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Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

UNIT 9

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES AND ROAD FURNITURE


( Part 1 )

OBJECTIVES
General Objective To understand the general information of traffic control device and road furniture. Specific Objectives At the end of the unit you should be able to : state the type of traffic control devices.. identify the meaning of the symbol and color is used. describe the characteristic of traffic devices.

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

INPUT TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES TRAFFIC SIGN & ROAD MARK


9.0 INTRODUCTION Before highway is opened to traffic, careful thought must be given to conveying to drivers information concerning its proper use. Such information is given traffic control devices. Engineer must also recognize that despite their best efforts to promote well-designed traffic control systems, vehicles will occasionally go out of control and possibly crash. Every effort must be made to prevent traffic accident from occurring and, failing that, to minimize the injuries and economic losses from those crashes that do occur. Street and highway traffic constitutes a variety of road users desirous of moving at different speeds. This demand for moving according to individual desire leads to resistance to movement by others thereby creating accident hazards particularly in areas where there is no provision for segregation of traffic of different types or where directions of movement conflict with one another. To avoid this situation become worst, traffic control devices are needed to decrease the accident happen. In this unit, we will examine ways in which traffic engineers promote operation efficiency and safety through the use of traffic control devices and systems.

Highway Engineering 9.1

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES Traffic control devices should be reasonable and appropriate for

the traffic requirements at the location used. The use of a traffic control device at a location where it is not warranted tends to invite motorvehicle operators to disregard the device and to have less respect for traffic control devices in general. Traffic control devices should be properly designed. The size of the device, its shape, colors, contrast with the background, and lighting or re-flectorization should draw attention. The sign, marking, or signal should simply and forthrightly convey a clear and simple message. The use of uniform devices following the MUTCD ( Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices For street and Highway ) simplifies the driver's task of recognizing and understanding the traffic control messages and tends to increase the level of observance. The Government has adopted the following color code for traffic control devices.
Color Red Green Blue Yellow Black White Orange Brown Meaning Stop or prohibition Indicated movements permitted, direction guidance Motorist services guidance General warning Regulation Regulation Construction and maintenance warning Public recreation and scenic guidance

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Traffic control devices should be placed and operated in a uniform, consistent manner. In this way, motorists can be expected to properly respond to the devices on the basis of previous exposure to similar traffic situation. A control device should be placed within the user's cone of vision and in reasonable proximity to the point, object, or situation to which it applies. Its location and legibility should be such that a driver traveling at normal speed has enough time to respond appropriately. It is important that devices be maintained to high standards to ensure that legibility and visibility are retained. When no longer needed, traffic control devices should be removed. Traffic control devices are needed to control the traffic flow to effective system. The traffic control devices, which are usually employed for the controls of traffic is briefly discussed blow. 1. Traffic Sign. 2. Road Mark. 3. Delineator. 4. Road Stud.

9.2

PURPOSE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES Traffic control devices serve one or more of the following purposes; 1. Convenient for the user to reach the destination. 2. Safety of the traffic user. 3. To avoid traffic conflict in a very complex area. 4. Smoothness the process of traffic flow.

Highway Engineering 9.3

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

CHARACTERISTIC OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES In order to provide safe and efficient traffic flows, uniform standards

have been developed for the use of all public street and highway facilities. Traffic control devices include all signs, markings, and signals placed on or adjacent to street or highway by public agencies in order to regulate, warn, or guide traffic. If traffic control devices are to be effective, they should 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fulfill a need. Command attention. Convey a clear, simple meaning. Command respect of drivers and pedestrians. Be place so as to give users time for proper response.

9.4

TRAFFIC SIGNS There are three functional classes of traffic signs: 1. Mandatory signs 2. Prohibitory signs 3. Warning signs. 4. Informatory signs. 9.4.1 CLASSIFICATION TRAFFIC SIGNS 1. Mandatory signs Mandatory signs give users notice of traffic laws or regulations. Such signs, designate right-of-way (e.g., STOP), indicate speed control ( e.g., SPEED LIMIT 60 km/j, SPEED ZONE AHEAD), control movements ( e.g., NO RIGHT TURN, KEEP RIGHT, ONE WAY), regulate

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

parking (e.g., NO PARKING), control pedestrian movements (e.g., CROSS ONLY AT CROSS WALKS), and regulate traffic in various other ways. All mandatory signs are appearance circle and white symbol as background blue or another comfortable color. 2. Prohibitory signs Prohibitory signs showing to all drivers about matter which cannot they do. For example, no u-turn, no waiting and no unload, no parking and prohibitory weight especially for car, size car and height. This signs ordinary appearance circle shape. 3. Warning signs

Warning signs direct attention to conditions on or adjacent to a street or highway those are potentially hazardous to traffic operations. Such signs require motorists to exercise caution, reduce speed, or make some maneuver in the interest of their own safety or that of other motorists or pedestrians. Typical locations or situations that may warrant the use of warning sign include;

1. Intersections, entrances, and crossings. 2. Changes in horizontal alignment. 3. Grades. 4. Railroad crossings.

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

5. Narrow roadways. 6. Roadway surface Conditions. 7. Advance warning of control devices. Examples of warning signs are curve signs (showing curved arrow), STOP AHEAD signs, PAVEMENT ENDS signs, and advisory speed plates. The latter signs supplement other types of warning signs. Warning signs have a black legend and border placed on a yellow background. With but few exceptions, warning signs have a diamond shape. 4. Informatory signs Guide signs indicate route designations, directions, distances, point of interest, and other geographic or cultural information. Two types of guide signs (route markers and a destination sign) are illustrated by Figure below, Other examples of guide signs include JUNCTION signs, DETOUR signs, REST AREA signs, and service signs (FOOD, GAS, LODGING, etc ). Sign board like this normally provided with color blue as background and symbol or white which write by hand.

Highway Engineering 9.5 ROAD MARKING

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Road marking are definitely as lines, symbols, words, numbers or others material that painted or paste on the surface of the road. Different from the sign boards, road sign material giving the interminable to the vehicles guide. Markings consist of paint or some other material placed on the pavement, curb, or object to convey traffic regulations and warnings to drivers. Making may be used alone or in combination with traffic signs or signals. Although markings are an effective and essential means of traffic control, they tend to see in rainy weather and fair day. There are five general classes of markings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pavement marking. Curb markings. Object markings. Delineators. Colored pavement. The most common type of markings, pavement marking, include longitudinal and transverse line and words and symbols. By choice of color, width, and type of longitudinal marking, the traffic engineer is able to convey a variety of massages to drivers. Briefly stated, 1. 2. Broken lines are permissive in character; solid lines are White lines delineate separation of traffic flows in the same and

restrictive; double line indicate maximum restrictiveness. opposing direction; yellow lines delineate no parking area at the both side of road. 3. The width of the line indicates degree of emphasis.

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Transverse markings include pedestrian crosswalks, stop lines, and crosshatched to discourage use of shoulders or to identify object hazards. Curb markings are used for roadway delineation and for parking regulation. Color-coded markings may be used as a supplement to standard signs to indicate the type of parking regulation. 9.5.1 The Type Of Road Mark The types of the road mark are commonly used : 1. Middle line 2. Passage line 3. Double line 4. Arrow 5. Desist line 6. Pedestrian crossing line 7. Yellow line at side road 9.5.2 The Materials Of Road Mark The materials of road sign must be durable and light reflective properties. So normally used as road materials are : 1. Thermoplastic 2. Paint 3. Road studs/ cats eye Thermoplastic and paint are normally used in small town, thermoplastic and paint is used as middle line and passage line in a big city, it use as pedestrian crossing line and desist line.

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

ACTIVITY 9

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT

Question
1. Choose the correct meaning of the color code for traffic control devices as listed below. Color code Red Yellow White Blue Black Orange Brown Green Meaning
Indicated movements permitted, direction guidance Stop or prohibition Motorist services guidance Public recreation and scenic guidance Construction and maintenance warning Motorist services guidance Regulation Regulation

2. State five general classes of road markings:

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 9

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Answer
1. Color code Red Yellow White Blue Black Orange Brown Green Meaning
Indicated movements permitted, direction guidance Stop or prohibition Motorist services guidance Public recreation and scenic guidance Construction and maintenance warning General warning Regulation Regulation

2. There are five general classes of markings: 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Pavement marking. Curb markings. Object markings. Delineators. Colored pavement.

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Question
1. Describe briefly about the traffic control devices which are usually employed for the controlling the traffic. 2. State 4 purposes of the traffic control device. 3. Describe the following aspects: a. Prohibitory sign. b. Warning sign. c. Mandatory sign

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Answer
1. Traffic control devices should be reasonable and appropriate for the traffic requirements at the location used. The use of a traffic control device at a location where it is not warranted tends to invite motor-vehicle operators to disregard the device and to have less respect for traffic control devices in general. Traffic control devices should be properly designed. The size of the device, its shape, colors, contrast with the background, and lighting or reflectorization should draw attention. The sign, marking, or signal should simply and forthrightly convey a clear and simple message. The use of uniform devices following the MUTCD (Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices For street and Highway) simplifies the driver's task of recognizing and understanding the traffic control messages and tends to increase the level of observance. Traffic control devices should be placed and operated in a uniform, consistent manner. In this way, motorists can be expected to properly respond to the devices on the basis of previous exposure to similar traffic situation. A control device should be placed within the user's cone of vision and in reasonable proximity to the point, object, or situation to which it applies. Its location and legibility should be such that a driver traveling at normal speed has enough time to respond appropriately. It is important that devices be maintained to high standards to ensure that legibility and visibility are retained. When no longer needed, traffic control devices should be removed.

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Traffic control devices are needed to control the traffic flow to effective system. The traffic control devices, which are usually employed for the controls of traffic is briefly discussed blow. a. Traffic Sign. b. Road Mark. c. Delineator. d. Road Stud. 2. Traffic control devices serve one or more of the following purposes; a. Convenient for the user to reach the destination. b. Safety of the traffic user. c. To avoid traffic conflict in a very complex area. d. Smoothness the process of traffic flow. 3. Mandatory signs Mandatory signs give users notice of traffic laws or regulations. Such signs, designate right-of-way (e.g., STOP), indicate speed control ( e.g., SPEED LIMIT 60 km/j, SPEED ZONE AHEAD), control movements ( e.g., NO RIGHT TURN, KEEP RIGHT, ONE WAY), regulate parking (e.g., NO PARKING), control pedestrian movements (e.g., CROSS ONLY AT CROSS WALKS), and regulate traffic in various other ways. All mandatory signs are appearance circle and white symbol as background blue or another comfortable color. Prohibitory signs

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

Prohibitory signs showing to all drivers about matter which cannot they do. For example, no u-turn, no waiting and no unload, no parking and prohibitory weight especially for car, size car and height. This signs ordinary appearance circle shape. Warning signs

Warning signs direct attention to conditions on or adjacent to a street or highway those are potentially hazardous to traffic operations. Such signs require motorists to exercise caution, reduce speed, or make some maneuver in the interest of their own safety or that of other motorists or pedestrians. Typical locations or situations that may warrant the use of warning sign include;

1. Intersections, entrances, and crossings. 2. Changes in horizontal alignment. 3. Grades. 4. Railroad crossings. 5. Narrow roadways. 6. Roadway surface Conditions. 7. Advance warning of control devices. Examples of warning signs are curve signs (showing curved arrow), STOP AHEAD signs, PAVEMENT ENDS signs, and advisory speed plates. The latter signs supplement other types of warning signs. Warning signs have a black legend and border placed on a yellow

Highway Engineering

Traffic Control Devices and Road Furniture

C3010 / UNIT

background. With but few exceptions, warning signs have a diamond shape.