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After going through this unit, you should be able to :
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Human Resource Development System
understand the concept of Human Resource Development (HRD) system; define HRD; Appreciate the need for HRD; list the various HRD systems; describe sub-systems of HRD; and discuss the changing boundaries of HRD.
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 Introduction The Concept of Human Resource Development The Need for HRD HRD Functions Human Resource Development Systems Principles in Designing HRD Systems Changing Boundaries of HRD Summary Self Assessment Questions Further Readings
Development of human resources is essential for any organisation that would like to be dynamic and growth-oriented. Unlike other resources, human resources have rather unlimited potential capabilities. The potential can be used only by creating a climate that can continuously identify, bring to surface, nurture and use the capabilities of people. Human Resrouce Development (HRD) system aims at creating such a climate. A number of HRD techniques have been developed in recent years to perform the above task based on certain principles. This unit provides an understanding of the concept of HRD system, related mechanisms and the changing boundaries of HRD.
12.2 THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Increasingly, more importance is being given to “people” in organisations. This is mainly because organisations are realising that human assets are the most important of all assets. This emphasis can also be partly attributed to the new emerging values of humanism and humanisation. Moreover, with the increased emphasis on creativity, and autonomy, which people are increasingly acquiring and enjoying in the society, the expectations of people are fast changing. People cannot be taken for granted any more.
Human Resource Development
In the past, people working in organisations were given attention merely in administering the necessary conditions of work. The traditional concept of personnel management was based on a very narrow view of human motivation. The basic assumption underlying that view was that human beings are primarily motivated by comforts and salary, and necessary attention may be given to rationalise these, so that people do not get dissatisfied. Most of the attention, therefore, was on administration of salary and other benefits. It is now being increasingly realised that people working in organisations are human beings. They have their own needs, motivation and expectations, and that their contribution to the organisation is much more than that of any other resource being used. The concept of Human Resource System (HRS) assumes that human beings are a great asset to an organisation. They are not merely necessary evils to be reckoned with; in fact they can contribute a great deal to the achievement of organisational goals. This positive view of people working in the organisations as an asset with unlimited potential is the core of the concept of the human resource system. Another underlying concept of the system is that investment in human beings is necessary. Investment for increasing the resource is important, and the more an organisation invests in its human resources, the greater the return from the investment is likely to be. This realisation of the need for continuous investment, and the possibility of substantial return, is an important concept of the human resource system. There is also one more reason why investment in human resource is necessary. It is also being realised that organisations have an obligation to the society, that they should also contribute to the development of people, and operate with the new values of treating people as human beings, as well as contribute to this value of creating traditions and culture of respecting people as human beings. Human resource development in the organisation context is a process by which the employees of an organisation are helped, in a continuous and planned way to: 1) 2) Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles; Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and/or organisational development purposes; and Develop an organisational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well being, motivation and pride of employees.
This definition of HRD is limited to the organisational context. In the context of a state or nation it would differ. HRD is a process, not merely a set of mechanisms and techniques. The mechanisms and techniques such as performance appraisal, counselling, training, and organisation development interventions are used to initiate, facilitate, and promote this process in a continuous way. Because the process has no limit, the mechanisms may need to be examined periodically to see whether they are promoting or hindering the process. Organisations can facilitate this process of development by planning for it, by allocating organisational resources for the purpose, and by exemplifying an HRD philosophy that values human beings and promotes their development.
12.3 THE NEED FOR HRD
HRD is needed by any organisation that wants to be dynamic and growth-oriented or to succeed in a fast-changing environment. Organisations can become dynamic and grow only through the efforts and competencies of their human resources. Personnel
policies can keep the morale and motivation of employees high, but these efforts are not enough to make the organisation dynamic and take it in new directions. Employee capabilities must continuously be acquired, sharpened, and used. For this purpose, an “enabling” organisational culture is essential. When employees use their initiative, take risks, experiment, innovate, and make things happen, the organisation may be said to have an “enabling” culture. Even an organisation that has reached its limit of growth, needs to adapt to the changing environment. No organisation is immune to the need for processes that help to acquire and increase its capabilities for stability and renewal.
Human Resource Development System
12.4 HRD FUNCTIONS
The core of the concept of HRS is that of development of human beings, or HRD. The concept of development should cover not only the individual but also other units in the organisation. In addition to developing the individual, attention needs to be given to the development of stronger dyads, i.e., two-person groups of the employee and his boss. Such dyads are the basic units of working in the organisation. Besides several groups like committees, task groups, etc. also require attention. Development of such groups should be from the point of view of increasing collaboration amongst people working in the organisation, thus making for an effective decision-making. Finally, the entire department and the entire organisation also should be covered by development. Their development would involve developing a climate conducive for their effectiveness, developing self-renewing mechanisms in the organisations so that they are able to adjust and proact, and developing relevant processes which contribute to their effectiveness. Hence, the goals of the HRD systems are to develop:
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The capabilities of each employee as an individual. The capabilities of each individual in relation to his or her present role. The capabilities of each employee in relation to his or her expected future role(s). The dyadic relationship between each employee and his or her supervisor. The team spirit and functioning in every organisational unit (department, group, etc.). Collaboration among different units of the organisation. The organisation’s overall health and self-renewing capabilities which, in turn, increase the enabling capabilities of individuals, dyads, teams, and the entire organisation.
Such a concept of development will focus on the different units available in the organisation for different purposes. The individual and his role are important units for some purposes. For others, groups, departments and the entire organisation are more relevant units. The concept of development should therefore cover all such possible units. Development in this sense becomes a massive effort. While training may play the major role in designing and monitoring development efforts in the organisation, other parts of the organisation have to share in such an effort. In fact, the person, or the groups for whom the efforts of development are made, is also a partner in this process of development. The four partners or agents of development can be identified as: (a) the person or role, (b) the immediate boss of the person, (c) the human resource management department, and (d) the organisation. The various foci and the four agents of development are shown in Exhibit 1.
Human Resource Development
Exhibit 1 The Development Dimensions of the Personnel Function 1) Analysing the Role a) Task analysis b) Key performance areas c) Critical attributes d) Job evaluation Matching the Role and the Person a) Selection/recruitment b) Placement c) Potential appraisal d) Promotion e) Career Development, career and succession planning Developing the Persons in the Role a) Performance appraisal b) Feedback and counselling c) Mentoring d) Career development e) Training Developing the Role for the Person a) Job rotation b) Job enrichment/ redesigning c) Role effectiveness and efficacy Developing Equitability a) Management of salary and amenities b) Management of incentives and rewards c) Standardising and administering procedures Developing Self-renewing Capability a) Communication b) Organisation development c) Organisational learning d) Developing culture and climate Coping with Collective Power
1) Analysing the Role One of the main aspects of HRM is to analyse the role in terms of responsibilities or key functions/ performance areas of the role, and the competencies required to perform the role effectively. 2) Matching the Role and the Person Once the organisation is clear about the dimensions of the roles or the jobs, it tries to get the best people for these jobs. After people are recruited they are put in different places. Recruitment and placement are important aspects of HRM. Placement is useful for giving varied experiences to people being recruited. Another aspect of matching role and person is reflected in potential appraisal, finding out who has potential to match the requirement of the job. Unit 10 deals with potential appraisal. Obviously, the next step is promotion of people by placing them in appropriate roles for which the organization is searching people. Promotion is only one part of longterm and succession planning.
3. Developing the Persons in the Role Individuals develop not only through training, but, and in fact more through effective supervision, by helping them to understand their strengths so that they can leverage them for better performance. Similarly, they are helped to find out in what they have to be more effective in their jobs. Performance appraisal is not complete unless the performance is properly reviewed and feedback is given, and people are helped to understand their strengths and weaknesses. We are discussing this aspect in Unit 14 in this block, along with performance coaching or counseling. It is also important to give opportunity to young and bright persons to deal with their problems; such help is provided generally by senior persons who are not necessarily related in job with the person seeking help. This process of mentoring is also discussed in Unit 14 of this block. One important aspect relating to employee development, but unfortunately not adequately dealt with, is training. Unit 13, devoted to this important aspect in this block. 4) Developing the Role for the Person Very little attention has been given to role, although job rotation is being practiced in most of the organizations, and some organisations have also tried out job enrichment based on Herzberg’s concept of motivators. Unit 15 discusses development of roles, including role effectiveness and role efficacy. Traditionally HR function has given attention to individual employees and teams have been generally neglected. It is evident now that most of the work is done by teams, and team effectiveness is important for all organizations. We have devoted sufficient attention to this aspect in Unit 15 of the block. 5) Developing Equitability Satisfaction level of employees depends to a great extent on their perceived justice being done to them without any discretion, as reflected in practices like management of compensation, rewards, and various amenities. People have high performance and develop competencies only if these are rewarded by the organisation. Reward does not mean financial reward only, many rewards may be non-financial also. Equitability can also be developed by standardising administrative procedures, so that people do not have any feelings that decisions are subjective. 6) Developing Self-renewing Capability An organisation should be concerned not only with its growth, but also with its health. It needs to diagnose its problems from time-to-time and take steps to develop new competencies to cope with the various problems and challenges it would be facing. This can be done through action research that is concerned with development of competencies through effective teams to diagnose the problems and initiate the process of collaborative work to deal with such problems. In Organisation Development (OD), the focus is on developing process competency to increase organisation effectiveness. OD aims at maintaining profiles of organisational health, monitoring organisational health, assisting sick departments, helping interested units and departments in self-renewal, conflict management, creation of strong teams and so on, and establishing processes that build a climate to promote enabling capabilities in the organisation. OD in the earlier years, mainly in the 1960s (and partly in the 1970s) was team/group-based. Most of the OD interventions in organisations started with deep process work beginning at the top level. OD has now widened considerably, it is no more confined to managers, it has been attempted with workers also. Attention has also been given to organisationaI learning, to develop the competence of an organisation to analyse its experience and learn from it. This has been discussed in Unit 13. The third aspect of self-renewal is research orientation in
Human Resource Development System
Human Resource Development
HRD, which means consciously and continually collecting data in order to understand the various issues, and designing on-going interventions based on such data. For example, data were collected. and used effectively in L&T on the working of the appraisal system including counselling. Such data can help to improve implementation of the appraisal system. HRD related research is important, it helps in analysing data and information generated by the HRD sub-systems. HRD in L&T has already established the orientation and several other organisations are in the process of introducing such “Research-orientation”. For example, data related to HRD are being systematically analysed in Eicher on a regular basis. Communication and development of culture, two often neglected aspects, are discussed in some details below: Communication: Many organisations have paid attention to communication. Over the years, some innovative and successful practices have been evolved in a number of Indian organisations. For example, in BHEL (Bhopal Unit), Management Employees Communication Meetings (MECOMs) have been effectively used. A MECOM as an open forum, in which more than 700 persons participate. It has contributed to mutual sharing of information and concerns and better understanding between management and employees. It has helped in effective implementation of decisions. Establishing this system was not easy: a great deal of OD work had to be done prior to and during the evolution of MECOM. In Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) the Chairman keeps communication with his employees by answering every letter that is addressed to him (some 80,000 in a year) and has an open house at his residence between 7 and 9 every morning where anyone can walk in and discuss personal or work-related problems. He also holds dialogues with large groups, sometimes consisting of as many as 2500 persons. A very systematic attention has been paid to communication in VSAT Industries (including regular business-related communication with the union) with great benefits Communication ensures the flow of goal-oriented information and messages between different individuals and groups. in all directions, to help them perform their roles more effectively. Communication minimizes distortion of information (studies have shown that in downward communication the information loss in terms of original messages is about 40 per cent by the time it reaches GMs. 60 per cent by the time plant managers receive it. 70 per cent by the time general foremen get it, and the loss is as high as 80 per cent by the time it reaches the worker). Communication also minimises hierarchical and psychological distance and maximises collaboration amongst individuals and teams in an organisation. More specifically, the following are the objectives of communication in an organisation: information sharing, feed- back, control, influence, problem solving, decision making, facilitating change, and facilitating group development. There are mainly four directions of organizational communication: i) Downward communication: The following types of communications are suggested along with some mechanisms: a) Diffusion of routine information: This can be better done through circulars, bulletin boards and so on.
b) Diffusion of procedural information: This can be done by circulars, especially prepared notebooks and manuals. c) Socialisation: As already suggested, socialisation of individuals in the value system of the company should be done through induction booklets, special programmes, and meetings. Sharing of information from higher levels with the employees may also help employees to feel they are a part of the organisation.
d) Job-related information: This needs to be done by interpersonal communication between the job holder and his reporting officer. e) Feedback on individual performance: The most effective way of this communication is the appraisal review and coaching meetings held on the basis of performance appraisal results.
Human Resource Development System
(f) Employee development: Employee development is done through dyadic communication, based on trust between a manager and his employee, training programmes. and group meetings. A more effective communication for development is by the model set by senior managers. ii) Upward communication: Upward communication is as necessary as downward communication. There are several purposes for such communication. These are suggested below, along with possible mechanisms of developing them. a) Management control: Use of management information ensuring regular flow of information helps in achieving effective management control.
b) Feedback: Feedback from lower levels to higher levels is very useful. Such feedback can be provided by use of special questionnaires and interviews. Exit interviews conducted when people are leaving the organization are used for feedback on important aspects which the people at higher level must know. c) Problem solving and involvement: The effective mechanism for solving person related problems of lower level management by the higher levels are grievance procedures and periodical meetings called by the higher level management. Another good method which may help the people at lower levels in the organisation to participate in problem solving is a suggestion scheme, which however, needs to be well designed, properly executed, and periodically reviewed to save it from becoming ritualistic. A small Task Force may be constituted to prepare a scheme, and monitor it for sometime. Periodical meetings allowing all employees to express their feelings and give feedback. to the management, to help them to take follow up action on problems has been found to be useful in some organisations. VST Industries have introduced the scheme in a planned way (Vidyasagar , in NHN, 1989: 150).
iii) Horizontal communication: Communication across business groups, regions and units is very important to develop collaboration and reduce bureaucratisation. The following tasks can be achieved, with different mechanisms as suggested below: a) Experience sharing: Functional group meetings (like those of Finance, HRD, R&D, EDP people and others) from different business groups, along with other relevant people from the cor- porate departments may be helpful.
b) Problem solving: Participation of people from different business groups in solving common problems can be achieved by setting up a special Task Force (group to work out details and, in many cases, to implement action plans) and a Problem Clinic (group to diagnose problems and suggest alternative solutions, using special techniques of diagnosis). c) Coordination: Standing committees are meant to make coordination more effective.
iv) External communication: Communication with external agencies, like current and potential customers, government agencies. competitors and potential collaborators, resource providers (banks and financial institutions) is very important, but often gets little attention. The following purposes can be served by the suggested mechanisms:
Human Resource Development
Image building: Annual reports, balance sheets, brochures. advertisements and the like are important mechanisms, deserving detailed planning in terms of form and content. Participation of Company Executives in professional bodies like Management Associations, Chambers of Commerce SubCommittees also help significantly. b) Credibility building: Balance Sheet and correspondence (prompt, purposive, and precise) contribute to the credibility of the company. c) Influencing: An organisation should not shy away from its role of influencing policies and decisions in the concerned industries and other forums. Well-prepared dialogue by the top management and participation in conferences and forums must receive the attention they deserve. One general weakness of Indian companies is the lack of expertise and seriousness in influencing external agencies. One of the most important roles of Corporate Management is to develop an aggressive (in the positive sense) posture and competence to deal with critical issues. This ability has been amply demonstrated by many organisations. Organisational Culture: Culture has remained the most neglected part of HRD, but has attracted some attention in the last few years. Interest in culture has been aroused by the examples of Japanese successes. Some organisations in India have adopted Japanese practices, notable among them being Maruti Udyog and Sundaram Clayton. Maruti Udyog adopted some practices because of the positive pressure of Suzuki. These practices are a 7 hours 45 minutes shift, zero-defect production, cost cutting, and discipline. This helped in the development of a new organisational culture. Organisational culture can be defined as cumulative ways of thinking and behaving which the values, attitudes, rituals, and sanctions in an organisation shape. Operationally, development of culture would involve developing a strong corporate identity, development of important values, building healthy traditions and developing consistent management practices. Cultural systems are concerned with development of appropriate organisational culture. Creating conducing organisational climate. Improving communication and evolving effective reward systems. It is to be noted that whatever is rewarded in an organisation gets reinforced. Therefore, a reward system (including incentives) both for individuals and teams deserves careful attention. Rewards can facilitate and promote good work but if not designed properly, can do a great deal of harm to the organisation. Systematic attention has been given to the reward systems in the construction group of L&T, where a need-based system was evolved. Organisational climate is another concept close to culture that has received attention in recent years. Different approaches have been adopted to create a climate conducive to work. An instrument for assessing appropriate HRD climate has been developed and used in many organisations and some instruments to measure ethos and, atmosphere are available. Development of appropriate culture has attracted a great deal of academic attention in the past few years. Some companies have paid deliberate attention to developing an appropriate culture (viz. C-Dot, Modi Xerox, Sundaram Clayton, Eicher). Some have made attempts to improve their cultures (viz. Procter and Gamble, Ballarpur Industries Ltd., Indian Farmers’ Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO). Development of culture takes a long time and involves complex processes. The following aspects deserve attention in this regard. a) Strong Corporate Identity: The sense of identity with the organisation develops when the employees have a sense of belonging, and they feel proud to belong to the organisation. Identity develops as a result of interaction of the employees with the organisation. The following action ideas help in developing strong corporate identity.
Developing an attractive booklet, giving basic information about the company. Indo-Burma Petroleum Company (IBP Co.) and several other organisations have developed good induction material. ii) Films on success experiences in organisations, if shown on special occasions, may help build corporate identity. “Manthan” directed by Shyam Benegal for NDDB is a good example of such a film. By inviting suggestions from the key divisions of an organisation, the HRD Department can prepare a list of such video films to be developed. iii) Company newsletters giving information about business development and significant information about the employees are being published by many organisations. iv) Mobility of people (corporate field, division-unit, inter-division) has been used among other things for the development of organisational identity. b) Developing Important Values: Values related to organisationaI culture, such as values of excellence and human consideration do not develop through mere didactic exercises like lectures, talks, or writing, but by demonstrating these values in action by the key role holders. The following practices have helped the development of relevant values. i) Survey feedback of values, in particular, feedback on the gap between “espoused values” and “values in action” as reflected in the management practices. Seminars can be held at different levels to deal with the data generated on these gaps. ii) Special value-orientation programmes in developing appropriate values, in which, instead of teaching what values are good, the programme helps participants to examine the relevance and functionality of certain values and openly questions and discusses the desirable value system and the one that they see in action. Such programs on value clarification help people to internalise values by stating their own values without hesitation, by examining openly and frankly the desirability of a different value system, and also by developing specific ideas of practicing such values in the workplace. iii) Examining the various operating systems in the organisation. As for example, a content analysis of the budgetary, MIS, appraisal, promotion, career planning and rewards system can indicate what values they reinforce. The concerned groups can then examine the data for insight and development of appropriate action plan(s). iv) Special OD intervention in developing collaboration and concern for excellence may help in anchoring appropriate value orientation through such exercises as team building, achievement and extension motivation programmes and so on. c) Building Healthy Traditions and Practices: Traditions in an organisation are built on the basis of important rituals. Rituals or celebrations associated with the transition of people from one state to another are important avenues for identifying a culture. In Indian society for example, about 16 rituals are associated with transition from one phase of life to another. These rituals do contribute to the development of social, and family traditions. Attention should be given to the identification of functional rituals within the organisation. Some interesting practices have already been found useful in some companies. i) Induction programme for new entrants help the employees to develop a sense of belonging. Detailed planning is needed to help them develop pride and joy in becoming a member of the company that will reinforce the sense of belonging and identification with the company. Sundaram Clayton’s “acculturation workshops” for new entrants are very well designed and exemplary.
Human Resource Development System
Human Resource Development
ii) Promotions need to be treated as an important event of transition of a person from one stage to another. Instead of only written communication of promotion, a face-to-face conversation with the concerned chief may be useful, before it is communicated in writing; the information of promotion is shared with the concerned employee along with its implications. iii) Rituals associated with Old age and retirement of people should also receive due attention from the HRD wing. The Malayala Manorama group has evolved some rituals associated with an employee’s death and old age. For example, “senior members” (employees having completed certain years of service) are taken free on a Bharat darshan trip along with their spouses. (“senior couples”’). iv) The exceptional behaviour of an employee in helping the organisation or in solving different problems and so on, must be recognised. rewarded and made visible. This may help to develop the tradition of indulging in such behaviour more frequently. People find reasons to repeat a behaviour that is rewarded, and thereby, they are reinforced by the organisation. A behaviour repeated by one is internalised over a period of time, and these internalise materials in the collective sense from a sub-culture and eventually integrate with the culture in the organisation. v) Celebrations of incidents significant to individual employees and the organisation are important. Some interesting experiences in some organisations have shown that these may help not only to develop a strong organisational identification and thereby contribute to culture, but may also make organisations more akin to the Indian culture in a broader sense. Following are two such examples. Petrofils, a successful and fast expanding company in the joint sector has been using rituals involving the top management, the employees, and their families. For instance, record breaking performances are celebrated by rewarding everyone in the company, so as to symbolise the contribution of all the employees. Transition from one productive year to the next is marked by a committee of employees selecting a gift for everyone. For example, in 1985 a new record for sales was set when a profit of Rs.36 crores on an investment of Rs. 67 crores was made. That year everyone took home a mixer-grinder. A number of such rituals are being designed, and care is taken to ensure that they remain meaningful and do not degenerate into mechanistic rituals. Another interesting ritual is the celebration of birthdays in the Board room for all employees, from the Chairman to the Khalasi (helper), to strengthen the feeling of the company being a family. Everyone is given a gift worth Rs.51 and the item for the year is selected by a group of about 40 employees. Steel Tubes of India (STI) has evolved a governance-system suited to the Indian culture, consisting of joint committees (representatives of management and workers, elected by the entire work force) and Jan Sabha (representing elected members, departmental councils, best workers awarded during the past seven years, employees with over 20 years service, senior managers, departmental heads and directors of the company). 7) Coping with Collective Power Traditionally industrial relations have been dealt in the framework of Industrial and labour laws. Unions and associations of employees use collective power to bargain with the organizations. Although this aspect is undergoing a lot of change, it is still very important, and a whole block has been devoted to various aspects of workers and related issues.
Activity A Consider the development dimensions in above section and describe how do these HRD functions are carried out in your organisation. ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................
Human Resource Development System
12.5 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM
The combination of the four foci of HRD ( Individuals, Dyades, Collectives, and Organisation) with four agents of HRD (Self, Immediate boss, HR department, and Organisations) gives the HRD systems. In matrix representing the HRD system is given in Exhibit 2 . As will be seen, the elements in the cells are the various development aspects discussed above. HRD system caters to all human resource units of the organizations, and all concerned are involved in running the system.
Exhibit 2 : Matrix of Human Resource Development * Agents of the HRD Process Foci of HRD Person (Self) The Individual Goal setting Performance analysis Performance improvement Work humanisation Education Coping Advancement The Dyad (employee-boss) Trust Mutuality Helping The Collectives (teams) Effectiveness Collaboration Department/Organisation Climate Self-renewing Process Immediate boss Personnel or HRD Dept. Organisation
1a, 3a 3a, 3b 3a 1a — — — 3b 3b 3b
1a, 3a 3b 3b 1a — 3b 3b 3b 3b 3b
3a, 3e 3e 3e 4b 3a — 3d, 1b, 1c, 3e 6 6 6 6, 7 6, 7
1a — 4a, 5b 4b, 4c 4a 4c 1c, 2b, 2c, 3c, 3d, 4a 6 6 6 6, 7 6, 7 5a, 5b, 5c 7
* The numbers in the cells refer to the various development dimensions given in Exhibit 1
Human Resource Development
Activity B Study the above exhibit and develop a similar matrix for your organisation showing linkages of various development dimensions. ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................
12.6 PRINCIPLES IN DESIGNING HRD SYESTEM
Of course, HRD systems must be designed differently for different organisations. Although the basic principles may remain the same, the specific components, their relationships, the processes involved in each, the phasing, and so on, may differ from organisation to organisation. Designing in integrated HRD systems requires a thorough understanding of the principles and models of human resource development and a diagnosis of the organisation culture, existing HRD practices in the organisation, employee perceptions of these practices, and the developmental climate within the organisation. The following principles related to focus, structure, and functioning should be considered when designing integrated HRD systems.
Focus of the System
a) Focus on enabling capabilities: The primary purpose of HRD is to help the organisation to increase its “enabling” capabilities. These include development of human resources, development of organisational health, improvement of problem solving capabilities, development of diagnostic ability (so that problems can be located quickly and effectively), and increased employee productivity and commitment. b) Balancing adaptation and change in the organisational culture: Although HRD systems are designed to suit the organisational culture, the role of HRD may be to modify that culture to increase the effectiveness of the organisation. There always has been a controversy between those who believe that HRD should be designed to suit the culture and those who believe that HRD should be able to change the culture. Both positions seem to be extreme. HRD should take the organisation forward, and this can be done only if its design anticipates change and evolution in the future. c) Attention to contextual factors: What is to be included in the HRD systems, how is it to be sub-divided, what designations and titles will be used, and similar issues should be settled after consideration of the various contextual factors of the organisation—its culture and tradition, size, technology, levels of existing skills, available support for the function, availability of outside help and so on. d) Building linkages with other functions: Human resource development systems should be designed to strengthen other functions in the company such as long-range corporate planning, budgeting and finance, marketing, production, and other similar functions. These linkages are extremely important. e) Balancing specialisation and diffusion of the function: Although HRD involves specialised functions, line people should be involved in various aspects of HRD. Action is the sole responsibility of the line people, and HRD should strengthen their roles.
Structure of the System
a) Establishing the identity of HRD: It is important that the distinct identity of HRD be recognised. The person in charge of HRD should have responsibility for this function exclusively and should not be expected to do it in addition to any other function. Multiple responsibilites produce several kinds of conflict. This person should report directly to the chief executive of the organisation. b) Ensuring respectability for the function: In many companies, the personnel function does not have much credibility because it is not perceived as a major function within the organisation. It is necessary that HRD be instituted at a very high level in the organisation and that the head of the HRD department be classified as a senior manager. Both the credibility and usefulness of HRD depend on this. c) Balancing differentiation and integration: The human resource development function often includes personnel administration, human resource development and training, and industrial relations. These three functions have distinct identities and requirements and should be differentiated witin the HRD department. One person may be responsible for OD, another for training, another for potential appraisal and assessment, etc. At the same time, these roles should be integrated through a variety of mechanisms. For example, inputs from manpower planning should be available to line managers for career planning and HRD units for potential appraisal and development. Data from recruitment should be fed into the human resources information system. If salary administration and placement are handled separately, they should be linked to performance appraisals. Differentiation as well as integration mechanisms are essential if the HRD system is to function well. d) Establishing linkage mechanisms: HRD has linkages with outside systems as well as with internal sub-systems. It is wise to establish specific linkages to be used to manage the system. Standing committees for various purposes (with membership from various parts and levels of the organisation), task groups, and ad hoc committees for specific tasks are useful mechanisms. e) Developing monitoring mechanisms: The HRD function is always evolving. It therefore requires systematic monitoring to review the progress and level of effectiveness of the system and to plan for its next step. A thorough annual review reappraisal every three years will be invaluable in reviewing and planning the system. It may be helpful to include persons from other functions in the organisation in the HRD assessment effort.
Human Resource Development System
Functioning of the System
a) Building feedback and reinforcing mechanisms: The various sub-systems within HRD should provide feedback to one another. Systematic feedback loops should be designed for this purpose. For example, performance and potential appraisals provide necessary information for training and OD, and OD programmes provide information for work redesign. b) Balancing quantitative and qualitative decisions: Many aspects of HRD, such as performance and potential appraisals, are difficult to quantify. Of course attempts should be made to quantify many variables and to design computer storage of various types of information, but qualitative and insightful decisions are also necessary and desirable. For example, in considering people for promotions, quantitative data are necessary inputs, but other factors must also be taken into consideration. Thus a balance between the mechanical and the human factors is necessary. c) Balancing internal and external expertise: A human resource development system requires the development of internal expertise and resources, specifically in content areas that are used frequently within the organisation. For expertise that is
Human Resource Development
required only occasionally, the use of external resources or consultants may be the most feasible. It is necessary to plan for an economical and workable balance between the two. It is preferable to use internal personnel to conduct training; however, an organisation that uses only in-house expertise may not benefit from new thinking in the field. On the other hand, a company that relies solely on external HRD help does not develop the internal resources that are necessary for effective functioning. d) Planning for the evolution of HRD: Various aspects of HRD can be introduced into the organisation in stages, depending on its needs, size and level of sophistication. Some aspects may require a great deal of preparation. Rushing the introduction of an aspect of HRD may limit its effectiveness. Each stage should be planned carefully, with sequenced phases built one over the other. This may include: i) Geographical phasing introducing the system in a few parts of the organisation and slowly spreading it to other parts. This may be necessary in a large or widely located organisation. ii) Vertical phasing introducing the system at one or a few levels in the organisation and expanding up or down gradually. iii) Functional phasing introducing one function or sub-system, followed by other functions. For example, introducing job specifications (identification of critical attributes of jobs) before introducing a complete potential-appraisal system. iv) Sophistication phasing introducing simple forms of sub-systems, followed after some time by more sophisticated forms.
12.7 CHANGING BOUNDARIES OF HRD
Over time there have been many changes in the HR function. Slowly the term Personnel Function has been replaced with the term Human Resource or HR Function, and Personnel departments and Personnel Managers have been re-designated as Human Resource Departments or Human Resources Managers. The status of the HR function got very much uplifted across the world, and particularly in India. Lifting up the HR function to the Director level in the corporations, and representation of HR Directors on the Board are two significant indicators of the recognition of people as a resource and partners in business. This is what was envisaged in some ways when the first HRD department was designed in Larsen & Toubro in mid-seventies. The HR function also got expanded to include some new initiatives in a few organisations. Some of the new roles the HR functionaries started performing in the last decade include the following. Most of these relate to human resource development. 1) 2) 3) 4) Reorganisation and restructuring, including downsizing, rightsizing, flattening the structure, outsourcing etc.; Managing mergers and acquisitions by changing HR policies, realigning and redrafting HR policies and practices; Initiating and managing quality initiatives, including quality circles, small group activities, ISO certification etc.; Conducting a variety of surveys, including climate surveys, employee satisfaction surveys, internal customer satisfaction surveys, and bench marking with competitors and others globally; Restructuring salary and reward systems through compensation surveys, introduction of stock options, performance-linked pay or pay-for-performance, compensation planning etc.; Enhanced emphasis on recruitment or placement. With the recognition of the need for competent people, the new economy industries like the IT, Telecom, Financial services, Insurance, BPO organisations (call centres) have further increased their focus on recruitment and outsourcing of recruitment;
Introducing new technologies of training, including e-learning, on-line education, distance learning, off campus learning, web based learning and use of other technologies for learning; Starting of Corporate Universities and in-house training institutions and academies to encourage continuous education programmes and competency building; Introduction of 360 Degree Feedback, including using it for leadership development, evolving leadership models that fit into the company culture and take care of the unique needs of the company, and exploring it as an individual as well as performance development tools, experimenting with 360 degree feedback by linking with reward systems;
Human Resource Development System
10) Use of Assessment Centres or Development centres for identifying, developing and promoting talented individuals, starting of fast track systems, identification of high potential employees and designing retention strategies; 11) Increased emphasis on mentoring and coaching; 12) Increased emphasis on training of all employees, particularly operators, workmen etc., through multi-skilling, etc., 13) Emphasis on leadership and leadership development at all levels; and 14) Participation in strategic thinking, business planning, mergers, acquisitions etc. 15) Improving quality of work life. This has been has been brought into focus by the IT industry where the environment becomes a critical factor in effective functioning of knowledge workers. All these new developments of the last decade are in the direction of making HR,more specifically HRD, a strategic business partner. Recently HR team from one company in India suggested seven ways of making HR a business partner (See Exhibit 3). Exhibit 3: Making HR a Business Partner 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Train HR people in business to get a holistic business perspectives Get involved in larger organisational issues and handle coordination at that level Align HR strategies with business strategies Keep in mind business strategy while designing training programmes Convene business strategies forums, hold strategic discuss meetings, and prepare discussion paper Initiate process of discussion on strategy formulation from the front-line upward Help in searching state of the art practices to discuss with the business team.
Source: HR Group of Turner-Morrsion, July, 1998. These new functions fall into one or more of the categories of the HRD system, shown in Exhibit 2. The classification suggested earlier is only indicative. Organisation can structure their function the way that suits their requirements. The principles remain the same. The boundary gets extended to participation in strategy and business planning (including planning of mergers, acquisitions, expansions, consolidations etc.). The HRD systems model is broad enough to include the new roles of HR managers. Researches have shown that effective firms adopt some of the following HR practices:
Financial incentives for excellent performance Practices that motivate employee effort and capture the benefits of knowhow and skill
Human Resource Development
l l l l l l l l l l l l l
Rigorous selection and selectivity in recruiting Higher than average wages Plans of employee share of ownership Extensive information sharing Decentralisation of decision-making and empowerment Self-managing teams High investment in training and skill development Having people do multiple jobs and job-rotation Elimination of status symbols A more compressed distribution of salaries across and within levels Promotion from within Long-term perspective Measurement of HR practices and policy implementation
Today every successful organisation pays adequate attention to their HRD functions. To obtain full benefits of HRD, it should be introduced as a system and should be updated to keep track with the changing boundaries. If implemented, properly, integrated HRD systems can contribute significantly to positive cultural changes, increased productivity and excellence in organisation.
12.9 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
1) 2) Describe the concept of HRD and its need in present industrial scenario. Write short notes on: a) Communiction b) Developing equitability c) Coping with collective power 3) 4) 5) Discuss how organisational culture can be developed. What are the principles in designing a HRD system? Write an overview of the changing boundaries of HRD.
Pareek, V. and Rao, T.V. (1981). Designing and Managing Human Resource Systems, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi. Rao, T.V. and Pereira, D.F. (1986). Recent Experiences in Human Resource Development, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi. Ulrich, D. (1997). Human Resource Champions , Harvard Business School Press. Kaplan, R. (1992). “Balance Score Card”, Harvard Business Review, January-February. Pfeffer (1994). Competitive Advantage through People, Harvard Business School Press. Tripathi, P.C. (2003). Human Resource Development, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.
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