth.; the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the Earths surface. Large-scale mapsusually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small scale maps (ex: South Beach) Small-scale mapsusually depict large areas (ex: state of Florida) Map types (thematic, statistical, cartogram, dot, choropleth, isoline) Thematic mapa map that demonstrates a particular feature or single variable. Four types are: dot maps, choropleth maps, proportional symbol maps, and isoline maps. Cartograma type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area. Choropleth mapa thematic map in which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones. Dot mapa thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable. Isoline mapa thematic map with lines that connect points of equal values. Mental mapThe maplike image of the world, country, region, city, or neighborhood a person carries in mind. 5

Created by Amy L. Diem Model--a simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify causal relationships. Geographers use models (e.g., Demographic Transition, Epidemiological Transition, Gravity, Von Thnen, Weber, Stages of Growth [Rostow], Concentric Circle [Burgess], Sector [Hoyt], Multiple Nuclei, Central Place [Christaller], and so on) to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors. ProjectionA systematic method of transferring a spherical surface to a flat map. Remote sensingThe use of satellite images of the Earth. 2) Observation and mathematical measurement of the earths surface suing aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images. 3) The observation and mathematical measurement of the Earths surface using aircraft and satellites. . Time zonesThere are 24 times zones. Longitude plays an important role in calculating time. Earth is divided into 360 degrees of longitude (from 0 to 180 west, plus 0 to 180 east). Every 15 degrees of longitude represent one time zone so that 360 degrees/15 = 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day. Unit II. PopulationBasic Vocabulary and Concepts Population Age distribution Carrying capacity CohortAll individuals in a certain range. Demographic equation Demographic momentumsyn. hidden momentum. Continued population growth long after replacement-level fertility rates have been reached. (ex: demographic momentum of India even though birth rates have declined) Demographic regions Demographic Transition modelA model of population change from an equilibrium with high birth rates and high death rates (Stage 1); to a stage of rapid population increase marked by high birth rates and decreased death rates (Stage 2), to a stage of rapid population decrease marked by decreasing birth rates and low death rates (Stage 3), to a new equilibrium with low birth rates and low death rates (Stage 4) Dependency ratio Diffusion of fertility control Disease diffusion Doubling time Ecumene Epidemiological Transition model Gendered space 6

Created by Amy L. Diem Infant mortality rateNumber of deaths of children under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a year. J-curve Maladaptation Malthus, ThomasEnglish economist, demographer, and cleric who suggested that unless self-control, war, or natural disaster checks population, it will inevitably increase faster than will the food supplies needed to sustain it. This view is known as Malthusianism. Mortality Natality Neo-Malthusian Overpopulation Population densities Population distributions Population explosion Population projection Population pyramidA graph showing the number of males and females in discrete age cohorts (age categories). Rate of natural increase S-curve Sex ratio Standard of living Sustainability Underpopulation Zero population growthA state in which the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate equals zero. The number of deaths exactly offsets the number of births. Migration Activity space Chain migration Cyclic movement Distance decayThe declining intensity of an activity with increasing distance from its point of origin. Forced Gravity modelA model to predict spatial interaction, where size (population) is directly related to interaction and distance is inversely related to interaction.; A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other. Internal migration Intervening opportunityThe idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services. Intervening opportunities are 7

Created by Amy L. Diem frequently utilized because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity. Migration patterns 1 Intercontinental 2 Interregional 3 Rural-urban Migratory movement Periodic movement Personal space Place utility Push-pull factors Pull factors are reasons to move to a particular place. Push factors are reasons to move from a particular place. Refugee Space-time prism Step migration Transhumance Transmigration Voluntary Unit III. Cultural Patterns and Processes, Part 1Basic Vocabulary and Concepts Concepts of Culture Acculturation1) The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another. 2) Cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing. In cultural geography and anthropology, the term is often used to designate the change that occurs in the culture of a less technologically advanced people when contact is made with a society that is more technologically advanced. Assimilation1) The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence. 2) The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech peculiarities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence. Cultural adaptation-- The complex strategies human groups employ to live successfully as part of a natural system. Cultural core/periphery pattern Cultural ecologyThe study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in. Cultural identity Cultural landscapesee Basic Concepts above Cultural realm CultureThe sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual 8

Created by Amy L. Diem behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. Culture region--A region defined by similar culture traits and cultural landscape features. (ex: the state of Utah is considered to be a Mormon culture region because the population of the state is dominated by people who practice the Mormon religion and presumably adhere to its beliefs and values.) Formalcore, periphery 1 Functionalnode 2 Vernacular (perceptual)regional self-awareness Diffusion types 1 Expansion diffusion3 types: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus Expansion diffusionthe spread of ideas, innovations, fashion or other phenomenon to surrounding areas through contact and exchange 2 Relocation diffusionThe diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors and the like from one place to another through migration. Innovation adoption Maladaptive diffusion (ex: ranch house in New England) Sequent occupance-- 1) Derwent Whittleseys term for a succession of stages in the human occupance of an area. 2) The notion that successive societies leave their cultural

Folk and Popular Culture Adaptive strategyThe unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life: food, clothing, shelter, and defense. Anglo-American landscape characteristics Architectural form Folk architectureStructures built by members of a folk society or culture in a traditional manner and style, without the assistance of professional architects or blueprints, using locally available raw materials. Built environment--1) That part of the physical surroundings which are people-made or people-organized, such as buildings and other major structures, roads, bridges, and the like, down to lesser objects such as traffic lights, telephone and pillar boxes. 2) That part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; the buildings roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape. Folk cultureA small, cohesive, stable, isolated, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race; characterized by a 9

Created by Amy L. Diem strong family or clan structure, order maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family, little division of labor other than between sexes, frequent and strong interpersonal relationships, and a material culture consisting mainly of handmade goods. It includes both material and nonmaterial elements. It tends to be concentrated in rural areas and has little variation over time. Folk cultures are still common in poorer, underdeveloped countries. (ex: Amish) Folk food Folk houseMany folk houses survive in the refuge regions of American and Canadian folk culture. New England folk houses are of wooden frame construction and shingle siding often covers the exterior walls. There are a variety of floor plans, including the New England large house, a huge two-and-a-half story house built around a central chimney and two rooms deep. As Yankees moved westward, they developed the upright-and-wing dwelling. The New England homes are often massive because of the cold winters which require much of the work to be done indoors. By contrast, Southern folk homes are smaller and built of notched logs. Many houses in this folk tradition consist of two log rooms, with either a double fireplace between, forming a saddlebag house, or an open, roofed breezeway separating the two rooms, called the dogtrot house. An example of an African-American folk dwelling is the shotgun house, a narrow structure only one room in width but two, three, or even four rooms in depth. Canada also offers a variety of traditional folk houses. NOT FINISHED Folk songsFolk songs are usually composed anonymously and transmitted orally. A song may be modified from one generation to the next as conditions change, but the content is most often derived from events in daily life that are familiar to the majority of the people. FolkloreNonmaterial folk culture; the teaching and wisdom of a folk group; the traditional tales, sayings, beliefs, and superstitions that are transmitted orally. Material cultureAll physical, tangible objects made and used by members of a culture group, such as clothing, buildings tools and utensils, instruments, furniture, and artwork; the visible aspect of culture. Compare: popular culture. Nonmaterial cultureThe wide range of tales, songs, lore, beliefs, superstitions, and customs that passes from generation to generation as part of an oral or written tradition. Popular cultureA dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; producing and consuming machine-made goods. It is concentrated mainly in urban areas and changes rapidly over time. Compare: material culture. Survey systems 10

Created by Amy L. Diem Traditional architecture-Language Creole Dialect Indo-European languages Isogloss Language Language family Language group Language subfamily Lingua franca Linguistic diversity Monolingual/multilingual Official language Pidgin Toponymy Trade language Religion Animism Buddhism Cargo cult pilgrimage Christianity Confucianism Ethnic religion Exclave/enclave Fundamentalism Geomancy (feng shui) Hadj Hinduism Interfaith boundaries Islam Jainism Judaism Landscapes of the dead Monotheism/polytheism Mormonism Muslim pilgrimage Muslim population Proselytic religion Reincarnation Religion (groups, places) Religious architectural styles Religious conflict Religious culture hearth 11

Created by Amy L. Diem Religious toponym Sacred space Secularism Shamanism Sharia law Shintoism Sikhism Sunni/Shia Taoism Theocracy Universalizing Zoroastrianism Ethnicity Acculturation1) The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another. 2) Cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing. In cultural geography and anthropology, the term is often used to designate the change that occurs in the culture of a less technologically advanced people when contact is made with a society that is more technologically advanced. Adaptive strategy-- The unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life: food, clothing, shelter, and defense. Assimilation1) The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence. 2) The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech peculiarities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence. BarrioSpanish word for neighborhood. Barrioization was defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood. Chain migrationMigration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there. (ex: Finns in Lake Worth; Poles in Chicago) It results in the formation of ethnic neighborhoods. Cultural adaptationThe complex strategies human groups employ to live successfully as part of a natural system. Cultural shatterbeltsee shatterbelt in Political Organization below. Ethnic cleansingProcess in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous region. Ethnic conflict Ethnic enclave1) Enclave is a residential cluster that results from 12

Created by Amy L. Diem voluntary segregation. (Ex: ethnic neighborhoods such as Chinatown, Little Italy, etc.) 2) An ethnic area which persists over some time but which is primarily based on choice and a preservation function in particular. Ethnic groupA term referring to vertical divisions in a society where a group, which is part of a larger population, possesses a distinct culture of its own. The members of such a group feel a common origin, real or imaginary, and are frequently set apart by race, religion, or national origin, or some combination of these. Ethnic homeland Ethnic landscape Ethnic neighborhoodAn area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background. (Ex: Little Havana in Miami) 2) Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs. Ethnicity1) A socially created system of rules about who belongs and who does not belong to a particular group based upon actual or perceived commonality. 2) Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions. EthnocentrismThe attitude that ones own race and culture are superior to others. GhettoAn ethnic area which persists because it is based on constraints and discriminatory action of the charter group. Compare: ghetto in Cities & Urban Land Use below. Plural societyA society in which two or more distinct cultures or social groups (with different languages, religious beliefs, kinship systems) live side by side without mingling in one political unit. These groups constitute different levels of social stratification. Race1) A problematic classification of human begins based on skin color and other physical characteristics. 2) Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor. Segregation-- Spatial separation of specific population subgroups within a wider population. Social distanceDistance perceived by individuals or small groups from themselves to other individuals or social groups. In practice it is a functional distance which involves the spatial separation of two or more distinct social groups for most activities. This may come about by mutual choice or by imposition by the more powerful group. Gender Dowry death Enfranchisement Gendersee Development below Gender gap 13

Created by Amy L. Diem Infanticide Longevity gap Maternal mortality rate Unit IV. Political Organization of SpaceBasic Vocabulary and Concepts Annexation Antarctica ApartheidA system of forced segregation between races in South Africa in effect until 1993. Balkanization Border landscape Boundary, disputes (definitional, locational, operational, allocational) Boundary, origin (antecedent, subsequent, superimposed, relic) Boundary, process (definition, delimitation, demarcation) Boundary, type (natural/physical, ethnographic/cultural, geometric) Buffer state Capital Centrifugal Centripetal City-state Colonialism Confederation Conference of Berlin (1884) Core/periphery Decolonization Devolution Domino theory EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) Electoral regions Enclave/exclaveEnclave is also residential clusters that result from voluntary segregation. (Ex: ethnic neighborhoods such as Chinatown, Little Italy, etc.) Ethnic conflict European Union Federal Forward capital Frontier Geopolitics Gerrymander Global commons Heartland/rimland Immigrant states International organization Iron Curtain 14

Created by Amy L. Diem IrredentismA movement to reunite a nations homeland when part of it is contained within another state. The piece of homeland that is ruled by the other state is known as an irredenta. Israel/Palestine Landlocked Law of the Sea Lebanon Mackinder, Halford J.-Manifest destiny Median-line principle Microstate Ministate Nation National iconography Nation-stateA state that has the same boundaries as a nation. Nunavut Raison dtre Reapportionment Regionalism Religious conflict Reunification Satellite state Self-determination ShatterbeltA region caught between powerful forces whose boundaries are continually redefined. Sovereignty StateA political territory equivalent to a country. Necessary components to qualify as a state include 1) defined boundaries, 2) an effective government, 3) international recognition of its formal independence, 4) full sovereignty, 5) organized economy and circulation system, and 6) permanent resident population. Stateless ethnic groups Stateless nation Suffrage Supranationalism Territorial disputes Territorial morphology (compact, fragmented, elongated, prorupt, perforated) Territoriality Theocracy Treaty ports UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) Unitary USSR collapse Womens enfranchisement


Created by Amy L. Diem

Unit V. Agricultural and Rural Land UseBasic Vocabulary and Concepts Adaptive strategies--The unique ways in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life: food, clothing, shelter, and defense. Agrarian--Referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there. Agribusiness1) An industrialized, corporate form of agriculture organized into integrated networks of agricultural inputs and outputs controlled by a small number of large corporations. 2) Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. 3) A general term for large-scale, mechanized industrial agriculture that is controlled by corporate interests. 4) A set of economic and political relationships that organizes agro-food production from the development of seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product. 5) Highly mechanized, large-scale farming usually under corporate ownership. Agricultural industrialization-Agricultural landscape--the cultural landscape of agricultural areas. Agricultural location modelsyn.--von Thunen model1) A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market. The original (1826) Isolated State model now applies to the continental scale and beyond. 2) Model developed by Johann Heinrich von Thunen (1783-1850), German economist and landowner, to explain the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those variable prices affect patterns of agricultural land utilization. 3) Concentric-zone model which describes a situation in which highly capital-intensive forms of commercial agriculture, such as market gardening and feedlots, lie nearest to market. The increasingly distant, successive concentric belts are occupied by progressively less intensive types of agriculture, represented by dairying, livestock fattening, grain farming, and ranching. Agricultural origins-Agriculture1) The intentional cultivation of crops and raising of livestock. 2) The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earths surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain. 3) A science, an art, and a business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and for profit. 4) The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber. 5) The science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock. Animal domestication--The transformation of a wild animal into a domesticated animal to gain control over food production. A necessary evolutionary step in the


Created by Amy L. Diem development of humankindthe invention of agriculture. Aquaculture1) The cultivation of fish and shellfish under controlled conditions, usually in coastal lagoons. 2) Production and harvesting of fish and shellfish in landbased ponds. Biorevolution Biotechnology1) Technique that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify products, to improve plans and animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. 2) The use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production. Increasingly applied to more advanced states of food production in the form of radiation of meats and vegetables to prolong their freshness. Collective farm Commercial agriculture (intensive, extensive)1) Agriculture primarily for the purpose of selling the products for money. 2) Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. 3) Farming primarily for sale, not direct consumption. Intensive agriculture involves small-area farms and ranches with high outputs of labor per acre and high output per acre. 2) Any agricultural system involving the application of large amounts of capital and/or labor per unit of cultivated land; this may be part of either a subsistence or a commercial economy. 3) The expenditure of much labor and capital on a piece of land to increase its productivity. In contrast, extensive agriculture involves less labor and capital. Extensive agriculture involves large-area farms or ranches with low inputs of labor per acre and low output per acre. 2) A crop or livestock system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit area of land. It may be part of either a subsistence or a commercial economy. Core/peripherysee Industrialization section below. Crop rotation1) The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. 2) Method of maintaining soil fertility in which the fields under cultivation remain the same, but the crop being planted is changed. Cultivation regions Dairying--An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairying products such as mil, cheese, and butter. Debt-for-nature swap Diffusion Double cropping-- Harvesting twice a year from the same field. (Rubenstein); Practice used in milder climates, where intensive subsistence fields are planted and harvested more than once a year. Economic activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary) Primary The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earths surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry. Secondary1) Economic activities involving the processing of raw 17

Created by Amy L. Diem materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector. 2) Economic activities that process, transform, fabricated, or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods Tertiary1) Economic activities associated with the provision of services such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine, office-based jobs. 2) Economic activities involving the sale and exchange of goods and services. Quaternary--Economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information. The economic sector in which knowledge-based jobs are among the fastest growing. Sometimes referred to as white collar jobs. Quinary-- The economic sector reserved for the very top echelon of any organization: the CEO, FEO, research scientists, and the like. These people are responsible for top-level corporate decisions and exist in an information-rich environment. These are the gold collar jobs. Not all textbooks distinguish this sector of the economy as separate from quarternary activities. Environmental modification (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification) Pesticides Soil erosion desertification Extensive subsistence agriculture (ex: shifting cultivation [slashand- burn, milpa, swidden], nomadic herding/pastoralism) Shifting cultivationsyn. Slash-and-burn, milpa, swidden 1) A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. 2) Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland. Also known as slash-and-burn agriculture. 3) A system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs. 4) Crop production on tropical forest clearings kept in cultivation until their quickly declining fertility is lost. Cleared plots are then abandoned and new sites are prepared. 5) A type of agriculture characterized by land rotation, in which temporary clearings are sued for several years and then abandoned to be replaced by new clearings; also known as slash-and-burn agriculture. Nomadic herding Migratory but controlled movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage. 2) Continuous movement of people with their livestock in search of forage for their animals. Pastoralism1) A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. 2) Subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing. Extractive industry Farm crisis--The financial failure and eventual foreclosure of thousands of family farms across the U.S. Midwest.


Created by Amy L. Diem Farming--The growing of crops as well as all forms of livestock raising, including the use of natural vegetation for feeding the animals and the gathering-in of crops, whether for subsistence or exchange. Feedlot--A factorylike farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying; all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm. First agricultural revolution1) The original invention of farming and domestication of livestock 8,000-14,000 years ago and the subsequent dispersal of these methods from the source regions. 2) The first period of agricultural advancement and innovation which occurred between 12,000 and 14,000 years ago consisting of the practice of cultivating plants in place rather than migrating to find edible plants in the wild. Cultivation of roots and seeds in place allowed for the subsequent development of a sedentary form of life and permanent settlements. In time, the first significant moves toward urbanization and new governmental forms began to evolve. With the amount of food increasing, the first recognizable population explosion occurred. Fishing Food chain--Five central and connected sectors (inputs, production, product processing, distribution, and consumption) with four contextual elements acting as external mediating forces (the State, international trade, the physical environment, and credit and finance). Forestry Globalized agriculture-- A system of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization. Green Revolutionsyn. the Third Agricultural Revolution. 1) The application of biological science to the development of better strains of plants and animals for increasing agricultural yields. 2) Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. 3) The successful recent development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs. 4) The export of a technological package of fertilizers and high-yielding seeds, from the core to the periphery, to increase global agricultural productivity. 5) The recent introduction of high yield hybrid crops and chemical fertilizers and pesticides into traditional Asian agricultural systems, most notably paddy rice farming, with attendant increases in production and ecological damage. Growing season Hunting and gathering1) The collecting of roots, seeds, fruit, and fiber from wild plants and the hunting and fishing of wild animals. 2) The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance. 3) Activities whereby people feed themselves through killing wild animals and fish and gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants to sustain themselves. 4) The killing of wild game and the harvesting of wild plants to provide food in traditional cultures. Intensive subsistence agriculture1) A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum


Created by Amy L. Diem feasible yield from a parcel of land. 2) Practice that involves the effective and efficient useusually through a considerable expenditure of human labor and application of fertilizerof a small parcel of land in order to maximize crop yield. Intertillage1) Practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden. 2) The raising of different crops mixed together in the same field, particularly common in shifting cultivation. Livestock ranching1) The raising of cattle for meat and of sheep for meat and wool. Market gardeningsyn.truck farming; horticultural farming. 1) Farming devoted to specialized fruit, vegetable, or vine crops for sale rather than consumption. 2) Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. 3) The intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for canning or processing. Mediterranean agriculture--Specialized farming of grapes, olives, citrus, figs, and certain vegetables which occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails. Mineral fuels Mining Planned economy-- A system of production of goods and services, usually consumed or distributed by a governmental agency, in quantities, at prices, and in locations determined by the governmental program. Plant domestication--The transformation of a wild plant into a cultivated crop to gain control over food production. A necessary evolutionary step in the development of humankindthe invention of agriculture. Plantation agriculture--The growing of cash crops on large estates. A plantation is a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country (MDC). Renewable/nonrenewable resources Renewable resources can be used and restored after use or have an unlimited supply. A natural resource that is potentially inexhaustible either because it is constantly (as solar radiation) or periodically (as biomass) replenished as long as its use does not exceed its maximum sustainable yield. Nonrenewable resources Rural settlement (dispersed, nucleated, building material, village form)see settlement patterns in Unit VII: Cities below. Sauer, Carl O.Geographer from the University of California at Berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. The landscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities. Second agricultural revolution1) A period of technological change from the 1600s to mid-1990s that started in Western Europe, beginning with preindustrial improvements such as crop rotation and better horse collars, and concluding with industrial innovations to 20

Created by Amy L. Diem replace human labor with machines and to supplement natural fertilizers and pesticides with chemical ones. 2) Most frequently associated with changes and improvements in agriculture in England before an during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th c., this revolution began as early as the end of the Middle Ages and extended into the 19th c. The Second Agricultural Revolution both acted as a stimulus to the Industrial Revolution and benefited from a number of its inventions, including advanced agricultural machinery to replace human and animal labor. New approaches to crop rotation; the elimination of the open-field system; the awarding of land to private owners through the Enclosure Acts; the use of fences, walls, and other boundary identifiers; and the expansion of arable land were key factors in this important era. Resulted in a population explosion (see J-Curve). Specialization Staple grains Suitcase farm--In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews. Survey patterns (long lots, metes and bounds, township-and-range) Long lots Metes and bounds Township-and-range Sustainable yield--The maximum rate at which a renewable resource can be exploited without impairing its ability to be renewed or replenished Third agricultural revolution (characteristics: mechanization, chemical farming, food manufacturing)-- Began in the 1950s with continued improvements in seed and chemical additives combined with advanced agricultural machinery and computer-based farm management practices which brought higher crop yields with less human labor. Traditional family farms gave way to agribusinesses. Advances in agriculture have been most pronounced in the developed countries, but an important exception is the Green Revolution, which brought great increases in grain production to the countries of South Asia. Mechanization-- The replacement of human farm labor with machines. Chemical farming--Application of synthetic fertilizers to the soiland herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to cropsin order to enhance yields. Food manufacturing-- The observation that in the absence of collective control over the use of a resource available to all, it is to the advantage of all users to maximize their separate shares even though their collective pressures may diminish total yield or destroy the resource altogether. Tragedy of the commons-- The observation that in the absence of collective control over the use of a resource available to all, it is to the advantage of all users to maximize their separate shares even though their collective pressures may diminish total yield or destroy the resource altogether. Transhumance-Truck farm-Von Thnen, Johann Heinrich German economist and landowner who explained the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those prices affected patterns of agricultural land utilization. (von Thunen model) 21

Created by Amy L. Diem

Unit VI. Industrialization and DevelopmentBasic Vocabulary and Concepts Development Agricultural labor forcea large number of subsistence farmers indicates a lower level of development whereas the presence of commercial agriculture indicates a higher level of development. In LDCs, more than 75% of the people are engaged in primary economic activities such as agriculture. In MDCs, less than 5% are engaged in primary activities. Calorie consumption--Daily available calories per capita reflects a countrys food supply. Daily available calories per capita is the domestic agricultural production plus imports, minus exports and nonfood uses. To maintain a moderate level of physical activity, an average individual requires 2360 calories a day, according to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. The figure must be adjusted for age, sex, and region of the world. In MDCs, the average person consumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, while in LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less. Core-periphery model-- A model of the economic development process over time and space that focuses on the evolving relationships between a rich, productive, innovative core region and a poor, dependent periphery. Cultural convergence--The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structure in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication. Dependency theory--A school of thought that explains low development levels as being a result of the LDCs economic dependency on MDCs. It also stressed that development be measured in terms of human welfare indicators rather than economic indicators. A school of thought that explains low development levels as being a result of the LDCs economic dependency on MDCs. It also stressed that development be measured in terms of human welfare indicators rather than economic indicators. DevelopmentThe process of economic growth, expansion, or realization of regional resource potential.; The extent to which a society is making effective use of resources, both human and natural; the process of growth, expansion, or realization of potential; bringing regional resources into full productive use. Energy consumption-Foreign direct investment-- The total of overseas business investments made by private companies; When an economic entity such as a large transnational organization decides not simply to market its products in a foreign country but to actually build a facility there (e.g. factory, distribution center). Ex: Japans Nissan Corporation decided to build an auto assembly plant in Smyrna, TN. Gender--Social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differencesthat is, what is considered feminine or masculinevary greatly over time and space.


Created by Amy L. Diem Gross domestic product (GDP)-- The total dollar value of all final goods and services sold in monetary transactions in a country in a given year, excluding overseas transactions. Gross national product (GNP)-- The total dollar value of all final goods and services sold in monetary transactions in a country in a given year, including international transactions. Human Development Index-- Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy. Levels of development Measures of developmentEconomic measures of development include the gross domestic product per capita, types of jobs held by people, access to raw materials, and ability to purchase consumer goods; social indicators of development include literacy rate and amount of education; and demographic measures of development include the health and welfare of people in a society, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, natural increase rate and crude birth rate. Neocolonialism-- When a previously colonized country has become politically independent but remains economically dependent on exporting the same commodities (raw materials and foodstuffs) as it did during colonization. Physical Quality of Life Index Purchasing power parity--a method for comparing living standards based on the price for equivalent products in different local currencies; A monetary measurement which takes account of what money actually buys in each country. Rostow, W. W. Stages of Growth modelsyn. Stages of Development modelA model of economic development that describes a countrys progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from leastdeveloped to most-developed countries. Technology gap-- The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment. Technology transfer-- The diffusion or transfer of technology, usually from a more-developed country to a less-developed country. Third World-World Systems Theory--Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein, who proposed that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world. In this analysis, the world functions as a single entity, organized around a new international division of labor in which those living in poorer countries have little autonomy. Industrialization Acid rain-- A growing environmental peril whereby acidified rainwater severely damages plant and animal life. Caused by the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned, especially in major manufacturing zones.


Created by Amy L. Diem AgglomerationThe grouping together of many firms in the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources.; A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities. (Ex: Hollywood movie industryactors, movie studies, and other industry support services all located in Hollywood) Agglomeration economies-- The positive economic effects of urbanization and the local concentration of industry. Cost savings resulting from location near other firms. Agglomeration diseconomies means the negative economic effects of urbanization and the local concentration of industry. Air pollution Aluminum industry (factors of production, location) Assembly line production/Fordism-- A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor. Named after automobile producer Henry ford, Fordist production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption.; Forms of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly. Bid rent theoryBid rent theory indicates how much a person (farmer, householder, retailer, etc.) is prepared to pay for a unit of land at varying distances from the market/city center. It describes the trade off of cheaper land rents with increased transport costs due to increased distance from the market/city center . In an urban setting, the highest land values will be found near the city center, or central business district. Land values away from the city center will decline. Within a city, the city center will have the highest values; a commercial and office zone is found next, then an industrial zone, and finally a broad residential zone. Population density will be highest toward the center because of the high cost of land. Conversely, residential zones, with their lower land costs, will allow a homeowner to purchase a relatively large plot of land for a homesite. The advantages of locating a business closer to the city center are lower transportation costs and increased accessibility to activities at the center. These advantages cost the business owner more for the land. For a residential location, the requirement for optimal accessibility to the city center will usually be lower than it is for a business. Break-of-bulk point-- A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution; The stage of transportation when a bulk shipment is broken into smaller lots and/or different modes of transportation. Canadian industrial heartland Carrier efficiency Comparative advantageA position of global dominance as compared to other countries.; When one region is relatively more efficient at producing a particular product compared with other regions.


Created by Amy L. Diem Cumulative causation-- Self-sustaining economic growth that builds on itself as capital, skilled labor, innovation, and services attract and create more of the same.; A spiral buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies Deglomerationthe opposite of agglomeration; The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration. It occurs when firms leave an agglomerated region to start up in a distant, new place. (Ex: after the dot-com bust, some high tech firms left San Francisco because the costs of living were so high) DeindustrializationLoss of industrial activity in a region.; A relative decline in industrial employment in core regions. Economic sectors Economies of scaleLower production costs as a result of a large volume of production. Ecotourism--Responsible travel that does not harm ecosystems or the well-being of local people. Energy resources-- Another factor in the location of industry is the availability of an energy supply. This factor used to be much more important than it is today. The early British textile mills, because they depended on water rushing down hillsides to drive the looms, had few choices in deciding where to locate. The same can be said of early mills in the northeastern U.S. Today, however, power comes from different sources and can be transmitted via high-voltage electrical lines over long distances. Manufacturers are therefore able to base location decisions on considerations other than power. Exceptions occur when an industry needs very large amounts of energyfor example, certain metallurgical (aluminum and copper processing), chemical industries (fertilizer production, phosphate industry in Florida), and hydroelectric plants. Entrept-- A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break-of-bulk point. Export processing zone-- Small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract exportoriented industries. Fixed costs Footloose industryManufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the firm. Four Tigers-- The newly industrializing countries of Asia are called the little tigers or Four Tigers. They are Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. These four tigers challenge Japans economic dominance of Asia. The forces behind the rise of the four tigers are tied to the shift of labor-intensive industries to areas with lower labor costs. They are also the product of government efforts to protect developing industry and to invest in education and training. Greenhouse effect-- A process in which the increased release of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere, caused by industrial activity and deforestation, permits solar short-wave heat radiation to reach the Earths surface but blocks long-wave outgoing radiation, causing a thermal imbalance and global heating. Growth poles-- Urban centers with attributes that, if augmented by a measure of


Created by Amy L. Diem investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland.; Economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries. Heartland/Rimland Industrial location theory Industrial regions (place, fuel source, characteristics) Industrial RevolutionThe rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century.; Period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th c. and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developing world. Industry (receding, growing) Infrastructure-- The underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity.; The foundations of a society: urban centers, transport networks, communications, energy distribution systems, farms, factories, mines, and such facilities as schools, hospitals, postal services, and police and armed forces. International division of labor-- The specialization, by countries, in particular products for exports. Labor-intensive-- An industry for which labor costs represent a large proportion of total production costs. Least-cost locationA concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration. Major manufacturing regionsA region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. The major U.S. industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the states of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere. Manufacturing exports Manufacturing/warehouse location (industrial parks, agglomeration, shared services, zoning, transportation, taxes, environmental considerations) MaquiladorasThose U.S. firms that have factories just outside the U.S./Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government. In such areas, factories cheaply assemble goods for export back to the U.S. Market orientationThe tendency for an industry to locate near population centers in order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when the final product is more expensive to transport than the raw materials. Multiplier effect-- syn.multiplier leakage. The process by which industrial profits flow back to major industrial districts from factories established in outlying 26

Created by Amy L. Diem provinces or countries.; Expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or expansion of another economic activity. For example, a new basic industry will create jobs, directly or indirectly, in the non-basic sector. NAFTA Outsourcing--The practice of locating branch plants in foreign countries in order to take advantage of the cheaper labor there. Ozone depletion Plant location (supplies, just in time delivery) Postindustrial economyThe emerging mode of production and consumption of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, featuring huge transnational corporations and localized agglomerations that produce and/or utilize information technology and telecommunications, with greater employment in tertiary and quaternary services. Refrigeration Resource crisis Resource orientationsyn. raw material orientation. The tendency for an industry to locate near the source of raw materials in order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when raw materials lose weight in the production process. Special economic zones-- Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment (ex: China) Specialized economic zones Substitution principle-- In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location. Threshold/rangesee Cities & Urban Land Use below Time-space compression-- The reduction in time needed to move information, people, and goods across earth space. Topocide Trade (complementarity)The actual or potential trade between two places. Transnational corporationA firm that conducts business in at least two separate countries; also known as multinational corporation. Ubiquitous good-- A widely available good that might be added in the process of manufacturing at the market since the weight of the finished product would, in this case, be greater than that of the localized (i.e. nonobiquitous) raw materials of which it is composed. Variable costs-- Costs which vary such as energy supply, transport expenses, labor costs, and other needs which must be considered when locating a secondary industry. Weber, Alfred Weight-gaining industrysyn. bulk-gaining industry. An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs. Weight-losing industrysyn. bulk-reducing industry. An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs. World cities-- Cities in which a disproportionate part of the worlds most important business is conducted.; A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally 27

Created by Amy L. Diem dominant system of global control of finance and commerce. Unit VII. Cities and Urban Land UseBasic Vocabulary and Concepts AgglomerationIn urban geography, the spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefit. (see also Industrialization section above) Barriadas1) Illegal housing settlements, usually made up of temporary shelters, that surround large cities; often referred to as squatter settlements.; 2) Shantytowns in Latin America; Latin American rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. Bid-rent theorysee Industrialization section above Blockbusting1) A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.; 2) An overt tactic used by realtors to direct and control growth of black residential areas in North American cities. It involves the use of scare tactics to increase the rate of white turnover. CBD (central business district)1) The downtown heart of a central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings. 2) The downtown or nucleus of an urban area. It has the peak value intersection, the densest land use, the tallest buildings, and traditionally was the urban areas major concentration of retail, office, and cultural activity.; 3) The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high and transportation systems converge.; 4) The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.; The central nucleus of commercial land uses in a city. 5) The central portion of a city characterized by high-density land uses. Census tract1) An areal unit defined and used by the Census Bureau for the presentation of data. Census tracts incorporate roughly 4,000 people, but considerable variation occurs.; 2) An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.; 3) Small district used by the U.S. Census Bureau to survey the population. Centrality1) As a concept applied to location in general, it means enjoying a state of high accessibility, (i.e. the quality of being at the center of a transport system). 2) As applied to urban centers it is a relative measure of the importance of settlements in terms of the ration between services provided and the local needs of its inhabitants. CentralizationThe spatial trend whereby people and activities concentrate into a few centers or locations. 28

Created by Amy L. Diem Central place1) A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.; 2) A settlement in which certain products and services are available to consumers.; 3) An urban or other settlement node whose primary function is to provide goods and services to the consuming population of its hinterland, complementary region, or trade area.; 4) Any point or place in the urban hierarchy, such as a town or city, having a certain economic reach or hinterland.; 5) A town or city engaged primarily in the service stages of production; a regional center. Central-place theory1) A geographic model of the sizes and location patterns of settlements that serve as central locations for selling goods and services to hexagonal-shaped market areas.; 2) A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.; 3) A theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of peoples shopping behavior.; 4) Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.; 5) A set of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban service centers. Christaller, WalterGerman geographer credited with developing central place theory. CityA multifunctional nucleated settlement with a central business district and both residential and nonresidential land uses. Cityscape1) The landscape of an urban area; the combined impression of a citys built and nonbuilt environments.; 2) An urban landscape. Colonial city1) A city that was deliberately established or developed as an administrative or commercial center by colonial or imperial powers.; 2) A city founded by colonialism, or an indigenous city whose structure is deeply influenced by Western colonialism. Commercialization Commuter zonesyn. commuter belt. The zone from which a city daily draws workers or commuters from residences outside the city to work in the city. Concentric zone modelsyn. concentric ring model. 1) Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core, or central business district; 2) Model that explains urban land use in a pattern of concentric zones around the city center.; 3) A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.; 4) A model describing urban land uses as a series of circular belts or rings around a core central business district, each ring housing a distinct type of land use.; 5) A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged 29

Created by Amy L. Diem around a common center. 6) A social model that depicts a city as five areas bounded by concentric rings. Counterurbanization1) Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.; 2) The net loss of population from cities to smaller towns and rural areas. Decentralization1) The movement of people, jobs, and activities from the center or core of a major metropolitan area to suburban and outlying locations within their daily urban system.; 2) The tendency of people or businesses and industry to locate outside the central city. Deindustrializationsee Industrialization section above Early cities-- As hunters and gatherers became increasingly efficient in gathering resources, their campsites became semipermanent. As the quantities of domesticated plants and animals increased, settlements became even more permanent. The first cities developed in the Middle East. They were farming villages that developed about 10,000 years ago. Two elements were crucial to the formation of cities: the creation of an agricultural surplus and the development of a stratified social system. NOT FINISHED Economic base (basic/nonbasic)1) A communitys collection of basic industries. 2) The manufacturing and service activities performed by the basic sector of a citys labor force; functions of a city performed to satisfy demands external to the city itself and, in that performance, earning income to support the urban population. The local economy is subdivided into two mutually exclusive sectors: Basic sectorsyn.-basic activities. 1) Those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community.; 2) Economic activities whose products are exported beyond a regions limits. Nonbasic sectorsyn.--nonbasic activities. 1) Those economic activities of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services that have no export implication. 2) Nonbasic, or service, activities involve production and consumption within the region. Edge cities1) Suburban nodes of employment and economic activity featuring high-rise office space, corporate headquarters, shopping, entertainment, and hotels. Their physical layout is designed for automobile, not pedestrian, travel.; 2) Cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.; 3) Large nodes of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.; 4) Nodal concentrations of shopping and office space situated on the outer fringes of metropolitan areas, typically near major highway intersections.; 5) A term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the U.S. away from the central business district (CBD) toward a new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are 30

Created by Amy L. Diem characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (less than 30 years old). 6) New urban clusters of economic activity that surrounds our 19th c. downtowns. Emerging citiesCities of a currently developing or emerging country. Employment structure Entreptsee Industrialization section above. Ethnic neighborhood1) A voluntary community where people of like origin reside by choice. 2) A small area occupied by a distinctive minority culture. FavelaShantytown on the outskirts or even well within an urban area in Brazil. Female-headed household Festival landscape-- syn.--festival settings. In many cities, gentrification efforts focus on a multiuse redevelopment scheme that is built around a particular setting, often one with a historical association. Waterfronts are commonly chosen as focal points for these large scale projects. These complexes integrate retailing, office, and entertainment activities and incorporate trendy shops, restaurants, bars and nightclubs. They serve as sites for concerts, ethnic festivals, and street performances; they also serve as focal points for the more informal human interactions that we usually associate with urban life. (ex: Bayside in Miami, Riverwalk in San Antonio, Faneuil Hall in Boston) Gateway city1) Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.; 2) A city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation. Gendersee Development section above. Gentrification1) The upgrading of inner-city neighborhoods and their resettlement by upwardly mobile professionals. (ex: City Place was a gentrification of an area previously characterized by urban decay.); 2) The trend of middle- and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.; 3) A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.; 4) The invasion of older, centrally located working-class neighborhoods by higherincome households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences. Ghetto1) During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.; 2) A forced or voluntary segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious minority. 3) An urban region marked by particular ethnic, racial, religious, and economic properties, usually (but not always) a low income area. 4) A 31

Created by Amy L. Diem segregated ethnic area within a city forced on the residents by discrimination; an involuntary community. Ghettoizationa process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources. Globalization1) Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.; 2) The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change.; 3) The expansion of economic, political and cultural activities to the point that they become global in scale and impact. This process has been aided by technological advances in transportation, information management, and telecommunications. Great cities High-tech corridorssee Industrialization section above Hinterland1) The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.; 2) The sphere of economic influence of a town or city.; 3) The market area of region served by an urban center.; 4) Literally, country behind, a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. In the case of a port city, the hinterland also includes the inland area whose trade flows through that port.; 5) The area surrounding a city and influence by it. 6) The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the places goods and services. Hydraulic civilizationA civilization based on large-scale irrigation. The hydraulic civilization model, developed by Karl Wittfogel, sees the development of large-scale irrigation systems as the prime mover behind urbanization and a class of technical specialists as the first urban dwellers. Although the hydraulic model fits several areas where cities first aroseChina, Egypt, and Mesopotamiait cannot be applied to all urban hearths. In parts of Mesoamerica, for example, an urban civilization blossomed without widespread irrigated agriculture, and therefore without a class of technical experts. Indigenous cityA city formed by local forces. Indigenous cities developed without contact with Western colonial influences. In fact, most evolved long before there were cities in northern Europe. Precolonial indigenous cities in the New World are restricted to Mexico, Central America, and the Andean highlands. In Africa, there are cities in the west associated with the Yoruba civilization (Nigeria), along the Nile River, cities in a band of Islamic empires in the north, and some small cities in the eastern highlands, again associated with Islamic empires. Many were originally laid out according to religious principles with a sacred precinct in the center. In-fillingsyn. infill development. 1) Higher-density development in 32

Created by Amy L. Diem smaller patches of undeveloped or redevelopable land inside the urban boundaries.; 2) New building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development. Informal sector1) Economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration.; 2) That part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment; economic activity or individual enterprise operating without official recognition or measured by official statistics. Infrastructuresee Industrialization section above Inner cityA loosely defined area close to the city center; an area of obsolescent and dilapidated housing in multiple occupation, often performing a reception function for new immigrants to the city. Invasion and successionA process of neighborhood change whereby one social or ethnic group succeeds another. Lateral commuting1) Traveling from one suburb to another in going from home to work. 2) Pattern of commuting which has developed along with the evolution of outlying clusters of employment opportunities. (ex: commuting from suburb to suburb, instead of suburb to central business district of larger city) Medieval citiesCities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain such unique features as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack. Megacities1) Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since WWII. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty.; 2) Very large cities characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy.; 3) A large urban region formed as several urban areas spread and merge, such as Boswash, the region including Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. Megalopolis/conurbation1) Several metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.; 2) A large, sprawled urban complex with contained open, nonurban land, created through the spread and joining of separate metropolitan areas. (conurbation: 1) a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities.; 2) General term used to identify large, multimetropolitan complexes formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas. The Boston-Washington megalopolis along the U.S. northeastern seaboard is an outstanding example.) Metropolitan areasyn.-- urban area. 1) Within the U.S., an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent 33

Created by Amy L. Diem economic whole.; 2) The entire built-up, nonrural area and its population, including the most recently constructed suburban appendages. Provides a better picture of the dimensions and population of such an area than the delimited municipality (central city) that forms its heart. Multiple nuclei model1) A model that explains urban land use as organized around several separate nuclei.; 2) Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of only one central place.; 3) Model which suggests that large cities develop by peripheral spread not from one central business district but from several nodes of growth, each of specialized use. The separately expanding use districts eventually coalesce at their margins.; 4) The Harris-Ullman model that showed the mid-20th c. American central city consisting of several land-use zones arranged around nuclear growth points. 5) A model that depicts a city growing from several separate focal points. Multiplier effectIn urban geography, the expected addition of nonbasic workers and dependents to a citys total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment. (compare to Industrialization section above) Neighborhood1) A district, normally in a city, identified as a social unit by the face-to-face relationships between its residents. It represents a spatially bounded community and while its boundaries are imprecise, outsiders are more aware of its existence than the residents. 2) A small social area within a city where residents share values and concerns and interact with one another on a daily basis. New UrbanismA movement to make cities more livable and foster a greater sense of community by designing compact, pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods with sidewalks, front porches, and a larger variety of housing types and land uses. (Ex: Abacoa) Office parkA cluster of office buildings usually located along an interstate, often forming the nucleus of an edge city. Peak land value intersectionThe most accessible and costly parcel of land in the central business district and, therefore, in the entire urbanized area. Planned communitiessyn.master planned communities. Largescale residential developments that include, in addition to architecturally compatible housing units, planned recreational facilities, schools, and security measures. Many newer residential developments on the suburban fringe are planned and built as complete neighborhoods by private developers. Most of these communities exploit various land-use restrictions and zoning regulations to maintain control over land values, and that homes in these communities maintain their value better than homes elsewhere. (ex: Weston, FL) Preindustrial city--A Western city before the Industrial Revolution; dominant aspect of the city was its imposing religious and 34

Created by Amy L. Diem governmental structures. Preindustrial cities were similar in form, function, and atmosphere. Preindustrial cities did have industries but they were not manufacturing industries. The industries were small, but they were often quite numerous. Postindustrial city Postmodern urban landscape1) Urban landscape which uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclecticism. Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors. It is a reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture.; 2) Urban landscape which uses a postmodern style of architecture which combines a mixture of historical and geographical references with cutting-edge aesthetics in the same complex. Primate city1) A countrys leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country.; 2) A countrys leading city, disproportionately larger and functionally more complex than any other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy composed of a base of small towns and an absence of intermediate-sized cities.; 3) A countrys largest cityranking atop the urban hierarchymost expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well.; 4) A city of large size and dominant power within a country. Primate city ruleA pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. Racial steeringActions by real estate agents that serve to geographically steer potential home buyers on the basis of their racial or ethnic characteristics in ways that promote segregation. Blockbusting is an example. Rank-size rule1) Rule that states that the population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the countrys hierarchy when the distribution of cities according to their sizes follows a certain pattern.; 2) A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. (ex: the 4th largest city is the size of the 1st largest city); 3) In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. Redlining1) A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.; 2) The practice whereby lending institutions delimit badrisk neighborhoods on a city map and then use the map as the basis for determining loans.; 3) A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines 35

Created by Amy L. Diem depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal. 4) A practice by banks and mortgage companies of demarcating areas considered to be high risk for housing loans. Restrictive covenantA statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of land in some way; often used to prohibit certain groups of people from buying property. Sector model1) A model that explains urban land use in pie-shaped sectors radiating outward from the city center.; 2) A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors.; 3) A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district. (CBD); 4) A spatial model of the American central city that suggests that land-use areas conform to a wedge-shaped pattern focused on the downtown core. 5) An economic model that depicts a city as a series of pie-shaped wedges. Segregation1) The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homogenous suburban neighborhoods. This process isolates those individuals who cannot afford to consider relocating to suburban neighborhoods and must remain in certain pockets of the central city. Settlement form (nucleated, dispersed, elongated) Clustered-- A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement. Nucleated1) A rural settlement with a compact morphology (shape) and consisting of homes and farmsteads clustered around a church and/or green. 2) A tight clustering of residences in a small area within the larger rural settlement. DispersedA rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages. Elongated Shopping mallA distinctive landscape symbol of post WWII life in America. Most malls are not designed to be seen from the outside, but rather, from the inside. Often located near an off-ramp of a major freeway of a metropolitan area, and close to middle- and upper-class residential neighborhoods. Many scholars consider megamalls to be Americas new main street. Site/situationsee Basic Concepts section above. Two components of urban location; site refers to the local setting of a city. The situation is the regional setting. (Ex: San Franciscothe original site of the Mexican settlement was on a shallow cove on the eastern shore of a peninsula. The importance of its situation, or regional location, was that it drew upon waterborne traffic coming across the bay from other, smaller settlements.) 36

Created by Amy L. Diem SlumAn older, run down inner-city neighborhood populated by poor and disadvantaged populations. Social stratification. 1) The hierarchical ranking of individuals and groups in society based on class and social status. Within a stratum all members are equal but between strata there exist recognized and sanctioned differences, which are the basis for placing one individual or group higher or lower than another in the social order.; 2) The differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige. Specialization-- Industrial cities went through a phase of specialization. In some cities, certain industries grew to dominate the manufacturing sector to such a degree that their products and names of the cities became almost synonymous. (ex: Detroit & autos). Functional specialization decreased with urban growth. Most industrial cities now have a diversified manufacturing base. Squatter settlement1) A residential development characterized by extreme poverty that usually exists on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants.; 2) An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally established residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.; 3) Residential developments that take place on land that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants. 4) An illegal housing settlement, usually made up of temporary shelters, that surrounds a large city. Street pattern (grid, dendritic; access, control) Suburb1) Residential community, located outside of a city center, that is usually relatively homogenous in terms of its population.; 2) A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls. (ex: Wellington and Jupiter are suburbs of West Palm Beach) Suburbanization1) The process whereby growth in population and economic activity has been most intense at the fringes of urbanized areas.; 2) The growth of population along the fringes of large metropolitan areas.; 3) Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early 19th c. and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the 20th c. Symbolic landscapeRepresentations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public; townscapes which take on symbolic significance. There are three highly symbolic landscapes in the U.S.: the New England village with its white church, commons, and tree lined neighborhood; Main Street of middle America, the string street of a small Midwestern town, with store fronts, bandstand, and park; and California suburbia, suburbs of quarter acre lots, effusive garden landscaping, swimming 37

Created by Amy L. Diem pools, and ranch style houses. (ex: A skyscraper is more than a high rise office building; they are symbols of progress, economic vitality, or corporate identities.) TenementBuilding erected on a narrow plot of land which catered to rapid growth of urban population. It may be several stories high, served by a common staircase from which passages run, each containing two or more dwellings. (it was the equivalent to a block of flats). As the original inhabitants moved out, tenements were often further subdivided and allowed to deteriorate, so becoming slums. Threshold/range (of a service)Range is 1) the maximum distance people are willing to travel to obtain a central place function (a good or service that a central place provides); 2) the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. Threshold is 1) the minimum market size needed to support a central place function; 2) the minimum number of people needed to support a service.; 3) the minimum market size required to make the sale of a particular product or service profitable. TownA nucleated settlement that contains a central business district but that is small and less functionally complex than a city. Underclass1) A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.; 2) A subset of the poor, isolated from mainstream values and the formal labor market. UnderemploymentA situation in which people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours. Urban growth rate Urban function--The types of services offered by an urban area. Large urban areas will have a higher level of specialization. For example, a hamlet of farmers may offer no services and have no urban function. But if it provides some basic services for the people living there, it is an urban place on the bottom step of the urban hierarchy. A village, the next larger urban settlement, is likely to offer several dozen services. The key here is specialization. Stores sell certain goods; gas stations sell competing brands. A town is not merely larger than a village; its functions reveal a higher level of specialization. Bank and postal services, medical services, education institutions, and stores selling such goods as furniture, appliances, and hardwares, etc. are among the functions of a town. A town may have a hinterland (surrounding service area) that includes smaller villages and hamlets. The hinterland reveals the economic reach if each settlement. A settlements functions as well as its economic reach produce a measure of its centrality. A city has not only more functional specialization than a town, but a larger hinterland and greater centrality. Urban hearth areasOne of the five regions--Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, Pakistans Indus River valley, the Yellow River (or Huang Ho) of China, and Mesoamericawhere the worlds first cities evolved. Urban heat islanda large mass of warmer air which sits over a city as a result of the generation of heat by a large urban population from building heating systems, autos, industries, and even human bodies. 38

Created by Amy L. Diem The heat island causes yearly temperatures in cities to average 3.5 degrees F higher than in the countryside. Urban hierarchy1) A ranking of cities based on their size and functional complexity. 2) A system of cities consisting of various levels, with few cities at the top level and increasingly more settlements on each lower level. The position of a city within the hierarchy is determined by the types of central place functions it provides. 3) A ranking of settlements (hamlets, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions. Urban hydrologyNot only is the city a great consumer of water, but it also alters runoff patterns in a way that increases the frequency and magnitude of flooding. Within the city, residential areas are the greatest consumers of water. Generally, each person in the U.S. uses about 60 gallons per day in a residence. Residential demand can vary. It is greater in drier climates, where lots are larger, and in middle- and high-income neighborhoods. The cost of water influences demand: people use less when it costs more. Urbanization seems to increase both the frequency and magnitude of flooding. This is because cities are large impervious areas where water cannot soak into the earth. Instead, precipitation is converted into immediate runoff. It is forced into gutters, sewers, and stream channels that have been straightened and stripped of vegetation, resulting in more frequent high-water levels than are found in a comparable area of rural land. Furthermore, the time between rainfall and peak runoff is reduced in cities; there is less lag than in the countryside, where water runs across soil and vegetation into stream channels and then into rivers. So, because of hard surfaces and artificial collection channels, runoff in cities is concentrated and immediate. Urban morphology1) The form and structure of cities, including street patterns and the size and shape of buildings. 2) The study of the physical form and structure of urban places. Urbanization1) An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements. 2) Transformation of a population from rural to urban status; the process of city formation and expansion. 3) A term with several connotations. The proportion of a countrys population living in urban places is its level of urbanization. The process of urbanization involves the movement of people to, and the clustering of people in, towns and citiesa major force in every geographic realm today. Another kind of urbanization occurs when an expanding city absorbs the rural countryside and transforms it into suburb; in case of cities in the developing world, this also generates peripheral shantytowns. Urbanized populationThe percentage of a nations population living in towns and cities around the world. For example, the countries of Europe, North America, Latin America, and the Caribbean have relatively high levels of urbanization, with approximately 75% of each 39

Created by Amy L. Diem countrys population living in urban areas; whereas the nations of Africa and Asia have relatively less urbanization, with approximately 38% of the countrys population living in urban areas. World city1) Centers of economic, cultural, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce. 2) A city in which a disproportionate part of the worlds most important business is conducted. 3) One of a small number of interconnected, internationally dominant centers that together control the global systems of finance. (ex: New York, London, Tokyo) 4) Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. These are not the worlds biggest cities in terms of population or industrial output. Rather, they are centers of strategic control of the world economy. 5) One of the largest cities in the world, generally with a population over 10 million. Zone in transitionAn area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the central business district. (CBD) Zoning1) Planned regulations that define permissible land uses for parcels of the city. 2) Designating by ordinance areas in a municipality for particular types of land use. 3) Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the U.S., areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, and industrial land use.