NSLI OF AND

-

CARPENTRY EDWIN W. FOSTER

r

l

THE CHILDREN'S LIBRARY OF WORK AND PLAY
Carpentry and Woodwork. By Edwin W. Foster
Electrictty and Its Everyday Uses By John F. Woodhull, Ph.D.

Gardening and Farming By Ellen Eddy Shaw

Home Decoration By Charles
HoUSEKEEPING

Franklin Warner, Sc.D.

By

Elizabeth Haie Gilman.

Mechanics, Indoors and Out By Fred T. Hodgson.

Needlecraft

By

Effie

Archer Archer

Outdoor Sports, and Games

By Claude H.

Miller, Ph.B.

Outdoor Work By Mary Rogers

Miller

Working in Metals By Charles Conrad

Sleffel.

M

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDIXAVIAN

COPYRIGHT, igil, BV DOUBLEDAY. PAGE & COMPANY

€"CLA2925G9

PREFACE
There
is

a period in a boy's
of ten

life,

roughly speaking

between the ages
terests

and

sixteen,

when

his in-

and energy turn
It

in the direction of

things.

may
of us

be called
it

making the creative period, and

with

many

ends nearer sixty than sixteen.
take the form of a mania for
it

At one time
aeroplanes.

it will

building boats;

again

may

be automobiles or

The boy

is

very susceptible to Suggestion.

A

great automobile race occurs,

and

for

weeks the

building and racing of toy automobiles goes on apace.

The papers

are filled with accounts of an aero meet.

Immediately the boy's energy turns to the study

and manufacture

of aeroplanes.
is

This abounding
perfectly

interest in the real things of life

normal
to be

and should be encouraged rather than discouraged;
but the boy needs guidance,
properly directed.
if

this

energy

is

He
in his

needs strengthening in his

weak

points, otherwise he

may become
fail

superficial

and "scattering"
a thing
until,

work, and
all

to stick to

overcoming

obstacles,

he succeeds

in doing the

one thing he set out to do.

He may

w-m'SH

PREFACE
acquire the bad habit of never finishing anything,

though continually starting new schemes.

The
general

ability of the average

boy

is

far

beyond the
is

estimate,

but

intelligent
is

supervision

needed.

The pocket

knife

his natural tool, yet
its possibili-

not one boy out of a thousand realizes
ties.

An

attempt has been niade

in this

volume to

suggest some of these, especially for boys living in

the city, where a
tunately,
is

little

work shop

for himself , unfor-

too often a luxury.
a composite

The two boys here depicted form

picture of several thousand American boys

whom

it

has been the pleasure of the author to guide.

The

ability to design

new

things,

and to adapt
is

general rules to personal requirements,

to

be

encouraged at
exemplified
in

all

times,

and

this

idea has been

the

following

pages.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

Introductory

3
Its
Possibilities

II.

The Knife and
periments

— First
.

Ex6

III.

Mechanical Drawing
Mechanical Drawing (Continued)
.
.

23
31

IV.

V.
VI.

Toys

40

Moving Toys
Designing Moving Toys

50
58
68
75

VII.
VIII.

The Model Aeroplane

IX.

The Monoplane
Kites

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

84
.
. . .

Chip Carving and Knife Work Chip Carving (Continued) Chip Carving (Continued)

97
109

120 123

XIV.

The Shop
The Equipment
Building a
Mills and
for a

XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.

Shop

143

Lumber Rack
Weather Vanes

150

157
169

XIX.

— Saws Tools — Planes
Tools

176
185

XX.
XXI.
XXII.

Squaring up Stock

Boring Tools
Miscellaneous Tools

193
199

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE

XXIII.

Making Nail Boxes
Bird Houses

:

206
213
.

XXIV.

XXV.
XXVI. XXVII.
XXVIII.

Simple Articles for Household Use

.221
.

The Mitre Box and
Making
Toilet Boxes

Picture

Frame

.

228
235

Brackets and Book Racks
Construction

....
...

242 250

XXIX.

XXX. The
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.

Use

of the

Gouge

258
266

Coat Hanger and Towel Rollers
Clock Cases

276
291

Foot Stools

XXXIV.

The Tabourette
Dovetail Joint
Inlaying

301

XXXV. The
XXXVI.

313
319 332

XXXVH.
XXXVIII.

The Checkerboard
Tool Cases and Chests

339
.

XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
XLII.
XLIII.

Book Cases and Magazine Racks

.347
354
361

The Medicine Cabinet
Mission
Furniture

The Chest
The Drawing
Outfit

377
381

XLIV.

Woodwork
nis

Outdoor Sports The TenCourt, Tennis Court Accessories
for
.

399 425
441 451

XLV.
XLVI.
XLVII.
XLVIII.

The Pergola
Poultry Houses

Housing

of

Outdoor Pets

Outdoor Carpentry
Staining, Polishing,

457

XLIX.

and Finishing.

.

.

481

CONTENTS
CHAPTEÄ

PAGE

L.

Durability.

Decay
of
1

and

Preservation

of

Wood
LI.

.

492

Mathematics

Woodwork

498
510 517
524

LH.
IUI.
LIV.

Lumber No.
Lumber No.
Lumber No.

Lumber No. 2
3
4

LV.
LVI.

532
543

Broad-leaved Trees
Trees with Simple Leaves

LVIL

556

d Hf#

ILLUSTRATIONS
The Shop

— The
his

Most

Interesting Place in the
. .

World on a Stormy Day

Frontispiece
FACING PAGE

The Boy and

Jack Knife

8^
118 146

ITsing the Veining Tool

/

Using the Jack Plane
Learning to Use the Crosscut

Saw

170
178

Tools of the Seventeenth Century

The Correct

Way

to

Hold the Chisel
.

208 v

Assembling and Finishing
Staining and Polishing

374^
484 v

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

INTRODUCTORY

TWO
to his feet.

boys sat on a log whittling.

Conversa-

tion

had ceased and they both seemed
Presently
the

absorbed in their work.

younger one became aware of the silence and glanced
at the older boy.

He gave an exclamation and jumped
making a knife
a paper-knife
of
it

" Why, " he cried,"you are
Isn't

outofwood.

a beauty
other,

!

Isitadagger?"
"it
is

"No"
zines.

replied

the

for opening letters

and cutting the pages

maga"

It

is

for father's desk, for his birthday."

"It's a

dandy!" continued the youngster.
fine things?

How

can you make such
that kind of work?"

Why

can't I do

"You

can do

it," replied

Ralph,

'but just
don't."

now

there are several reasons

why you
you

"What
'Well,

are they?"
in

the

first

place

start to

whittle

without having any clear idea of what you are at

work

on.

It's for all

the world like setting out to
If

walk without knowing where you are going.

4

INTRODÜCTORY
start that

you

way, the probabilities are that you

will get

nowhere, and when you get back and father

asks where you have been, you say, 'Oh, nowhere;
just

took

a

walk.'

That's the

knife work.
chips,

You

just whittle

way with your and make a lot of
If

and when you get through you have nothing
for

to

show

your time and labour.

you want to
first

know

a secret

I

never start to cut without

making a

careful sketch of just
all

what

I

want
it.

to

make, with

the important dimensions on
results

"Another reason you don't get any

is

that
still

you don't know how to hold your
another
is

knife,

and

that you work with a dull tool.
is

Why, that
work?"

knife of yours

hardly sharp enough to cut butter."

"Will you show

me how

to do that kind of

asked the youngster humbly.

"Yes; on certain conditions."

"What

are they?"

"That you will do just as I teil you." "Will you show me how to make a paper-cutter now?" "There you go, right off the handle! You are like a young man learning carpentry; you want to
start right in to build a house instead of first learn-

ing

how

to use your tools.
in the

Why,

it

has taken
to learn

me
how

two years

manual training school

INTRODUCTORY
to do this work.

5

No, indeed,
like this

if

how

to do

woodwork

you want to learn you must begin on
and

something simple, learn

how
the

to handle wood,

how

to keep your tools sharp."

"All right,"

sighed

younger boy;

"I

am

willing to take lessons

and begin at the beginning.
to throw
is

Whatshall wedo

first?"
is

"The
The

first

thing to do

away your

folding penknife.
steel is so
all,

That kind
it

of very little use.

poor

won't hold a cutting edge for

any time at
of closing

and the knife has a treacherous habit
fingers.

up on your

I will give

Swedish whittling knife
start

like

you a good mine, and we will
it."

by putting a good cutting edge on
first lesson.

So the boys began the

had and the things

The fun they they made, their many exand the great
skill

periences, the patienee required,

developed with tools are described in the following
pages.

What
if

they accomplished, any other boy
will

may do
energy.

he

but apply himself with

all his

II

FIRST EXPERIMENTS — THE KNIFE
POSSIBILITIES

AND

ITS

THE
bulge

older boy, after a search through his
ehest,

treasure

selected

a

knife

with

a

blade about two and a half inches long.
Incidentally, the smaller
of the inside of that ehest

boy caught a glimpse
and
it

niade his eyes

— but that

is

another story.

'This knife," explained Ralph, "is one I used
for over a year in school

and
in

it's

the most perfectly

shaped tool for whittling that I have ever seen.

Of course knives come
diff'erent

hundreds of shapes for

purposes,

and

later on,

become
others,

skilled in using this one,

when you have we will try some

but our

first

motto must be 'one thing at

Fig. 1.

The

whittling knife

a time.'

A

knife with either blade or handle too
is

long or too short

awkward, but this one seems to
will fit yours.

fit

my

hand, and undoubtedly

Try

it."

THE KNIFE AND
Harry took
of whittling
it

ITS POSSIBILITTES

7

and went through the motions
stick.

an imaginary

"Now,"
pile

said Ralph,

"we

will

go out to the wood

and see what we can

find.

White pine makes
it
is

the best

wood

to start on, because

usually
it

straight grained, soft,
is

and

free

from sap; but

getting scarce
it

and expensive, so we must be
is

economical, as
lots of

a very easy matter to waste

lumber."

After

some searching, they found part
chopped
His
out
a
piece

of

a

pine board, about a foot long and an inch thick.

Ralph
wide.

with

a

hatchet

and deftly

split it
skill

to about an inch and a half

was a revelation to Harry, who
a

saw that
precision.

even

hatchet

could

be used

with

"Now,"

said

Ralph,

"I want you to cut

this

piece of rough pine to a smooth, straight piece, just

an inch square."

"Oh,
watch

that's easy," replied

Harry "I

eagerly.

"Just

nie."

"Take

care,"

said

Ralph.

said
will

an

inch

square; anything less than

an inch

be wrong.

Just imagine that this

is

a problem in arithmetic
If

and you are trying to find the answer.
ceed in making
it

you

suc-

just

an inch square the answer

8
will

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
be correct; anything larger or smaller than In the
first

the exact size will be wrong.

place,

hold your knife so that

it

makes a

slant or oblique
2),

angle with the wood, like this" (Fig.

he

said,

Fig. 2.

Correct

way

to hold the knife

Fig. 3.

Incorrect

method
left

of holding knife

taking the wood in his
his
right.

hand and the knife in "That gives what we call a paring

action,

and

is

much

easier (Fig. 3)

than the

stiff

way

you were holding

it,

at right angles with the stick.

Photograph by Helen

VV.

Cook«

The Boy and His Jack Knife

THE KNIFE AND
"
is

ITS POSSIBILITTES

9

Now remember
light,

that the trouble with beginners
off

that they usually take

too

much

material.

Make
the

easy cuts and try to get one side of

wood

perfectly straight first."

This was a harder job than Harry had expected,

but after much testing and sighting

(Fig. 4)

Ralph

Fig. 4

.

Testing with the try square

said
said,

it

would do

for the first attempt.

"Now," he

"you may consider this first side the foundation of your house. Make a pencil mark on it near one of the edges, what the woodworker would call his witness mark. It means that this side or face is finished and the edge nearest the pencil mark is to be trued up next."
This proved even a harder job than the
second side straight and true, Ralph tested
first,

because after whittling and testing until he had the
it

with

a square and found that the second edge was not

10

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
first,

at right angles with the

or working face.
to

It

was

finally

straightened,

however,

stand

the

try Square test fairly well.

An

inch was next marked
one,

off at

each end on face

number
to end.

and a sharp pencil

line

drawn from end

Harry then whittled this third side down to the line, and tested again with the try square.
It

seemed

easier to

do now, and the thickness was
It looked as
if

obtained in the same way.

they

never would get that piece of pine exactly square,

and even when Ralph said
sured
it

it

would
it

do, they

mea-

with a rule and found

an eighth of an

inch too small each way.

Harry was disgusted.
after all,"
if it

"The answer
I'll

is

wrong

he exclaimed, "but

learn to do that

takes

me

a month."
spirit,"

"That's the right sporting

said Ralph.

"Keep
you

at

it tili

you get

it.

It's

the hardest thing
knife,
it

will

ever have to do with a

and
the

it's

unfortunate that you have to tackle
thing; but
it's

first

like

learning to

play

the

piano,

you must learn the notes and scales and how to use your fingers before you can play a real piece. Every time you try this, you are gaining skill and the
control of your Lands.
able to do
it

After a while you will be
of it."

easily

and tbink notLing

THE KNIFE AND
Several
tliat

ITS POSSIBILITIES
in

11

days later

Harry brought

a piece
it

he had been working on and Ralph tested

carefully with rule

and try Square.

He

gave Harry

a pat on the back.

"Good

for you, boy;
said.

you are
of

coming along splendidly," he
these have

"How many

you tried?" "Twenty," said Harry meekly.
"Well, now,
I'll

show you how the Indians used
We'll put a notch on this

to record their exploits.

stick for every one you've tried to

make, and you
first

can keep

it

as a souvenir of

your

attempts

at whittling."

So with great care they measured
J2

^7
|

SP

^7
-

^7

SJ7

K

T

&

&
Fig. 5
.

/tv

"^
*

J

^
stick

a

a

U

The notched trophy

off six

two-inch spaces on each edge, carefully drew

notches with a pencil and rule, and as carefully cut

each notch to the

line.

(Fig. 5.)
result.

Harry was delighted with the

They then hunted up

a small screw eye, found the

exact centre of the end of the stick by drawing two
diagonals, fastened the screw eye in the centre
tied to
it

and

a piece of red, white and blue ribbon.

12

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
quarter-inch bevel was

A

made around each end
twenty notches, room, and every once in
its

as a finishing touch.

This piece of white pine, with

hangs to-day

in

Harry 's

awhile he counts the notches to
there,

make sure they
his

are

all

and

recalls the trial that

each one represents.

Harry was so much pleased with
once,

notched

trophy stick that he wanted to begin something eise at

and he was immediately started on a key rack. 'Too many homes," said Ralph, sagely, "have no
keep keys.

definite place to

Those that have no

tags are always a nuisance.
of keys should

Every key
it

or

bunch

have a tag attached and should be

hung on a

certain

hook where

can be found
a sketch of
to find out

without searching.

Now

we'll

make
eise,

a key rack before doing anything
just

how large a piece of stick we shall The drawing they produced is shown
called for a piece of

need."
in Fig. 6

and

wood seven
thick.

inches long,

an inch wide, and half an inch
cided

As the key
they deit

rack was to be a permanent household

article,

ongum wood as more suitable than
different

pine,

being

easy to work and having a satisfactory appearance.

The

stages
6.

in

the process of cutting

out are shown in Fig.

At a

is

shown the stock

squared up with the knife to the extreme outside

THE KNIFE AND

ITS POSSIBILITIES

13

&

Wi
b

x~

64.

2±'
.

V

^
'

*hr*£
l\I^


-,

M/

V

/TV

.

— 2k

A
Fig. 6.

1

1

The

various steps in making a key rack

14

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The ends were then The notehes were
bevelled

dimensions.

whittled

down

to

the form shown at b and the blank piece was ready
for

notehing.

carefully

drawn
c.

with a sharp hard pencil and cut as shown at

The ends w ere
T

by whittling

to the lines,

and
the

the inner edges of the notehes in the centre were whittled back to the middle of each edge.
knife

Then

work was finished. Three brass screw hooks were placed in the centre of the large blank Spaces, and two small screw eyes
fastened into the upper edge for hanging the key

rack on the wall.

Each stage
factory
jfinally

of the

work had been worked out
what a
it

so

carefully that the boys hardly realized
result

satis-

they were getting.

^Yhen

was

hung

in the boys'

room, of course some keys
as as

must be put on it, and making of some followed

they had no tags, the
a matter of course.
stock
of

A
of

search

through their
little

small

woods
an inch

disclosed a few
fret

pieces of holly, the remains
of

saw work, about an eighth
key tags
in

thick.

This proved to be ideal material, and half

a

dozen

were
Fig. 7.

shape
with a

shown

made The

of

the

size

and

holes were

made
of the

brad awl, the tags fastened to the rings
pieces
of

by small

wire,

and the names

THE KNIFE AND
ing ink.

ITS POSSIBILITIES

15

keys printed on the different tags with black draw-

The boys, from

this

time on, seemed possessed with
to be manufactured
for their

a mania for making articles to be used about the
house.

One thing

<7

N

without delay
fishing lines.

was a winder

The form they finally decided on is shown in Fig. 8. Ralph insisted on the design being caref ully drawn on a piece
of thin
Fig. 7.

wood, a quarter of an inch thick.
lines

Harry found whittling to curved
The key tag

somewhat harder than notehing, but
satisf actory result.

he produced a f airly

Ralph was a very exaeting teacher, always having in mind his own training in school.

He showed Harry how
thumb
(Fig. 9.)

to cut out the curves at the ends with-

out cutting his

and

gave him

much

advice about whittling

away from

himself,

whenever

possible.

When

the knife work was finished,

Ralph explained that where curved Fig. 8. edges were cut it was allowable to Fish line winder smooth with a piece of fine sand-paper, although
as a rule
it

was to be avoided.

16

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Harry wanted
to

know why, and Ralph

explained
hall-

that, generally speaking, sand-paper

was the

mark

of a poor

workman, one who could not do
his
tools.

good work with

Sand-paper leaves a

Ffg. 9

.

Cutting concave curves

scratched surface, for the grit becomes embedded
in the

wood

to a certain extent, and

it will

imme"So,"

diately ruin the cutting edge of a sharp tool in case

one has to be used after the sand-papering.

he

summed
About

up, "keep your sand-paper and knife

as far apart as possible."
this

time

the ladies

of

the household

thought that a winder for worsted would come in
very handy, and the boys evolved a new form, shown
in

Fig.

10.

This

was made only an eighth

of

an inch thick, and proved so easy

of construction

THE KNIFE AND
that each of the boys

ITS POSSIBILITTES

17

made two and "allowed "

that

"they ought

to satisfy the sewing department for

some time to come." "Do you know," exclaimed Harry
one day,
things

"we

could

make
and
said

lots

of hi

for

Christmas

birth-

day presents!"

"Why,

certainly,"

Ralph, ^~

~FfeTm

"and people appreciate things that you have made yourself much more than things you buy. Anybody can go to the störe and buy ready-made presents, but those you make yourself mean more." "In what way?" said Harry. 'Why, they represent much more of your time and labour, and thought; and, by the way, if we are going to make many Christmas presents, we must start right away, because we only have a few weeks and you know how little time we have outside of school hours after getting
our lessons."

The worsted winder

The
in the

result of this talk

was that the

little

building

yard which they called their "shop" became

a perfect beehive of industry for several weeks.

With what money they had saved they purchased a supply of lumber and a few tools the use of which

18

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
said he

Ralph
rr
HM

would explain
as

later.

He

suggested

that Harry begin by making some calendar backs,
suitable

New

Year's

Jl

presents,

because

they

were easy; and the more
complicated articlescould

be made after Harry had
developed
skill

a

little

more

with the knife.

The drawing he made
is

shown

in Fig. 11.

This

2$Fig. 11.

called f or a small calendar
back

First calendar

about tWO inches long,

an inch and three
this size

quarters high,

and a space

was drawn on the centre
the

of the calendar

back,

while

calendar

was glued to the wood.
After two or three of these

had been made, Harry decided
small

that they were too
to suit him,

and a
<%»

new

design

somewhat larger

was worked out on
paper.
It

i
™8- 12
-

was a

little

more
Second calendar back

difficult tO follow,

because

the outline had two reversed curves, but the boys

THE KNXFE AND
trifle like

ITS POSSIBILITIES

19

were too busy and interested to be daunted by a
that. (Fig. 12.)

Ralph suggested simple picture frames, and this brought the new problem of cutting out an opening
for the picture.

The

first

design they tried

is

shown
to

in Fig.

13.

Ralph had to show Harry how
with compasses by
or
first

make

the ellipse

constructing two Squares

rectangles

touching,

and with both diagonal
taking for a centre the
b,

lines in

each Square.

By

point where the Squares touch, as a and
the length of a
line as a radius,

and using

diagonal

two

arcs
y.

were drawn at x and

The

ellipse

was

finished

by taking c as a centre, and the distance c d as a

draw arc z, and the other end was finished
radius, to
in the

same way. Ralph explained r r
was
not
a

that
perfect

,

Fig. 13. Picture frame with elliptical

this

opening

ellipse,

but would

answer

for

a

small

picture

frame.

The drawing was easy compared to the question of how to cut out the wood to this curved
line.

20

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
One
of the

new

tools

was brought

out,

and Harry

was introduced to the mysteries
(Fig
14).

of the coping saw.

A
A

thin

saw blade was produced and

fastened in one end of the frame, the other end being
left free.

hole was

made

inside of the ellipse with

Fig. 14.

Using the coping saw

a brad awl, the free end of the blade passed through
the opening and fastened in the frame of the saw.

Resting the picture frame on the edge of a bench,
the ellipse was sawed out roughly about

%e

of

an
six-

inch inside of the drawing.

This remaining

teenth of an inch was then whittled to the line with
a knife and finished with sand-paper.

Harry found
opening

some

difficulty

in

getting

this

elliptical

THE KNIFE AND

ITS POSSIBILITTES

21

smooth enough to suit him, so they tried designing for half an hour, and produced a new form (Fig. 15)»

r~?

^

m

^
«*
<0
<va

Sc

4K

i

v-i
^^
Fig. 15.

Picture frame in straight lines

This was
it

easier, as there

were no curved

lines,

and

could be sawed close to the outside

as well as

the inside lines, to save time in whittling.

While

Harry was
a

finishing this frame,

Ralph was busy on

new

design and finally passed over the drawing
in Fig. 16.

shown

22

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
'Do
you
getting

in

know there up new designs as
them
in Nl

is

as
is

much
in

fun

there

making

.

4

3

V_A
Fig. 16.

wood?" said Ralph. "Yes, but you have to know how to draw," replied the younger boy. "Can't you teach me?" " Yes. I first make a rough
sketch of
a
careful

><(i7F

my

idea,

and then
of
its

-*?

\-r^

SjJu

drawing

actual size, with the drawing
Third picture frame

instruments."
'

That's the part that I want to learn

:

how

to

use the instruments."

A
it is

lesson in mechanical drawing followed,

and as

a very important subject to young woodworkers,

it will

be given in

füll in

the next chapter.

III

MECHANICAL DRAWING

IN
is

up mechanical drawing," said Ralph, "always remember that accurate and
neat work, containing
all

TAKING

necessary dimensions,

half the battle.

You

will

probably f eel, as I did at
the work

first,

that it is a waste of time, but you can always con-

sider that
is

when your drawing

is

finished
it

half done.

You can

judge from

the

number

of

pieces of stock required,

and

their over-all

dimen-

Fig. 17.

The

outfit for

mechanical drawing

sions.
teils

This saves

much time
what
23

at the
size

at a glance to just
of stock.

wood pile, and you must Square

up each piece

24

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
"The drawing boardisan
absolute necessity.
It

need not be perfectly Square, but the surface must
be
flat

and

true,

and at

least

one of the edges ab-

solutely straight.

(Fig. 17.)

a thin blade

— about Vie of
It should

The T Square must have an inch, and be made of

hard wood.

form a right angle with the
be the straight

head, which slides along the left-hand edge of the

drawing board, and that must
edge.

"The
in

T

square

is

used as a guide for the pencil
lines,

drawing horizontal

and

it

should always be

kept on the same side of the drawing board.

When

drawing a vertical

line,

one of the wooden triangles

should be placed on the

T

square and the line

drawn along the left-hand edge of the triangle. Circles or arcs of circles are drawn with the compasses
held at the extreme top."

With

this

introduction, the boys proceeded to

fasten with four thumb-tacks a piece of drawing

paper to the upper part of the drawing board.

"Why

don't you put the paper in the centre?'

5

asked Harry.

"Because,

if

one worked on the lower part of the

drawing board, the

T

square

head would extend

below the edge of the board, and touch the table.

You would have

to

watch

it

constantly.

The head

MECHANICAL DRAWING
of the

25

T

Square should always be tight against the

board, for

when you

slide it too far

down,

it

someit,

times strikes the table without your knowing

and you

find

your horizontal

lines are not horizontal;

.^
i
1

,1

1

)
1

J

a.
Fig. 18. Blocking out the crosses of St.

Andrew and

St.

George

so I always like to have the drawing paper as high

up on the board

as possible."

The boys agreed that while the younger was learning to make drawings, each one should repreDrawsent something to be made later in wood. ing number one was a square, 3 inches on a side.

26

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
this

Ralph showed how
measurements.

was made with only two

Drawing one horizontal and one vertical line, 3 inches were marked off on each, the other two lines drawn through these new points, and the Square was finished. Ralph insisted that
all

lines
later,

be very
if

light,

as they could be

darkened

iip

necessary, and were easy to erase in
(Fig. 18.)

case of a mistake.

Harry was then

told to divide the upper

and

left-

hand

sides into

even inches, and to draw across the

Square vertical and horizontal lines from the four
points obtained.

Thus the

large Square

was subdivided into nine
lines

1-inch Squares,

and by darkening the

shown

in

the figure at a the cross of St. George was produced.

Another 3-inch Square was drawn, and marked
off,

as

shown

at

b.

The

points were connected
of the 45-degree

by

oblique lines

by means

triangle,

and by darkening the
St.

lines

shown

at c the cross of

Andrew was formed.
said, " While

After explaining that the
of these

British flag

was a combination

two

figures

Ralph
as well

we

are drawing crosses,

we may
it

make
off

a Maltese one."
a
3-inch
in

Starting

with
as

Square
Fig.

again,
19.

was

measured

shown

were connected and darkened, as

The lines shown at b. "Now,"

MECHANICAL DRAWING
said Ralph,

27

"you can cut that out
and wear
it

of

wood,

tie

a

ribbon on

it

as a medal."

"Huh," grunted Harry.
three inches across!"

"Pretty big medal

"Well,

make

it

any

size,

TT
*>

NM

an inch or even

less."

"That's not a bad idea.
I'll

make

it

out

of

white

^
by\
Fig. 19.

holly,

and put a

red, white,
it."

and blue bow on

^
we

"And print on it 'American
Order of Junior Woodworkers'."

"Not a bad
can find
lots of

idea either;

boys who would

be glad to join and come here

Saturdays to work in the shop."

"There would be no trouble to
get candidates ; the trouble would

be to take care of them.

They

The Maltese

cross

would

fill

the yard and overflow into the street,"

said Ralph.

"But why

couldn't

we

"

"Come now, let's do one thing at a time; you are supposed to be learning mechanical drawing. We'll leave
the Organization of the A. O.
J.

W.

tili

another time.

Fm

going to show you

how

to use the compasses."

28

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
While they were drawing the
circle,

quarterfoil,

heart,

and

oval,

shown

in Fig. 20,

Ralph reviewed
cir-

his pupil

on the rneaning of diameter, radius,
etc.

cumference,
of

"If you want to cut hearts out
I

paper or wood,

would advise you to wait

until

St. Valentine's

Day, and reserve the oval or egg
a wonderful figure.

until Easter.

"The circle

is

By marking

the

radius off on the cir-

cumference, with the

compasses,
TUEütE
QLIARTER-FOIL

we

find
di-

that the former

vides the latter into

exactly
parts,

six

equal

and by conpoints,

necting the

we have
hexagon.

a

perfect

By
the

conaltertri-

HEART
nate points
angle,

ELß^ZO

Oval

necting

we obtain

a perfect

equilateral

and by connecting the remaining points we

get another triangle of the
triangles

same
star.

size.

The two

form a six-pointed
said Ralph,

(Fig. 21.)

"Now,"
Orders.

"I

am

going to give you a
to do
is

problem by dictation;
First

all

you have

to obey

draw a

circle

3%

inches in diameter."

MECHANICAL DRAWING
"What's the radius?" asked Harry.
"That's for you to find out."

29

Harry thought a moment, divided three and a half by two, and setting his compasses at 1%, drew
the
circle.

"Now
parts."

divide the circumference into three equal

The boy puzzled over
marked
off

this for a

moment, then

the radius, cutting the circumference

Fig. 21.

Triangle, hexagon

and

star

into six parts, as

if

for a hexagon,

and erased every

other point, leaving three.

"Draw
centre."

radial lines

from these points to the
from

"Easy," remarked Harry, and drew a
triangles.

line

each point to the centre with the edge of one of his

"Find the centre

of each of those lines."

"Easy

again," said the boy, as he set his compasses

30

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
and from the centre
of the circle
(Fig. 22.)

at y% of an inch,

cut each of the straight lines with an arc.

"Draw
"Easier
circles.

a

semicircle
5/s

from each of these points

with a radius of
still,"

of

an inch."
a (Fig. 22).

quoth Harry, as he drew the semilike

The drawing then looked

Fig. 22.

Pulley design

:

"Now,"
thing."

said the teacher, "let

me show you someb

He made
is

a few strokes with the compasses,

and the drawing as shown at
'That

was

finished.

enough
in

for to-day.
all

The compasses

are

about the easiest of

instruments to use, provided
pencil point needs to be

you keep
other

mind that the
pencil.

sharpened to a

chisel, or flat shape,

the same as any
of

drawing

The number
it

designs

which
as

may

be made with
on."

are simply endless,

you

will learn later

IV
MECHANICAL DRAWING: Continued

THE
begin, or

next day, as they were aboutto resume

their study,

Ralph

said:

"There

is

so

much
to

to drawing that I hardly

know where

what

to leave out; but in shop drawing, a

picture will not do; imagine an architect trying to

build a skyscraper from a picture.
ing

The shop draw-

must

teil

the mechanic everything he needs to the object he
office
is

know about

making.

He
;

cannot

keep running to the
ing must answer

asking questions the draw-

them all.
is

That is the reason why the
is

draughting-room

such an important part of every

manufacturing plant.
designer uses to
It
is

Drawing

the language the

teil

the workmenwhat hewants made.
is

doubly important when the designer

hundreds

or thousands of miles

away from the workman.
and
art.

"A

battle-ship can be designed in Australia

built in England, so this language of the

shop has
sooner

grown to be a very interesting and important Every one who works with
si

tools

must

learn

it

or later, the sooner the better.

• i

32

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
"Usually
it is

necessary to represent even

the

simplest object by at least two views.
i

For example,
I

suppose

hand you
teil

*

2


r

— —
2

this sketch a (Fig.

T
I

i

23),

and

you

i

i

v>
1

<Z
L

%

1

«

make two out of wood. You wouldn't know what to do
to

Fig. 23.

Front and top views

becaUSe

nO

thick6,

ness

is

shown, but

if

I give

you
it

this

sketch

you

would see immediately that

has practically no

thickness and might be a sheet of paper.

You
it.

learn

that from the top view looking

down on

"The

first

view

is

called the front view.
c;

Now,
thick-

suppose I change the top view to this

(-*
ness

r /.

A

i

\

i


is

\i
Fig 24. Showing necessity for top view

shown

here,

out of white pine,

make two of these you would know all that would
and
if

I say,

be necessary to go ahead.

MECHANICAL DRAWING
24),

33

"Again, suppose I give you this sketch a (Fig.

and ask you to make two out

of

gum

wood.

You would be
at
b, c,

completely at sea, because that front

view might have any one of these top views shown
d, e (Fig. 24).

In other words,
thickness,

it

might be

a

triangle

without

a wedge, cone, or

pyramid.

"So you
side.

see,

two views are absolutely necessary,
third,

and very often a

taken from the right or

left

The three views of a book would Fig. 25. The side view is not necessary in but that is the way it
would be drawn
third
if

look like
this case,

a

were needed.

You

will

have plenty
for

of opportunities

practising this as

we

get along with our
tool work, because in

>

order to understand

drawings you must

be

able

to

make
\~rFig. 25.

them.
try

Suppose you
Three views

your hand now,

of a

book

by drawing the two views of a cylinder, two inches in diameter and three inches high."

34

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
Ralph
rolled a sheet of

paper up until the ends

met, to illustrate a cylinder, and the drawing pro-

duced by Harry looked

like a.

(Fig. 26.)

Fig. 26.

Mechanical drawings

of cylinder

and cone

"Now,"

said Ralph,
it

"no shop drawing

is

com-

plete unless

shows

all

the necessary dimensions;

so I will put

but after

them on to show you how it is done, this you must dimension every drawing
drawing of the cylinder
is

you make."

The
at
b.

finished

shown

Harry was

told to

make

the mechanical drawing

of a cone, 2 inches in diameter,

and 3 inches high.

JMECHANICAL DRAWING
While he was working at
appeared, and
this problem,

35

Ralph

dis-

when he returned Harry asked where
Let

he had been.

~"Never

mind.

me

see

your

drawing,"

x-

o
laid

Fig. 27.

Making a

tip cat

c

(Fig. 26).

"All right."
table.

Then he

a

little

wooden object on the

"Why,

it's

a cat," said Harry.

" Yes, a tip cat, and as soon as you
ing drawing of
it,

make a work-

you are going

to manufacture

36

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
knife.

one with your
cat
is

Please notice that the tip

a cylinder with a cone at each end, and two
will

views

show everything about
longer to
it

it."

The drawing took
imagined
it

make than Harry
knife.

would; or

seemed longer because he
His

was so impatient to get to work with his finished drawing is shown at a (Fig. 28).

The
are

different stages in the
in Fig. 27.

making

of the tip cat

shown

Fig. 28.

Secondtipcat

came the squaring up, shown at a. Then the two ends were whittled down to wedges as shown at b, and these two ends reduced to Square
IJirst

pyramids, as at

c.

MECHANICAL DRAWING
drawn on the four
sides of the Square part

3?

Lines a quarter of an inch from each edge were

and cond.

tinued out to the points of the pyramids, as at

Cutting to this line changed the Square to an octagon, and the Square pyramids to octagonal ones.

The edges were again
;

whittled off until there were

no more to be seen the cat was smoothed with sandpaper, and called finished.

Harry was delighted, but Ralph

said:

"That

is

not the best form for a tip cat, because

it will roll.

We

will

make
it

a bat for

it

now, and after we have

played with

awhile, we'll

make

a better one; just
left

the same except that the centre part will be

Square and only the ends rounded.

(Fig. 28, b.)

The bat they made
to the lines.

is

shown

in

Fig.

29.

Its

handle was cut out with the coping saw and whittled

Ralph explained that anything to

~]

_1
Fig. 29.

Bat

for tip cat

be held should be rounded, or
the hand, so
all

it

would be hard on

the edges were curved with the knife

and finished with sand-paper.

They had

so

much fun with

the cat and bat that

38

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
for

woodwork was forgotten
third

two afternoons.

The

day

it

rained, so the boys were glad to get at

work again in the shop. Ralph suggested that, as they were doing so much drawing, it might be well to make a pencil sharpener.

The drawing they produced

is

shown

in Fig. 30.

This was easily worked out in J^-inch wood with a
piece of sand-paper glued in the oblong space.

Fig. 30. Pencil sharpener

The sand-paper

suggested match scratchers, and
several designs were

as they are useful articles,

worked up for Christmas are shown in Fig. 31, but
discussion
it

gifts.

Three
for

of

these
of

after a

good deal

was

decided

that

scratching

StKjf/H*

\h=t]
Fig. 31.

First

match

scratchers

matches a longer space for sand-paper was necessary,

and three other designs

(Fig. 32)

were the

result of several hours' work.

MECHANICAL DRAWING

39

"Fm

getting

tired

claimed Harry; "let's

match scratchers," make some toys!"
of

ex-

fJr^

h

**&?
Fig. 32.

Later designs in match scratchers

"Very
cousins,"

well, we'll get

ready for Santa Claus, and

provide a stock of things for our numerous young
replied

Ralph.

"This

will

give

us

a

chance to use our coping saw, and I have been

wanting to do that for a long time."

V
TOYS

making presents for

little

children," said Ralph,
will

IN"we must always remember that the toys
handling.
of simple construction.

be

played with and receive a great deal of rough

So to begin with, they must be strong and

The youngsters

don't care so

much

for finely finished articles as older people do,
tire

and they
pose
filled

very quickly of things that are so comorder
boxes.
is

plicated that they get out of

easily.

Sup-

we

first

make some neat

They can be
will

with candy, and after that

gone they

be used for a long time to keep treasures in."
Fig.

33 shows the drawing of the

first

box the

The two oblong pieces form the top and bottom. The latter was nailed on with %-inch brads. The two cleats were nailed to the under side
boys made.
of the top to hold
it

in place, while the sides
little glue,

and

ends were fastened with a
in the centre.

and one brad

This

made

a very serviceable box,

the material being basswood

%6

of

an inch thick.
next,

The

sied

shown

in

Fig. 34
40

came

made

of

TOYS

41

Fig. 33.

Toybox

the

same material
its

as the box.

Ralph was delighted
lines.

with

strength and graceful

Two

cleats

42

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
sides,

were glued into the grooves in the
top nailed on with %-inch brads.

and the

Fig. 34.

The toy

sied

In each case

the drawing was

made

directly
lines

on the wood, which was sawed close to the
the knife.

with the coping saw, and finished to the lines with

The dog house
features
of

(Fig. 35)

brought out some new

construction.

The opening

in

front

was cut out with the saw and

finished as usual.

Sides and ends were then put together with glue.

The two

pieces forming the roof were nailed to-

gether with %-inch brads, to

make a

right angle

and were then placed
front

in position

and nailed to the
of time

and back

pieces.
it

Ralph explained that
trouble to

was a saving

and

draw a

light pencil

line to

mark the

TOYS
Iocation of the brads.
If this is

43

not done, the brads

are apt to

come out

then have to
is

a waste of

wrong place and will be withdrawn and placed again. This time and it very often spoils the looks
in the

of the work, so that the

drawing of the pencil

lines

really saves time in the end,

and the

lines

can be

erased.

'We can make any amount of this dolls' furniture," said Ralph. "In fact we could build a doll's
house and equip
it

with chairs, tables, and beds, but
really like best
is

what the youngsters

something

that works, something that moves, so I

move

1
Fig. 35.

The dog house

no pun intended

— that

we

design a toy that has

some life to it. We can cut it out with the coping saw and there need not be a great deal of knife work to it. Suppose we make an Indian paddling a canoe " This was more of a problem than they had
!

44

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
for, as it

bargained

was necessary to look through an
etc.

encyclopsedia to find pictures of canoes, Indians,

tomahawks,
figure of
it

Harry traced the
,

an Indian chief transferred
surface
of

to

the

a

piece of

J^-inch
it

basswood, and on sawing

out

found that he had a very
not

good Silhouette of an Indian, but
it

did

move
still

(Fig.

36).

The
and
used

problem
Fig. 36.

was
-,

unsolved,
that
line

experiments
Indian chief

along
a.

up several afternoons.
finally

shown in Fig. 37. The arms were made separate from the body, and were fastened to both the paddles and the bodies
worked out
is

What was

Fig. 37.

Indian paddlers

by

brads, which acted as pivots.

The

bodies were

then fastened to the canoe in the same way, but a
little

glue was used as well as brads, as they were to

TOYS
be immovable.
in unison

45

How

to

make

the paddlers

move
by
this

was a hard problem,

finally solved

fastening a narrow strip of
of each paddle.

wood

to the lower part

It

was found that by moving

^
Fig. 38.

,

1

s&
Separate parts cut out and assembled

Indian paddlers.

46
strip

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
back and forth
the two figures

moved with

the precision of a machine.
pivot was required
it

In each case where a

seemed only necessary to
(Fig. 38.)

drive in a %-inch brad.

The

success of this

moving toy was

so great that
it

the boys went rushing into the house to show
the family.

to

Soon they came rushing back again, determined
to try their skill on something eise.

Ralph had to

remind Harry that the Indian paddlers were not
yet finished, as the toy would not stand up, so the

Standards shown at b were

sawed out, smoothed
glue.

with the knife, and one fastened at each end, as a
support, by

means

of brads

and

Fig. 39.

The

fencers

After
to

much

boyish arguing,

it

was decided next
This called for

try

two swordsmen fencing.
in

some posing, and looking

books to get the correct

TOYS
Position of a
Fig. 39
sports.

47

man

fencing.

The drawing shown
from a book on

in

was

finally copied

athletic

The

different parts of the figures are

shown

clearly

in the illustration.

It

was found, by experimenting and other
leg

with paper figures, that by making one leg of each
figure in

two

parts, the body, arms,

could be sawed out of one piece.

The work

of cutting

out and assembling this
easier

combination, seemed

much

now

that the boys

had gotten into the swing of it, and they were so anxious to see it work that they almost spoiled
it

in their haste.

The
on

swords, or

foils,

were made

of

two pieces

of soft iron wire.
filing

Ralph
ends to

insisted

these out flat near the
realistic,

make them

look

and they were
pliers.

fastened by drilling a hole in each hand, passing the

wire through and clinching
It

it

with a pair of

was much

safer to drill these holes, as a

brad awl

sometimes

splits

wood that

is

very thin.

This com-

bination worked to perfection, and while they were
trying

shadow on the table. The Silhouette in black looked even more realistic than the toy itself, and it gave the boys
it

Harry caught a glimpse

of its

an

idea.

(Fig. 40.)

These toys could be used for moving shadow

48

CARPEXTRY AND WOODWORK
and immediately
selection,

pictures,

their imagination
of a show.

began

to conjure

up the programme
ladies

"Our

first

and gentlemen,

will

Fig. 40

The

fencers.

Pieces assembled

be a shadow picture, entitled 'Before the Coming
of

the

White Men'," exclaimed Harry, moving
our next
will

the Indian paddlers.

"And

be entitled 'The

DuelV

said Ralph.

TOYS

49

"Not

a very good historical show," said Harry.

"We

ought to have the 'Landing of

the

May-

fllowerr

"Not a bad idea, either," said Ralph. "I think we could rig up a ship in a storm. Let's try that
next."

VI
MOVING TOYS

THE

problem of making a ship
of

roll

proved

somewhat

a strain on the engineering

corner of Ralph's brain, and after awhile

Harry grew

restless.

"Can't you give

me

something to do while you

are designing that ocean?" he said.

Ralph, pausing a moment, replied, "Yes, try two

men sawing
very
little

a log."

Harry began to draw, but found that he knew
about saws, so had to go out and look
it,

at one,

measured

and
Fig.

after awhile
41.

produced the
criticised
it

sketch

shown

in

Ralph

rather severely, suggesting the addition of a log

and saw bück, and advised that the arms

of the

men and saw be
a

cut out of one piece.
pieces,

The drawing

shows the separated

two

bodies, four legs,

saw and arms

in

one piece, two straight pieces for
little

the saw bück, the log, and a
to go between log
this triangle
is

triangulär piece

and saw bück.
50

The

object of

to leave a space between the log

MOVING TOYS

51

and saw bück for the passage of the saw back and forth, as shown in the sectional view. The two pieces forming the bück were halved
together,

and the log, triangle, and bück are f astened with glue and two brads. After all the pieces had been cut out, the men

Fig. 41.

The sawyers

were

first

put together by fastening both

legs to the

body with one %-inch brad.

The
10

feet

were next fastened to the straight piece,
long,

inches

representing the ground,

by one

52

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
and the
next,
feet

brad through each foot, the bodies standing upright,

two inches apart.

The arms

came

with one brad through each man's

Shoulder, and lastly, the saw bück, with the log

already fastened rigidly to
of the

it,

was nailed on the back
in front of the saw.

ground piece with the log
this toy stand up,

To make

fastened to the ends of
size as those

two Standards were the ground piece, the same
this figure in

attached to the fencers in Fig. 40.

It took

Harry two hours to make

wood, after he had the drawing

finished.

In the
for

meantime

Ralph had worked out a scheme

giving a boat a rolling motion.

"We'll be mechanical engineers by the time
finish

we
of

this,"

he

told

Harry.

"This

piece

mechanism calls for a crank, a shaft, two bearings, and a cam, not to mentiona ship, an ocean, and a
few miscellaneous
articles too trivial to

mention."

The
are

various parts of "the ship in a heavy sea"
in

At a is the cam, at b The the crank and handle, and at c the shaft. boat was sketched free hand and cut out with the coping saw in one piece by sawing exactly on the The ocean was represented by two pieces lines.
shown
Fig.
42.

corresponding to the ground piece in the sawyers,

and the wavy outline was not made

until every-

MOVING TOYS

53

Fig. 42.

Boat in storm

54

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

thing had been cut out and the combination was

ready for assembling.

The most
first,

difficult

part

— the shaft — was
knife:

made

and entirely with the

A

piece of bass-

wood was cut

exactly a quarter of an inch Square,

a section was marked in the centre of this
wide, and notches were

%e

inch

made on each

corner.

The

two ends were then whittled to an octagonal shape and rounded. The square section in the centre was
reduced to
Vs inch

wide and the rounded ends
cut out, and the square hole

sand-papered smooth.
Next, the

cam was

made.

This was accomplished, after spoiling one,

by drilling a quarter of an inch hole in the square and cutting the opening square with the point of
the knife.

The object of the square opening was to prevent the cam from slipping when in Operation. The cam
was then placed over the round part
and glued to the square
fitted

of the shaft

section,

over

which

it

snugly.

Next came the crank.
was
left

This was

made

the same shape as the cam, but the

% inch
shaft
in after

hole drilled in one end

round, while the

other was cut square as in the cam.
fitted into the

The

round hole and was glued

the assembling.

For the handle on the crank, a

MOVING TOYS
piece
3^l

55

mcn

Square was fitted into the Square hole,

and the

rest of it whittled
cleats, 2 inch

round and sand-papered.

Two
bling.

x

%x

%e

inch,

were cut out

with the saw and everything was ready for assem-

The two

sides of the ocean

were held to-

gether and the %-inch hole at d drilled through

both pieces at once.

The two notches
bling

at e were cut

after the assem-

was

finished.
line

After the holes were drilled,
of the

the

wavy

was sawed, and the two ends

shaft inserted in the holes with the

cam

inside.

The two

cleats

were inserted in the ends of the

ocean and fastened with brads and glue.
Next, the boat was slipped in between the two
sides,

with the sloping stern just touching the cam,

and a %-inch brad was driven through the three
thicknesses, sides

and boat.

The crank was next slipped over the shaft and glued in position. The crank handle was inserted
into the Square hole
lastly a light

and fastened with

glue,

and

rubber band was slipped over the notch

on the stern of the boat and the two corresponding
notches on the bottom of the ocean.

This was to

hold the boat against the cam, which gives the

motion.

To make

this toy

more

realistic,

the boys got out

56

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

a box of water colors, painted the body of the boat black, the ocean green, and left the basswood sails
their natural color

—white.

"There," said Ralph

when

it

was

finished,

"the

youngsters can raise a storm at any time they like

Ö^
Fig. 43.

Turkey and executioner

by simply turning the crank.
be very serviceable, as
of order
it

This toy ought to

can't very well get out

and

is

almost unbreakable."

moving toys is almost endless, being limited only by the imagination of the desubject of
signer.

The

Thanksgiving suggested the turkey and

MOVING TOYS
turkey evades the axe every time.

57

the axe, and in the toy these boys worked out the

The
little

parts are

shown

in Fig. 43.

The

legs of the

turkey are stuck rigidly to the body by brads and a
glue,

and they are

f astened

to the ground

by one brad, which acts as a pivot. The axeman's body and right leg are in one piece, the left leg being in two pieces. The arms adhere rigidly to the body, and the axe to the hands, by means of brads. The operating strip is % inch
piece

wide and 9 inches long.
It
is

fastened between the legs of the turkey, and

to the rigid leg of the
in each case.

man, by one brad

for pivot

The stump
1

is

nailed to the ground strip from the

front.

VII
DESIGNING MOVING TOYS

THE
did they

boys found

this

making

of toys so fasci-

nating that

one was

barely finished be-

fore another

was suggested.

So absorbed
forgotten,

become that even meals were
it
it

and they regarded

as a hardship to be called in

to supper, while to be told that

was bedtime
that
it

was absolute

cruelty.

They found

saved

time to be svstematic, and the usual method of
procedure was about as follows:
First, to decide

on the practicability of the

idea.

Second, to sketch out a skeleton figure, as in a
(Fig.

44),

the boxers.

When

the proper
figures,

action

was secured
Third, the
out,

in these skeleton

the bodies
b.

were sketched roughly around them as shown at

movement
separate

of the figures

was thought
from
the

and

drawings

traced

assembled drawing on tracing paper.
separate pieces were traced on

Fourth, these

%-inch basswood

with the grain of the wood running the long
of the piece, wherever
it

way
the

was
58

possible.

Fifth,

DESIGNING MOVING TOYS
pieces

59

were sawed out, and the edges smoothed

with knife and sand-paper.
anxiety to see

Very

often,

through

how

it

worked, the smoothing of

5L^°

Fig. 44.

The boxers

the edges was neglected.

Sixth,

the parts were

put together with brads, and where the points came
through they were bent over or "clinched" on the

60

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Seventh, after experiments to disit,

further side.

cover the best position for

the moving strip was

Fig. 45.

The

boxers assembled

fastened to the legs
all

by %-inch brads, and

last of

the feet were pivoted to the ground piece in the

same way.

DESIGNING MOVING TOYS
The boys
example,
all

61

learned

many

things not to do: for

the finer details of the face and hands

must be omitted, as they are very apt to be broken off in sawing. It was found best to make the feet nearly round or the brads would split the wood.
For that reason wherever a brad has to be driven
through, the

arm

or leg should be
size.

made larger than

the proportionate

Fig. 46.

The

racing automobile

The most
wall or sheet

surprising feature

about the figures

was the fact that the shadow they cast on a white

was more realistic than the figures themselves, and our boys never tired of exercising
these toys in order to watch the

shadow

pictures.

Of
go,

all

combinations, perhaps the design and con-

struction of a racing automobile, that

would actually

gave them the greatest amount of amusement as

well as the largest

number

of

problems to solve.

62

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
history of
trials

The
Fig.

and

failures

need
is

not be
in

given, but the machine, as finished,
46.

shown

simple.

The body and hood are comparatively The principal trouble, as with larger
and the

machines, was with the motive power,

by using a rubber band. The four wheels were sawed out of %e-inch basswood, and smoothed with sand-paper, the two
boys
finally

compromised

driving wheels for the rear having a
drilled to receive the

%-inch hole

ends of the

axle.

The

rear

axle
inch,

was

% inch

Square at the centre for half an

and the

rest of it

% inch in diameter,
The

rounded

with the knife and sand-paper.
of the axle

total length

was four

inches,

and the wheel base seven

and one-half inches.
For the driving gear, three disks shown at a
(Fig. 47)

were sawed out, the two large ones,

1%
The

inches in diameter,

from %-inch basswood.

edges of these two were rounded with knife and
sand-paper.

The

small disk,

%

inch in diameter,

was cut from %-inch wood or two %-inch pieces
placed together and glued.

A

square hole was cut through the centre of each

of these disks with a knife,

and they were then put

together with glue and brads, making a very serviceable grooved pulley, which was slipped over the

DESIGNING MOVING TOYS
"i
i\

63

r
c

£ i'

A

A
1

I

PKO
/fear- AxZ*.

* S

o
UL
Fig. 47.
«t
-I

7W

JDzec>:<>.

o

Pieces of racing automobile

shaft

and

fitted

over the Square part in the centre.
fit

As

it

was a snug

no glue was necessary, and the

Square part prevented the pulley from slipping on

64

CAEPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The forward
of

the shaft.
long,

axle

was made
inch

3%

inches

%

an

inch Square, except at the ends,
of

where for a distance

%o

it

was rounded,

%

inch in diameter.

This completed the wheels,

axles,

and transmission pulley.
chassis, or frame,

The

which supports the body,
%6-inch basswood 8 inches

consists of

two pieces

of

long and

%

inch wide, with a ^-inch hole drilled

% inch from

each end.
rests, is

The

floor of the auto,

on

which the body

basswood 6 x 33^ inches, and it binds the whole machine together, giving
i/3-inch

it

strength and rigidity, but
place
until

it

must not be fastened
is

in

the structure

ready for assem-

bling.

The hood
The top
tion.

is

simply

a box

3%

inches long, 2Y2

inches wide, and
piece

VA may

inches high without a bottom.

be

left

unfastened,

if

desired,
in Posi-

with two cleats on the under side to hold

it

The hood then becomes an
of the automobile
is

available

place

to keep small articles, tools, etc.

The body
pieces:

composed

of five

the two sides of

the

shape

shown

at

6,

the dash-board, to which they are fastened
brads, the seat,

with

and the back.

This body can be

taken

off

and replaced by other bodies, made to

represent roadsters, touring cars, limousines, etc.

DESIGNING MOVING TOYS

65
is

A

block of 3^-inch basswood

%

inch square

fastened to the dash-board.

This
it

block has

a

%6-inch hole drilled through
five degrees,

at an angle of f orty-

and into

this hole is glued the steering-

gear, consisting of a

basswood

stick, whittled

to

%6

inch diameter, with a %-inch wheel

1%

inches

in diameter fastened at the top, d.

The method

of assembling is important.

First,

insert the front

and rear axles through the holes
This gives a

or bearings in the chassis, or frame; then nail the
floor to the

frame with %-inch brads.

rigid structure to
floor

work

on, the front edge of the

being even with the forward ends of the frame.

Now
screw

screw into the under side of the

floor,

1%
is

inches from the front end, a %-inch screw eye or

hook,

or even

a flat-head

nail.

This
is

to hold one end of the rubber

band which

to

supply the motive power.

The hood may now be put

together and fastened
it

even with the front of the machine by nailing

from the bottom with brads.
on by nailing the two
the dash-board to the hood.

The body
The
seat

is

put

sides to the dash-board,

and
seat-

and
the

back are afterward put in place with brads and the
steering-gear glued
in

position

against

dash-

board.

66

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

The wheels should be put on last of all. Before placing them in position, slip two or three new
rubber bands over the screw hook under the car,

and

tie

the free end to the driving pulley so tightly
slip

that the cord will not

on the pulley.

The

front wheels are fastened to the axles
nails,

by

%-inch flat-head wire
the wheel on.

and worked
flat

until

they

revolve freely on these pivots; the

head holds

The

rear wheels are the drivers,

and must be

fastened rigidly to the axle by glue.

has hardened
chine

When
hours

the glue

this takes several

— the mafloor

may

be sent across the room on the

by

winding the rear axle back ward as
the machine on the

much

as the rub-

ber bands will permit without breaking, and setting
floor.
it,

The

first

time the boys tried

the rubber band

uncoiled so quickly that the auto shot across the

room and nearly wrecked itself against the wall. This was too realistic, especially as it broke one of the forward wheels, and a new one had to be made.

When
little

such an automobile

is

to be presented to
it

children

who want

to

draw

around with a

string, it is necessary to

remove the rubber band;

otherwise the rear wheels will drag.

When

our boys had finished their machine, the

DESIGNING MOVING TOYS
question

67

came up to whom it should be given for Christmas, and Harry blurted out, "I want it myThis was the greatest of all their difficulties. self." When they had finished a piece of work they hated to part with it, but Ralph was older, and he knew that as Harry became interested in new things he
would gradually
lose interest in the old ones.

So

they played with this machine,

made another with

a roadster body, and auto races became the rage
for

awhile.

After several afternoons of racing,

they decided, just as their eiders had done before

them, that what their machines needed was improved

motive power.

The accomplishment

of this

would

take them out of the realm of woodwork, so Ralph
suggested that they stick to their motto of "one
thing at a time."

"And

our business just

now

is

woodwork."

VIII

THE MODEL AEROPLANE

THE
their
skill

automobile experiment naturally sugthe
aeroplane,

gested

and

after

much
dis-

reading of

magazines and animated

cussions as to the relative advantages of

biplanes,

monoplanes,

gliders, etc.,

the boys decided to try

on a biplane of their own design, a

combination of the features and proportions of
the Curtiss and Wright machines.

The automobile was
the

child's

play compared with

problems confronting the young aviators in

designing and working out a flying machine, and,
as in the former case, the question of motive

power

was the most
Fig. 48

difficult.

We

might add

it

has not

yet been satisfactorily solved.

shows

the

general

appearance of

the

boys' model, which was eighteen inches long from
front to back, and the planes,

made

of light card-

board, were 14 inches long and

3%

inches wide.

The frame, braces, rudder, and tilting plane were made of J^-inch basswood, put together with
68

THE MODEL AEROPLANE
through.

69

%-inch brads clinched wherever the points came

The
and

parts composing the frame were

made

first,

all

small

details,

such as rudder, propeller,
out
later.

tilting plane, etc., cut

The

separate parts are
like a

shown

in the drawing.

Four straight pieces
b
a,

were required to Sup-

port the tilting plane in front, and two pieces each

and

c for the

rudder in the rear.
c

Two

pieces

one of
of

b

and

were
d,

fastened

together

by

means

two uprights

forming one complete

side of the machine.

This was completed, and the
it.

second side

made
sides

identical with

These two

were then fastened parallel with

each other, rigidly, by means of the two rudder
posts e e and the cross pieces //,

by

brads.

The
for-

rudder posts bound the two sides rigidly
rear, the cross pieces at the centre,

at the

and at the

ward end the
This

tilting

plane was held in position by

the brads, which also acted as pivots.

made

a remarkably light and yet strong

framework.

The card-board

planes were not placed

in position until everything eise

was

finished, as

they

could be attached easily and quickly, but were very

much

in the

way when experiments were being made

on the propelling apparatus.

70

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Of course there had to be a propeller, and the problem of making it required some practice.

Ralph introduced the subject by showing Harry

how

to

make an

old-fashioned toy,

shown
the

in

the

detail drawing,

of

two

pieces,

one

propeller,

the other a balancing stick.

The

propeller was
4 inches

made
long

of a piece

of

%-inch

basswood,

and

V2 inch wide.

A

%6-inch hole was

first

drilled at the exact centre.

The two ends were then whittled down to the shape shown at k. The balancing stick was next whittled down until one end fitted tightly into the
hole drilled in the propeller, and the rest of the stick

then rounded until

it

was

of

uniform diameter.

This stick was glued into the hole, and allowed to
dry.

There was plenty

of

work

to do while the glue

was hardening, as the
of the

cross pieces g g

had to be

fastened to the frame to prepare for the installation

power

plant.

When
stick

the glue was dry, Ralph took the balancing
of
his

between the palms

hands, drew his

right

hand toward him with a quick motion, at the
releasing the stick.

same time
and
for a

To

Harry's amazeceiling,

ment, the whole thing flew up and Struck the

few minutes aeroplanes were forgotten

THE MODEL AEROPLANE

71

a>

e

"3.

IS
>>
+j

o

CO

72

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
the

while

two played with

this interesting

but

ancient tov.

Ralph explained that the propeller was simply
part of a screw thread, and had actually worked

way through the air just as a screw works its way into a piece of wood. Its lifting power had been shown by the way it carried the balancing stick
its

with

it

up to the

ceiling.

"Now," he
peller

continued,

horizontal
air

through the

"when we place a proit will worm its way forward in the same way and carry the
for the simple reason that it
it
is

aeroplane with

it,

so placed in the frame

can't get out.
is

free space it has to revolve in
shall

only 3

As the inches, we

have to cut the blades down to about
it

2%
and

inches to give

clearance."

They

whittled out a shaft

1%

inches long
it

fastened the two notched pieces h h to

after

placing the propeller in position between the two
cross pieces g g

which had been previously

drilled

with %-inch holes to act as bearings.

New

rubber bands were then passed over the

notches, stretched out to the front and rear of the

frame, and tied to cross pieces.

By

winding up the propeller, these bands were
tightly,

twisted

and

when

the

propeller

was

THE MODEL AEROPLANE
released, the

73
it

bands unwound, causing
in

to revolve

rapidly.

by brads, and the two planes fastened by the same
position

The rudder was now pivoted

method.

The power derived from the bands
sufficient to propel

was

not

the aeroplane fast enough to

support

it

in the air, so it

was necessary to

experi-

ment with strong thread
was found.
planes.
It

until the centre of gravity

proved to be near the centre of the

Sin all holes were

made with an awl

at this
tied.
it

point, the thread passed through

them and

By

suspending the aeroplane from a chandelier

took up a horizontal position.

Then the forward
slightly

tilting

plane

was elevated

and the propeller wound up.
the

On

being

released
sailed

aeroplane
air in

slowly

and

majestically
limited

through the

a great

circle,

by
it

the length of the suspending thread.

The boys never
would
require

tired

of

this

toy and
air,

all

lacked was the ability to fly in the open
a

which
This

more
for

powerful

motor.

would more than double the weight

of the machine,

and therefore
it.

call

larger planes to support

There you have the great problem of the

aviator.

74

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Ralph wisely suggested that
as they

had not yet
was, or

reached

the

stage

of

designing gasolene motors
it

they had better leave the aeroplane as
it

would be necessary to abandon

their

woodwork,

which neither of them had any intention of doing.

IX
THE MONOPLANE

AVERY from
L

satisfactory

monoplane can be made
the

the plans shown in Fig. 49.
material
for

The

frame

should
six

be
long

quarter-inch white pine or spruce.
strips are

The

30 inches in length, and for fastening,

holes should be drilled

and the connection made
through them and binding

by passing
fast.

fine soft wire

The top frame, formed of four of these long strips, should be made first, with particular attention to the measurements, so that both sides shall

be exactly the same

size

and weight.
strips

At the

rear end the

two long

may

be wired

The propeller shown in the drawing can be made at any time from a piece of
together temporarily.

white pine

% inch
It

thick and
is

12 inches long by

1%

inches wide.

a good piece of whittling

work.

The %-inch
first,

hole for the shaft should be bored

and the propeller blades reduced to a thick75

76

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

THE MONOPLANE

77

'»li^O^,
|

r

i

I

£

78

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Y% inch at the centre
shaft needs to be strong,
of the

ness of

blade,

and

Vw

inch or less at the edges.

The

and should be made

of a piece of

%-inch dowel rod.
is

Make

a saw cut

with back saw in the end, which
the propeller.

to be fastened in

When

ready to assemble, push this end into the
in a soft

%-inch hole in the propeller, drive

pine

wedge with a
result.

little glue,

and a
end

rigid fastening will

The groove
chine.

in the rear

of the shaft
it

is

to take

the thrust of the propeller, and hold

in the

ma-

This groove

may

be readily cut out with

the

knife,

and smoothed with sand-paper.
a strip of pine

Two
%,

bearings are necessary to hold the shaft in align-

ment.

The forward one

is

% by

with a %-inch hole bored at the centre.

This

hole should be sand-papered until the shaft turns
in
it

freely.

The

rear bearing
at a.

is

a strip

% by % inch,
hole

laid out as

shown
drill

The

quarter-inch

must be bored
with a fine

first.

Next,

drill

two small holes

on either side of the hole for the

wires which are to hold the

two pieces together.
removing the

Next saw on the
small piece
x.

pencil line shown,

Test the bearing by placing the

small grooved section of the shaft in the quarter-inch

THE MONOPLANE
hole to see
if it

79
this

turns freely.

When
its

has been

accomplished, the propeller and

bearings are

ready for the monoplane.

Looking at the front view, the two uprights are
9 x

%x%

inches.

At the top ends

they

are

rabbeted as shown, and wired to the top frame.

At

the bottom they are wired to the long strips which

form the long
Before

sides of the

bottom frame.
uprights
on,

putting

these

a

34 _mc h

hole should be drilled
of each.

1%

inches from the bottom

These are to receive the 3^-inch dowel
s.

rod which acts as the axle for the spool

This

rod should be 10 inches or more in length, so
that brads or wire

may

be passed through the
to

ends outside the
place.

uprights

keep the

axle

in

The
place

small spool which acts as a pulley

must be
in

perfectly free to turn on this rod,

and be kept
drilled

by two brads driven through
side of
it.

holes

on either

The

front and lower parts of the frame are

now
of

ready to be assembled.

The

four long strips constituting the
all

body

the frame are
porarily.
strip

wired together at the back, temthe forward part, saw out a

To

finish

% x 34 inch,

and form on each end a rounded

80

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
two wheels

bearing, as in the automobile, for

1%

inches in diameter.

Saw

the wheels out of %6-inch

basswood,
bearing,
nail

drill

a hole at each centre, place on the
in place with a

and fasten

flat-head wire

and a small washer next to the wheel.

Sand-

paper the wheels smooth, and see that they turn

Tack the strip, or wire it to the uprights, as low down as possible. The rear end of the monoplane is a nice little problem. Cut out a block of pine from 1 inch to
freely.

1%

inches

Square.

In the side facing the

front

place a screw eye for fastening the spring or rubber

bands.

The rudder
holes, as

is

shown

in the drawing.

Drill

two
be

shown, and drive in brads or flat-head wire
the hole, so that the rudder

nails, as large as

may

turned by hand, but not free enough to turn with
the wind.

Next
It
is

drill

a hole clear through the block for the

axle of the tilting planes.

not necessary that the axle be at the exaet
It should extend quite

centre of the cube.

through

both planes as well as the cube, and be bent around
the edges, so as to

make them
shift.

rigid.

They should

be snug enough to turn by hand, but not loose

enough

for the

wind to

THE MONOPLANE
The four sides of the frame are now down to fit the block, and wired to it.
This
is

81

whittled

Last comes the question of motive power.
the great

problem.

The writer

is

opposed

to encouraging boys to believe that these toy aero-

planes can be
propeller

made

to fly great distances.

The

would have to be made to revolve at high
of rubber

speed for several minutes in order to accomplish
this,

and the tension

bands

is

not equal
fly
is

to

The machines can be made to distances only. The problem of aviation
it.

short

now a

question of motors, and the smallest gasolene motor,

with
to

its

tank, etc., requires a fairly large aeroplane
it.

lift

No

doubt, the problem will be solved
it

within a short time, but

has not been done at the

time of writing.

For

this size of

toy monoplane several large rubtied together, fastened at the

ber bands

may be

screw eye on one end and to a piece of strong linen
kite cord at the other.

Pass this cord forward under the spool and up
to the propeller shaft.
Drill a small hole in the shaft,

draw the cord
yet,
it is

taut,

and fasten

it

through this hole.
wise
on,

While the model has no planes as

to get the propeller working before putting

them

82

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

as the space for working

freer.

Wind up
be

the
to

propeller until the bands have been stretched
their
limit,

then

let

go.

It

may

necessary
as in front.

to place wheels at the rear, the

same

On

a smooth floor, the machine should be

drawn

forward several feet by the action of the propeller.
It
is

entirely practicable,

on a plane

of this size,

to use the works of an ordinary alarm clock in place
of rubber bands.

Remove

the outer casing of an old clock; loosen

the four brass nuts that hold the frame together,

and take out

all

the wheels, except the axle on which
is

the mainspring

fastened.

Put the frame

to-

gether again with the four nuts.

The

axle for the mainspring extends outside of
is

the frame, and
for winding.
in the

threaded to receive the handle
this

Take

handle

off.

Drill a hole

end of the propeller
axle,

shaft, slightly smaller
latter into

than the mainspring
the propeller shaft.

and screw the

You now have
shaft,
3^2

the clock-works on the end of your

and

it

is

necessary to fasten a strip of pine
to the upper sticks of the frame

in.

x by /i

in.

in order to wire the

works

fast, as

they must not

be allowed to turn.

By

turning the propeller you
release
it,

wind up the

clock,

and as soon as you

as

THE MONOPLANE
there
is

83

it tries

no escapement now to regulate the spring, to unwind at once, and the propeller Starts

at terrific speed.

Look out

for

your hands, as the
short lived,

propeller blades

have no conscience.
is

This action, although strenuous,

but

much more

powerful than rubber bands.
is

The

spring of an ordinary alarm clock
to drive a

powerful enough

wooden two-bladed propeller 12 inches in diameter with blades two inches wide at the outside. It will draw a monoplane of this size
along the floor several
feet.

Having
it

finally

decided the question of power,

remains to attach the planes.

The remaining long
pieces, 12 inches

strip

is

wired to the top

from the

front,

and the plane,

made
In

of silk, oiled paper, or

very thin card-board,

attached.

many
is

toy aeroplanes

the bands of rubber

are not stretched, but twisted.

The

shaft in this

case

a wire which, after being fastened to the

propeller, passes through a glass

bead and then the

frame, ending in a hook to which the rubber bands
are attached.

There must be a perfectly clear

space from front to back of the frame.

The
is

glass

bead between the propeller and frame
the friction.

to relieve

X

M
and
as
Bleriot

KITES

AKING
in

and experimenting with aeroplanes

calls for

much

patience and often ends

disappointment
is

— the

lot of inventors

generally.

This
is

no reason why work should
will

stop,

as all progress

made by attempting the supposedly
it

impossible, but

be restful after a while to

turn to the ancient and gentle art of kite making.
Incidentally, something

may

be learned about

the effect of wind on plane surfaces that will prove
helpful in aeroplane work.

The aeroplane
effective.

kite

shown

in Fig. 50

is

simple

It

may be

given the appearance of a
of its features,

monoplane by modifying some
at
b,

shown

the planes having a slight upward
of the frames
is

slant.

The arrangement
in the drawing.
is

clearly

shown

Spruce or white pine

may

be used, as lightness

an

essential.
is

The method
It
is

of fastening the sticks

important.

not wise to halve them, as their strength will

be reduced below the safety point, and nails are
84

KITES
likely

85

to

split

them.

Bind them securely with

strong linen kite cord or fine soft wire.

Kite a

is

open to criticism on account of the

single stick connecting front

and back.

The second

form

is

better,

and the two long

sticks

may

be

correspondingly lighter without reducing the

ulti-

mate strength
three sticks,
Fig. 50.

The method of joining as at the forward end, is shown in detail in
of the frame.

Wherever a butt

Joint occurs, join the

two
with

pieces

by means

of small strips of tin cut to size

a pair of tinsmith snips.

Drill holes

through tin

and

sticks, pass fine soft

wire through the hole, and

twist tightly with a pair of pliers.

The
or

planes or

sails

may

be of

light,

strong paper,
silk.

some

light fabric,

such as lawn or cheap

The
each

fabric should be cut to size, allowing

two inches
through

way

for the

hem.

Pieces of cord are fastened
of the sticks

to the

hem, and tied to the ends

small holes drilled for the purpose, or tied to notches

cut with the knife.

The advantage
or planes,

of this

method
a

is

that the

sails,

may

be drawn tightly or removed without

loss of time.

In this

wav

number

of fabrics can

be used for experimental purposes.

Paper, on the

other hand, must be lapped over sticks and wires,

and glued.

86

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Propellers

may

be fastened to front,

rear, or both,

to create the appearance of a real aeroplane.

The

restraining action of the cord holding one of

these kites up against the wind

brings into action

the same force that supports the glider or aeroplane,

and the

sails,
sail,

especially fabrics,

assume the

curve of a boat
into the wind.

when

close-hauled and sailing

The forms
limited only
It
is

that are possible

are

infinite,

and

by the imagination

of the designer.

well to begin with one of the Standard types,
until

and leave experimental forms
has been gained.

some experience

The Americanized Malay, Eddy, or parakite is shown in Fig. 50. The two sticks are of equal
length,

bound together with twine
c e
c d.

or soft wire.

Distance

should be from 14 to 18 per cent. of

the total length
straight,

The
b

vertical stick remains
is

but cross stick a

bent back like a bow,
the total

the distance

ef being

10 per cent. of

length of either stick, and maintained by a string

from a to

b.

The

four points a c b d are joined

by a cord drawn

taut, to

make

sure that the sticks

are at right angles.

The

material should be cut as shown, the
all

amount

lapped being uniform

around.

This

is

important,

KITES

87

I!

t

$

88

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
two
sides

as a slight difference in weight between the

would
will

result in erratic flying.

For Eddy

kites

up

to three feet in height a light-weight

wrapping paper
the kites de-

answer very

well.

Larger
silk.

sizes require nainall

sook, lawn, or

China
is

Like

scribed here, this

a tailless one, and the method
is

of fastening the bridle

shown.

Make
centre.

a small

hole
tie
it

in

the covering,
cross

pass

a cord through,
its

and

to

the stick at

Fasten

the other end about half an inch from lower end
of upright,

and make a loop

at

o

for attaching

the

line.

The
twine

kite line should be the light

and strong linen and sold by
ball containing

made

especially for this purpose,

toy and sporting goods dealers.

A

600 yards of cord, strong enough to hold any threefoot kite, will cost about fifty cents.

For larger

sizes, it

pays to make a

reel,

to save

time drawing in and to avoid bad tangles.
simple form of reel
is

A

shown

in Fig. 51.

The frame has

a generous-sized hole

bored as

shown at h. Cut a small branch in the form shown, Drive it into the ground i, and use this as a stake. through h, and use it as a pivot to shift the reel as the wind changes. With this arrangement the kite cannot drag the reel, and it is possible to leave

KITES
the apparatus with the kite in the
air.

89

The

writer

was driven to using
foot fence.

this device after seeing his reel
fields until

go tearing across the

stopped by a four-

The

pull exerted at the reel
is

by a

train

of three or four kites

sometimes
it.

sufficient to give

a boy

all

he can do to hold
is

The height
the direction
little

to which

a kite will go
the
starting

illustrated

by the diagram.
t

S

is

point,

and

s

of

the

string at the start,

when but

cord has been

played out.
times
is

The

position of the kite at various

by letters a b c d e, the actual path being shown by dotted line. The solid, curved lines from s to these points show the position of the cord as it is played out. This is a mathematical curve resulting from the weight of cord and kite, wind pressure on cord, and lifting power of the
indicated
plane.
It will

be seen that the kite

finally

moves along
is

horizontally,

no matter how much cord
lifting

played out.

This occurs when the
of

power equals the force
In other words,

gravi ty and
kite

wind pressure.

the

can

do

no more without an increase
s

of wind.

To make
by tandem
to the
first

it

go higher, we must raise point

flying, attaching

another kite and cord

one, as

shown

at x.

90

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Three or four Eddy
kites

may be flown in this way,
length joined at a

the lines of equal or unequal

common point to the main line; and, stränge as it may seem, if they are well balanced kites they will
not interfere with each other.
to be an electrical repulsion

In

fact, there

seems
that

among

the

lines, so

they spread out like a broom.

This
in

is

one of the most interesting discoveries
flying,

kite

though

badly

upset

in

actual

practice,
erratic

when one member

of the

team becomes
braid
of

and proceeds to make
about
it

a

the

four

cords by diving under and

over the others

to bring
this

a
is

general

demoralization.
test

For

reason,

wise to

each kite sepa-

rately, first, to discover

any possible tendency to
be enjoyed by leaving

freakishness.

A

weird experience

may

the tandem out after dark.

Run

the main line

down

by slipping it under your arm, and walk out until you reach the junction of the four lines, where a light-weight lantern can be attached. Let go, and see the lantern apparently drawn up into the air by noiseless, invisible hands.
Flags

and other devices may be attached as
flag

indicated in the drawing; a light stick at a b will

keep the

from blowing up into a heap, and loops

KITES
at

91

a and

c

are

tied

in

the main line to avoid

sliding.

THE BOX KITE

The rectangular box variety is perhaps the most common,
cellular kite
is

The

made

in several forms.

Fig. 51.

Kite detail^

and with the

bridle attached

is

shown

in Fig. 51.

The Standard
inches,

dimensions
c

are:

length

a b
cell

79
c

width a

78

inches,
of

depth of
covering
size
is

d
25

32 inches, and width
inches.

cloth

c e

A

very

convenient

obtained

92

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
dividing

by

approximately

by

two,

niaking

length
inches.

and width 40 inches each, and depth 16
of the

Mr. H. H. Clayton,
has

Blue Hill Observatory,
this

patented

one form of

kite

known

as

the "Blue Hill Naval

Box Kite,"
it

so the

amateur
Other

must confine
forms of
at 2 3 4 5.

his use of

to experimenting.

cells

which have been used
all

are

shown

These
is

possess the advantage
surface,

— that
a

each

plane

a lifting

whereas in the

rectangular form the vertical planes have only

rudder action, tending to hold the kite parallel with
the wind.

When

launching a box kite, the assistant Stands

in front of

and under
it

it,

while with the
lets

Malay

he Stands behind

and

go at a given word.

About a hundred vards of line should be run out before launching, and only a few steps backward
by the boy at the string should be Running is only required when the
insufficient.

necessary.
line

out

is

The
Bell
is

tetrahedral form invented

unique

and
it

interesting.

by Dr. Graham Based on the
lifting

geometrical figure,
of frame,

has a remarkable strength

and possesses a surprising

power.
is

The

principal difficulty in the construction

in

KITES
fastening the sticks, as three of
point.

93

them meet

at every

The frame
about 34

consists of six pieces of equal

length.
pieces,

Drill a 1/32-inch hole in each

end of

all

the

mcn from
g
KZ

the end.

Place the

<5WUl CSLIS

Fig. 52.

The

tetrahedral kite

pieces on the floor as
soft iron or brass wire

shown

at

1.

Pass a piece of

through the three holes at

a
b

and bind
and
c.

lightly.

Do

the

same
d
e

at

angles

Now

raise loose

ends

f

until they

meet over the

centre, as at 2.

Join with wire and

94
tighten

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
all

the

joints

with

a

pair

of

pliers.

(Fig.

52.)

Each face of the frame is an equilateral triangle, and the covering is to be on only two sides, as shown The shape of the piece to be cut is shown at 3.
at 4.

This forms a single

cell,

and the large

sizes
cells.

are broken

up into many small tetrahedral
d.

The line may be tied at c or The designing of fancy
ciples are

figure

kites

is

a fas-

cinating occupation, but unless certain fixed prin-

kept in mind

may end

in

menting and many disappointments.
of steadiness

or

stability

seems to
expression

much experiThe question be summed

up

in

the

mathematical

— "dihedral
same

angle."

A

kite having a

stiff, flat

surface presented to the
antics, while the

up queer frame covered with a more
wind
will often cut
fly beautifully.

flexible covering will

ering will

The reason is that the flexible covbe bowed back by the wind, forming an
triangulär box
is is

approximate "dihedral angle."
In
this

the

and tetrahedral
so

kites

bowing back

not

necessary, because

the dihedral angle

provided in the construction.

In these kites, when a sudden gust of wind presses
harder on one side than on the other, the
first

side

KITES
is

95

pressed back, reducing the resistance, and the
is

other side

brought forward until both sides
is

re-

ceive equal pressure, or the kite

in equilibrium,
is

facing the wind;

and the
for.

shifting of the breeze

constantly provided

The bowing back
Double Malay
especially

of the

covering of an

Eddy

kite takes

care of sudden
kites

changes in the same way.
or

two tetrahedral
will

kites, fastened together, t andern

fashion,

be

found

stable,

if

the

rear one be slightly smaller than the forward one.
(Fig. 53.)

Geometrical forms like the hexagon, six-pointed

Fig. 53.

Double

kites

star,

and

even

the

circle

are

used, but

these

generally require a

tail.

A
body
tilted

butterfly design
is

may

be used, provided the
angle.

designed as a keel and the two wings are

backward to provide the required

96

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
bamboo
frames, flexible enough
stabil-

In some of the Chinese kites, in the form of insects,
the wings have split
to

bend backward and provide the necessary

ity.

A

flexible

lower end on the frame also has
effect.

a good balancing

XI

M
as
is

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE

WORK

AKING
and

moving toys

is

a form of dissipais

tion," said Ralph.
interesting,

"It

very f ascinating

but the making of

many

toys will never

make one an

expert woodworker.

The accuracy and skill required can be developed only by actual constructive work. I suggest that we take up a form of decoration which can be done
with the knife.

"There are two ways of making an
pleasing to the eye.

article in

wood

we

did in

One is by varying the outline, our match scratchers, and the other
of surface ornamentation. of decorating surfaces
etc.,

by some kind are many ways
several of these

There

— carving,

pyrography, staining, polishing,

and very often

methods are combined.
learn the possibilities of

"As we have started to

knife work, I propose to teach

you a form

of carving

which can be done with the knife alone.
elaborate
tools.

Very

work

is

done with the regulär carving
skill,
97

This requires a great deal of time and

98

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
work can be done even by small boys.
very important to approach
it

but with the knife alone a wonderful variety of
beautiful

"It
so I

is

properly,

am

going to give you a few simple exercises

and the elaborate designs will come along naturally. 'The work is not new, and evidently grew out of
the
still

older art of notehing.
it

Primitive peoples

probably saw in
of their various

a

way

to improve the appearance

wooden implements.

Not only could

the edges be notehed, but the cutting could be done

on

flat

surfaces as well."

Fig. 54 at a

shows one of the

earliest designs.

Ǥ

jjjjjjj

Hr.fi 1
jr-

m

4-4»

i?f

-Li J*

^ J x

-L"

Fig. 54.

First cuts in carving

It

is

simply a border of triangulär cuts, and while

this

may

be done with the whittling knife, Fig. 55

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE
shows two knives which are better
accurate work.

WORK
fitted

99

to do

The

positions for carving are
in

shown

in Fig. 56.

Hold the knif e

an upright

position, with the cut-

Fig. 55.

Two

good types of knife for carving

away from you, and the point on the apex Press the knife down and then away of the triangle. from you along one of the sides of the triangle.
ting edge

Place

it

in position again,

and repeat the motion

along the other side of the triangle, always directly

on the

line.

This brings the deep part of the cut

at the apex of the triangle,

and

it

remains to take

out the triangulär chip.
of the

This can be done in either
in Fig. 56, It
is

two ways shown

by cutting away
well to practise

from you

or toward you.

both ways, as in complicated designs the direction
of the grain in

makes

it

necessary to cut sometimes

one direction, sometimes in another.

The
stroke,

rest of this border

is

a repetition of the

same

and the more elaborate designs are simply
arrangements of triangulär cuts.

different

100

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
one row inverted, to produce a diamond-shaped
is

In Fig 54, b shows two rows of these same shaped
cuts,

border; c shows a border in which the drawing
similar to
b,

but vertical triangles are cut instead

Fig. 56.

Positions for holding carving knife

of horizontal ones, as this gives a cut across the

grain of the

wood

instead of parallel to

it,

and

is

a

trifle

harder.
for

Our boys practised on these simple borders
awhile,

using

knife

a and

34-i n ch

basswood.

The work proved

fully as fascinating to

Harry as

CHIP CARVING

AND KNIFE WORK
it

101

the making of toys, and

was decided that from

that time onward the outlines of their

woodwork

Fig. 57.

A

simple picture frame with carving

should be simpler, and the deeoration should be
in the

form

of chip carving.

While Harry was practising on these simple
borders

Ralph made the basswood photograph
in

frame shown

Fig.

57,

and drew the carving

design, as shown, with

an

H

pencil.
6.

To

carve this was simply to repeat border

102

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
on
finer
tried.

This was so satisfactory that Ralph decided to try
his pupil

work, and the design shown in In each case Harry found that
tri-

Fig. 58

was

he was making triangulär cuts, and removing
angulär chips, just as in the
first

border, only the

Fig.

58

A
triangles

more elaborate picture frame

were

in

different positions.

Ralph sugbasswood

gested that they begin to decorate some of the things

they had already made, and the

little

box shown

in

Fig.

33 was brought out, and the
it.

design shown in Fig. 59 drawn and carved upon

There followed a number

of

"backs,"

which

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE

WORK

103

Ralph explained could be used as thermometer backs, match scratchers, calendars, key racks, and
in other ways.

In each case, the design was drawn

Figs. 59

and

60.

Designs for box Covers

carefully

on paper, and thence transferred to the

wood with the same care that it had been done on paper. The designing required
surface of the

considerable thought.

Where a border continued around four

sides,

the

104

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

corner became the most difficult and interesting

part of the design, and was worked out first. (Fig. 61.)

Very soon the boys found that

it

was necessary

Fig. 61.

Straight line designs for thermometer backs

to

draw only

half the design on paper,

and

in

many

cases a corner or quarter sufficed.

The next
mysteries
of

step

was to

initiate

Harry

into the

curved

cutting,

a

departure

from

triangulär cutting.

He was inf ormed that the cuts were still three-sided,
one or two of the sides being but slightly curved.

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE W0RK1
Fig. 62, used as

105

an enrichment of a "back" in
Harry's
first effort in

%-inch

gum wood, was

curved

Fig. 62.

Curved

cuts.

chip carving.

The edges

of the

blank piece were
his pupil

bevelled with a plane and

Ralph showed

how

to do this

by holding the blank against a bench

Fig. 63.

Key

rack

hook.
last,

The

long sides were bevelled

first,

the ends

to avoid breaking off the corners.
(Fig. 63)

The key rack
flat

gave an opportunity to

use centre pieces inside a border, diamonds of the
surface being left uncarved for the placing of

the screw hooks.

106

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
pencil box
for

A

school

followed,

the various
sides

pieces being

shown
in

in Fig. 64.

The two
\]/±

ends were

made

one strip

and inches wide, and

afterward cut to length.

To

secure this strip of

uniform width, the shooting board shown in Fig.

Fig. 64.

The

pencil

box its side,

65 was used, the plane being laid on
the 3^-inch piece of
edge.

giving

gum wood
his

a perfectly square

Ralph was having

own

troubles as a teacher

about this time, for he wanted to reserve Harry's
education in the use of bench tools until later on,

when he should have exhausted the possibilities of the knife; but this method of using the plane was
necessary
if

Harry was to produce blank forms

fit

for decoration.

The

six pieces

being squared up, a J^-inch margin

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE
was
left

WORK

107

on

all

sides of the pieces to be carved

the top, front, and two ends.

This J^-inch space was for the brads.

The assembling was not done
had been
little

until the carving

finished,

and

it

consisted of fastening the

long sides to the ends with ^-inch brads, with a
glue on the end grain of the end pieces.

The

bottom was put on with brads, and the top hinged

Fig. 65.

Use

of shooting

board

by two small nickel-plated hinges. A little hook and eye from the hardware störe were put at the front to hold the cover on, and two small
to the back
cleats

were glued to the under side of the cover to
it

keep

from warping.

108

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
this pencil

The time spent on
could not be bought.
Pencil boxes

box was several

hours, but the result was a box the like of which

became the rage with our boys,

Fig. 66.

Carving designs for pencil box

and although they made several
in each case the design

of the

same

size,

was

different.

(Fig. 66.)

XII
CHIP CARVING: Continued

AMONG
ZJk
"*-

the

many

useful articles

which can

be made with the knife in thin wood, with
carving as enrichment, are the numerous

desk accessories, such as envelope holders, letter
racks,

stamp and pen boxes, pen

trays,

blotting

pads, etc.

The

boys, after exhausting the subject

of pencil boxes for school use,

took up the design and
These, they decided,

construction of letter racks.

should be in two compartments for answered and

unanswered

letters.

This called for three uprights,

They decided to make them of about uniform dimensions, as shown in the blank form (Fig. 67). The problem of the outline was somewhat affected by the fact that the front
or partitions, and a base.

was to be carved.

This called for a simpler outline

than would have been the case had they expected
to leave the surface piain.

Some

of the designs

they worked out are shown in Fig. 68.

The form marked a was
109

selected as a beginning,

the three partitions cut out exactly alike, and the

110

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
as

front piece carved

shown

in

Fig.

69.
left

The
with

middle partition and back piece were
piain
surfaces.

The

cutting of the grooves in the base was a

new
skill

problem, and Harry was allowed to try his

J
1

.
I

14

T
i

>
1
i

s-

Ji

1

—ÄParts of letter rack

Fig. 67.

The method used was first to make The long side the drawing shown at a, Fig. 67.
with a
chisel.

lines of

each groove were scored with the point of

the knife, going over each line several times, to

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE

WORK
An

111

make

the cut as deep as possible.

under cut

was then made, as shown in the figure. The wood in the centre was removed with a %-inch
chisel,

and the process continued

until a

uniform

depth of 34 inch was reached. After all three grooves

i c

j

)

^

r

Fig. 68.

Boys' designs for letter racks

had been cut, the edges
the plane.

of the base

were bevelled with

This bevelling could have been

done

readily with the knife, but

much time was saved by
first.

using the plane, always doing the long sides

In

all

the letter racks shown in the illustrations

112

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
First, the

the construction was the same.

three

blank partitions were made, then finished in their
outlines with knife

and sand-paper.

The carving
of the of the base,

was always drawn carefully on the surface
front piece.

Third,

came the making

and

last,

the gluing of the partitions into the

grooves.

To

increase the strength of a letter rack,

%-inch brads can be driven from the bottom into

Fig. 69.

Form "A"
is

the partitions, but where this
to

done

it

is

safer

draw

pencil lines on the

bottom

directly

under

the centre of each partition.

Place the point of

the brad exactly on the line before hammering.

Although the forms of the
based on the
tive

letter

rack are endless,

the one which our boys found most interesting was
ellipse.

It called forth a very instruc-

drawing

lesson.

how

the figure

Ralph showed Harry first could be drawn by a string, with
foci of

two pins to represent the

the

ellipse.

The

CHIP CARVING
figure
axis

AND KNIFE WORK
called

113

has

two

dimensions

the

major

and minor axis. The combined length

(Fig. 70).

of the

two

lines

drawn
.Jt:Upi<ac1

from any point on the
ellipse to

I

4*'5- _

/ic/

/öc/

^

the two

foci

must always be the same and equal to the length of the major axis.
the two pins

Fi g- 70

-

This

is

readily seen with
71.)

and

string.
it

(Fig.

The
resents

pencil point as

traverses the ellipse repstring remains the

any point, and the

same
it

length.
is

Where

required to draw
of definite

an ellipse
size,

say
it

three,

by becomes
two
to
find

necessary

the foci before the
string can be used,
Fig. 71.

Drawing the

ellipse

with string and pins

and

aS

it

reqilireS

considerable
length,
called

skill

to

get

the

string

the

exact

Ralph showed the boy another way, (Fig. 72.) the trammel method.
is

Suppose the problem
6 inches x 2J^ inches.

to construct an ellipse

First

draw the two

lines

a b

114

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
c

and

d at right angles, intersecting at the exact

centre.

Take a

straight

piece
a.

of

paper,

lay

it

along a b with one end at

Make
x.

a dot on the

edge of the paper where the

lines cross,

and mark

it

Next, lay the same
of

\

strip

paper along

cd, with the original

end at

c,

and again

mark
Fig. 72.

a point where

the lines cross.
The trammel method

Mark
At any

this point

ij.

Position of this strip of paper

when the points x and y
c d,

touch the two axes a b and
strip will

the end of the paper
shifting this

be on the

ellipse.

By

paper

trammel and keeping the two points on the axes a series
of points

may

be made at the end of the paper. Con-

Fig. 73.

The

ellipse

used in carving designs

necting this by a pencil line will complete the

ellipse.

This

is

a very simple

method and a very accurate one.

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE

WORK

115

Our boys drew this figure, 6 x 2J^ inches, with a trammel and then worked out the design from it shown in Fig. 73. It made a very satisfactory form f or the letter rack, and gave an elliptical space for carving, a new problem in chip carving design.

Fig. 74.

Two more
shown

of

these

elliptical

designs

are

in Fig. 74.

Another feature

of this rack
is

was a change

in the

middle partition; the form

shown

at

Fig. 75.

The making

of the base

and gluing into the grooves

were similiar to the earlier designs.

116

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
design was characterized by an outline
largely of straight lines.

The next
composed
and back

The middle

partition

was lower than the front
in Fig. 75.

pieces, as

shown

The boys found

a great deal of pleasure in working

out a decorative scheme for the carving.

Having

Fig. 75.

A

neat design for a letter rack

discovered
curves,

how

easy

it is

to carve the long flowing

they introduced them wherever possible.

The
while

general shape of the carved section

must

of

course conform to the outline of the wood, but
filling

in [these

flowing

curves

they

soon

learned

to

sketch them in free-hand.

CHIP CARVING

AND KNIFE WORK
tried this
it

117

To

a person

who has not
it is

work or who
appears very

has not begun with simple cuts
difficult,

remembered that only one cut can be made at a time and that each chip is
but when
even
a triangle,
if

its sides

are slightly
it

curved,

actually
easy,

proves

very

and within the power
of

any normal boy
Fig. 76.

A letter

rack decorated with the

to accomplish.

veining tool

Harry was introduced
almost V-shaped.

at this time to the use of

the veining tool, a fine gouge with a cross section

This was used to emphasize

the outlines of the designs

by simply pushing ahead
on the
lines.

directly

veining straight lines,

When it may

be guided by a ruler or other
straight edge, but for curves,

a
The pen-holder

free-hand

movement

is

necessary.
Fig. 77.

A
is

very

good

practice

piece

the design

shown

at Fig.

76.

This

may

be

applied to the

front of the letter rack design.

(Fig. 69.)

The pen-holder shown at Fig. 77 is one of a large number which were made by the boys. The pieces

118

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Fig. 78. Pieces

composing pen-holder

CHIP CARVING

AND KNIFE WORK

119

were cut out with a knife to the blank fornis shown.

On

all

pieces like these, afterward to be assembled,

the edges were

made

straight

and Square on the
betöre
as-

shooting board, and the carving done

sembling

.

This pen-holder was put together with
of the front,

^-inch brads with the exception

which
nails

was glued, as
showing on

it

was thought best not to have
important
side.

this

(Fig. 78.)

XIII
CHIP CARVING

AND KNIFE WORK

(See 31, 109)

ILIKE
whittling,

this

new work

better than anything

we

have ever done," said Harry one day when he

and Ralph were up to and designing.

their ears in carving,

Ralph smiled as he remembered Harry's intense interest in making moving toys. "As I told you
once before," he replied, "this
is

not new but
it

old.

The people
centuries,

of northern

Europe have done
is

for

and the reason

not hard to
it

find.

In

Norway during
early, in

the long winter

gets dark very

some places at three o'clock in the afternoon, and does not become light again until nine
o'clock in the morning.

long evenings,
to

when

it

is

The result is very, very much more comfortable

work

indoors.

"At an
in

early era

the people developed this beau-

tiful art of carving,

and spent

their long evenings
skilful

working at

it.

They became very
Utensils

and as
it

most

of the household
all

were of wood,
the

was not at

unusual
120

to

see

household

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE

WORK

121

furniture, even to their bread boards,

beautifully

carved."

"By the way," said Harry, "can't I make knife now? You know you said I could
had learned to use the knife!" "Yes, I think you might try your
thing of that character now.
skill

a paper
after I

on some-

It will

be quite a

change from this

flat

work we have been doing.
wood, however, than you

It will require a harder

have been using, as a paper knife must be thin and
strong at the same time. " The Swedish carvers use apple
for their

wood a
is

great deal

paper knives, but as this
It
is

rare with us,

suppose we try rock maple.
close grained,

white in colour,

and hard."

As usual, they worked up their design on paper first and sketched in the carving shown in Fig. 79. A piece of rock or sugar maple was first squared
up
and
laid

out

in

pencil

as

shown

at

B.

In order to get the outline to conform exactly to
the drawing, the form was cut out of paper and traced on the face of the wood.

The blank form
line,

was then whittled out to the pencil
papered smooth as shown at
c.

and sand-

Maple proved

to be a hard

wood

to whittle.

Notches were cut at d d after drawing the edge

122

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The blade and
lines e

view on front and back edges.
handle were then whittled down to

and

/.

C

K

Fig. 79.

Two

designs for paper knives

"Whew!"
"Well,
didn't

exclaimed Harry, "don't ever give

me

any maple to whittle again."

you
feil

wanted

to

make

a paper

knife,

you?
it

A

paper
floor

knife

that would break

when
be

on the

wouldn't be of
yet.

much

use,

and you are not through
cut

The blade must
edge

down

to

a

fairly

sharp

on both

sides

now."

This was done by bevelling the edges as shown in

h and the bevel gradually cut back to the centre

CHIP CARVING
line,

AND KNIFE WORK
j.

123

as

that this
ever

shown at i and was the hardest

Harry concluded work that he had

done.

"Now you
couldn't allow

understand," said Ralph,

"why

I

you to make a knife at first. All the training I have given you was necessary before you had the requisite skill and control of your hands. The carving will be easy for you because of all this
practice.
Skill is

something which comes that way.

Why,
that

if

I should give

first

you the problem of making key rack over again, you would do it in

Fig. 80.

Key rack

designs

about one third of the time, and very

much

better

than at your
skill

first

attempt.
it.

You have been

gaining

without knowing

124

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
how much you have advanced,
to be

" Just to show you
I will give

you one or two key rack designs

decorated with chip carving.

When they are

finished,

take them into the house and compare them with
the
at
first

you made.

I

think you will be amused
original

the difference.

That
will

piece

of

which
affair

you were so proud
now."

seem a very crude

"All right," said Harry, "but I should like to

make one more paper
mind."

knife

first

if

you don't

"Very

well;

make up a new

design, because no

artist ever duplicates his

work," said Ralph with
however.
for
79,

a mischievous smile.

The The
that

smile was premature,

The boy
nothing.

had not been designing woodwork
design
is

shown
critic

at No. 2, Fig.

and even

Ralph, severe
it

though he was, had to admit
fair."

was "pretty

"Looks like a table knife," he said seriously. "However, it is your own design, so go ahead and make it. Try a piece of cherry this time. It makes a good wood for carving, and is not quite
so hard to whittle as maple."

The

different steps in the process of cutting this
1, Fig. 79.

out were the same as in No.

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE

WORK

125

^

g
Fig. 81.

The

blotter

päd

126

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
in

The key rack shown
tively easy after

Fig. 80

was compara-

making paper

knives.

The

bevel-

ling of the curves at the ends

was the only new

feature of the knife work.

The making
from
this

of presents

went rapidly onward
article

time.

The next

to engage our

woodworkers' attention was the blotting päd, made
of

two pieces

of black

walnut fastened together with the screw
handle.
(Fig.
is

81.)

The
face
Fig. 82.

blotter

bent

around
of

the

curved
lower

the

Method
T

of using the

spokeshave

part,

and the ends

gripped
the

betw een

the

two

parts

by tightening

screw.

These handles

with screw attached

are of brass, and can be obtained at any hardware
störe.

The upper

piece

was bevelled, and a
left

circular

space in the centre

piain to provide for the

handle, the rest of the space being carved.

The making

of the

curved face on the bottom was
it

too difficult for the knife, so the boy worked

out

with the plane and spokeshave shown in (Fig. 82).

When

these blotter pads are finished with the

CHIP CARVING

AND KNIFE WORK

127

brass handle, coloured blotter and hand-carved top,

they

are

very

attractive,

and make acceptable

presents.

Toilet boxes were next in order, and there seemed

no end to them; glove boxes,
chief boxes, boxes
etc.

collar boxes,

handker-

for storing

away photographs,

Those

for collars

were Square, viewed from

the top, while glove boxes were

made

long and

narrow.

The
his

construction of these called for the use of

carpenters' tools,

and Ralph was not ready to start
branch of woodwork yet, for

pupil

on

this

several reasons.

In the

first place, it

nating work of

meant a halt in the fascicarving, and they had not yet
So they

exhausted the possibilities of knife work.
tried the plan of
stores.

buying ready -made boxes from the
basswood,
it

This was not entirely satisfactory, as most
of
soft,

of

them were

and
a

easily carved,

but so white that

became

soiled

too readily.

This difficulty finally led to

unique

scheme.

They

stained the

wood a

dull ebony,

and found that

the design showed very clearly in gray pencil lines,
easily carved.

The carving came out white on

a black back-

ground, and proved quite satisfactory for the coarser

128

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The
finer

designs.

work, however, did not show
of leav-

to advantage,

and the method was adopted

ing certain portions of the surface piain.

One of the glove box designs is shown in Fig. 83. The lines made in this black and white carving by the veining tool are very effective. The boys had just gotten nicely at work one afternoon when Harry remarked very seriously:

Fig. 83.

Design for glove box

"On what

subject shall our lecture be this after-

noon, professor?"^

A

block of white pine hurtled across the shop,

but Harry ducked and no one was hurt.

"No,"
to-day.

said Ralph,

"you

can't start a discussion

IVe been

thinking that you will have to

take up the use of bench tools pretty soon, because

you are

really doing this

work backward."

"What do you mean?"

CHIP CARVING AND KNIFE
'

WORK

129

Why, you should never

decorate anything which

you haven't actually made."
"Well, haven't I

made everything we have carved

sofar?"
"All except the boxes.
boxes, that

When we bought
it

those

was a

signal that

was time

for

you

t

"E5"

s
Fig. 84.

Eg

er
It has

b

Double photo frame

to begin constructive work.

been a big

problem to give you carving to do on
flat

articles in the

that you could

make with

the knife.

We

will

make
in

a few picture frames, carve them, and then

leave our carving until

you can construct anything

wood.

You

will

always be able

now

to design

carved work for any given space; one of these picture frames, however,
test of
is

going to be a rather severe

your

skill."

Fig. 84

shows the first photograph frame they took

up, a simple design in one piece.

130

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
for the pictures were cut out with

The openings

coping saw and knife and bevelled. The bevels on the outer edges of the frame were planed.

Fig. 85.

Carved picture frame

Fig. 85
lär

shows a problem

in designing for irreguis

spaces,

and the design

a typical
it

Swedish

form.

In both of these frames

was necessary
photo on the

to provide a

method

of holding the

back.

CHIP CARVING

AND KNIFE WORK
side,

131

This was accomplished by tacking on two strips
of J^-inch

basswood on each

and the bottom

shown in Fig. 85, the narrow strip being J4 mcn wide, and the top one Y2 inch wide, making a
as

groove
is

f/g

mcn deep

to receive the picture.

If it

designed to have

glass in front of the photo,

the narrow strip must be
of
3^8

34

mcn

thick in place

inch. of polishing carved

The problem
a
difficult one.

work

is

rather

Ordinary varnish or shellac cannot
flat surfaces,

be used to advantage, as on
it fills

because

up the Spaces and ruins the effect. Perhaps the best method is to dissolve a small quantity of
in

beeswax in turpentine, and
rub
with

an old tooth
is

or nail brush, which

comwill

paratively

soft.

This

not injure the carving, and
will protect it

from dampness

and dust, as the wax hardens.
It

should
the

be put on when
consistency
p

about
mi

of
Palette photograph

soft putty.

ine

photo
86)

l

(Fig.

shown frame was the last form our boys attempted
trame

,

-i

Fig. 86.

in the flat.

132

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
advantage of simplicity, only one kind
lines,

It has the

of

cut being used; but the long flowing

which must
all

drawn on the wood free-hand, require the patience and skill one can command.
be
first

The form

in outline

is

the artist's palette, and
ellipse.

the opening for the picture an

All the lines in the carving converge to a point

to the left of the centre of the opening.

XIV
THE SHOP

THE
working
is

man who
is

is

most

successful
for

is

the one

who
tools,

best

prepared

his

work.

In beginning to learn
the

how
boy

to use woodis

average

very

often

hampered by the lack

of facilities.

The
lines,

place he

to use for his shop should at least have good light.
of the lines

Many
is

he uses are knife
lines, so

which are

harder to see than pencil

that light at least

an

essential.

The

tools should

be as good as he can obtain.
that
it
is

This does not

mean

necessary to have

elaborate sets of chisels, gouges,
tools should be of well

etc.,

but the cutting
It
is

tempered

steel.

far

better to have a few very good tools than an elaborate

equipment

of

poor ones, such as the boy 's ready-

made
of

tool ehest often contains.

A good workman is one who can do a
good work with a few well-selected

large variety
tools.

One reason
knife

for our

having given so much space to
very
fact.

work was to

illustrate this
133

Very

134

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
are
salable

often the carved pieces described in previous chapters

at good figures,
of

and irom the

money thus obtained a supply
tools

bench or carpenters'

can be bought.
to a well lighted place in
is
if

Next

which to work,

a fairly good bench

essential.

This can be made

by the boy
built,

himself,

he cannot secure one already

but as the construction of a bench presupposes
tools,

some previous practice with
on a bench already
Several

we

will

assume
practice

that our readers receive their
built, just as

first

tool
did.

Harry

forms of benches on the market are
Fig. 87.

shown
of

in

The bench
some

to be of

any use must have a

vise

description, as very often both

hands are

required to guide the tool, and the

wood must be

held rigid.

The
vise

old-fashioned screw vise

is

cheap, and a cheap

may

be

made

at a cost of half a dollar,

by

purchasing the screw and nut and making the jaw

and guides by hand, but
use of a bench.

this
all

again calls for the
it will

So taken
the bench

in all

pay the
a

young woodworker to save
good vise even
This
is
if

his

money and buy
their first

is

home-made.
argument;

just where our boys

had

Harry wanted

to begin

by building a work bench.

THE SHOP

135

Fig. 87,

Types

of

work bench

136

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

"That
knife

where you are wrong," said Ralph.

"Perhaps you remember that you wanted to begin

work by making a paper
it

cutter,

and as a
thing I
skill

matter of fact

was very nearly the
It required
all
it.

last

gave you to do.

your

and
be

previous practice to accomplish

It will be just

the same with the bench and vise.

You
as

will

able to construct them, but only after considerable

experience with tools.

You might

well

insist

on making

all

your tools before starting to use
insist

them

or

you might
trees

on going into the woods,

cutting

down

and ripping out your own planks
and came out with a
It

for stock.

Just wait a minute."
into the house

He went
picture
style
of

pamphlet on lumbering, which he opened at the

shown

in Fig 88.

represents the old

sawing out planks by hand before the
in the pit

Coming
the

of the saw-mill.
is

The man
log,

called a pit

man, the one on
of

the
in

sawyer.

This

method
fifty

cutting

lumber was

vogue up to about

years ago.

"This," said Ralph, "is what your line of reasoning would lead us back to, so
instructor
if

I

am

to be your

you must leave these things to my judgment, and my advice is to start work with a
good bench having on
it

a good vise."

THE SHOP
To
in
let

137

you into a family secret, the boys' work carving had beert admired by several friends
in

and they had worked up quite a trade

making

and

selling their carvings.

From

the

money they

Fig. 88,

The

old

way

of getting out

lumber

had saved
Fig. 89.
It

they purchased

the
built,

bench shown in
having a heavy
action

was very well

top of 3-inch maple and a modern quick
vise.

The seven drawers underneath were

not

138

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
but the boys found them very handy
a bench

really necessary,

for storing tools, nails, screws, unfinished work, etc.

The space under
catch-all

is

very apt to become a

and a nuisance, so as time went on they

concluded that the extra cost of this bench was

Fig. 89.

Bench with quick action

vise

justified,

although at the time the price seemed

very high.

Some

of

the

cheaper

benches they

looked at are shown in Fig. 87.

The quick
it

action vise was a great time saver, as

could be pulled wide open or pushed back without

turning the handle, as in the old screw vises. A dozen of these quick action vises are on the

THE SHOP
market, and

139

may

be had at hardware stores for

from four
This

dollars

upward.

flat

topped bench had no tool rack, and could
be worked on from any
side.

consequently
first,

At

the owners kept most of their tools in the large

drawer at the top, but later on they made a good
sized tool cabinet,

which was fastened to the wall
later.

and

will

be described
iron
as

The
feature,

bench stop
it

also

proved a valuable
of the

could be fastened at any desired

height

by a

set screw, or

dropped down out
the

way below

the

level

of

bench top.
is

When
braced

planing thin wood, one end of the board
against the bench stop.

Ralph found that starting with a new bench had another advantage. It helped his pupil to take good care of the bench.
Harry was very careful not to saw or cut it as he might have done with an old bench, and to foster
this spirit of carefulness,
first

Ralph gave him for his problem the making of a bench hook. (Fig.

90.)

The

tools used in its construction were:

24-inch rip saw 20-inch cross cut saw

Brace and

J<£-inch bit

Countersink bit

Marking gauge

l^-inch

flat

head screws
wide

Try square

6 inches

Piece of maple, planed to %-inch
thick, 12 inches long, 10 inches

15-inch jack-plane

140

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
first laid

The maple board was
a,

out as shown at

a

pencil

line

being

drawn 2 inches from one
0tfU
i

r—t'i

"
c

l

-r'
\

^

*

'

Jtt*

it

';4

w.

Fig. 90.

The bench hook

edge.

The

piece

was placed

in the vise horizontally,

and both long edges planed straight and true and
tested with the try square.

The block was then
This required

placed upright in the vise,

and the ends planed square with the block plane.

much

explaining and practise, as the
off

block plane has a bad habit of breaking
farther corner.

the

Ralph showed Harry how to use
finishing

this tool safely

by planing only part way across the end and then
from the other
side.

Both

ends

were

tested with the try square.

The
vise in

piece

was now sawed
line,

in

two by using a

rip

saw on the pencil
This

the

wood being held

in the

an upright position.

made two
inches

pieces of stock 12 inches long,

one

2

wide,

the other

8 inches
of the

nearly,

as the

saw cut had removed some

wood.

THE SHOP
The 2-inch piece was laid out The marking gauge was set at
from the Joint edge
line

141

as

shown
inches

at

6.

— that

1%

and

already

planed

—a

was gauged on each

flat face,
b.

and the sawed

edge planed to these lines as at
It
lines

was then

laid out as

shown at

c,

two knife
}/% i

being squared around the four sides

ncn

apart.

The

piece

was then sawed apart carefully
lines,

between these two knife
planed and tested.

and the ends block
as

Two
in

3^-inch holes were bored,

shown

at d,

each piece, and countersunk with the counter-

sink bit.

This makes a place for the screw heads,

Fig. 91.

Method

of using the

bench hook and back saw

so they will be below the surface where they cannot

be in the way of tools or Scratch the bench.

142

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
piece

The wide

was next planed on

its

sawed

edge, and the blocks screwed on.

That the bench
definite

hook might always be handy and have a
place of
its

own, a half-inch hole was bored as

shown

in the illustration,

and

it

was hung on a

nail,

set in the

end

of the bench.
is

The bench hook

designed to protect the bench
of chisels, gouges, etc.

from saw marks and the cuts

The method
Fig.
of
91.

of using it with the

saw

is

shown

in

Wherever

possible,

it

should be

made

hard wood.

XV
THE EQUIPMENT FOR A SHOP

NOTHING
on the
floor

is

so necessary to the saving of

time and energy as an orderly shop.

Our
pile

boys had bought a quantity of white pine
to begin Operations

and

it

was lying
in the

in

a

where

it

was always

way.

To

cut a piece of stock from one of these 12-foot
it

boards

was necessary to use two kitchen chairs

for trestles, so it

was decided to construct two saw
as they were finished, to build
little

horses,

and as soon

a lumber rack against the wall where their supply could be stored out of the way.

"We

will carry

out our regulär practice by
said Ralph.

first

making a drawing,"
experience that
Fig.
it

"We know
of

from

saves time."

92 shows

the

proportions

the
all

trestle

at a,

and the mechanical drawing with
b.

dimen-

sions at

The body

of the trestle

was

built

up

of four pieces,

two long and two short ones.
the centre, Ralph explained,
143

The open space in would make a con-

144

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
etc.,

venient tool rack where hammers, chisels,

could

be placed while they were working, especially at

outdoor work, instead of being dropped on the
ground.

The body then

called for

two pieces 3

feet

long by 4 inches wide, and two pieces
long by 4 wide.

10 inches

These were sawed from a rough plank with the
rip
line

saw by using the chairs as was
laid out

trestles.

A

pencil

3J4 inches from one edge, and the saw cut made directly on the line, 8 feet long.

The
and

cross cut

saw was used to cut the

strip off

this strip

was then sawed with the same saw
Another

into four pieces of equal length for the legs.
strip 4 J4 inches wide, 7 feet 8 inches long,

was ripped

out and taken

off

with the cross cut saw, for the body,
feet 10 inches long,

and divided into two pieces 3
for convenience in planing.

Harry now had
All

his first real experience in planing.

the pieces were of 1-inch rough lumber, with

sawed edges, and had to be planed down to J^ inch
in thickness.

To

plane six pieces of stock straight and true, with
size,

squared edges and of definite

was no easy

task.

"How
"I

do you

like

manual labour?" asked Ralph,

mischievously.
like it all right," replied the perspiring boy,

THE EQUIPMENT FOR A SHOP
"but we won't need any gymnasium work
cise while

145

for exer-

we

are doing this."

Pividers.

_J-<?
JO
/O

D
-3-

L
Fig. 92,

The

trestie or

saw

horse.

By

permission of Carpentry and Building

"Wouldn't you

like to

make a bench

in

hard

wood

right

away?" asked Ralph.

146

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
stand, and

"No, I guess you were right after all." Ralph showed him the proper way to

how

to hold the jack-plane so as to get the best

results.

He

promised to show him how to sharpen
as the

and adjust the plane as soon
stored

lumber was
of the

away on the lumber
each piece
tili

rack.

Harry's business was to dress
flat faces of
it

down one

was smooth, straight
it.

and true both with the grain and across
tested
it

He
and

by

his eye

and the edge

of his plane

when he thought it was about right, passed it over to Ralph for criticism. Ralph was a very exacting instructor, but made
allowance
for

the

boy's

inexperience.

He was
it

making the second
which he turned out

trestle at the

same time and

was exasperating to Harry to
his work.

see the

ease with

"Never mind," said Ralph, "you can do as good carving now as I, and in a few weeks you will be able The first to do just as good joinery or carpentry.
day
is

always the hardest.

You

are

all

impatience
After a

and want to get through right away.

while you will learn by experience that you

can

only do one thing at a time, and will not rush so."
Finally, one face

on each of the

six pieces

was

pronounced

finished,

and the next step was to

Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

Using the Jack Plane

THE EQUIPMENT FOR A SHOP
"Joint" or "dress

147

down" one edge

straight,
first

and square with the working face
surface.

— the

smooth
planed

This seemed easier after the experience

of

making the bench hook, and Harry knew how

to test for squareness with the try square.

Working on the two long

pieces for the body,

both edges of each were squared up, a 10-inch piece

was marked off on one end of each with pencil and try square, and sawed off with cross cut saw. was decided to leave the inner faces rough, as they would be inside the trestle, and out of sight. These four pieces forming the body were now
It

nailed together with
in a.

2j^-inch wire nails, as shown

The
at top

four pieces for the legs were dressed on
it

all

four sides, and

only remained to cut the

angle

and bottom.
tool,

This brought into use a new

the bevel.

The angle x was found by

laying the bevel on the
it

mechanical drawing, and fixing

at the angle

by
of

tightening the set screw provided for the purpose.

The
edge.

line

was carried across the face by means
this laying out

the try square, and the bevel used on the farther

When
c,

was

finished, the piece

looked like

the triangulär piece y being removed

by sawing

directly

on the pencil

lines.

148

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
cut, they

After the four legs were laid out in this manner

and

were nailed to the body with 3-inch

wire nails.

The saw

horse was

now complete with

the ex-

ception of the two braces, and the final truing up.

The

braces were

made by holding

a piece of stock

4 inches x J^ inch in position and marking the slope

with a pencil, sawing to pencil
in position d.

lines

and nailing
interesting

The
in

final process of truing
it

up was an

one to Harry, and he used
finishing

many

times afterward

pieces

of

furniture,

such

as

tables,

tabourettes, etc.

The horse was placed on
of dividers set as

the bench, and a pair

shown
it,

at

e.

A

line

was scribed on each
all

leg

wherever the com-

passes point touched

holding the latter upright and

going around
to the lines

four sides of each leg.
in this

By

sawing

made

way, the

trestle

was found
This
is

to stand on the floor perfectly true.

a

method much used in truing up articles that rest on three or more legs, and it overcomes any inaccuracies that

may have
it
is

arisen

in

the process

of assembling; but

very important that the

surface on which this truing

up

is

done

shall itself

be perfectly

true.

The bench used

in this case

was

THE EQUIPMENT FOR A SHOP
new and had not yet warped
might not have been
tained
at
all,

149

but an old bench

suitable.

This can be ascer-

by

testing the surface in several directions

with a long straight edge.

The

facts of

warping and shrinkage in wood must an important part of every shop

always be taken into consideration.

The saw horse

is

equipment, and the boys

now

relegated the clumsy

chairs to the kitchen, where they belonged,

and

were prepared to saw out stock from their longest
boards.

XVI
BUILDING A LUMBER RACK

had RALPH them prominent
in

painted two signs and fastened
places on the wall.

One

read:

"One

thing at a time"; the other,
its

" A place for every thing, and everything in

place."

"Those are very old-fashioned," he said, "but they are none the less absolutely true. Many boys fail to accomplish anything in tool work because they do not heed the first, and more time is wasted
than we ever
realize, particularly

among mechanics,
It often

by

failing to observe the second.

seems a

waste of time to put a tool or piece of stock away in
a definite place, but, on the other hand, one often

spends ten times as

many minutes
it

in looking for

a thing as he would putting

in its place

where

it

could be found instantly."

"What's
mindedly.

the

answer?"
that

said

Harry

absent-

"The

ans wer

is

we

will

make
eise.

a rack for our

lumber before we do anything
150

" It need not be very fine work, but

it will

make

BUILDING A LUMBER RACK
our shop

151

much

neater,

if

the surfaces of the

wood

are planed instead of being left rough, and to give

you practice
I

in planing
let

and to develop your muscles,
of the planing, while

am

going to

you do most

I lay out the

work."
in Fig.
inside,

The rack as finally constructed is shown 93. The shop was not sheathed on the
the framework or studding being
short
cross

exposed.

The

pieces

were nailed to
nails,

the

studding

with ten-penny wire
the
uprights

but where they joined
into

they were

let

the

latter

to

a depth of Y% inch before being nailed.

Harry

wanted to know what
plained that
if

this

was

for,

and Ralph ex-

the cross pieces were simply nailed
all

to the uprights,

the weight would be carried
or

by

the

nails.

By

letting

way

into the uprights,

them part the weight was carried by
"gaining"
strain
let

the latter without so

much

on the

nails.

'Then why don't you
studs too?" asked Harry.

them

into the wall

"Because the studs are
of the building;

in position

and we couldn't

saw them out without breaking through the outside
therefore

we

are obliged simply

to nail

them on."
of the uprights
in place at top

Four

were spaced three feet apart,

and held

and bottom by blocks nailed

152

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
and
floor.

to the ceiling

A

carpenter would have

simply " toe-nailed " them by driving nails at an angle

through the ends of the uprights into the

floor,

but the

Fig. 93.

The lumber rack

boys were not yet skilled in carpenters* methods.

An

ideal
It

lumber rack
is

is

made

of galvanized iron

pipe.

indestructible,

fire-proof,

rather

ex-

BUILDING A LUMBER RACK
pensive,

153
fitter's

and the

joints

are

regulär

pipe

joints, elbows, tees, crosses,

and

floor plates.
it

This was beyond our boys' pocket-book, as

would have required the Services

of a pipe fitter.

One shown

of the uprights laid out

and partly cut

is

at a, the openings having been taken out
chisel.

with cross cut saw and

On
made

one of the upper

tiers

the cross pieces were

eight inches longer than the others,

and where

they extended beyond the front of the rack pieces
of pine

6x2x%

inches were nailed to the ends,
for hanging

making a convenient hook

hand

screws,
It also

which are always in the way on the

floor.

made

a very convenient shelf for storing narrow

waste strips of lumber, which should not be destroyed, as one can never
teil

when they

will

be

needed.

In the case of a rack made of iron pipe, the ends
of these long cross pieces

need be only ordinary

pipe elbows.

The labour
but
like
it

of building a

lumber rack was much

heavier than anything the boys had done before,

brought the larger muscles into play, seemed
carpenter

real

work,

and was an excellent

preparation for the finer tool work to follow.

A boy
work

who has never

carried out a piece of large


154

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

successfully cannot realize the satisfaction of look-

ing at a really good piece of construction and being
able to say, "I

made

that

all

myself

!"

Ralph suggested that one or two things more
were needed to make their equipment ship-shape

B

X

J 1
<H

s*~*

Fig. 94.

First

wind vane

one was a tool cabinet, and another was some ar-

rangement

for

storing small pieces of stock; but

as both of these required considerable tool practice,

they were recorded in a notebook as
things to be done later on.
It

among

the

was agreed that the shop needed a vane to
of the wind,

show the direction

and the boys' design

BUILDING A LUMBER KACK
for this
is

155

shown

at Fig. 94.

It included a

weather

vane and windmill.

The whole combination required five pieces of The two short pieces, 7 inches long wood. by 1 inch Square, were first dressed to size, cut out and halved together as shown. They were
then taken apart and cut to the lines shown, with
a knife, making propeller blades similar to those

made

for the aeroplane.

When

both were

finished,

they were again put together, and a hole drilled

through the centre a

trifle

larger than a flat-head

wire nail £3^2 inches long.
mill to the horizontal piece.

This nail

is

to hold the

The
It

nail is to

be tight

in this horizontal piece,

but the
is

windmill

must

revolve freely about the nail.

for this reason

that the hole in the mill must be slightly larger

than the diameter of the

nail.

The
other.

horizontal piece

is

bevelled on one end with

the knife and has a 3^-inch slot sawed out at the

The

slot is to receive

the wind vane.

The

vane was sawed out

of 3^-inch

wood,

fitted into

the slot and nailed with brads.

When

all

these parts

were assembled,

it

was

necessary to find the centre of gravity of the whole

combination, as
balanced.

it is

important that

it

be perfectly

156

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
find the correct point, a light string

To

was slipped

linder the horizontal piece

and moved back and
horizontally.

forth until the vane

hung

The

spot

where the string touched the wood was marked with
a pencil
for

and a V±-inch hole

drilled at this point

the pivot.

A

corresponding hole was drilled

3 inches deep into the bevelled end of the Standard.

A

piece of J^-inch niaple dowel was used as a

pivot, the upper end being

sand-papered until the
that by placing
its

vane swung

freely.

The boys found

a metal washer between the vane and

Standard,
wire nail

much
in

of the friction

was removed.

A

driven into the Standard through a hole drilled
the horizontal piece would have answered the
as the dowel.

same purpose
gravity
to
tilt
is

YVhen the centre
is

of

not found for the pivot, the vane

apt

forward or backward and not only look

badly, but bring considerable friction on one end,
so that
it will

not revolve freely with the wind.

XVII
MILLS AND WEATHER VANES

THE

subject of windmills and weather vanes
field

opened up a

that seemed inexhaustible,

was a perfect furore As usual, Harry of designing and experimenting. wanted to try great schemes that Ralph knew were
and
for a while there

impracticable,
to keep the

and

it

required
earth,

all

his

diplomacy

boy down to
his

on something simple

and within

power to do

successfully.

One of his earliest attempts was a scheme to make a windmill on the principle of a water- wheel,
placed horizontally to catch the wind.

Ralph knew that
learn

it

would not work, but
let

after

arguing for some time, he decided to

the youngster

by experience. While Harry was working at his project, Ralph sketched out and made a vane which he considered an improvement on the first one. It is shown in Fig. 95; and it was made without a mill and composed of four pieces. The horizontal At piece had an arrow head at the for ward end.
the rear end, two pieces of 3^-inch pine were f astened
157

158

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
From
the point where they
in the

with two small bolts.

were bolted they curved outward as shown

top view, and were held in that position by two
small strips nailed on with brads, one on the upper

Fig. 95.

Second wind vane

and one on the lower

side.

The

centre of gravity was
its

found as before, and the vane pivoted to

Standard.

In the meantime, Harry had found out to his

own

satisfaction

that

his

water-wheel

windmill

would not work.

"What have you
"Why,
breeze.
flat

curved those ends out for?"

he exclaimed on catching a sight of Ralph's vane.
to

make

it

more

sensitive to the slightest

Those curves catch the wind quicker than surfaces; have you never noticed that on the
that?"
said Harry.
mill doesn't

weather bureau vanes they are always curved out
like

"No,"

"By

the way, do you

know

why my

work?"

"

MILLS AND WEATHER VANES
"I
have
told

159

you

about

six

times

that

a

water-wheel receives the water on one side only,

same pressure on both The two forces balance, so sides of the centre. your mill can't very well turn. If you could cut off the wind from one side, it would go all right."
while your mill receives the

"Well,

why

can't I box in one side?"

"You

can, but then

you

will

have to

shift it

every time the wind changes.

You

could construct
it

a combination mill and vane, and arrange

so that

the box would be shifted by the vane, but honestly,
I don't think it

worth the trouble.
but we
let's

It

would be
I

clumsy, top-heavy, and hard to balance.

have a
take
it

scheme

for a horizontal mill,

will

up

later.

In the meantime,

make a happy

jack windmill!"

"Happy jack?"
"That's what they
to be original
call

them, but we

will try

and

I propose

an Indian with war
!

clubs."

"Whew!
The
figure

That sounds
was sawed out

interesting
is

Ralph's sketch of the Indian

shown

in Fig. 96.

of 3^2-inch pine, a ^g-inch

hole bored for the arms, and a J^-inch hole bored for

the dowel pivot at the feet.

The arms were made

of

a piece of dowel, six inches long, with %6-inch holes

160

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
These
they
this

bored near the ends to receive the "clubs."

were whittled out of pine, each club being a propeller blade.

When
until

fastened into the dowel

formed a complete two-bladed propeller, but

was not done

the dowel had been inserted

through the Indian's Shoulders,

and a brad driven through on
each side of the body to keep
the arms in place.

Harry was

so anxious to see

it

work that he came near spoiling it, and had to be restrained by
the older boy, as in making these
toys a
well

balanced figure

is

very important.
Fig. 96.

When

it

was

Happy

jack

finally finished,

and placed out

in the wind, the

antics of the Indian

made Harry

laugh

tili

the tears ran
finest

"That's the

down thing we

his cheeks.

ever made," he said.

Ralph smiled.

It

seemed that he had heard some-

thing like that several times before.

was suggested, and a bold figure with outstretched arms was sketched, as shown in
athlete
Fig. 97.

An

The Indian

clubs he

is

supposed to be swinging

were propeller blades,

and to give

them

more

MILLS AND WEATHER VANES

161

uniform motion than in the case of the Indian, the hands were drilled and a piece of J^-inch dowel
inserted.

At eachend

of

the dowel was f astened a

blade

which had
fit.

been

drilled to

Brads were

driven through the dowel

on each side of the hand
to keep the clubs swing-

ing freely.

The body and arms
were cut from a piece of
3^-inch pine and halved

together across the ehest,

and

after the

Joint

was

made
tled

the

form

of the

body and the arms whitout

with a knife.
parts were then

The two
fastened
brads.
It

together

with

was important that
Fig 97
-

this figure face the wind,

so into the space between

An

athletic

happy jack

the ankles was fitted the small end of a wind vane

and the

figure securely fastened to

it

with brads.

'

162

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
centre of gravity was then found and the whole

The

combination pivoted on a generous piece of 3^-inch
dowel.

This athletic weather vane

is

painted in bright

On
c W*» n :::r
.$**"

V
fj

Ce/e

Wirf •«//'

W,

O
Cap
a
A*/<v <//*4W

rAo/k

»r*r

:;

sj

toi

c«/>

handle

JtMiyßttened

Fig. 98

The anemometer

colours, the clubs being gilded to

make them realistic

Indian clubs.
" What was that scheme of yours for a horizontal

windmill?" asked Harry after he had watched the
athletic club swinger until

he was

satisfied.

"Why,
"

to

make one on
spell it?"

the principle of the

anemometer," replied Ralph.

How

do you

MILLS AND WEATHER VANES

163

"Never mind the spelling, it's like this," and Ralph rapidly sketched out Fig. 98. "This is the wind gauge of the weather bureau," he explained, "and I figure we can use ordinary tin
cups for the buckets.
störe

You

go

down

to the hardware
tin cups

and buy four small round bottomed

while I start the woodwork."

Having secured the cups

for five cents each, they

cut the handles with a pair of tinners' "snips."

The cut was made next
top of the cup.

to the cup at the lowest

point and the handle straightened out even with the

Two

pieces of pine, 16 inches long, J^ inch wide,

and ^8 inch thick, were halved together at the centre, where a J^-inch hole was bored straight through the
Joint.

A

block of

wood cut

to the shape a

was

fitted

over the Joint, and fastened to the four arms with
1-inch brads.

The

3^-inch hole was

now continued

almost through this cap to give a long bearing for
the pivot
filed off.

—a
Two

ten-penny wire nail with the head
%6-inch holes were drilled through

the handle of each cup and corresponding holes

through the wooden arms.
fast

The cups were made

by passing %6-inch bolts through cup handles and arms and tightening the nuts.

104

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
made
a very strong and rigid construction
it

This

and on testing
Altogether

by holding the pivot
was one
of

in the

hand

out in the breeze the instrument revolved rapidly.
it

the most substantial

and satisfactory things that they had made, but

Ralph was not yet satisfied. 'We might as well have a Coney Island

of our

own

as

not,"

he

said.

"You
and

whittle

out four

propellers, 4 inches long

V2 inch across,

and

I'll

show you something," he said. While Harry was doing this, Ralph sawed out four wooden dirigibles shown at 6, 8 inches long,
3 inches across at the widest part, and J4 inch thick.

A
ship.

hole was drilled through the centre of each

propeller

and another

in the flat stern of

each

air-

The

pivots for the propellers were flat-head

wire nails small enough for the blades to revolve
freely,

but driven securely into the

air-ships.

These were now fastened at the ends
of the

of the

arms

anemometer by attaching two strips of basswood to each ship by wires. The strips were to
hold the ships in the proper position facing in the
direction of motion, which

was always the same,
the

no

matter

in

which

direction

wind

was

blowing.

The upper ends

of

these strips were

brought

MILLS AND WEATHER VANES
together,
bolts

165

and securely fastened under one
wires.

of

the

by

As the anemometer revolved,
would allow.
It

centrifugal force

sent the air-ships out as far as the basswood strips

was a very interesting
first

fair

weather toy, but
effect

the

gale, while

having no
to

on the ane-

mometer other than
terrific

make

it

spin around at

speed, nearly wrecked the ships

by slamming

them against the Standard.
took the ships
off at night,

So the boys always
H v „<+—<-*

and put them on again when
they wanted to
exhibition.
r¥, 1
-n

C

\~-»—*-*-

j)|

give

an
Fig. 99.

1 he

propellers

were
painted in

The Zeppelin wind vane

gilded

and

the

ships

bright

colours.

A

very simple vane

may

be made to represent

a Zeppelin air-ship (Fig. 99)
of white pine 2 feet

by cutting out a piece long and 2^ inches wide with

the ends pointed to the shape of a Gothic arch.

The

hole for the pivot should be bored 2 inches

deep and be placed well forward of the centre.

To make

the vane balance, the rear portion from the

pivot to the stern should be planed thin and rounded

with the spokeshave.

At the

stern

should be a small two-bladed pro-

1GG

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
pivoted on a flat-head wire
nail.

peller,
is
still

If

the stern

too heavy, the balance can be restored by

o
O,

o

SCa.ida.wct

M

A
Fig. 100.

U

A six-bladed mill driving into the forward point a round-headed screw,

or

by attaching another small

propeller.

In

fact,

if

MILLS AND WEATHER VANES
the hole in this propeller
is

167

made

large enough, the

screw can be used as the pivot; in any event, the

vane must be balanced by adding some kind of weight
at the bow.

These typical forms
others and the
original, to design

of

wind vanes

will

suggest
to be

young woodworker should try

new

forms, ships, submarines, air-

ships, etc.

One form which the boys made was
substantial

especially

and

reliable.

A

six-bladed mill

was

constructed as follows:
First: a piece of J/g-inch

P me was cu ^ to the form

of a

hexagon 2 inches across the points.

Second: a 3^-inch hole was bored in the centre
of each of the six edges

and a %6-inch hole through

the centre of the hexagon. (Fig. 100.)

Third

:

six blades

were f ormed from J^-inch pine

8 inches long, % inches wide, tapering

down

to 1

inch at one end.

Fourth

:

in the small

end a 3^-inch hole was bored

at the centre, about an inch deep.
Fifth: the blades were tapered in thickness

from

3^-inch at the small end to %6-inch at the wide end,

the tapering being done on one side only, that

away

from the wind, the side facing the wind being perfectly flat.

168

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
into the

Sixth: dowel pins were glued securely

holes in the hexagonal block
latter

and into the blades, the being turned on the dowels at an angle of

about 30 degrees
front face.

}/%

a right angle

f

rom

the

Seventh: after the glue had hardened over night,
the whole mill was painted, special attention being

given to covering the Joint where the glue held,
to prevent the rain

from loosening
of

it.

Eighth:

two

pieces

3^-i ncn
b.

white

wood

were cut out to the form shown at
fastened to the Square piece
c

These were
bolts.

by two small

The wide ends
fastened

of the

vanes were spread and
white wood, by

by two small

strips of

brads as shown.

Ninth: last came the locating of the centre of
gravity, after the mill

had been attached by a tenpenny flat-head wire nail. The pivot was made of a similar nail into the Standard, as on previous
wind vanes.

XVIII
TOOLS: SAWS

THE
A
we
80 degrees

boys now took

iip

the systematic study

of tools, as

Ralph suggested that they had
reference

spent time enough on toys and curiosities.
cutting tool

must be constructed with
to cut.

to the material

it is

In the machine shop,

find the angle of the cutting edge large

— often
wedges,

— while

a razor has a cutting edge of
cutting tools
are

about 5 degrees.

All

whether saws,

chisels, planes, axes, or knives,

and

the angle depends on the hardness of the material
in

which

it is

to work.

The

action of the tool

may

be a chisel action, a knife action, or both.
cut in one piece of

In the

rip saw, the teeth are really a series of chisel edges
steel,

while in a cross cut saw
fibres,

we

have a knife action for cutting the

followed

by a chisel action The side view
101), the

for

removing the wood.

of a rip
b.

saw

is

shown at a

(Fig.

end view at

The
and

chisel-like

edges are bent outward to right

left alternately.

This
169

is

called the "set" of the

170

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORtf
its

teeth and

purpose

is

to

make

the cut wider than

the body of the saw, to prevent friction.

As the

saw teeth pass through the wood, the

fibres spring

back against the saw blade or
body, and the friction makes
the
Fig. 101.

work

almost

impossible
teeth.

Teeth of

rip

saw

w ithout
sets"

"set"

to the

All

woodworking saws must be
called

set,

and

special

tools of

"saw

are sold for the purpose

bending out the teeth.

The

rip or slitting

saw should only be used

for

cutting with the grain.

When used

across the grain,

the action

is

exactly like that of a narrow chisel,

and

it will

tear the fibres instead of cutting them.

The teeth of a cross cut saw are shown in Fig. 102. At a is the side view, and at b the end view. The teeth are set and filed to a knife edge. This
gives

two

parallel lines

of knife-like teeth

which

cut

the fibres in two

parallel lines, while the

body
cuts

of

the
the

tooth
in *
Fig. 102.

out

wood

Teeth of cross cut saw

the form of
All

sawdust.
to

woodworking saws belong
classes,

one of these
of the

two
are

and the cutting angles

teeth

shown

in Fig. 103.

Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

Learning to Use the Cross Cut Saw

TOOLS: SA WS

171

We

are very apt to regard the saw not only as
article,

a very commonplace

but as a fixed quantity
will

whick has always been the same and always
be.

As a matter

of fact, the

saw

?o

has

gone through a process of

same as the electric motor, automobile, and aeroplane. New methods of its manufacture
evolution the
are constantly being invented

and
con-

improvements made
struction.

in

its

Some of the steps in the
making a hand saw
«„ 4/„

process of
:

are rolling the steel plate of which

y c ™.

cut kett

the

body

is

made, hardening,

Fig. 103

tempering, hammering or
smithing, grinding, polishing, filing, setting, etching,

handling, and blocking.

The handling

refers to

the placing of the wooden

handle and some idea of

what

it

means
of

is

illustrated

in Fig.

104, showing

two

methods
77vo
rfoc/s

attaching the

of

6 ane/7//t

apple

Fig. 104

wood handle. Some idea of what the

172

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

grinding means

the thickness of

shown by the tapers, or diff erence in the steel, as shown at Fig. 105, the
It will

thickness in one thousandths of an inch being given at

the different points.

be noticed that not only

does the blade decrease in width from the handle out
to the

end

of the saw,

but the thickness decreases from

Fig. 105.

Thickness of saw blade

the teeth to the top and also from the handle out to the end. This represents ideal saw construction,

and

it is

found only

in the

good makes.

The back saw, being strengthened by a heavy piece of steel along the top, is made of thinner
material,

and the tapers are not necessary,
rigidity.

for the

back piece gives

It
is

removes

less
its

wood,
action

but

limited in

*!,-

——

.

..

»

MI

I

.

! ..-

-

-

Fig. 106.

The back saw

by the back. It is used chiefly by pattern makers, and f or finer bench work,

such

as

cabinet making, but should be part of
outfit.

every boy's

The compass-saw shown

at Fig. 107

is

used for

TOOLS: SAWS
general purposes, but
is

173

not so necessary as the back

saw.

It

is

useful for cutting out small openings,

though

it is

not as valuable for this purpose as the

turning saw.

Fig. 107.

The compass saw

One end
hole.

of the turning

saw can be released from

the frame by removing a pin, passed through a small

This

is

fastened in the frame again and
line like a fret or

made

to follow a

curved

coping saw.

Fig. 108.

The turning saw

The number
the

of teeth to the inch varies,

and saws
For

are rated as four-point, five-point, etc., according to

number

of points or spaces to the inch.


174

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
i. e.,

very hard woods, a saw with small teeth,

with

more points than ordinary to the inch, should be used; but a boy who possesses one saw of each kind a rip, a cross cut, a back saw,and a turning saw has all that will be required for ordinary wood-

work.

Fig. 109.

Using the

rip

saw and

trestles

In working with the board on

trestles,

the saw

should be held at an angle of about 45 degrees to
the surface.
vise, this is

When sawing a board held in the bench
not so easily done, but the cut should
with the tool in the correct

at least be started
Position. (Fig. 100).

TOOLS: SAWS

175

The hack saw

is

used for cutting metal, and while
is

not essential for woodwork,

often valuable for

cutting pieces of pipe, rivets, bolts, screws, and nails

and should be added to the
will allow. (Fig. 110).

outfit

when the

finances

Fig. 110.

The hack saw

for cutting metal

In

fact, there is

no such thing

as a set of tools.

Good

tools only should be bought,

and the

outfit

at first should be simple;

from time to time,
one learns the

as

new ones can be added they are needed. In this way

possibilities of his kit

much

better

than by starting with an elaborate

collection.

XIX
TOOLS: PLANES

ABOY
man, and

buying

his tool outfit
in the

is

often bewildered
störe.

by the array
his

hardware

He

is

further confused

by the advice
money.

of the sales-

own

little

störe of

In selecting planes, only three are really necessary
for ordinary work,

and

this

number may even be

reduced to two.

Wooden

planes are

still

the f avourite tools of some

woodworkers, but iron planes have largely superseded them.

A

15-inch iron jack plane,

a 9-inch

smoothing plane, and a block plane make a very

good combination for a beginning.
Special planes can be added later, as the finances
will allow.

The
Fig.

iron plane with

its

various parts

is

shown

in

111.

These

refer

to

either the jack or the

smooth plane.
In the block plane there
is

no cap

iron, the cutter

or plane iron being placed with the bevelled side up.

There

is

frequently
176

found

on

this

tool

an

TOOLS: PLANES

177
in

adjustment for changing the amount of opening
the

mouth for hard or The plane iron and cap

soft

woods.

are fastened together with
it is

a set screw, and the cap

ground or
This

removed when sharpened on an oilstone.
is

being

set
is

screw,

which
or

loosened

with a screw-driver,
the

edge of the
used
as

clamp
s

a

c r e w-driver,

also

allows the distance

from

the

cutting

edge to the cap
to

be changed

for soft or

hard

woods.

These
are

two

irons

fastened into the

throat of
Fig. 111

the the

The smoothing plane
is

plane 1 „

by

The

lever (1)

for straightening the plane iron,

and the screw

s is for

adjusting the depth of the cut.

The

difference

between the jack and smooth
size, is in

planes, aside

from the

the shape of the

178

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
In the jack plane, the bit
is

" cutter" or "bit."

ground with a

slightly

curved cutting edge.

This

enables the tool to remove coarse shavings, but
leaves a slightly corrugated surface which

must be

smoothed with the smoothing plane.

The jack plane
owing
length,

also tends to straighten the work,

to

its

greater

length.
it

The

greater

the
old-

the

more does

straighten.

The

fashioned jointers were
this

made

several feet long for

very purpose.

If a

boy can

afford only one plane,

it

should be

a jack plane, but the cutter should be ground straight
to act as a

smooth plane.
better

The block plane can be dispensed with

than any of the others, because the smooth plane can be used on a shooting board for truing up end
grain, the original purpose of the block plane.

The
action.

latter plane has
fibres

no cap, as

it

works on the

ends of the wood

with a shearing or paring

This

is

helped by holding the tool at an

angle with the wood, a position not advisable with

the other two tools.

The proper
the work.

position

for

planing

is

with
flat

the

right side to the

bench, the plane held

on
one

Each stroke
length
of

should, wherever possible,

be the

füll

the

board,

unless

2 d
cö 51 CJ

-^
CJ c3

"E^
-^
CJ

&6 «
CO CO

5

CJ

oT

_ > d O T3 •43 d O c3
-2
cj 03

9 CJ
CO

>
-^
CJ

3 *^
>H

M

d —

d
CJ

U H
d O
•43

-O
cd 03 CJ g>

B H £ H H H

+>

z z

construc

compa:

o
*4J

ö

1
2 o +J

or

m
H W H

> H

3

-0
CJ

"3

.a ;> ~Ö cj -o


cd

S ü

O
CO

H

O O

„O

^ d d T3 CJ ö cj -R W)
stra

has

plane,
progress

rabbit

little

plane,

how

smooth

Showing

a

TOOLS: PLANES
part
is

179

higher than the rest of the surface.
ascertained

This

may be

plane as a straight

by using the edge of the High spots should be edge.
and then planed
off, tili

marked with a
füll

pencil,

the

length strokes can be made, and the edge planed

straight

and

true.

In surface planing,
of

if

the surface

be warped, the

amount
size

wind may be determined

by placing two "winding" sticks
pieces of the

same

— two straight at the two ends — and sightTo
take out

ing with the eye along their top edges.

wind,

it

may
in

be necessary to plane diagonally across This defect
is

the grain from corner to corner.

common
and
is

lumber not properly piled or seasoned,
in such

more noticeable

woods as gum or
very important

chestnut.

The sharpening

of plane irons is a

part of one's knowledge of tool work, and of course
applies to chisels, gouges,

and

all

cutting tools.
is

Remember

that the cutting edge or bevel

a

wedge, the angle of a plane-iron bevel being from
25 to 35 degrees, the smaller angle for soft wood,
the larger for hard.

This angle
often,

is is

not measured

by the woodworker
experience.
tools
If

but

a

matter

of

the young mechanic will keep his
finds

ground to the same angle as he

them

at

the time of purchase, he will not go far astray.

^

180

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
shows some correct and some incorrect
grinding.

This angle should be a clean-cut one, however.
Fig. 112

ways

of

At a

is

shown the
b
is

right

way,

not an angle at
c is

all,

and

a waste of

X

time and material. At

d

X
cl

shown the worst fault of all a "back
is

bevel."
]

This
tool

occurs
is

**k*

\
Fig. 112.

when the
The
cutting angle

care-

lessly

turned over and
it

ground on both
all

sides,

which renders

useless

until

the steel in front of the dotted line has been
in other words, until the tool
is
is

removed;
stone,

reground.

This mistake

sometimes made
tool

in using theoil-

by rubbing the

on both sides instead of

on one only.

All the grinding
side.

and sharpening must

be done on the bevelled
is

As the plane

iron

only a thin chisel, the sharpening of the latter
is

tool

performed as in the case of the plane iron,

and the same care should be taken to keep the
bevel clean cut.

A

good grindstone

is

a shop necessity, and, one

might add, a household necessity, because every
household uses knives, and the dull knife
altogether too
is

an

common

nuisance.

TOOLS; PLANES

181

Our boys hung up another
it

sign at this stage,

and

read,

"Keep your

tools sharp."
it is

This ought to

go without saying, but

a fact that

many

people

make
with

failures of their
it

work and become disgusted because they do not keep their tools

in order.

The

satisfaction of using fine, sharp tools
it

cannot be explained;

must be experienced.

Like other things about the shop, there are
kinds
of

many
old-

grindstones

on the market.

The
(Fig.

fashioned stone with a wooden frame

113)

worked by hand or a treadle may be good
depends on the stone
stone
stone, iron, or pressed steel
last
is

it

— and the new one with a small
frame
is

handy.

The
is

provided with a bicycle seat, and
feet, so

worked by both
hold the tool.
noiseless,

that the hands are free to
is

This stone has ball bearings,
less

and occupies
is

space than the other.
gritty, rather

A
that

stone that
is

soft

and

than one

hard

like

a piece of granite, should be selected.
tool

In holding the

against

the

stone,

some

common
of

sense

is

necessary.

The harder one presses,
if

the quicker the grinding, but

there

is

not plenty

water on the stone, the tool

may

be "burned."

When

a black place appears, you have destroyed

the temper, showing that there has been too
pressure, or too little water, or both.

much

182

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

TOOLS: PLANES

183

The
down.

tool

may

be moved back and forth across
its

the stone to keep

face true, but never

up and
and

This up and

down motion
shown
test

is

careless

gives the defective edge

at b (Fig. 112)

very bad grinding.
It
is

an easy matter to
If it is

your grinding by

occasionally placing the blade of a try square on

the bevel.

not straight, your grinding needs
stress

more

care.

Too much

cannot be laid on the
It
is

importance of this subject of grinding.

the

Fig. 114.

The

oilstone

key-note of success.
particular,
success.

If

your work at

you are careless in this the bench cannot be a
is

"A

good workman

known by

his tools."

A

teacher of drawing once said, "I don't care to

see your drawing; all I

want is to see your pencil. I can teil just what kind of work you are doing by observing the care you give your pencil."
This
is

peculiarly true of the worker with tools.

Find a

man very particular about
is

them, and you may
This

be sure he

a careful workman.
is

After grinding comes sharpening.

done

by rubbing the bevelled

side

back and forth a few

184

CARPEXTRY AND WOODWORK
light

times on an oilstone, lubricated with a few drops of

sperm or

machine

oil.

The

stone should be wiped

off,

afterward, and
oil.

should never be saturated with the

If this is

t£BkxJ Cap

lr<**

Fig. 115.

The

action of the cap iron

allowed to happen, the surface
(Fig. 114)
will
is

becomes

gummed

and

loses its cutting edge.

This rubbing

sometimes turn over a thin wire edge, which

removed by laying the tool with the flat side on the oilstone and drawing it toward you. The wire
edge can be further removed
ping on a piece of leather.
if

necessary by strop-

Before replacing the cutter in the plane, the cap
iron
is

fastened on the

flat side

about He-inch from

the cutting edge; but this distance
for different woods.

may

be varied

The
action
in
is

object of the cap iron

is

to prevent a Splitting

by bending the shaving forward, as shown Fig. 115. Ata is shown the effect when there no cap, and at b the splinter bent over giving

a shaving.

XX
SQUARING UP STOCK
prepared Harry HAVING come by
to
for the serious

work
start

his explanation of the plane

and
his pupil

its

Operation,

Ralph prepared to
difficult

on the most important and

lem

in

shopwork

— squaring up stock.

Prob-

"Anybody," he said "can hack away at a piece of wood with tools, and get some kind of result, but if this work is worth doing at all, it is worth doing well, and to be able to Square up stock is perhaps the most important Operation you will
ever do.
It
is

like

mathematics, the answer

is

either right or wrong.
is

When you

finish,

the stock

either square or not square.

"To
with

square up stock means to reduce

it

to three

definite dimensions, length, breadth,
all

and thickness,

adjoining edges or surfaces at right angles.

It sounds easy.

"Suppose we want a piece 12 inches x 2 inches x

% inch.

First,

saw out your stock about 12J4
This ällows something
185

inches x 2 34 inches x 1 inch.

186

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
way
for ihe tools to

each
for

remove
It
is

in the process

sawdust and shavings.
later, when

considerably more

than necessary, but on the than
" Second.

first trial

you waste more

you have become skilled in this work.

Dress down one of the flat faces with the
follow with the smoothing plane and
it,

jack plane;
test,

with straight edge, with the grain, across

and diagonally across corners.
finished
it

When

this face

is

constitutes the foundation of the process,

and

is

called the 'working face.'

"Third.

Make a pencil mark on the working face
This
is

near one of the edges.

called a witness
it

mark,

and

it

indicates that the edge

touches

is

to be the

next face dressed.

"Fourth.

Dress down the edge, making
its

it

square

with the working face, and testing with
the
try
square.

whole length
'Joint

This

is

the

edge'

(Fig. 116).

"Fifth.

Set the
it

marking gauge, as shown
in

in

Fig. 117, holding
in the right, to

the

left

hand and the

rule

two

inches, the width of the finished
for this
is

piece.

The reason
is

that the scale on the

gauge stick

sometimes inaccurate.
In

"With the gauge block against the Joint edge, gauge
a line the entire length of the working face.

doing

this,

the gauge

may be used in either hand, and

SQUARING UP STOCK
in fact it
is

187

well to practise so as to be able to use

either at will.

The

tool should always be
tilted

pushed

from you, and at the same time

from you,

/atä"

ouf

Sfoc/{

Sfuarec/ /o

Fig. 116.

Steps in the process of squaring up stock

until the steel point
is

makes only a

fine line.

If it

held upright, the point will try to follow the grain,
is

which

very seldom parallel with the edge.
out on the working face your

"You have now laid
first

dimension

— the width.
Remember
too much,
is

" Sixth.

Plane down the edge opposite to the Joint

edge, almost to the gauge line just drawn.

that the tendency

always to take

off

188

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

and when a piece

too small there
if it

is

no way of
too large,

making
it is

it

larger,

but

is left

a

little

a simple matter to take

off

one more sharing.
side,

In other words, always be on the safe
off

and take
Test this

too

little

rather than too much.
it is

edge to see that

square

vvith

working face before

Fig. 117. "Setting" the

marking gauge

reaching the gauge

line.

Get into the habit

of

marking

all

high spots with a pencil, and planing

out the marks.
" Seventh.
in this case

Set the gauge at the required thickness,

%

inch

— and with gauge block against
a line
füll

working

face,

make

length on both of

the squared edges.

"Eighth.

Dress down the remaining rough face

to or near both gauge lines just drawn,

and

test

with straight edge, as in the working face.
stock is now to the second dimension " Ninth. Secure the last dimension

The

— thickness. — length. As
place.

near one end as possible

make

a line across the

working face with a knife and try square, and continue
it

around the four

sides

back to the starting

SQUARING UP STOCK
If it

189

does not
is

come out exactly
measure

at this point, the

stock

not Square.
this knife line,
off

"From
working
sides, as

the length on the
line

face,

and Square a knife
first

on the four

on the

end.
test.

Block-plane both ends

to the knife lines,

and

"If these nine successive steps are carried out
accurately, the answer
after
is

correct," as

Ralph remarked
throughout

Harry had

worked

faithfully

the

whole explanation.
realized

The boys
part
of

that they needed a shooting

board as a necessary
their

equip-

ment, and after Ralph

had worked out the drawing shown in Fig.
118,

Harry was

told to

square

up

the

four
Fig. 118.

pieces of stock to be

The

shooting board

used in itsconstruction.

"Now
"It
is

let nie

show you a new

trick," said Ralph.

always a good plan after making a drawing

to write out a bill of material something like this:
1 1 1

pc. pine 14 x 8 x pc.

J/£
]/$,

1

pc. pine

6x2x^
f.

maple 14 x 6 x

4 l^-inch 5 %-inch

h. screws

pc. pine 8 x lj^ x

%

f.

h. screws

190

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
in

"There you have

a nutshell

all

the items

needed for the shooting board, and you can proceed to square all your pieces to these dimensions without Consulting the drawing until you are ready to assemble the parts.

The

five

%-inch screws are
cleats.

for

fastening the maple pieces to the flat piece of pine,

and the V/i screws to fasten the
holes for screws are to be bored

All the

and countersunk."

"What's countersunk?" asked Harry. This led to a talk on screws and boring tools, and
£D>

\Ü7

Round
ffead

Flät

Head
WithcuT
CounTcr-sinktn

7

Hoff bored

and

Cousitenui.A

Fig. 119.

The use

of screws

as

it

is

valuable to the young worker in wood,

we
4

will give it as fully as possible.

'There are several kinds of screws," began Ralph,

"but the two most commonly used are flat heads and round heads. (Fig. 119). Flat-head screws are those we generally think of, but unless the hole which has been bored or drilled is reamed out at the top, countersunk as we call it, the screw head will

SQUARING UP STOCK
clothes

191

stand out from the surface ready to tear your

and to Scratch anything

it

may come

in

contact with, so you can readily see the importance
of sinking

them below the

surface.

" On the other hand, there are often cases where

we

have no desire to hide the screw.
are used for such cases,

The round heads
of their

and because

shape

they do not catch hold of things.
usually blued
dull,

These screws are

— treated

with acid to give them a

more artistic colour. Screws treated in this way do not rust as readily as the bright ones. You can buy brass screws in both flat and round head forms; in fact you can get tinned, Japanned, lacquered, bronzed, copper, nickel, and even silver plated screws if you have the money. "In buying them, you must always give two numbers the length, in inches, and the diameter.

This

is

the diameter of the wire forming the body

and runs
Viq inch.

from

to 30,

number

being about

"A
in

one-inch screw No. 8 would be fatter or larger
6,

diameter than a one-inch No.

which

is

of

comare

paratively slight or thin proportions.
sold in boxes containing a gross.

They

"In fastening two

pieces of

wood

together, they

192

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
be
prepared
as

should

shown

at

a

(Fig. 119)

for a flat

head and
slips

as at b for a
first

round

head.

The screw
case."

through the

board, and the

screw threads engage only in the second in each

XXI
BORING TOOLS

BÖRING Ralph.
to find.

tools

are

very

interesting," said
bit for soft

The brace and

woods

have practically taken the place
fashioned augers, gimlets, etc.

of the old

The reason is not hard
and
set of bits almost

An

auger or gimlet could bore but one size

of hole, while with a brace

any diameter can be secured.
Fll teil
line.

A

little

later on,

you about a Yankee invention along
brace
is

this

"The
any
bit,

a sort of universal tool holder, and
fit

tool designed to

into

it is

known

as a bit,

as for example a countersink bit, or a screw driver

and several

varieties of drills.
fits

"The

shank, or part that

into the brace,

is

usually square

and tapering, and the part
is

of the

brace which engages this shank
(Fig. 120.)

called the 'chuck/

"The
It

centre bit, an old-fashioned form, had

all

the

necessary features of a good boring tool but one.

had a sharp centre

for accurately locating the
193

194

CARPEXTRY AND WOODWORK
edge for cutting the
it

hole, a knife
for

fibres,

and a

chisel

removing the wood, but

lacked the spiral

screw thread of the modern tool, and

had to be forced through the wood by main strength. On a modern auger bit,
this spiral screw relieves the

worker of
he has to
it

a large part of the labour;

all

do
bit

is

to turn the brace

and keep

straight, supposing of course that the
is

sharp.

(Fig.

Kl.)
is

"The

auger bit

most commonly
It

used by woodworkers.
knife edges

has

two

and two

chisels besides the

spiral spur in the centre.
Fig. 120.

A

short form

Gimietbit of this tool, called and centre bit

the dowel bit, has
less readily

y^

advantage

of

bending

than the ordinary auger
of

bit.

The

size in sixteenths

stamped into the metal shank, but if this number is not distinct or for any reason is missing, the diameter may be measured by holdan inch
is

ing

the

rule

across

the

knife

edges."

Fig. 121.

The auger

bit

"TYhat
to teil

r

s

the

Y ankee

7

invention you were going

me

about ?" interrupted Harry.

BORING TOOLS

195

"Well, suppose you wanted to bore a large hole,
say 2V£ inches in diameter, the probabilities are
that you wouldn't have a bit that
to
size.

In

fact,

have a

füll set of bits

from

%6

inch up to 3 inches
lot of tools.

would mean a very expensive
difficulty

This

has been
called

overcome by a very clever
extension
or

invention
(Fig. 122).

the

expansive

bit.

On

this tool the knife

edge and chisel

are part of a
at

moving lip, which may be fastened any desired point by means of a set screw.
lip of

"Besidesbeing adjustable in diameter, the

the bit has a scale, and the body a single line engraved

on

it.

By

bringing this line to the various measurescale,

ments on the

you can

set it to a definite size
it.

without the trouble of measuring

is

"The made

tool has certain limitations, of course.
in

It

two

sizes;

one

will

bore holes of any size

from Y2 mcn U P to size from J/g inch
to 3 inches, while

\]/2 inches,

and the other any

extra lips or CUtters are
if

Fig. 122.

The expansive

bit

made

to bore as large as 4 inches, but
of this size

you ever try to bore a hole want all your muscle."

you

will

The

screw-driver bit

is

simply a screw-driver with

a bit shank instead of a

wood handle, and the counter-

196

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
it

sink has a cone-shaped end with enough grooves

cut in

to give one or

more cutting edges. Its use was illustrated in making the bench hook and
j snooting u board.
i

Fig. 123.

The

Forstner bit

The
screws.

gimlet bit
It
is

may

be used for boring holes for
inch

made from %a

up to x %2

inch,

and

is

valuable for preparing articles for the smaller-

sized screws

where the auger

bit

would be too

large.

We

find for sale

drill bits for electricians,
if

war-

ranted to go through a nail
of special bits.

necessary, and dozens

In working with thin wood, the auger bit
apt tosplit
it,

is

very

especially brittle woods, like red
is

gum.

Even
bit,

this

contingency
will
is

provided for in the Forstner

which

bore a hole in a sheet of paper (Fig.

123),

and

therefore very valuable for

work

in

veneering or other very thin material.

The brace

is

represented by several styles and

makers, but the beginner must look for the same
qualities in the brace as

he would in any other

tool

— good
and

workmanship and material, simplicity
Spofford

and

durability.

The
simple,

old-fashioned
reliable.

brace was strong,
in

For working

corners

or

BORING TOOLS
any place where a
possible, a ratchet
füll

197
is

revolution of the tool
is

not

attachment

necessary.

This

Fig. 124.

Common

types of the brace

is

found on most of the modern

tools,

and may be

obtained at any hardware störe.

(Fig. 124).

The hand
tools

drill (Fig.

125)

is

one of the most useful

any one can have about the shop or the house.
able to

To be
tage,

make

holes in soft or hard wood, tin,

zinc, brass, copper, or iron is certainly a great

advan-

and some form

of the tool should

be in every

Our boys found it useful in making moving toys, wind vanes, anemometers, and dozens of other pieces, and never regretted its cost. It may be bought for fifty cents and upward, a very
establishment.

198

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
The
by %4
drills

good one costing about $1.50.
to be used with this tool vary

designed

inch, beginning

Fig. 125.

The hand

drill

with

%4
is

inch up to Y% inch.
required.

Above

this

a larger
in-

chuck

They have round shanks

stead of the ordinary Square bit shank.

.

,

XXII
MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS

THE SCREW- DRIVER

THE
handles.

need of a screw-driver

is

too obvious to

require special mention.

They

are

made

with blades from two inches up to thirty
inches long, and have

round,
is

flat,

or corrugated
flat

The

best grip

obtained on either a

or corrugated one,

and two

sizes are desirable, a

small one with about a three-inch blade, the other

with an eight or ten.

(Fig. 126.)

Some

of the

magazine brad awls containing a

dozen awls and screw-driver are very convenient,
but the combinations supposed to contain a whole
tool
outfit,

including

saws,

are

poor

Invest-

ments
Ratchet screw-drivers, from which the hand
is

not

removed during the Operation
luxuries rather than necessities.

of

driving or with-

drawing a screw, are on the market, but they are
Pliers with wire-cutting attachments are convenient

and should be added to the kit when possible some
;

of

199

200

CARPEXTRY AND WOOD WORK
are powerful
127.)

them
(Fig.

enough to cut a heavy wire
simple
tool

nail.

The Maltet.

This

is

dozen different fornis for various trades.

made in a The roundlignum
vitse.

headed kind
It
is

is

perhaps the cheapest.

made

of hickory or

(Fig. 128.)

The

best form for

woodwork has an
vitae.

oblong or square head of lignum

The handle should
clear

pass

through the head and

be fastened with a wedge.

A

blow from

this

tool

does not shatter the tool

handle as
Fig. 126. Screw-

would a blow

from a hammer.
drivers

A

com-

parison of the two blows

might be likened to the action of gun powder and dynamite. The slow burning

powder represents the action

of the

mallet.

The hammer should never be
screws
for

used on a chisel or gouge.

Hand
w ork
T

holding glued-up

Flg>

U7

PUers
'

together, sometimes for holding special

on the bench top,

work are made of wood, with either wood
For ordinary work, the jaws

or metal spindles.

MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS
which

201

should be parallel,but special forms are on the market
will

hold irregulär forms, as shown in Fig. 129.

They

are

made

in several sizes,

from

little

ones

For large with 4-inch jaws up to 22-inch jaws. and heavy work, clamps of wood or metal may be

had

as large as eight feet in length.

They

are useful
etc.,

in the

making
in

of

drawing boards, doors,

but

are not a real necessity for boys' ordinary woodwork.

Clamps
form

the

of trestles

for specially im-

large work are made as large as
portant

twelve
length.

feet

in

For ordinary
purposes, a pair
of 6-inch

and a
Fig
'

pair of

12 or 14

inch

wood hand

m

The maUet

screws will answer.

The ingenuity
ways
of

of

the young

woodworker

will suggest other

of holding glued-

up work in the absence

hand screws, such as winding with heavy twine or rope, and twisting a stick through the Strands, after the old method of tighten-

202

CARPEXTRY AND WOODWORK
bück saw or turning saw.
In
strips

ing a

building

up a
it

drawing board and gluing the
requisite pressure

together, the

may

be obtained by laying

on

the floor between blocks temporarily nailed there,

and wedges driven
for picture frames.

in, after

the method described

Fig. 129.

Clamp and hand screws

A
is

large part of the value derived

from woodwork

in

the exercise of ingenuity required to meet

unexpected contingencies.

Just so the owner of

MISCELLANEOÜS TOOLS
the construction of his machine

203

an automobile learns more about mechanics and

by being obliged to make repairs on the road, miles from any repair shop, and with a limited number of tools and appliances.

THE HAMMER
This

common

tool

is

made

in at least thirty dif-

ferent forms,

and some

styles in nine or ten different

weights.

For woodwork, the adze-eye claw hammer,
will

weight sixteen ounces,

answer

all

requirements.

For use with brads as small
as ^g inch, a brad

hammer
of

of three or four ounces is

desirable.

Both

these

forms are
claws
nails.

provided

with

for

withdrawing

(Fig. 130.)

Claw hammers are comparatively modern inventions, and there are men now living who, when
draw

Fig. 130.

Hammers

serving their apprenticeship, were obliged to withtheir nails with a pair of pinchers.
all nails

At that

period

were wrought by hand, and houses

204

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
still

are standing to-day on which the clapboards are

held in place by nails forged on an anvil

by hand.

THE FILE
volume might be written about the various shapes, sizes, and methods of cutting of this tool. Its place in woodwork is limited, and it should never be used where another tool will do the work.
Like sand-paper,
it

A

has a tendency to lead to bad

habits and slovenly work.

curved work in hard wood
the sharp edges
the latter, but
left

it

On certain may be used
is

pieces
to

of

remove

by

chisel or gouge, especially

its

action even there

apt to tear

away the

fibres.

An

eight-inch, half -round, cabinet

wood file and an
file

eight-inch, round, slim

No.

cut Swiss pattern

are sufficient.

For sharpening bits, a special auger

bit

file is

made,

and saw

this

may

be used for sharpening the marking

gauge point and such small work.
teeth, triangulär
stores.

For sharpening
all

saw

flies

are sold at

hard-

ware

THE SPIRIT LEVEL
This
is

necessary on outdoor structures which are

to be placed on foundations, in securing level or

horizontal timbers, and in plumbing the uprights.

MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS
The human eye is not equal to the task. and builders make use of wooden plumb

205

Masons
rods, but

Fig. 131.

The

spirit level

as the level
it will

is

necessary to secure the horizontals,

be at hand for the uprights, the two glass
(Fig. 131.)

tubes being at right angles.

RULE

A
all

two-foot, four-fold,

boxwood
(Fig.

rule,

graduated

to eighths outside

and sixteenths

inside, will

answer

ordinary requirements.

132.)

THE STEEL SQUARE
This
simple

but

valuable
is

tool,

about

which

volumes have been written,
ing construction, but
is

necessary for build-

not needed in the making

of furniture or cabinet work.

Fig. 132. Steel square

and rule

:

XXIII
MAKING NAIL BOXES

THE
nails.
it

boys now became very busy completing

their shop equipment,

and the

first

project

was a box

for holding different sizes of

This was to be kept on the bench where
it
is

could be reached convenientlv, and
133.

shown
the

in Fig.

After studying the sketch, Harry
bill of

made out

material
2 pcs. pine 15 x
2 pcs. pine
2 pcs. pine

1% x}/£ 1% x %

3xl^x^
33^ *

These
for the

six pieces

were squared up, and the joints
laid out

two partitions

by placing them edge
to edge in the vise.

Pencil

lines

were
the
a.

drawn
faces at

across

random,

Ralph
A/a,7

explained

that by fitting these
Bot
Fig. 133.

pencil
The naü box
206

lines

they

could at any time

"

MAKING NAIL BOXES
bring

207

the

two

pieces

together

in

the original

Position.

The

four knife lines representing the edges of the

grooves were next

drawn, and squared
half-way

down on
using

each

edge,

the face with the
pencil
lines

as

a

Fig. 134.

Socket chisels

working
laid
off

face.

The bottom

of

the

groove

was

x inch. with the marking gauge set at /i

The wood

inside the lines

was removed by making

a saw cut just inside the knife lines, and cutting out

with a ^-inch

chisel.
chisels.

This led to a talk on
that for fine

Ralph explained

work

a "firmer" chisel was used,

having a comparatively thin body.

There are two kinds of handles, known as " socket

and "tang."
and
splits

The

chisels

having "tangs" should
are to be Struck

never be hammered, as the tang acts as a wedge
the handle.

Where blows

with the mallet, a socket handle should be used.
(Fig. 134.)

For heavy work, where hard blows are

to be Struck, as in house-framing,

and out-of-door
tool should

work
used.

generally, the

heavy framing
of
this
chisel

be

The handle

has

a heavy

208

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
it

iron ring near the top to keep
pieces.

from going to

Out boys' equipment
half-inch

at this time consisted of one
chisel

and a one-inch firmer
chisel.

with tang

handles, a J^-inch and ^-inch socket firmer, and

one J^-mch framing

Later on they added

a 34 -mcn firmer with tang handle. The grooves for the nail box were cut with the
^/g-inch chisel

without the aid of the mallet.
inclining the tool at a

Ralph showed how, by

slight angle, a paring action could

be obtained, and

by working from both ends
were destroyed.

of the groove

no corners

When
nails.

the four grooves were finished, the box was

ready for assembling.

This called for

hammer and

Wire

nails are so

cheap now that the old-fashioned

cut nails have been largely driven from the market.

The nails used on the box were one-inch brads. The holding power of flat-head nails is of course much greater than bung head, but in this case the
box was to be squared up
if it

after nailing, exactly as

were a

solid

block of wood.

This meant planing

the sides and ends, and as the nails would ruin the

plane iron, they were
with a nail set or punch.

all

sunk below the surface
.

(Fig. 135)

This

is

a useful

MAKING NAIL BOXES
tool,

209

but not absolutely necessary, as for light work
flat

a wire nail, with the point ground
stone, will answer the

on the grind-

same purpose.

A

carpenter

frequently uses the edge of a flat-head nail instead
of the punch.

The box was assembled by nailing together The bottom was next put sides and ends.
side

the
on,

holding the try Square along one

and end to make sure everything was square, and last of all
the two partitions were

pushed down into their
grooves, and
tied in

place

by one brad from
side.

each
nails

Next,
set,

all

were

and the

outside tested with the

I

try square

and trued

Fig. 135.

Wire

nails

and

nail sets

up with the plane. The cabinet of drawers shown in Fig 136 was next designed to
nails,

keep the assortment of screws and
the boys
possible, they

which
far as

knew would soon accumulate.
sizes

As

were kept in their original paper boxes, were plainly printed.

on which the

The twelve drawers were simply boxes without

210

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
o o
o

o

k)

f—

*

*

Ot€lunJ S''f'

-F

L-

Uf.

I

4

Km. «f

I.

P
«*

Flg. 136.

Cabinet for nails and screws
it

Covers or partitions, and Ralph suggested that

was not necessary to make them
that they could often
fill

all

at once, but

in spare time that way,

and gradually complete the dozen. After making the nail box with

partitions, this

was a simple
all

Job,

it

being only important that they

be of the same

size.

The construction of new problems. The

the cabinet, however, brought
shelves, being short, did not

require any vertical support except at the ends,

where they were gained into the sides, and to give Harry practice the top and bottom were to be "rabbeted" into the sides. The sides then were

MAKING NAIL BOXES
the most important parts.

211

All six pieces were first

squared up to the dimensions called for in the
drawing.

The

list

of material

was

as follows:

4 pcs.

2 pcs.
1

pcs

.

24% x 12 x J^ shelves 14x12x3^ ends 25% x 14 x J4 back
said Ralph,

"The
The

grain

must run the long way,"
will

"so the grooves

be across the grain."

four grooves were laid out with knife and

try square, and the lines scored as deeply with the
knife as possible.

Then another cut was made with the
of the
first,

knife inside

and with the knife held at about 45

degrees, cuttingout a V-shaped groove, as

shown at a. In each of these grooves a cut with the bück saw was made down to the line, and the wood removed
with the ^g-inch
chisel.

There are special planes,
for doing this kind

called rabbet planes,
of work,

and plows

but

it is

good practice for beginners to use
the cabinet was put to-

the chisel.

The grooves

finished,

gether with 1^-inch brads, except the back.

This

being of thin material, and having no special strain

on

it,

was nailed on with 1-inch brads.
tier

The
J/g

total

width of the drawers in each

was

inch less

212

CARPENTRV AND WOODWORK
This gave clearance, so that they

than the space.
could be
Later,

moved in or out easily. when all twelve drawers were
simple

finished, the
pulls,

boys bought a dozen

drawer

and

screwed one in the centre of each box.

by drawing the diagonals The front and ends were in light pencil lines. sand-papered, and given two coats of dark-green
centre was found
stain,

The

and the cabinet was placed on a

shelf against

the wall.

XXIV
BIRD HOUSES

THE
mills,

boys

feit

that they were ready for busi-

ness,

and Ralph suggested that they had provided enough weather vanes and wind-

but had made no provisions for the birds.
cat, that arch

The

enemy

of the native birds,

had driven the robins, martins, and wrens all away. Each year some of these brave little birds started

homes

in the trees near the

house only to have their

f amilies

devoured as soon as they were hatched.

A

bird house to be attractive need not be very

pretentious, but

or the birds will
of

must absolutely be cat-proof, inspect it carefully from all points
it

view and leave

it

severely alone.

A
is

nest well

hidden in the tree foliage or shrubbery

not nearly

so conspicuous as a brightly painted house fastened
to the limbs of a tree.

The

side of a

barn or out-

house, far enough
cat cannot reach

down from
it,

the roof so that the

or a tall pole covered on the

upper part with

tin, so

that the feline bird hunter

cannot gain a foothold, are about the only safe
213

:

214

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
The
is

places for a house which the birds will actually

adopt.

first

house our woodworkers manuin Fig.

factured

shown

137.
its

This was a single or one-family house, and
construction was very simple.

The

list

of material f ollows
white wood 10 x

One

pc. J^-inch pine or

6%

ins.
ins.

Two
One One

pcs. }/2-inch pine or

white wood 73^ x 3

wood 9% x 5 ins. pc. 3^-inch pine or white wood 9% x 4^ ins. Two pcs. J^-inch pine or white wood 5% x 43^ ins.
pc. 3^-inch pine or white

The
up
7J/2

first piece,

10 x 6J/2 inches, was simplyjsquared

for the bottom.

The two

pieces for the sides,

x 3 inches, were squared up, and one edge of

each planed to a 45-degree bevel, to engage with
the roof boards.

The

latter

were squared up, and nailed together
ends, 5J^ x 4J^> inches, were carefully

at right angles with lj^-inch brads.

The two
laid

out as shown in the drawing, sawed, and planed

to the lines with Square edges.

In the end which was to contain the circular door
a hole
centre

1%

inches in diameter was bored with
line.

its

two inches from the bottom

This

required the Services of the extension bit, and, to

avoid Splitting the wood, as soon as the spur of the

BIRD HÖUSES
bit

215;

showed on the further

side,

the

wood was turned

about, and the hole finished from the other side.

The house was next turned upside down, and
fastened
in

the bench

vise.

Holes were drilled

along the sides of the bottom piece
the edge

— three

on each side

— countersunk, and
*i

% inch in from

t
-iL
POST

-

S—

Kg.

137.

One family

bird house,

and house

for high -hole

the piece fastened to
screws.

the sides with 1-inch No. 8

The top

pieces already nailed together were

now

nailed in position on the sides

and ends with

1-inch brads.

The

pole they used was 13 feet long and about 3

.

216

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
diameter at
the
small
end.
It

inches in

was

rounded at this end by using a draw

knife.

(Fig. 138)

Fig. 138.

The draw

knife

A

block of J/g-inch pine was bored out, and fitted

snugly over the end of the pole.

This block was
it

then removed, and four holes bored through
screws.

for

Before replacing the block on the top of the pole
a cut was

made

across the end of the pole about
of the rip saw.

two inches deep, by means

The block was

replaced,

and

wooden wedges
making

driven into the saw cut.

This fastened the block

securely on the end of the pole, and after sure that
it

was

level,

the bird house was fastened

to the block
side.

by four lj^-inch screws from the under

A

piece of sheet tin was

wound around

just

under

the house todiscourage pussy, and the pole set into the ground about three feet, bringing the under
side of the house ten feet

above the ground.

A

double or two-family house of similar propor-

BIRD HOÜSES
tions

217

was

built next, as

shown

in Fig. 139.

The

list

of material called for:

wood 183^ x 63^ (bottom) wood 183^ x 5}/2 (roof) pc. 3^-inch wood 183^ x 4*}4 (roof) Two pcs. 3^-inch wood 153^ x 3 (sides) Three pcs. 3^-inch wood 5% x 43^ (ends and

One One One

pc. 3^-inch

pc. 3^-inch

partition)'

The
solid.

construction was the

same

as before, each
of course being

end having a door, and the partition

The block

for supporting the

house on the

pole was larger, being
for six lj^-inch

8x5x1^

inches,

and
it

called

No. 10 screws, to secure
floor.

to the

under side of the
it

Harry wanted to make

more complete by adding a small wind vane, but Ralph said it might frighten the birds, so it was
omitted.

Of course

larger

and more ornamental houses

may

be

built,

but where there are too
there
is

many f amilies

in such close proximity

apt to be trouble,

while houses that are too conspicuous do not appeal
to the beautiful
to attract.

American wild birds that we want
it

With the English sparrow
For these
in Fig. 139. birds, a

does not

matter so much.
the form

tenement house
easily, in

against the side of a barn

may

be built

shown

This

may

be made any length, each door leading

218

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
compartment separated from the others by

to a

partitions.

Make

as

many

pieces plus one as there

are to be compartments, apartments, orflats; have

the bottom project as shown in side view for a

perch and walk, and have the roof also project to

shed rain.
If

not fastened from the inside of the barn by

stout screws, this house
or

must be secured

to a shelf,

by brackets.

The

side

view shows a simple shelf made of a

<*-*

7i
-»§•

7i

(--//-

o

o
]
c

Fig. 139.

Two

family house and tenement

back piece secured to the side of the barn by screws
or nails, a piain shelf nailed to this back piece, and

two wooden brackets. If iron brackets are used, both the shelf and back piece may be omitted, the

,

BIRD HOUSES

219

brackets being fastened to the under side of the bird house and to the siding of the barn by
screws.

For birds

like the high-hole, or flicker, a piece

of hollow log, or

an elongated box fastened securely
to the side of a pole,
is

made cat proof
This should

very acceptable.

not be painted, but should be provided

with a

door on

the

side

and a perch.

(Fig. 137.)

The open-

ing should be about three inches for
these large birds, and the location
Wh

should be as secluded as possible.

Any number of
Fig. 140.

devices will suggest

The

bird bath

themselves, but always remember
the cat, and study the location
f

rom

the bird point of view.

The martins and swallows

are especially to be encouraged, as they are wonderful destroyers of insects.

One

device, especially grateful to these feathered
is

friends in hot weather,

a pan of water, in a place

where they can drink and bathe without being
eternally on the

watch

for that crouching enemy..

who

is

always stalking them

— Tabby.
it

A pedestal

with a platform about four feet above

the ground will do nicely, and

can be placed so

220

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
you can watch them, and

close to the house that

enjoy their ablutions almost as
(Fig. 140.)

much

as they do.

The

construction

is

too simple to require

an

explanation.

XXV
SIMPLE ARTICLES FOR HOUSEHOLD USE

THE
this

boys thought

it

was about time to pay

some attention to the wants of the family, who had been clamouring for weeks to have article or that for the kitchen, dining room, and

in fact for every part of the house.

Ralph was a wise teacher, however.
failures

He knew

that the cause of ninety out of every hundred

was due to the young mechanic's trying
far advanced.
les-

some problem too
It

seems stränge that people cannot learn this

son.

We

have seen hundreds of boys led along,
end of
five or six carefully

say in carving, from one simple lesson to another,
until at the
cises,

graded exer-

these boys could carve beautifully any design

given them.

On

the other hand,

we have

seen boys start in

on their own hook, without any direction from older
people,

and

[ruining every thing they tried, simply
difficult
skill.

because they wanted to do the most
first,

thing

before they had developed any
221

222

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
his

Ralph was determined that expert and successful user of

boy should be an
he paid no

tools, so

attention to the clamours of the familv, and allowed

Harry to make only those things which were within his power to do well. Each time a piece of work was
finished,

and inspected by the family, the universal chorus was something like this:
"Well,
if

he can make such a
can't

fine bird house, I

don't see

why he

make

half a dozen picture
or,

frames for these water colors,"
such a
a
fine

"If he can
can't

pen tray,

I don't see

why he

make make

new

stool for the piano!"

In vain Ralph explained that these things could

be made in due time, that a picture frame required

much more

skill

than a bird house,
articles

etc.

Their household

commenced with a bread
This gave Harry

board for the kitchen.

(Fig. 141).

his first experience in planing a

broad surface.

He

used jack and smoothing planes for the working
face,

and squared the
pieces.

rest of the

board as he had

some time. The wood about the semi-circular top was removed with saw and chisel, the board held for the chiselling flat
smaller

This

required

on the bench hook.
a sand-paper block.

After getting this curve as
it

true as possible with the chisel,

was

finished with

A

)^-inch hole was bored at the

ARTICLES FOR HOUSEHOLD USE
centre of the semi-circle to hang
it

223

up by, and the two lower corners were rounded with chisel and sandpaper. No sand-paper was used on the flat surf ace,
as

Ralph explained

this

was a board

for cutting

i
vH[02

*

k

:>

^
r

1

t

V"

;

Mtcfr

i
<*r

16
Fig. 141.

The bread board

bread, and the grit from the sand-paper would

more or
spoil

less

embedded
knife.
it

in

become the wood, and it would

the

bread

ground quartz, and
ting tool.

Sand-paper is made of soon dulls the edge of a cut-

The
1

knife

and fork box
list

(Fig. 142)

brought new

Problems.
pc.

The

of material was:

2 pcs.

113^ x 3J4 x 2 x \y x 14 2 3^

Y

2 pcs.
1

7 x
12 x

pc.

\y 2 §y 2

x

y
2

x 34

It

was made

of white

wood, and, after being
This

as-

sembled, was stained a rieh brown by reeeiving two
coats of bichromate of potash.
is

a chemical,

224

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
may
be bought at a paint or drug störe in

which

the form of crystals.
until

These are dissolved

in water, It

the Solution looks like pink lemonade.

can be applied with a brush, but each coat must
be allowed
completely
the
V*

to

dry

before
is

whole

sand-

papered smooth with

No.

sand-paper.

A

deeper brown can

be obtained by adding one or two extra
coats of stain.

The middle
MkJJZm
j

parti-

oarStfton

lata tnU.

tion

containing the

handle
first.
JT<

was

made
on the
it

The drawing
laid out

y

BBS

was

Jl

wood

after

had

& /^f^s
Fig. 142.

been squared up, and

two
Method
of using

holes

1

inch in

the construction of

hand screws a knife box

diameter were bored
in

out

at

a

a.

The

wood between was taken out with a key-hole saw, and
finished to the line with chisel

and knif e.

A turning
but
it is

saw can be used to advantage on

this handle,

ARTICLES FOR HOUSEHOLD USE
not absolutely necessary.
in the

225

Spaces b b were removed
knife

same way, but a

was used

in the con-

cave part of the curve.

If it is

handy, a small

spokeshave

can be employed on the whole upper
in the nature of a handle should
fit

line of this handle.

Anything
rounded to
followed

be

the hand.

Edges

c c

were therefore

rounded with the knife, and finished with coarse,

by fine, sand-paper. The two sides were laid out together as in the nail box, and the groove cut with back saw and
J^-inch chisel.

The end
size.

pieces were

made

in a similar

manner,

and the bottom piece squared to Mö-inch

of finished

The assembling

consisted of

first

gluing to-

gether the sides and ends.

Two hand screws
first

were

used to hold them.
at using

This was Harry's

attempt

hand screws, and Ralph showed him the
parallel.

importance of keeping the jaws

The box remained
and the next day
it

in the

hand screws over
glue
for

night,

was found to be securely fastened.
kind, of It is

The most convenient
use,
is

boys

is

the liquid sold in cans.

always ready for

and very handy where only a moderate quantity
glue in the form of flakes, or granulated,

needed.

Dry

226

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

must be soaked over night, and then heated in a pot having a double bottom with water in the lower
part.
It should
flat stick.

be put on hot with a brush or a small

The

best glue

is

none too good, yet a

good quality has wonderful holding power and
should last indefinitely.
After removing the hand screws, the unfinished

box was placed
the plane, and

in the vise, tested

with the edge of

made

perfectly true, top

and bottom.

The

3^-inch bottom piece was
brads, the sides

one-inch

now put on with and ends made square,
the handle partition
slipped
into

the
fas-

grooves,

and

S 3

tened with two brads
at each end.

J8

*

This knife box was
so satisfactory that

our y oung carpenters
resolved
to

have a

F-^-J

Kg. HS. Tool box

i large one for tools. Whenever they had a j ob t0 do m tne
box became a necessity.

house, they were constantly running out to the shop
for something, so that a tool

ARTICLES FOR HOUSEHOLD ÜSE

227

The
but

construction was similar to the knife box;

this

was larger and heavier, and the dado

joints

at the ends were replaced

by a butt

Joint fastened

withflat-head screws.

(Fig. 143).

The bottom and

**\j

Fig. 144.

Another tool box

partition were also put

on with screws, on account
in the

of the weight to be carried.

These tool boxes are frequently made

shape

shown
called

in

Fig.

144, with sloping sides

and ends

the hopper Joint; but aside from the tool
it

practice

affords, it

is

doubtful

if

the shape has

advantage enough over the other form to Warrant
the extra time
it

takes.

Man is an imitative creature,

however, and what one carpenter has, the others
copy.

The

principal features about this useful article

should be size and strength, especially in the handle,

which should be of about Y% or

% mcn stock.

XXVI
THE MITRE BOX AND PICTURE FRAMES

ITwell

SEEMED

Harry that the shop was fairly equipped, but Ralph insisted that they
to

must have a mitre box before making anything
eise for the house.

The mitre box
precision,

is,

or should be, an instrument of
in

and although simple
or

construction,
(Fig. 145.)

must be perfectly accurate,

it is useless.

The

illustration

shows the

common

form, but

wood can be bought ready made. Every boy should make his own, for the practice, if for nothing eise. The sides should be made of oak J^ inch thick, 18 inches long, and 3j^
elaborate affairs of iron and
inches high, the

bottom
size.

of J/g-inch pine or other soft

wood, the same

When

squared up, the two sides must be tested by

standing them side by side; then reverse one end
for end, to see
if

they are

alike.
it.

If not, find

where

the trouble
It
is

is,

and correct

especially important that the edges of the
sides

bottom piece be Square and the
228

perfectly

MITRE BOX AND PICTURE FRAMES
parallel.

229

This test can be
Sides are
f astened

made with

the marking

gauge.

on by boring and counterAfter assembling,
v

sinking for three screws on each.

rof

V
tw

ggiZ

sSSsä

~v

_ rrr

_

a lV/V/V/\V
-<Ess:

jgg

"*

Fig.

145.The 45° mitre box and test pieces
if it

the whole thing must be tested as
block.

were a

solid

Top

edges must be true and parallel.

230

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Near one end
with the
sides.

— about

two inches
line

in

— lay out
side,

across the top with try Square a line 90 degrees

Carry the

down each

square with the top edges.
lay out a square

For 45-degree

angles,

by drawing two

pencil lines across
is

the top, as far apart as the finished mitre box
wide.
their

Draw the two diagonals and square lines from ends down both sides, taking care that their
is

Position

not over the screw in the bottom; be-

cause as the

saw cuts deeper
its

it

may

reach

this

screw

and ruin

teeth.

Make the
care.

three saw cuts directly on the lines laid

out with a cross cut or back saw, with the utmost
If this is

not done accurately,
is

all

the labour
of the

of preparation

wasted.

The blank end

mitre box

may have an
new

additional 90-degree"cut, or

be

left for

cuts in the future, as a mitre box of

this description

wears out and becomes inaccurate.

Other angles
grees,

may

be used, as 60 degrees or 30 de-

but

it is

better to have these on another box as

they are used

less,

and for special purposes.
not ready to use until

(Fig. 146.)

The mitre box
pine or white
thick.

is

it

has been

thoroughly tested.

Prepare a strip of soft wood
inches wide and

wood — 1 J^

%

mcn

Cut four pieces from it on the mitre box, using the back saw as shown at a, with only one of


MITRE BOX AND PICTURE FRAMES
the
slits.

231

Place these four triangulär pieces toa
square.
All

gether to form

the

four
If

mitre

joints of this square

must
L

fit

perfeetly.
7&si
sSrt?3_

they do

not,

mark the
slit

slit

"N. G.," and
the other

test
Teat

in the
If
all
"XTö*

same way.
It often

right,mark "0. K."

^z:
s

happensthat
per>

\
\

one

may be

z

H
l

?

fect
other
ate.

and the
inaccur*
1


Pig . 146. 30-60-90 mitre box

\?
If

If

they are
is

both O. &., the box
useless, lay

ready for use.

one

slit is

out and cut another on the blank end

of

the mitre box in the same direction, and test

again.

In testing a 30-degree cut three pieces of the strip
should be sawed out, and

when placed together

they should form a perfect equilateral triangle,
while from a 60 degree cut, six pieces are needed to

form a hexagon.
These angles are valuable
in inlaid

work, and

for getting out geometrical designs.

The 45-degree cut

is

indispensable in

making the

mitred corners of picture f rames and in cabinet work.

232

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

In making picture frames of simple cross section,
it

first

necessary to cut the rabbet (Fig. 147)
If this

with a rabbet plane.

moulding

is

made by

hand, the size of the picture should be measured, the
length of
all

four sides added, and a liberal allowance

made

for waste.
figure,
'•'/'
.#****

In the

the triangles a a are waste, the

E

•^'"

ga

-_-

gfeBft

3
Fig.' 147.

3

Making

picture frames

rabbet being indicated by the dotted

line.

After

the four pieces have been sawed out on the mitre
box, they should be placed together on a flat surface,

such as the bench top or
fit

floor, to see if

the mitres

perfectly.

If

they do not, one of them can be

block planed to

make

a perfect

fit,

and the other
Operation,

three laid close together, as

shown
tried

in the illustration.

The assembling is the hardest part of the
and many devices have been
to hold the parts together while the glue

and some patented
is

drying.

MITRE BOX AND PICTURE FRAMES
Perhaps the surest way
a wire bung-head
is

233

to drill a hole in one

piece of each Joint large enough for the passage of
nail.
is

The
vise.

undrilled piece

placed vertically in the
after

The

drilled
is

piece,

receiving

a

thin

coat of glue,

brought into position horizontally,

and the

nail driven

home.
first

Theoretically, the nail should catch at the

blow, but the horizontal piece will sometimes

slip,

even with the best of care.
piece

It

is

wiser to place this
final position, to

about V\q inch above
slip.

its

allow for this

A

method sometimes used
at d.

is

to glue near the

ends of each piece a triangulär block of wood, as

shown
harden.

These must be

left

over night to

The next day the whole four pieces can be glued and held together by four hand screws, as shown,
until the
of course,

glue

is

thoroughly hard.

This method,

can only be used with piain moulding or
is

that which

Square on the outside.
tried another

Our boys
practised.

way
e e,

that

is

commonly

They

nailed

oblong blocks to an old

drawing board, as shown at

and then placed the

picture frame in the centre, after gluing the joints,

and driving wedges

in

between the blocks and the

234

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Paper placed under each Joint prevented

frame.

the frame from being stuck to the drawing board

by the glue forced out by the pressure. This paper plan was learned by experience, as the first frame the boys tried had to be pried up from the board, and in so doing they broke it at two of the joints, so that it had to be made again. It is well to remember in gluing mitre joints that
end grain absorbs more glue than a
flat

surface.

A

priming coat should be applied

first,

and allowed
pores.

to remain a few

moments

to

fill

up the

The

second coat should hold fast and
Joint,

make

a strong

but an excess of glue should always be avoided,

must be removed after hardening, and glue soon takes the edge from the best of tools.
as
it

Very fancy frames should be avoided.

A

bevel

on the outside or inside,or both, is about all the young woodworker should attempt in the way of
ornamentation.
of the

Depend on the natural beauty
after all
is

wood, as a fancy frame draws the attention
the main thing.

from the picture, which

We

should admire the man, not his clothes, the
its

picture not

frame, although the latter should

be neat and well made.

The finishing and polishing up in Chapter XLIX.

of frames

k

taken

XXVII
MAEING TOILET BOXES

TO
The
the box.

MAKE a wooden box sounds like a simple
making the
up.

proposition; but in

drawing,

the questions

of size,

proportion, joints,

hinges, etc., immediately
size

come

of course

depends on the purpose of
should be
for collars or handkerchiefs,

If it is for ladies' gloves, it
if

long and narrow;

square or nearly

so.

The
fact,

height

is

nearly always

made

too great.
is

In

the whole question of
it

proportion

one which can hardly be taught;

must be

feit,

and

different people

have

different

ideas as to

what constitutes good proportion.
however,

Some

hints,

may

be given:

A
A

box box

perfectly square does not look well.
sions that are multiples

Again, dimenwell.

do not look

4 x 8 x 12 inches would not be nearly so pleasing
as one 3 x 53^ x 12 inches.

The proportions
structive details.

are also affected
Is the

by the conon the sides

box to be
235

flat

and ends or

is

the top to project? etc.

236

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
finally

Our boys argued and sketched and
the design shown^ at Fig. 148.
ties.

drew

This was to hold

The top was
-32

to project

and have a bevel,
or chamfer,
#

also the bot-

-IZf-

V
*

**
£

jtom.

No

s

hinges were

Cover- o/X

to be used, but the cover

IFig. 148.

was to have
Dado
Joint used in

cleats fas-

tened on the under side to
box

keep

it

in place,

and to

design

prevent warping.

The next

question was the manner of fastening

the sides and ends.
Joint with glue
toilet
article,
if

On unimportant
holes
filled

work, a butt
for a

and brads can be used, but
the
are

made
with

by

the

brads,
are

even

they

putty,

not

satisfactory.

So
a.

it

was decided to use the dado
fine

Joint as

This meant more
it

work, but, as

shown at Ralph sug-

gested,
right.

was to

last a lifetime,

and should be made

Sides and ends were squared up, and the grooves

on the side pieces

laid out as in the nail box.

The

rabbets on the end pieces were cut out with the back

saw and

chisel.

After the joints had been carefully

MAKING TOILET BOXES
fitted,

237

the four pieces were glued together and placed

in

hand screws over night. While the glue was hardening, the two pieces for the top and bottom were squared up and bevelled
sides,

with the smoothing plane on the long
block plane on the ends.

the

The

cleats for the top

were next made, drilled
b.

and countersunk

for the screws as at

A
The

careful full-sized

drawing

of half of the top

was made, and a chip carving design drawn
cleats

for

it.

were not put on until the carving was
spoil the surface.

finished

and short screws had to be used so they
the body of the box was removed

would not come through and

The next day
plane.

from the hand screws and squared with a smoothing

The top and bottom were put on with
These were "set" with a
nail

1-inch brads.

punch
the

to

prevent

any

possible

scratching

and

whole box was rubbed down with wax dissolved in
turpentine.

For

fine cabinet

work, the dovetail Joint makes

the most satisfactory method of f astening, but Harry

was not yet
demanded.

skilled

enough to do the

fine

work

it

The second box was

for handkerchiefs, dimensions

8x7x3

inches outside, and no overhang at either

238

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The
construction brought in several
features.
first

top or bottom.

new

Sides and ends were dadoed together
box.
after being squared,

as in the

The top and bottom,
rabbeted on
into
all

were

four sides until they fitted snugly

the

opening

top

and bottom.

They were

glued in these positions and placed in hand screws

over night.

(Fig.

149.)

"How
on.

are

you going

to get into that
it

box?" asked

Harry. " You've closed

up

solid

and glued the top

'Wait and see," was

all

the satisfaction he got.

The next day the hand screws were removed and
the box squared up exactly as
piece of wood.

had been a Ralph then made two gauge
if it

solid
lines

Ccver

1
r'

'

"

'
.

.-

,

f-

-

^* Cu(erut

/hr ät .vess.

&<3ts#e S?*?&.

\\\\\ 4n\\n\\

^
]

Fig. 149.

The handkerchief box

around the four
}/g

sides,

%

mcn from
the

the top and

inch

apart.

Then he cut
lines

box

in

two

between these two

with a rip saw, after slightly

MAKING TOILET BOXES
rounding
all

239

corners except the bottom ones with

a plane and sand-paper.

By this method,
alike in outline,

the box and cover must be exactly
lines,

and by planing to the gauge

they

will fit perfectly.

It only

remained to hinge the two parts together,

but this Operation proved to be no slight task.

The body was placed in the vise and the cover The two parts laid upside down on the bench top. were brought together as shown at c, and the four knife lines laid out as shown with knife and try
Square.

must be equal to the width of the hinge, and the wood between these lines removed to a depth equal to half the thickness of the hinge at its Joint when
distance between the lines at a and b
closed.
If too

The

much

is

removed, the box

will

be
If

"hinge bound" and
too
little is

will

not close in front.
close in front

taken out,

it will

and have

an open Joint at the back.
will often

In the former case,

a thickness or two of paper placed under the hinge

be enough to make

it

close in front.

In

the latter case, of course more material

must be

cut out.

It

is

a delicate Operation, as the depth of
is

these cuts for 1-inch hinges
It
is

only about Vie inch.

a question of accuracy, pure and simple.

240

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
for

Holes
brad awl.

the

screws

can

be

made with a
and

The boys made
styles,

several boxes of various sizes

some

piain,

some decorated with carving.
is

Pyrography, or burnt work,

frequently used for

decoration,andthe
best

wood

for this

purpose

is

bass-

*

wood, because of
its

white

color,
free-

softness,

and

dom from

pitch.

Other
s
*9 72> e*/ * /~

woods
burnt,

may
but

be
pine,

^<~9* _gS iruy.

which

has veins of pitchy
Fig. 150.

A

box for drawing instrumenta

sa p
is

?

Js

no t suitable.
in Fig.

A
150.

box

for

drawing instruments
dimensions

shown

Its outside

are 9 x
of

5%
gum

x 2J^

inches.

Our boys made

theirs

wood

because of the beauty of
ability for carving.

its

colouring and

its suit-

The

joints used

and the method
for the
all,

of construction

were the same as in the handker-

chief box,

but

it

was provided with a tray
strips fastened to the

instruments.
rested on

This was one inch deep over

and

two thin

ends inside.

MAKING TOILET BOXES
These
strips

241

were 4J^ xlxj^ inches, and, by raising the tray one inch from the bottom, left a spaee

convenient for holding triangles, protractors, pencils,
etc.

The cover was deeorated with a border and
of dovetailed boxes
is

centre piece in chip carving.

The making
Chapter

taken up in

XXXV.

XXVIII
BRACKETS AND BOOK RACKS

BRACKETS
house for

are

often

required

about the
size,
is

many

purposes, and their

shape, and decoration are infinite.

There

even more fun indesigning them than inmaking them.
Tastes
differ in this respect, as in

everything

eise,

and, given the problem, no two people will

bring

out the same design unless they simply copy something they have seen, which
is

not designing.
brackets in re-

When

our boys started to

make

sponse to urgent demands from the family, Ralph

blocked out the sketch shown in Fig. 151 at

a.

"There

is

a bracket," he said;

"it consists of
it will

three pieces, and properly put together

hold

what

it is

designed to hold.

It is not a thing of
it.

beauty,

and
its

we must improve
9

How?
its

By

changing

outline without impairing
sl

strength.

In other words, we must 'design
structed of three pieces of
right angles.

bracket con-

wood put together at There's your problem; now take paper
let

and pencil and

us see

what you can do."
242

BRACKETS AND BOOK RACKS

mz

Fig. 151.

Designs for wall brackets

"

244

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
size?" asked Harry.
I'll

"What
"Oh,
For

in this case,

leave

it

to your judgment."

fully

an hour, no sound was heard in the shop

but that of two lead pencils.
experience.

Harry was getting
" Don't
difficult

" Let
try to

me give you a pointer," said Ralph.
it
is

draw both sides alike, as where you have free-hand lines.
and when you have
line
it

very

Draw

a vertical

line representing the centre.

Sketch one half of the

design,

about

right, fold the
half.

paper on this centre

and trace the other

Harry went to work again and at the end Ralph
criticised

of an-

other hour produced the sketches shown in Fig. 151.

them
said

all

rather severely, and as

Harry was
designing
learn
is is

tired, this

treatment made him sulky.

"Don't get mad,"
to

Ralph kindly; "you know

hard work and the only way you can

have

me

help you by pointing out your
for criticism;

weak spots. Artists are obliged to pay you know I'm not finding fault."
one
shall I

"All right," said Harry, brightening up, "which

make?"
is

"I think the one marked x

the best.

Work

up more and put on
it

carefully, design the shelf
all

and bracket

the dimensions."

"The

bracket?

Why, what is

this I

have drawn?

BRACKETS AND BOOK RACKS
wall;

245

"That's the back piece that goes against the
the bracket piece supports the shelf,
in

and

remember when you make it must always run the long way

wood, the grain

of each piece.

"Why?"
show you," said Ralph. He cut out two pieces of wood about 8 x
"I'll
1

x J^

inches, one with the grain running lengtlrwise

and

on the other the grain running the one-inch way.

Handing the first piece to Harry, he said, "Let me see you break it with your hands." The boy tried and failed. Handing him the
second piece he said,

"Now

try this."

It broke so readily that

Harry was astonished.
all."

"That's why," said Ralph, "and that's

The

three pieces as finally

Fig. 151 at x.

They were

all

drawn are shown in cut out of gum wood
chisel,

with a coping saw, finished to the lines with

spokeshave and sand-paper block, and put together
with ^-inch brads.

The

nails

were driven through

the back into the bracket, the latter piece being held
in the vise in a horizontal position.

It

was then

shifted to a vertical position with the

back piece

to the left of the vise

and the

shelf nailed to the

bracket.

Two

brads were also driven through the

back into the

shelf.

246

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
may
be ornamented in

Brackets

many ways;

by chip carving, pyrography,' or by staining, but the decoration should be put on before assembling. Another form is shown at b in which the back
piece
is

not carried above the

shelf,

the latter piece

resting

on the top of the back.
is

From

a construc-

tive Standpoint this

a stronger form than the
is

other, as part of the weight

carried

by the back

instead of

by the brads

alone.

Corner brackets are
wall pieces
right angle.

sometimes used and
c.

may

be made in the form shown at

Here we have two
the

and a V-shaped

shelf,

V

being a
long as

Again, the form

to require

two brackets

may be so and it may then

be con-

sidered a shelf.

In fastening any of these forms to a plastered
wall, considerable care

must be taken

in placing the

nails or screws so that they will

engage in a stud
location of the

instead of just in the plaster.

The

studs can be found

knuckle or lightly
however,
is

by tapping on the wall with the with a hammer. A surer way,
either of these places
nail

to find the nails in the picture moulding

or base board

and plumb from

with a small weight

— such as a
field

— on a

string.

The

designing and making of book racks offer
for the imagination.

an almost endless

The

BRACKETS AND BOOK RACKS
rack

247

may have

a fixed length or be adjustable and

either of these forms

may have

fixed

or folding

ends,
in

and again the shapes

of the ends

may

be varied

form and decorated

in several ways.

Perhaps one of the simplest forms of folding book

rr

\

f"^
t

^ii

hatved jot*t
;

1

B=

enJ
ptece

U
f

tef>

j*Je

i

CEE

LJ_J

Fig. 152.

Types
racks

of

book

-LKVA

rack

shown in Fig. 152, at a. The ends are sawed out of the bottom piece, pivoted with two 34" mcn dowels and when stood upright the lower part
is

strikes against a cleat,

which acts as a
lies in

rest for the

rack and a stop for the end piece.

The weakness of most book racks
weakening

the gradual

of the ends at the Joint so that the weight

248

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
books makes them lean outward.
weakest forms perhaps
is

of the

This should

be considered carefully in vvorking up the design.

One

of the

is

shown

at

b.

Theoretically, this

all

right,

but in practice the

ends soon bend or lean out.
use of the halved Joint,
is

A skeleton form, making
at
c.

shown

The two long

sides

and two short ends are squared
All the ends are bevelled.

up and halved as shown.

Holes are bored for the pivots

— J^-inch dowels —
This
is

a distance from the cross pieces equal to half the
thickness of the folding ends.
to insure

the

ends standing perfectly upright against cross
If this

pieces.

distance

is

greater than half the

thickness, the ends will lean out,

and

if

less

than

half,

the ends cannot be gotten in place.

The bottom

of

the ends must be rounded, or they will not f old over.

The
little

construction

is

very simple, and requires
is

material.

Another very ordinary method

shown at d. It is as common and simple as it is weak and unsatisfactory. The ends are placed on the bottom piece and hinged. If a cheap and quick method is desired, it would be better to place the hinges as shown at e because then the tendency to tilt out is prevented by the pressure against the bottom piece as long as the screws hold. A far better method is to mortise the shelf througb
9

BRACKETS AND BOOK RACKS
the end pieces and fasten
it

249

with a good, healthy
still

pin or wedge, as shown at /; and a
to

better plan

is

have two mortises and two wedges, as shown at
In constructive design, nothing
is

g.

by honesty. The ends in this case are held in place by pins, so instead of hiding the fact, emphasize it by making these pins big and strong enough to do their work. The rack may be further strengthened by adding
lost

corner brackets at

h.

Having decided on the construction, the form
the ends

of

may

be taken up.

This

is

affected some-

what by the construction, but some of the outlines tried by our boys and suggestive to other boys are

shown

at

1, 2,

3.

They used two distinct kinds. One was characterized by straight lines. These they decorated with chip carving, The other style was distinguished by curved outlines, and decorated by outlines made with the veining tool, and by staining the
figures in various colours.

The

stains they used

were

oil

colours thinned with

turpentine so as to bring out the grain of the wood,
rather than to hide
it,

as in painting,

and care was
polishing,

taken to tone down these colours to dull reds, browns,
greens,

and

grays.

For

staining

and

turn to Chapter

XLIX.

XXIX
CONSTRUCTION

THE
etc.

study of construction

in-

cludes

many

items such as
Fi g- 153

strength, proportion, joints,
If

we look

at the roof timbers

shown

in out-

line at

a (Fig. 153), the interesting parts of the
circles.

construction are the three Spaces enclosed by

The

straight

lines

between these

circles

do not
do.

interest us very

much, but the parts enclosed
arises,

Immediately the question
kind of Joint
ical

how

are the timbers

fastened at these places?
is

In other words, what
Joint then
is

used?

The

the
of

crit-

part,

or

we might say

the

cream

the

construction.

A
built

very large number of joints are in use, but
of

many

them

are

rare.

Our grandfathers, who

their

houses

and barns from oak timbers
axe,

commonly used the mortise and tenon, fastened with a generous hard wood pin, and many of them are still standing after a Century or two of hard usage. The fact that the

hewn out with the

250

CONSTRUCTION

251

beams were rough hewn, instead of sawed, did not in any way affect their strength, because they made
good, strong joints.

Some

of the

more common
illustrations,

joints are

shown

in the
for

accompanying
reference.

and may be used

No.

1.

A

butt Joint in which the two pieces

are fastened together, end to end,

by means

of glue

and dowels.
there
is little

It should

be used only in cases where

strain in the direction of the

two pieces.

No.
angles.

2.

A

dowel Joint joining two pieces at right
of it
is

One form
4.

shown

at No. 3 applied

to the leg of a table.

No.

Shows two

pieces fastened edge to edge
is

by dowels.

This Joint

often
after

made without

the

dowels; the two strips,

jointing or fitting,

being glued and rubbed together

— sometimes called

a rubbed

Joint.

No.
screws,

5.

A
A

butt Joint fastened by nails, brads, or
in

common
6.

box construction.
slant.

No.

butt Joint where the pieces are not at

right angles,

owing to the
it is

This

is

called

the hopper Joint and
brads.

fastened with nails or

No.

7.

End

lap.

A

Joint

much used

in

house

framing.

QK(

)

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

^\
s
MI
/fo/

--*«

O-3
No
4,

=44^7
/Vo

^
A/0 6

A*« J

&

'

Tl* na-ltd

jomt

^
A'o

1

jf

^

1

"C,c* /«'»!

A* J*

1/
Fig. 154.

Tr.th ,t,nt

Joints used in construction

CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 154.

Joints used in construction (continued)

No.

8.

Shows the lap

Joint used for splicing

two

pieces lengthwise.

It needs to

be nailed or bolted

to prevent pulling apart.

No. No.

9.

A

middle lap

Joint.

10.
resists

Dovetail
pulling

lap

or

lap
is

dovetail.

This

form
of lap

apart and

a combination

and dovetail
11.

joints.

No.

Shows a modification
Halved
Joint.

of the same, only

one side being dovetailed.

No.

12.

Both

pieces are cut out
of

to half their thickness,

and a width equal to that

254

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Fig. 154.

Joints used in construction (continued)

CONSTRUCTION
the other piece.
or

255

The

pieces

may

be at right angles

some other angle, as shown at No. 13. No. 13. Halved Joint at 45 degrees. No. 14. Lock Joint. This is a form
It resists pulling apart,

of lap Joint

rarely used.

but should

be glued on account of shrinkage.

No.
cross,

15.

Notched
füll

Joint; used

where two pieces

and where
16. 17.
18.

halving

is

not desirable, as in

the sketch of pergola.

No.

Rabbeted or gained

Joint.

No. No.
No.

Dado

Joint.

Gained or housed

Joint.

Through mortise and tenon, used in furniture construction and building. No. 20. Blind mortise and tenon, same as No.
19.

19, except that the
is

tenon does not go through and
joints

invisible.

These two

may

be fastened

with glue, and are often strengthened by passing
a

dowel

through at right angles to the tenon.
is

Another method
in the

to

make two

or

more saw cuts
rails

tenon, and drive wedges into the cuts.

In door construction, where the
stiles,

meet the

the tenon
line.

is

often divided, as

shown by the

dotted
Note

The two

parts fitted into separate
and are named
differently

16, 17, 18 are often confused,

by mechanics.

They

are used in boxes,

and cabinet work.

'256

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
of the door.

mortises give the appearance of two distinct tenons

on the edge

No.
Joint, a

21.

Relished mortise and tenon or door
of doors.

form used at the corners
22.

No. No. No. No.
lap,

End

mortise and tenon.

The tenon

is

seen on two sides.
23.

Used

for frames of various kinds.

The mitre

Joint,

used in picture frames,
of

picture moulding, interior
24.

finish

houses,

etc.

Lap mitre

Joint;

a

combination

of

end lap and mitre; rarely used.
25.

Stretcher Joint; a combination of end

mitre,

and end mortise and tenon; used by
is

artists ior

frames on which their canvas
is

fastened.

The

stretching

done by driving wedges from the

inside.

No.

26. 27.

Dovetail; used as a splice.
Single open dovetail for

No.

two pieces at

right angles.

When two

or

more

are cut in the

same
No.
No.

place,
28.

we have the open or box dovetail. Box dovetail; used in cabinet work
Half-blind dovetail.

and boxes.
29.

The

dovetails are

seen from only one side; used in cabinet work,
especially in drawer construction.

No.
are

30.

Blind dovetail.
the
dovetails

When
are

the two pieces
invisible.

together,

This

CONSTRUCTION
Joint calls for very accurate work.
special cases,
it is

257
It
is

used in

where strength

is

required,

and yet

desirable to hide the
31.

form

of construction.

No.

Trick dovetail; not used in construction,
of interest as a curiosity.

and only
of this
alike.

The

four sides

trick
It

combination are apparently exactly

seems impossible for them to have been
effect it is well

put together, and to bring out the

to have one piece in light-coloured wood, the other

dark.

The method

of laying out

and cutting

is

shown in the illustration. The dovetails that appear on the surf ace are only oblique sections of dovetailedshaped tongues and grooves running diagonally
from face to
face.

No.

32.

Another

trick.

This at

first

sight ap-

pears like a lap dovetail, but the end view shows

another dovetail, making
to put together.
in the drawing. It

it

apparently impossible
is

The
is

construction

shown

clearly

of

no value in constructive work.

No. No.

33.

Splice or scarf Joint; used in framing,
little

occasionally; of
34.

value to boys.

Tongue and groove Joint; used in flooring

and
are

for sheathing.

Scores of other joints might be shown, but they

seldom used, and are of no value to amateur

mechanics.

XXX
THE USE OF THE GOUGE

THERE
that

one tool you have not learned to use," said Ralph, one day, "and I think
is it is
is

about time you tried

it."

"What

tool

that?" asked Harry.

'The gouge ground or bevelled on the
outside.
(Fig. 155.)
is it

"What
those

used for?"
curves, especially

"For cutting concave

below the surface.

Suppose

you

practise on a piece of white wood."

wood was squared up, a foot long and 1 3^ inches Square. The lines shown in the figure were laid out with the The marking gauge is not suitable pencil. for this work, as it makes a sharp cut in
piece of white
FigTiSo. e gouge

A

the surface just where the edge
go that after the
this

is is

to come,
finished,

gouge work
split

it

would show

edge

by the gauge mark.
to

(Fig. 156.)

The two grooves from end
258

end were

first cut,

THE USE OF THE GOÜGE
removing a quarter
This
circle,

259

the curve being drawn

on the ends by a pair of compasses or dividers,
gave
in

excellent

practice

freehand
Practise cuts with the gouge

work, calling for good
control over the hands,
Fi s- 156
-

and a constant watching
Splitting.

of

the grain to preveni

The

other two grooves or coves

were next

tried,

Extra care had to be exercised here to prevent taking off the ends.

To
tray

give the

boy further

practice, the simple

pen

shown

in Fig. 157

was sketched out, and the

stock squared up.

The gouge work

in this exercise

was

entirely be— 4ez>t/t.

-Af

isasL

jz
TT
_L_
Fig. 157.

An example

of

gouge work

neath the surface, and to make the tool work true
to the drawing, a depth gauge was
at a.

made

as

shown

This was simply a straight piece of waste

260

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

wood with a brad driven into it, carefully, until the head was the same distance above the surface as
the depth of the groove called for in the drawing.

By
could

inverting the gauge and running the brad

head along the bottom of the groove, the depth be gauged accurately.

The wooden

strip

must rest on the surface at both sides of the groove, and the brad head just touches the bottom at the same time. After the gouge work had been carried as far as possible, the groove was finished by sand-papering, first with No. lj^ and then with No. sandpaper.

In laying out bevelled edges on a piece of this
character, the

same objection
of

to the

marking gauge
for pencil

holds as for gouged grooves.

Ralph showed the

boy a simple method
lines

making a gauge
difficulty.

to

overcome

this

He

cut out a
at
b.

piece of white pine shaped as

shown

The

distance from the Shoulder to the point of the

V

was equal to the width
chamfer.

of the

desired bevel or

The

stock must be held in the vise, as
lines.

both hands are required in the drawing of the

To make
the
size,

the width of the bevel greater, simply cut

the Shoulder further back with a knife, and to reduce
cut the

V

further in toward the Shoulder.

THE USE OF THE GOUGE
This
is

261

a very convenient and inexpensive device,

quickly made.

A

more pretentious project was
a
chisel

tried next

(Fig.

158, a), which provides for

round
work.
all

ink

bottle,
first

and demands some nice
pen tray

In the
planed.

the bevels had been

On
way,

this second one, only three could be cut that

as the one on the

back had to be

chiselled.

The

successive steps in the construction were as follows:
1.

Square up stock.

2. 3.

Lay out the drawing on

the wood.

Bore the hole for ink well half way through
hole with chisel,

the

wood with extension bit. 4. Smooth the bottom of the
it

holding
5.
6. 7.

bevel down.

Gouge out the groove and gauge the depth.
Sand-paper the groove.

Cut out the outline of the back with the back saw and chisel. 8. Cut all the bevels, doing the back part the most difficult first.

9.

Draw

chip carving design.

10.

Do

the carving.

11.

Rub down
r

with wax dissolved in turpentine.

12. Insert

ink well.

Design No. S

shown

at b (Fig.

158),

called for

2Ö2

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

-4~*§

er
.. 7.77laia 7

I

*— «*
73 dw,
r

71

C
.JW

J
Pen and ink trays

Fig. 158.

molded edges, places
them.
1.

for

two Square ink
flat

wells,

and

a simple carved design in the

space between

The

process in this case was as follows:

Square up.

2.

Lay out

the work from drawing.

THE ÜSE OF THE GOUGE
3.

263

Cut out Squares 34 mcn deep with socket chisel and mallet. 4. Gouge groove. 5. Make moulded edges by first gouging the quarter circle shown in detail drawing, and doing the long sides with the grain first. Next remove the rest of the wood outside the curved outline with
smoothing plane on long
sides,

block plane on ends.

Sand-paper the groove and moulded edges.
6. 7.

Lay out and execute carving. Rub down with wax or raw linseed
Insert ink wells.
this

oil.

8.

In place of carving

inkstand,

an

inlaid

design could have been used, and the whole piece highly polished, but our boy had not yet had any
practice in inlaying or polishing, so he used sweet

gum wood and

a chip carving design.

Later on

he made others out of black walnut and mahogany, and gave them a high polish. See Chapter
f or

XXXV

inlaying and

XLIX for polishing.
problem
in

A

very nice

little

gouge work

is

in Fig. 159, a

pen tray pure and simple,

shown with no

Provision for ink wells.

The only new feature is the under outside. The steps for this are:
1.

cutting of the

Square up.

264
2.

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Lay out from
a centre line,

drawn completely around the block lengthwise, and draw with compasses and rule both top and bottom.
3.
4.

Gouge groove.
Plane the long

sides to outline of

top
)"

and

bottom

— »£Fig. 159.

lines.
trap

The pen

5.

back saw and
bottom.
6.

chisel

to

semicircles

Cut ends with on top and
chisel

Round upper edge with spokeshave,
knife.

and
7.

Sand-paper with

coarse,

followed

by

fine,

sand-paper.
8.

Polish or

wax

finish.
is

Perhaps the most severe test for gouge work
the pin tray shown at Fig. 160.

This

is

something
time
it

which could be made more cheaply and

in less

from metal, but a
process
is

skilful

and
pen

careful

boy can do

successfully in a hard wood, such as maple.
is

The

similar to the

tray.

The drawing

laid

out on the squared stock, and the bowl cut

out with the gouge.

The
or

outside

is

best executed with a template,
for

better,

two

— one

the

lengthwise section

THE ÜSE OF THE GOUGE
and one
for the width.

265

A

template

is

a form cut

out of thin wood or metal; in this case 3^-inch wood

Fig. 160.

The pin

tray.

A

fine test of

gouge work

should be used.

By

frequently holding these temit

plates to the work,

may

be quickly seen where
the templates,

the material

is

to be removed.
fits

When
it is

the outside of the tray

ready for sand-papering, and not before.
This template method

To

make
used.

the tray perfect, an inside template can be
is

used in forming

boat modeis.

XXXI
COAT HANGER AND TOWEL ROLLERS

THE
A
and
soft

coat hanger

is

a convenient thing in

every household, and also a good example
of spokeshave work.

wood,

like pine, or

white wood,

is

suitable,

up two faces and one edge, the design may be drawn on one or both of the faces with a sharp pencil. Cut close to the lines with a turning saw, and finish to lines with spokeshave.
after squaring

Fig. 161.

The

coat hanger

The upper edge
cross section

is

next rounded with the spoke-

shave (Fig. 161), and finished with sand-paper to the

shown

in the drawing.
bit,

Bore a hole for

the hook with a gimlet

and make the hook from

strong brass wire, shaped by bending with a pair of
266

COAT HANGERS AND TOWEL ROLLERS
pliers.

267

For

finishing,

two coats

of shellac
is

can be

used.
flat

The first

coat after hardening

sand-papered

with No. 00 sand-paper; the second

may

be

same way, or rubbed down with ground pumice stone and linseed oil. (See polishing chapter.) For the kitchen, the towel roller is still used to some extent, especially in the country and suburbs. It consists of four pieces, a back, two brackets, and the roller. These essential parts are shown in Fig. 162 and the back and brackets may be modified and improved as shown at b and c. Carving can be used in a simple form on the ends, The back and ends are cut out with as shown at c.
treated in the

the usual tools, but

it is

wise, in cutting the outline

them together with a piece of paper between, cutting both at the same time. This insures their being exactly alike, and when finished they may be easily separated by inserting the blade The paper will split, of a knife between them.
of the ends, to glue

half

coming

off

on each

piece.
off,

After the paper and glue have been planed

a hole

is

bored half way through each end from

the inside.

On

one end

it

is

necessary to cut a

groove of the same width and depth as the hole,
clear

up

to the top, so that the roller can be inserted

after assembling,

and a towel be put over

it.

The

268

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
are

ends
each,

fastened

with

two

flat-head

screws

by boring through the back, and counterholes should also be bored through the back
it

sinking.

Two
The
1.

for fastening
roller

to the wall.

may

be turned on a lathe or made at

the bench by the following method:

Square up the stock to the diameter of the
drawing.
of each

roller called for in the
2.

Find the exact centre

end by drawing

the diagonals with a pencil.
3.

Draw

a circle on each end from these centres

of füll diameter.
4.

Bore a hole at each
Plane
Plane

of these centres j^g-inch

diameter, and about an inch deep.
5.

off

the four corners

down

to the circle

to produce an octagonal form.
6.

off

the eight corners, using as a stop
vise.

a small piece of wood fastened in the

Hold

the roller against this stop, and allow the stock to
rest

over

the

open space

in the vise.

Continue

to plane off the edges as long as they are large enough

to see or
7.

feel.

Sand-paper with coarse, followed by

fine,

sand-

paper.
8.

Glue into the holes

in

the ends pieces of

COAT HANGERS AND TOWEL ROLLERS
inch.
9.

269

dowel long enough to project out about half an

Allow the glue to harden over night, and saw

off

the dowels next day to the proper length.

Cut

a slight bevel on the end of each dowel with the
knife.
If

any carving

is

to be done on the ends,

it

must

be cut before they are screwed to the back piece.

R^tfr

'~Z^Va^t

Fig. 162.

The towel

roller

This method of producing a cylinder without

a turning lathe can be used

in a

number

of ways.

For example, boys

living in the city,

where a pull-up

270

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
make
it

bar has to be located in the house, can easily

one in this way, and fasten

between the door
can be made, as
each

jambs at a convenient height.

The
shown
J/2

blocks for supporting
in

it

Fig.

163,

three

inches

way and

inch thick.
is

Oak is

the best

wood

for this purpose.

It

strong enough, and can be stained to match the

door frame.

Bore and countersink four holes
head screws.

for 134 -inch flat-

To

prevent the bar turning, after
planed

it

has been

round
space

and
be-

O o o
\

Cint

o o
o
/

about Vg inch shorter
than
the

Block

tween the jambs, lay
out a one-inch Square

on
Fig. 163.

each

end.

Cut
it

out with a back saw,
The
pull-up bar

an(J cn isel until

JUSt

fits

the square opening in the

blocks.
closet,

This bar

can be taken out and stored in a
in use,
If

when not
it
it,

and the blocks
is

will

never be in the way.
has a
a
flat

the bar

so loose in the blocks that

tendency to spring out when you jump for

piece of oak can be screwed across the top, as
in the Illustration.

shown

COAT HANGERS AND TOWEL ROLLERS
This
those
is

271

an

excellent,
little

if

limited,

gymnasium

for

who

get

exercise

and whose time and

Fig. 164.

The hatchet

handle.

An

example

of

spokeshave work

space are limited.

Every boy ought to be able
six or

to

"chin the bar" at least
letting go.

seven times without

Round

objects with a taper, such as pointers

and

musicians' batons, can be

made by
etc.

this

method,
first,

always getting the taper in the Square form
then planing
off

corners,

It

is

really

work

for a turning lathe,

but one must work with such

tools as he can afford to purchase.

Many

useful articles of oval or elliptical cross

section can be

made
is

at a

bench which could not

be made on an ordinary lathe.

shown

in Fig. 164

The hatchet handle a good example. The wood

used should be strong and tough, such as hickory
or maple.
all

After squaring up the stock to the Over-

dimensions,
is

the

outline

both

flat

drawn on faces, and

ü
Fig. 165.

Sawed dose to the

The hammer handle

272
lines

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
with turning saw, finished with drawing knife

and spokeshave.

The

oval or elliptical forms are

then drawn on the ends, the corners rounded with

spokeshave to these curves, and the whole finished
with sand-paper.

The hammer handle
manner.

(Fig. 165)

is

made

in the

same

The woodworkers

of

Northern Europe make many

household Utensils in this way.

The sugar scoop

Fig. 166.

Sugar scoop

and the wooden

ladle,

shown

in Figs. 166

and 166

a,

are familiär examples.
is

In these two cases, the bowl

work

f or

the gouge, while in rounding, some of the

surf aces are
it is

done with the file.

On general principles,
file

not wise to get into the habit of using a

on

COAT HANGERS AND TOWEL ROLLERS
—#

273

—w

Fig. 166 a.

Wooden

aldle

wood, except in rare cases where the material

is

very

hard, such as maple, beech, and similar woods.

The

towel rack shown in Fig. 167

is

sui table for

274

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
made by

the bath or bed room, and can readily be

any boy.

The back piece is made with plane and chisel. The straight bevels are cut with the smoothing plane, and the curves with the chisel. The two

Fig. 167.

The

towel rack

openings or mortises should be laid out
before the ends are rounded.

and cut
is

The wood

re-

moved by boring
lines,

several small holes within the

and

finishing to line with a chisel

and mallet.
nothing

The two

supports, or

brackets, involve

new, and after being finished are glued into mortises.

The towel

sticks

may

be ten inches or more in

length, squared

up to J^ inch x Y2 inch. The taper begins two inches from the bored end, and from this
point
is

planed in a straight

line to ^g

inch square

COAT HANGERS AND TOWEL ROLLERS
at the small end.

275

The rounding

is

done in the same

manner
smooth.

as in the towel roller, the tips rounded

with a knife, and the whole piece sand-papered

The three

sticks are held

between the two supports
five holes,

and a ^g-inch dowel passed through the
which should of course be in
line.

The ends
are placed,

of this

dowel can be

split before

they

and then

in the final position small thin
little glue.

wedges can be driven in with a

XXXII
CLOCK CASES

AMONG
terized

small articles for household
is

use the

clock case
L signs ränge

a populär model, and the destyle, charac-

from the mission

by

straight lines

and piain

surfaces,

up

to

elaborate attempts at imitating in miniature the

old-fashioned

tall

" grandf ather's clock."

While an ordinary alarm clock
inches outside diameter,

may

be used for

the clock proper, the small size nickeled clock, 2J^
is

more

satisfactory

and

verv

reliable.

It costs

about seventv-five cents.

In designing the frame, or case, structural items

must be considered
just large

first.

form to stand on, there

The clock needs a platmust be a circular opening
fit,

enough

for the face to

and the structure

requires an opening in the back, so that the clock

may

be wound or removed.
facts

With these
sketched out.

as a basis,

the form can be

Fig. 168 shows, perhaps, the simplest style,

on the

mission order.

The design
276

of the front

becomes a

CLOCK CASES
only suggestions

277

matter of proportion, and the dimensions given are

which the young designer can

modify to meet

his

own

ideas, keeping in
if

mind that

on horizontal members,
size,

there

is

any

difference in

the upper ones should be the smaller.
if

Simple as this design appears,
panelled front and sides,

put together by

mortise and tenon, with provision
it

made

for the

will call for fine

work.

As there

is

no great question

of strength involved,

the following method will do for making this case.
It will be called heretical

by expert woodworkers,

but

is

practicable

and easy from the boy's point

of view.

Square up a piece of 3^-inch stock 4 inches wide

and 13 inches

long.

Saw out two

pieces for the

panels 2 Y2 inches long.

Clamp the
as a backing,

front piece to a strip of scrap

wood

and bore a hole
bit.

for the clock face with

an expansive

Fasten the front to the end pieces

by %-inch brads, as shown in a. In the same manner nail the top and bottom pieces to the front and ends, making a box of 3^i-inch wood, with the back
open.

The

legs,

made

% inch

square with a 34-hich
a,

rabbet cut out as shown at

may now

be glued on
in

and fastened with two 1-inch brads driven

from

\

278

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The
horizontal rails are cut and fitted
in position.
set,

the ends.

to the front
If
filled

and ends and glued

brads are used, they must be

and the holes

with putty, coloured to correspond with the
used.
If the legs of the clock are too short

wood

to rest

on the bottom, add a

shelf, or glue

on a block

of pine

I

m
Top yiew.

m
Construc/fox

g/ cerner.

m —
t

o
?t

a
*

4
-2§-

5

L

SFcfa g£*£
Fig. 168. Mission style clock case

thick enough to bring the clock to the proper level.
If the case is

made

of hard

wood, polish

it

to a

dead

flat

finish.

This design, however, gives a

CLÖCK CASES
chip carving, for which

£79

splendid opportunity to ornament ends and front with

gum wood

will

be suitable.
is

A

clock case which can be easily upset

to be

avoided, and therefore these long low designs are
to be

recommended, when the clock
shelf, or

is

to stand on a to

mantel,

bureau.

If the clock is

hang

on the wall the designs immediately change.
cuckoo clock
is

The

a familiär example.

Our boys wrestled with the problem of a wall clock, and their efforts to create something new
brought
It
is

forth

considerable

mental

Perspiration.

always an easy matter to copy something one
is

has seen, but that

not designing.
efforts is

The

result of

Harry 's

shown

in Fig. 169.

After drawing the circles with a pair of compasses, the rest of the figure was sketched out free-hand

about a centre

line.

When
upper

it

was
It

fairly satisfactory,

the two sides

of the lower half
half.

were equalized and traced for the

was then measured, and the main

dimensions added to the drawing.

This drawing represented only the front.
back, or wall piece, had to be a duplicate of
far as outline
J<4-inch

The
it

as
of

was concerned, and a piain box

wood, to hold the clock, joined these two

parts, as in previous modeis.

280

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

This

the order of construction:
stock for front and back pieces 15 x

Saw out

4%
4-

x 34 inches.

Draw two

centre lines, one the

inch way, the other the 15-inch way.

At the point
all

where they

cross, bore the hole for the clock face,
•f—Tl

after

drawing

the circles

with the compasses.

Draw
the
~~
-*

outline, or trace

it

from original drawing, upon
surface
of

the wood.

Saw out close to outside lines,
'"
1

and

finish to lines

with

spokeshave, chisel and

sand-paper block.

Bevel the clock open-

mg

}/g

inch with knife, and

smooth

with

sand-paper.
of

The curved

lines inside

the outer edge are worked

out with a veining

tool.
is

The back
Fig. 169. The boy's ßrst design for a clock case

piece

made

in

the same way, but the central

opening

is

bored larger

than the front one, to allow the clock to be with-

The Square box, joined to these drawn or wound. two main pieces by means of cleats, completes the

CLOCK CASES

281

structure.

On

account of the long overhang of the
cylindrical supports of

front

beyond the box, two

the same material as the
k-tf-»j

case can be glued between
front

and back, to add

strength.

Owing to the symmetry
of the design,
this case

can be hung horizontally
or vertically according to

the wall space

it

is

to
of

occupy.
fastening

The method
should

be

a

screw eye at the top of
the case and screw hook
or nail
it

in

the wall, as

will

be necessary to

remove the clock each If time it is wound.
placed
horizontally

two

hooks and

eyes will be

needed, one at each end.
Fig.
Fig. 170.

170 shows another

Pendulum form
case

of clock

wall design in which the

clock forms the centre of
rests in a

the

pendulum and

box

of

hexagon shape.

282

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

This
the

made
cut

from
piece

a

strip

two inches wide,
on
the

pieces

on a 60-degree mitre box with
X%.
inches long

back

saw,

each

short side.
It will just hold a clock

%y% inches in
finished

its

largest
is

diameter.
bored,

When
the
is

the face of this clock frame
outline
in

and
it

the

usual

way,
cleats.

fastened

to

the

hexagonal

box by

In order to do this accurately, turn the face

down on the bench, place the box in position, and mark with a pencil all around the hexagon. The cleats must be fastened on the back, close up
upside
to the pencil line, with glue

and brads,

so carefully

that the brads shall not be long enough to

come

through to the surface in front.
the box between the cleats, and

When
make

dry, insert

fast with glue

and brads.

The long part
fits

of the

either carved or polished piain.

pendulum can be The ^g-inch hole

bored in the upper part

over a screw hook, which

should project at least an inch from the wall.

To
hook

have the clock hang perfectly plumb,
should project %%> inches.

this

Another form
Fig 171.
It
is

of

mantel clock

is

suggested in

radically different from the others,

and

is

characterized

by a

long, low,

and massive

CLOCK CASES
base cut from a solid piece of
or built

283

wood

1%

inches thick

two J^-inch pieces of red gum, black walnut, or mahogany. The outline having been

up

of

drawn on the planed
gouge,
file,

surface,

one must saw as close
with
chisel,

to the line as possible,

and

finish the line

and sand-paper.
is

The

circular

piece,

which

is

to enclose the clock,

cut from a block of

the same material, two inches thick.
circles,

Draw the two
In that case

and bore the inner one with an extension
a turning lathe
is

bit, unless

available.

Fig. 171.

Mantel clock

the circular block can be turned with great accuracy.

The

outline can be cut with the chisel after being
close to the line,

sawed

and

finished in the

same
the

way

as the base.
this

Glue

block in position, resting

it

in

semicircular

opening provided in the base, and

making
finish.

it

project Y% or

M

of

an

mcn beyond

the

front surface of the base.

Polish to a dead, flat

As the clock

is

to

fit

snugly into the opening, the

284
legs,

(

ARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
the

and

handle

at

the

top,

must

be

removed.

THE GRANDFATHERö' CLOCK

One
colonial
fathers'

of the

most interesting problems
is

in clock

case designing
times,
clock.
it
is

a miniature of the
as

tall

clock of

commonly known
It
is

the

grand-

a

simple

and

satisfactory

form, but
portions.

very important to have good pro-

The dimensions used by our boys
drawing.
is

are given in the

(Fig. 172).

based or built

As in all the other designs, it up around the ordinary nickelis

plated clock, whose outside diameter

2 34 inches.

With a circle of this diameter as a starter, the other sizes work out as given in the drawing. About the only fault likely to be found with this form is top heaviness, as the clock is some fifteen
inches above
its

base.

This can be counteracted

by boring a hole
of shot or other

in the back,

two or three inches

above the bottom, and pouring in about a pound

heavy material.
of construction
is is

The method

as follows:

34 inch thick, except the base and mouldings, which require J^-inch wood. Red gum
All the material
is

very satisfactory, but more expensive woods,
if

such as mahogany, can be used, especially

the

CLOCK CASES
front panel, which in full-sized clocks
to be inlaid.
If
is

285

a door,

is

gum wood
If

is

used, this panel can be decorated

with chip carving or simply outlined with a veining
tool.
it

an especially elaborate result

is

desired,

can be accomplished by a raised panel with
of 34 _mcn wood, fastened to

moulded edges made
Bill of material:

the front with glue and small brads.

Y 2 A x 1% x % 1 front Uy x3xH back W/ x<iy 2 x}4 Partitions 2—23^ x 234 * %
Base

8%

x 4 x

Moulding 18 x

Box 2
1

sides \l l

p ace
x /i
i

4%

x 4 x

%x% %
pcs.

2

Sides of top, 2

V/ 2

x 2}£

2

1-23^ x

\y 2

x y±

After getting out the material construct the long

box which makes the body
be

of the design.

This

will

173^2 inches long, 3 inches

wide by % inches deep,

and the method

of putting together is

shown at

a.

This allows only one Joint to show on each

side,

and the back piece
as white

may

be of cheap material, such

wood.
partition,

The
wood,
This

smallest
is

inserted in

x V/2 x J^, of white the bottom, pushed up y$ inch,
23^2

and fastened with %-inch brads from the outside.
size of

brad

will

not

split 3^-inch
}/%

gum wood,
inch.

unless driven in nearer the edge than

286

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Fig. 172. Grandfatherd' clock

CLOCK CASES
One
of the

287
is

remaining partitions

placed in the

upper end, as in a box, one edge flush with the back.

The
Iine.

entire

back

of the case

must be
will

in a straight

The end

just inserted

project out in

front a quarter of an inch.
partition S}/^ inches
of the box.
front,

Place the remaining
the extreme top

down from

This
is

will bring it to rest against the

which

only 14j^ inches high.
for holding the clock
is

The compartment

now

complete, open front and back.

The base may next be
piece of the base
of base are 4
is

prepared, taking care to

have the grain running up and down.

The

front

4x4x3^

inches.

Side pieces

x£x

J/£.

These three pieces are to
Joint, as

be put together with a butt

shown

in the

bottom view, and fastened with one-inch brads and
a
little glue.

Four ^-inch brads can be used on

each of the three sides to hold the base to the box.
It
is

very important that the bottom be perfectly
It

square.

should be tested

and,

if

necessary,

squared with a block plane.

The cove moulding for upper and lower parts may now be prepared. Square up one piece of
stock 18 inches or 20 x ^g inches square.
end, and remove the

Draw

a quarter circle with a radius of %6-inch on each.

wood

in this space with a gouge.

288

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
with sand-paper.

Finish

This moulding

is

fitted

around the three sides at top of base with a back

saw and mitre box.
glue that

Put

it

in place

with 54 -mcn

brads and glue, and carefully remove any trace of

may

appear, before
f or

it

hardens.

The moulding
until the top
is

the upper part cannot be placed

finished.

After squaring up the face, draw the outline
directly

on the wood.

The

curves at the top should
stiff

be

first laid

out carefully on

paper, cut out with

scissors,

and traced on the wood.
for the clock, 2 34 inches diameter,
first.

The opening
must be bored

Either a sharp centre bit or
If

an extension bit should be used.

the latter,

an 3^-inch hole must be bored at the
surely split the thin wood.

centre, other-

wise the tapering spur of the extension bit will

This

is

the most delicate

Operation in the whole process, and the circular

opening
block.

will

need smoothing with a sand-paper
in getting a satisfactory

Having succeeded
ing,

open-

the outline

is

sawed

close to the lines with

a coping saw and finished with sand-paper.

x 2 34 x 34 inches, are next fastened to the sides at the top.
pieces
s s, §}/%

The supplementary

They

are flush with the top of the box

and with the

CLOCK CASES
bottom
of the face piece just described.
is

289

It

is

to

these that the front

mainly fastened.

Test the

bottom edges

of these pieces across

both the front

and back with a try Square.
the moulding, as

Fasten the front to

these and to the top of the box with brads,

and add

shown

in drawing.

If

the front

panel

is

to be carved, that should be done before
is

either the base or the top

put on; and

if it

is

to

be

inlaid, the front

should be increased in thick-

ness to

%

inches, reducing the sides to V/% inches

in place of

1%

inches.
is

After the assembling

finished, set all the brads,

and

fill

the holes with putty, coloured to match the
oil

wood. Either an
a high polish
front,
tool.
is

or

wax

finish

can be used, but
All lines

not advisable.

on the

which are not edges, can be cut with a veining
modifications
of
this

Several

method can be
be made a
real

adopted.

The

front panel

may
it

door, put on with small ornamental hinges.
will increase

This

the work,

make

more

realistic,

but

result in little real gain.

The door

in large clocks

was necessary

for getting

at the weights

and pendulum, but as these parts
is

are missing in our model, the door

not necessary,

except possibly for hiding things from burglars.

290
It
is

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
the last spot they would be likely to think of
a

as

hiding place for treasures.
in previous designs, the ring at the top of
if it

As

the clock can be removed,

prevents fitting into

the opening provided.

The drawing shows
base.
It
is

a curve in the front of the

not essential, but

may

be cut at any

convenient stage of the construction with the coping
saw, and sand-papered.

By comparing
foot clocks, the

this design

with some real old
will see that

six-

young designer

we have

taken some
the work.
used,

liberties for the

purpose of simplifying

Highly ornamental tops were sometimes

with metal
difficult to

and carved Ornaments.

It

is

never

make

elaborate designs, and the
as far as he likes in that
difficult

young woodworker can go
direction.

It

is,

however, sometimes

to

simplify designs,

and

this

we

believe

is

at present

highly desirable.

XXXIII
FOOTSTOOLS

THE

making of household furniture is a fascinating employment, and as there are varyall

ing styles and fashions in nearly

things

which pertain to our homes,
interesting study.
furniture, for the

it

will

always be an
of

The savage knows nothing
is

ground

his chair, bed,

and

table.

As we go up
of their

in the scale of civilization,

we

find the

characteristics of a people reflected in the details

home
by

life.

In Japan, the house and
acterized

its

equipment are char-

directness, simplicity,and subtle beauty.

In America, we find a bewildering display of
ever-changing devices, styles, forms, and schemes
of decoration, in keeping with our rapidly changing

and,

we

believe,

rapidly improving taste in the
life.

intimate things of

This condition

is

reflected in

our furniture

as

much as in our clothes and in the pictures we buy. The black walnut furniture, with its hard horsehair
upholstering, has

been followed by antique oak,
29X

m

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
forest green oak,

fumed oak, golden oak,
few years we
shall

mahogany,
in a very

bird's-eye maple, French walnut, etc.,

and

probably be using some of the

beautiful but almost

unknown woods

of the Philip-

pines, because fashions in

woods are very materially
to
sit

affected

by the lumber supply.

Gilt chairs

— not

made

on

— have

been

followed by the more sensible mission style, bringing a

much needed simplicity,directness,and strength,
housewife
to

together with an unfortunate addition of weight for

the

move around
with
its

when

cleaning.
loss.

There seems to be no great gain without some

Modern

office furniture,

simple and strong

chairs, tables,

and desks, can hardly be improved
is

upon, and

it

almost a pity that some of these

excellencies cannot be introduced into the

home,

which

is

often overloaded, overdecorated,
articles.

and en-

cumbered with unnecessary

Miss Louise Brigham gives us a fragrant breath
of fresh air along this line in her interesting

book
is

on furniture made from boxes.
clear thinking.

What
is

is

needed

Never design nor make a piece

of

furniture without asking,
for?

"What

this to
etc.

be used

What
is

will

be required of it?"

This

the gist of what Ralph said to Harry one

day when they were about to launch out into the

FOOTSTOOLS
making
of footstools, tabourettes

293

and other small
liked very

pieces of furniture.

Harry would have
it

much

to start with a dining-room table, but

Ralph

suggested diplomatically that

might be a good

scheme to try several smaller pieces first. They decided on a footstool, and this is the catechism Ralph put Harry through as they worked out
their drawing:

" What

is

a footstool for?

"

"To

rest

your feet on."
could

"Is that all?"

"What

eise

it

be used for?"

"Never answer a question by asking another!
I should say that a footstool

might have to stand
the stool was
it.

hard usage.

For instance, suppose you wanted to
If

reach a shelf high up in a closet.

handy, you would probably stand on

Others

would do the same, and

it

is

easily possible that

somebody weighing over two hundred pounds might some day stand on it. So I should say, that the first requisite of a footstool was strength, and the
second that
it

should not be easily upset.

"When
questions,

designing furniture, just ask yourself such

and you

will find that

your designs

will

be affected by them.
footstools are too high

Now
and too

I

believe that

most

easily upset."

294

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
first

The
iip

design tried

is

shown

in Fig. 173.

The

material used was 3^-inch chestnut.

After squaring
to

the top, the two grooves were cut
legs.

receive
of this

the upper ends of the

For grooves

character, after cutting the lines as deep as possible

4
i
r4
Fig. 173.

-ftr

Um tf&'V-

"D

i
First foot stool

J~1

with the knife, followed by the

chisel,

the router

may

be used.

The

cutter can be adjusted

by means

of the set screw,

and a more uniform depth secured
legs because

than with the

chisel.

There was considerable work on the
of the mortise for the shelf,

and the two openings
close to the line with

above.

These were cut out

FOOTSTOOLS
saw work.

295

the turning saw after a hole had been bored in each
space, as in scroll

The
tool,

outline of the legs
finished

and

was obtained with the same with the gouge, spokeshave, and

sand-paper.
used,

Where hard wood, such as oak, is the wood file may be applied to curved edges.
to spread, the legs

To overcome the tendency were made rigid by cutting the
drawing of the
curely wedged,
shelf.

tenons shown on the

In each tenon was cut the
This
shelf,

Square hole for the wedges.

when

se-

bound the whole structure

rigidly.

When
came

the question of securing the legs to the top

up, the boys were inclined to use

round-head

blue screws from the top, but after considering that

they would be in end grain,

it

looked as

if

this

would

be the weakest part of

the stool.

was an heroic
of strap iron

one.

Four angle irons

The Solution were made out
Each
and

taken from a packing case, and cut

with a cold chisel into pieces 2j^ inches long.

had two holes

drilled in it to receive the screws,

was then bent into shape
this.

in

an iron

vise.

A monkey
light as

wrench can be used as a vise for work as

The

screws used were

%

inch long, one fasleg, for

tened in the top, the other in the
the four angle irons.

each of

Chestnut has a

very open grain, and takes a

296

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Our boys bought a small can
it

stain very well.

of
it

paste

filier,

coloured

with burnt umber, thinned

with turpentine to the consistency of cream, and

put

it

on with a brush.

The

surfaces were

rubbed

•JE.

*

6,

1

i

;

FOOTSTOOLS

29?
it

down with cotton

waste, and then

was

left

over

night, to be ready for polishing in the morning.

After this stool was finished, the boys looked

it

over critically, and decided that

it

could be improved

>*r

top *iew of

B

c^
-*+»r*i

on, that

it

was

-*&,&-

•*-

too high and not

5*

heavy enough.

Footst o ol
e>
'i'

number two is shown in Fig.

LA-

_L

A

174.
..v:'ä'

In this de-

sign, the shelf is

dispensed with,

and two
w
Fig. 175.

stretch-

ers or side pieces
Third footstool design

substituted

stock
inch.

% and %

took the place of Yi The two ends were glued together with paper
inch
thick

298

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
off.

between, cut out as one piece, afterward separated,

and the paper and glue planed
line

The curved

out-

was drawn on paper, traced on the wood, sawed

yf>
tot

^9' **^

:

3*

Fig. 176.

Fourth footstool design

out with turning saw, and finished to
vious work.

line as in pre-

The
is

Joint for fastening the side piece to the legs
in the drawing.
It

shown

makes a strong and
fit.

rigid

combination, calling for a good

In putting

FOOTSTOOLS
on the top
piece, angle irons

299

can be used, but the

boys tried a new method.

After gluing the Joint,

they bored holes and countersunk them through the
sides, forcing flat-head

screws 234 inches long up

into the top.

Being below the
invisible,

level

of

the eye, these were
of

and they saved the time and labour
solid piece of work.
finish.

mak-

ing angle irons.
to

Two screws on each side are enough
The
material was
this

make a

quartered oak with antique
effect,

To produce

lampblack dissolved in turpentine was added
filier,

to the

and

after drying

was polished to a dead
in Fig. 175.

flat finish.

(See polishing chapter.)
is

Design number three
legs

shown

The
same

run the long way of the
;

stool; joints the

number two top f astened by screws through cross piece. The height, being much less than in the first
as
designs,

gives

it

a very massive and substantial

appearance.
slightly

All eight edges of the top

have been
This
length.

rounded with plane and sand-paper.
non-upsetable in the direction of
of the top
its

stool

is

Stand on the extreme end
;

and lean back-

ward the stool will not tilt up in the slightest degree. Harry tried this several times, but it remained on
the floor with
all

four feet.

This does not apply

to the width, so the boys designed

number four

300

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
would not upset from the
It
is

(Fig. 176),which

side,

where
than

the feet are usually placed.

even

lovver

number
sive.

three,

and as the other dimensions are
it

practically the same,

appears even more mas-

The
made

construction

is

similar to

number

three, but

the legs are again at the ends, and the whole being
of oak, or ash,
it is

practically indestructible.
finish

A
given

very beautiful
these
stools

golden-brown

may

be

by

first

coating

them

with

bichromate of potash.
This chemical comes in crystals, which readily
dissolve in water.

Put

it

on with a one-inch varnish
flat

brush and, when dry, sand-paper down

with

No.

sand-paper.

Two

or three coats of shellac,

each allowed to harden and dry thoroughly before
being rubbed

down with

sand-paper, will give a

satisfactory polish.
linseed
oil,

Finish by a rub

down with raw

and wipe dry.

XXXIV
THE TABOURETTE

THIS
to

is

a favourite problem in

woodwork

for

boys,

because the tabourette can be put
uses.

many

It

may

hold books or maga-

zines, serve as a pedestal for a jardiniere, for vases of

flowers, for smokers' sets, etc.

Its

forms are many,
infinite.

and the methods

of finishing

and decorating

The

five styles

shown

in Figs.

177 and 178 are

perhaps the most

common

ones,

and they are

ar-

ranged according to the

difficulty

of construction.

Has a circular top supported by square legs, bound to a lower shelf. No 2. Has an octagonal top supported by flat legs, which are held together by two strips halved
No.
1.

together at the centre, and mortised through the
legs.

It
3.

is

stronger than No.

1.

No

Is

the
legs,

familiär

hexagonal

form,

with
to

only three

made

rigid

by fastening

an

hexagonal

shelf.

No.
style,

4.

Is the

Standard square form in mission
301

mortised together.

302

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
5.

No

One

of

the simplest in appearance,

is

the most difficult to construct, because of the six

long joints mitred at 120 degrees, the well-known

Moorish

style.

As

it is

easily possible for

any boy to make any and
or-

of these tabourettes with ordinary tools

dinary patience, they will be taken up in detail.

TABOURETTE NUMBER ONE
Stock.

— Four

pieces

for

the

legs,

lj^

inches

square.

The height
and eighteen
portion.
as a

varies, usually being

between fourteen

inches.

It

is

purely a matter of Pro-

Sixteen has been adopted in the drawing

good average.
is

The

top, a circle thirteen inches

in diameter,

cut from a piece thirteen inches Square

and
in

J/8

inch thick.

cate of the top,

The shelf may be an exact duplibut it appears much better, as shown
as

the drawing,
fit

a square with corners cut

off

to

against the legs.
is

The method

of getting this

form

shown by dotted lines on the circular top. The method of construction is very simple. The
is

top piece being laid out,

cut close to the line with

turning saw, and finished to line with chisel and

The square openings for sawed out and the wood removed with
spokeshave.

legs

are

a chisel.

THE TABOURETTE

303

No.i
]

'

'

c3
1

wj
I
1

j
*.'

a
l$

b

I

1

c

»

'

'

-Vi*

-.2»

6'
I

p
1

j
6

I

C

I

C

~3

t 'f

b

15'

Crosi-

hart for

Ate. 4-

=51

1


t

jl

i

w
Fig. 177.

..t.

A/ö.4

je

Three

styles of tabourettes

304
All chisel

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
work should be done on a bench hook

or on a piece of scrap board, as a cutting block.

In preparing to assemble, lay the four legs side

by

side

on the bench top or fasten

in the vise.

Make

sure they are equal in length.

Four and a half
line

inches from one end

draw a

pencil

with try

Square across

all

four.

Half an inch from the other

end draw a similar

line; this

end

is

to be the top.

These pencil

lines are for locating the holes for the
all

screws, so that they will

be on the same
drill,

level.

Bore a hole on each

line

with a bit or
of a

large

enough so that the body

round-head blue screw

x either % /i or 23^ inches long will just slide through.

Before assembling, bevel or round the top of

each leg about

%

inch.

Fasten the four legs to
the shelf into position,

the top with the screws,

slip

and make

fast in

the same manner.
if it

Stand the

tabourette on a level surface, and

needs levelling,

proceed as explained in the making of saw horse.

TABOURETTE NUMBER TWO Tabourette number two may be modified by
designing legs with slight curves.

Before cutting

these, lay out the four mortises just as the centres
for screw holes

were located in previous model so
several holes

that

all

four will be equally distant from the floor.

Cut out mortises by boring

within

THE TAEOURETTE
These mortises should be
the leg
laid out

305

the space to be cut and finish to line with chisel.

on both

sides of
sides.

by squaring

lines

around the four
it is

The top needs no The piain octagon.
is

description, as

just

a

principal

work

in this

model

on the cross pieces.

carefully, side

by

side, to

They should be laid out make sure that the distance
is

across

from Shoulder to Shoulder
at b

exactly alike
Shoulders, as

on both.

The tenon may have two
9

shown
tenon.

or only one, as at a, but in either case
fit

the mortises cut in the legs must exactly

the
also

The halved
fitted.
all

Joint in the centre

must

be carefully

When
screws.

the parts are ready to assemble,
of each leg
f or

drill

two holes near the top
Insert
all

the round-head

the tenons into their mortises

and fasten the

legs to the top.

A

little

glue

may

be

used in the mortise and tenon joints and one brad
should then be driven from the side or edge of each
leg

through the tenon.

Sink the brad below the

surface with nail set.

TABOURETTE NUMBER THREE
See chapter on mechanical drawing for laying out

hexagon.

This form

will

appear crude unless the
for

legs are modified,

and two or three suggestions

this are

shown.

306

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
consists in fastening to the

The construction
side of

under

the

top piece a hexagon of J^-inch pine

eight inches in diameter,
long.

making
side of

sides four inches
this

Every alternate

under piece

should be

made with a

sloping edge to conform to the
three.
Drill

slant of the legs, of

which there are only

or bore four holes in each leg,

two

%e

inch from the
shelf.

upper edge, and two to hold the hexagonal

The top edge
the top.

of the legs should be bevelled with a
fit

block plane to

snugly against the under side of

Three

sides of the shelf

— every alternate
fit

one

— should

be bevelled in the same way to

against the inside of the legs.

When

ready to assemble, fasten pine hexagon

to the under side of the top with six 134 -inch screws.

Attach the legs to the three sloping edges of
under hexagon
lightly

this

with

round-head

screws.

Leave the screw heads projecting about 34 inch until the shelf has been fastened in position, then drive

them home with the
open to
criticism.
it is

screw-driver.

This

is

one
it
is

of the simplest of tabourettes to

make, but
it

The

sloping legs give

a wide

base so that

less easily

upset than the other

forms; but the pressure from above tends to spread

them and pull the structure apart. This tendency must be counteracted by a tie piece, which in this

THE TABOURETTE

307

Jhootmq- board for

plinmq 60*

milrea

-Jf.Jr...UJ

UJ

Ui

Fig. 178.

Two

styles of tabourettes

308

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

case

only a shelf held by screws, some of which

are in end grain.

Of course any form may be
beautiful of
all,

criticised.

The most
is

the Turkish or Moorish, on account

of its overhanging top
easily upset,

and small

base,

the most
all

and

in designing

new forms

these

points

must be considered.

TABOURETTE NUMBER FOUR
This
is

an ideal example of the mission type taken
in
It calls for forty mortise
it
is

from Mr. Fred D. Cranshaw's book, "Problems
Furniture Making."

and
oak,

tenon
it

joints,

and as

usually

made

in

requires considerable time for laying out as well

as for cutting.

Twenty-four

of these joints

can be dispensed with

by

panelling the sides in place of the lattice work.

By

hinging the top and putting in a bottom, the

tabourette
box, etc.

becomes a

ladies'

work box, a shoe
absolutely necessary

In a project of this kind
to

it is

work systematically. Letter or number each part. Mark the legs a b c d, and proceed to work in pairs.
all

After squaring up

the pieces, take side a

b.

Lay

out the four joints on a and b which are to face each
other, finish these ready for assembling, lay asidc

THE TABOUEETTE
a,

309

and lay out b c, etc. When you have finished all four sides around to the starting point, stand the four legs up in the position they are to occupy and
check up the work to see
if

any mistake has been

made. Treat the cross bars in the same way, marking
the

tenons

äl, a%, 61, b%, etc.

When you have

gotten around the second time, assemble the whole
thing and look again for errors.

Take apart and lay out mortises in cross pieces by pairs. Fasten 1 and 2 together in the vise with the edges which are to face each other up as shown
in Fig. 177.

Square the
vise

lines across

both pieces, remove from
of mortises with

and gauge the horizontal edges

marking gauge.

To

avoid confusion and for change of work, cut
set,

out these mortises before laying out the next

and so
point.

for the third time

work around

to the starting

A
By

fourth trip around, making and fitting the
is

upright slats, and the tabourette

ready to assemble.

using liquid glue, which hardens slowly, the whole

structure can be put together, fastened with large

hand screws

or clamps,
is

and

left

over night to dry.

While the glue
the top, to see
if

setting,
is

measure carefully for

there

any Variation from dimen-

310

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
on drawing, and cut out the top
piece.

sions

By

this
re-

time, the amateur

woodworker

will

have more

spect for the mission style than ever, and will appreciate the difficulty of reaching simplicity.

The
inside.

best

method

of securing the top
it

is

with small

angle irons fastened to

and

cross pieces

on the

Invert the tabourette, after screwing the

angles to the cross pieces, and with the top on the
floor,

drive
it is

home

the last four screws.

No;
ing.

not finished!

There remains the polish-

See Chapter

XLIX.

TABOURETTE NUMBER FIVE
This
is

so radically different in construction from
it

the previous forms that
sideration.

requires

special

con-

Twelve edges must be planed

to a 60-

degree mitre throughout their entire length and

must be perfect. To accomplish this, first cut out two hexagons from J^-inch pine, 8 inches Construct a special in diameter, and exactly alike.
the
fit

shooting board, at least three inches longer than
the legs.
of a

Plane a strip of white pine to the shape
is

wedge whose angle

30 degrees.

Nail

it

to
a.

the top of shooting board, as shown in Fig. 178 at

By

laying the piece to be mitred on this, the edge

can be planed to 60 degrees.

Lay

this

on the two

THE TABOURETTE
pine hexagons as shown at
b,

311

and with the knife
Connect
line

make a mark
straight

at the angle a on both ends.

these two points
edge.

by a sharp

drawn with a

Plane this edge on the shooting
a,

board to point

giving angle a

c.

Tack

this leg

by brads
easily

to the

two hexagons, at each extreme end,
in,

driving brads only partly

so that they can be
first,

withdrawn.

Fit the second leg to the

and so on around to the starting point.
or letter the legs,

Number
faces of

and the corresponding

the hexagons, so that they

may

be easily replaced.

Next take

off

the legs, lay out and cut the opentools.

ings with the usual

These

may

be piain

Gothic arches or simple modifications.

When

the legs are finished,

make

the hexagonal
glue.

top and prepare to assemble.

Use the best

Fasten the
pine

first leg in its original

position on the

hexagons, using 13^-inch brads at the top,

driving

them

all

the

way

into

the original holes.
its

Put a coating
tion.

of glue

on one edge throughout

whole length, and rub the next leg up close into posi-

The brads
Put

in

the lower

hexagon must be

driven in only part way, as they are to be removed
again.
all six legs

into position in this manner.
is

To bind

the legs together while the glue

drying,

heavy cord should be wound around them, using

312
strips of

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
wood
to prevent marring the angles.

Let

the whole stand over night.

Next day, plane off any glue that may show, removing the two brads at the bottom, dressing down one side at a time until you have reached the last leg. The pine hexagon at the bottom may be taken
out,
if it

doesn't

fall

out.

Sand-paper the sides with
to be adjusted.

No.

sand-paper, wrapped around a block.

The top only remains
pass six

Drill six holes in the pine

hexagon at the top, and
the

M
is

or /^

mcn

screws through from

under side into the top piece by inverting, with top

on the
that
is

floor.

There
it

so

much

careful
of

work on

this tabourette

is

worthy

good material.

very suitable, the light coloured

Mahogany bay wood being
it

the cheapest variety; but of course other woods
will do.

In case bay wood

is

used,

can be given
first

the appearance of old
it

mahogany by

coating
Polish.

with a wash of potassium bichromate.

XXXV
THE DOVETAIL JOINT

WHILE
skill

most mission furniture is put together with the mortise and tenon Joint, cabinet work calls for the dovetail. All the
in dovetailing,
this style of joinery,

and accuracy possible are needed

and when well put together with

a piece of furniture should last indefinitely.

The making
it

of joints just for practice

may

not

be very interesting, but in the case of the dovetail
is

decidedly

advisable.

This

is

what Ralph

decided in Harry's case, and he was required to

make
as

first

a single open Joint

shown in Fig. 179. The piece marked a was laid out first, after squaring up the
and the shaded portion removed with back saw and
stock,
chisel,
S.»fk

C3
/ww

sawing so close to the
Fig. 179

oblique lines that no chisel ling

was required on these two
Piece b was next fastened upright in the
313

sides.

314

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
a being laid over b in a horizontal Posi-

vise, piece

tion,

and the form of the dovetail scribed with a
knife point.

In other words, the

first

piece cut out was used as a template
for laying out the second.

The form
lines

of the dovetail

appeared in knife
b.

on the end
of b

of piece

The

laying out

was then completed as shown at d. The darkened portions were removed
with back saw and
Fig. 180

chisel,

and the two

parts carefully fitted andglued together.
is

This method of laying out dovetails

much

surer

than that of laying out each piece separately according to the dimensions, as any Variation from the figures
is

duplicated on the second piece, so that they mustfit.

This single dovetail was followed by a box dovetail

Joint comprising three dovetails

on one piece,
the same

as

shown

in Fig. 180.

The method was

as before, the three Spaces being laid out, sawed,

and

chiselled.

After testing to see that the bottoms
laid out, cut,

of the cuts
fitted.

were Square, piece / was
is

and

Seven-eighths pine

good for

this practice
it

work, but white wood gives better practice, in that
is

harder, and the dovetails cannot be forced together
fit is

without breaking, unless the

good.

The harder
is.

the stock used, of course the more true this

:

THE DOVETAIL JOINT
After
successfully
joints, the

315

making these two practice

work.

boy was ready to try his skill at cabinet He began with a toilet box in black walnut, and polished.

to be inlaid later

The

over-all

dimen-

sions were 11 x 7 x 3}^ inches, the height, exclusive
of top

and bottom
bill of

pieces, being three inches.

The

material read
2 pcs. walnut 11 x 3 x 3^ 2 pcs. walnut
2 pcs. walnut 11 x 7 x

7x3x^

^

-Ja* k*t*m* fAete

tut*»

Dom

tf's/

m

t3f

Fig. 181.

The

dovetail Joint used in

box design

7
The
and
process was as follows:
Sides squared

up

Ends squared up and tested. Sides and ends compared to see if all were exactly the
tested.

316

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
height.

same

Dovetail joints laid out on side pieces.

(The two sides can be glued together with paper
between, and cut at the same time, but on this
first

box the boys
b

laid

out each side separately.)

Joints cut and chiselled to line
c
d.

and

lettered

a

This was to avoid confusion in laying out

the ends from the sides.

Ends

laid

out from sides

with knife.
description

Ends cut and fitted to sides. This short meant the fitting of four box dovetails,
and
it

or twelve individual dovetail joints,

took

considerable time.

The

four pieces were glued and
Particular care

fastened in hand screws over night.

was taken to
While
half

see that the pressure

was evenly
the

dis-

tributed, so as not to throw the

box out

of Square.

the glue was

hardening,

top

and
and

bottom were squared up
to be.

half an inch shorter

an inch narrower than the finished box was
quarter-inch rabbet was cut on the four edges

A
of

both top and bottom.

When

the box was taken

out of the hand screws next day the rabbet allowed top and bottom to
g (Fig. 181).
fit

sides

and ends as shown
into position,

in

They were glued
left

and

again placed in hand screws.

This construction
all

a

quarter-inch

rabbet
This

around the top and bottom of the box.

THE DOVETAIL JOINT
space was to be
filled

317

with square pieces of white

holly as an ornamental feature.

While the glue
little

was hardening
strips

a second time, these

square
that
it

were prepared.

The boys found

would not be necessary to square up the four
for
if

sides,

one corner were made perfectly square, the
off after

other sides could be planed

the strips were

glued on.

When

the hand screws were removed again,

all

traces of glue in the rabbet were carefully taken off

with a sharp

chisel.

The

strips of holly

were sawed
sides
this

in the mitre box, of

and

fitted

around the four
construction
at

top
is

and

bottom.

The

stage

shown

at h, with the holly strips projecting
sides,

beyond the walnut

ends and top.

The

strips

were

fitted

and glued
all

in position,

and

then held in place during the drying process by

winding
twine.

the

box

in

directions

with stout

When

thoroughly hard and dry, the whole thing
if

was squared up, as

it

were a

solid block,

and

scraped with a steel scraper.

Gauge
fitted,

lines

were then made for the cover, as

described in the chapter on toilet boxes, sawed,
hinged, and polished.

When

a box like this

is

to be inlaid, the inlaying

318

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

should be done after the squaring up, but before
the cover

sawed
of

off.

The method

ornamenting the edges by

strips

of different coloured

woods may be omitted, and the

work considerably simplified by gluing the top and bottom on, as shown in Fig. 181 at i, and if this seems too crude, a bevel }/± inch on the sides and ends and Y2 mcn on the top can be made with
the plane.
Still

another method
j. is

is

to round the

edges as shown at

Where the top
preferable, as

to be inlaid, either j or k

is

ornamented corners combined with a
is

decorated top
for

rather too

much ornamentation

good

taste.

XXXVI
INLAYING

IN
in

OUR search for the simple
but
it is

life

with

its

mission

furniture, etc., inlaying has
lost art,

so

become almost a easily done, and if used

moderation so pleasing to the eye,that every boy
it

ought to try

at least.

If simple designs are

adhered

to,

the results are
required

bound to be

satisfactory.

The

materials

are a few pieces of veneering of different thicknesses

and two or more kinds of wood. Veneering can be obtained from J^ inch thick down to %4 inch,
but for ordinary work
inch, Yie
inch,

and

the thickness should be J^ %2 inch, and the woods,

ebony, holly, walnut, mahogany.

A

good collection for simple designs
%-inch ebony,
holly,

is:

mahogany

M.6-inch holly, rosewood, walnut

%2-inch

holly,

mahogany

The The

tools required are a mitre box,

back saw,
design,

socket chisel, and mallet.
process consists of building

up the

320

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

cutting out the opening, gluing the design in the

opening, and dressing down.

BUILDING UP THE DESIGN
It

pays to make a full-sized drawing of the design,
important.

as the relation of the inlaid
is

to occupy

is

work to the space it For a box proportioned

like the

one just described,

11x7

inches, the inlaid

design should be in about the same general Proportion.

A

square centre piece in such an oblong
it

space would not look well;

should be about one

and a
plan
fully
is

half times as long as the width.

The

best

draw the box top work up the design.
to
is

füll size

and then care-

This sort of designing
as the veneering
all

will

be a new experience,

cut in a mitre box, no tool
this fact limits the designs.

but a saw being used, and

Several pieces of the veneer are glued together

hand screws over night. Suppose the combination shown at Fig. 182 is Five thicknesses composed of two ^ie-inch used. walnut, next two of Vie-inch holly, and in the centre
and placed
in

one

}/^-inch

ebony,

will

make

a strong combination

% inch thick.
The dimensions should be about
by 3 inches wide.
These
18 inches long
five pieces

when glued

INLAYING

321

\

/

A
K

/

\

feti

of<

\

\

\

r

\j

......

,

V
f
i

_/

f

/

\\
1

Fig. 182.

Inlaid designs cut in a 45-degree mltre

box

322

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
make a
solid
is

together

piece

18 x 3 x

%

inches.
x inch /%

This built up board
thick,

sawed into

strips

and these

strips

%x

3^8

mcn form

the basis

of the design.

In drawing the centre piece, border, or whatever

form the inlay
Fig. 182

is

to take,
is

it

must be constantty

kept in mind that

% mcn

the width of the pieces.

shows the shapes possible on a 45-degree

mitre

box.

Four pieces

like

a

make a
like

Square.

To make an oblong
pieces will give
b.

design from this shape, ten

Four pieces

d

will give a

hollow Square, in which

may

be

fitted a piece of

fancy wood such as rosewood, snake wood, satin-

wood, or some other South American wood.

The Greek
composed
like a.

cross

is

a favourite figure, and
eight like /,

it

is

of twelve pieces,

and four

shown in c c. This design can be elaborated as shown at e. Some of the most pleasing combinations are extremely simple. An oblong piece of beautiful wood
of its variations are

Some

such as bird's-eye maple, with a simple mitred frame,
is

far

more

satisfying than the

more complicated
boys, and
it

figures.

The Swastika
is

is

a favourite

among

shown

at Fig. 183 applied to an oblong

box design.

In such a figure

the border strips are not put on

INLAYING
until all the pieces for the
fitted,

323

Swastika are cut out,

and glued.

In many of these designs two, three, and sometimes
f our

gluings are necessary.
fitted, are all

The

pieces,

having been

cut and

brought together on a piece
too

of

paper and glued with liquid
the

glue.

The hot glue dries The paper holding quickly.
is

um

design
J^8

laid

on a piece

of pine

inch thick,

and wire brads

driven into the pine up close to

m
Fig. 183.

The Swastika used

as an inlay

the inlay to hold the design together while

it dries.

Two

nails should

be used against each piece of

the outside border.
exert pressure

These

nails

may

be used to
fingers

by bending them with the

over the design to force the pieces together.

When each piece has been pressed into place,
it

allow

Next day bend the nails back, and lift the design, paper and all, out of its nail fence, tear off the paper and cut away any glue
to stand over night.

324

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
a
knife

that projects beyond the edges with
chisel.

or

You now have
ready for use.
place where

a solid inlaid design

}/$

inch thick

Find by measurement the exact
this figure, lay it

you want

on the surf ace

and with
design.

a sharp knife scribe a line

around the

Place the inlay to one side, and cut out

to a depth of Y%

mcn

the whole space inside the

knife lines.

This can be done with socket chisel
a router.

and mallet, or with
be

The

final

cut should

made with

the chisel, bevel side in and straight

down.

You now have

a space cut in the surface the exact

size of the design,

except possibly the depth.

Coat

the bottom of this space with glue, press the design

down

into the space

and hammer

it

tight with the

mallet and block of soft wood.

Allow the glue to harden thoroughly, plane the
design

down
is

to the surface, scrape. and sand-paper.

This

one of the things much more easily done

than described on paper.
Instead of the solid designs just described, an
inlaid

border

is

sometimes

preferable.

Fig.

182

at g gives a good idea of a very neat one.
case, the

In this
directly

groove to receive the inlay
of the box,

is

drawn

on the surface

and cut out to the usual

:

INLAYING

325

depth, Y% inch. The pieces of inlay are sawed out in the mitre box and fitted into the groove individually, but not glued until the entire border has

been

fitted.

They

are done
is

all

at one time,

and

then a pieee of board

laid over the

whole top,

and

it is

placed in hand screws over night.
A/o 2

A/o /

Fig. 184. Built iip borders for inlaying

The number
nesses
is

of combinations

which can be ob-

tained from three or four veneers of different thickastonishing, but perhaps the
is

most

interest-

ing form

called built

several forms of built
of

up work. Fig. 184 shows up borders. The method

making a is as f ollows Ebony and holly 3^8 m ch thick are required and two separate combinations are glued up, one
containing two pieces of holly with one ebony, and
the second two of ebony with one holly.

When

dry,

saw out

of each

combination a

strip

an inch or an inch and a quarter wide. From strip No. 1 saw a dozen or more pieces an inch or so
long.

To make

these pieces exactly alike, drive

326

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
By
pushing the strip up to

a nail into the bottom of the mitre box an inch from
the 90-degree saw cut.
this nail

each time a cut

is

made

the pieces must

be the same length.

For combination No.
from the saw
pieces as
cut,

2, shift

the nail to

%

inch

and saw out an equal number of
1.

from No.

By
up
strip

gluing

these

pieces
It
is

together

alternately,

border a

will result.

necessary on these built

combinations
of

to

add

an

outside

retaining
rigidly

thin

veneer to hold the

pieces

together.

When
i

the final gluing has dried, the

usual

Y%"

a
Z S
1

b
§
5

i

inch strip should be
21

S
B 3

3
i

2
2

sawed

out.

This

is

9 S

I.I..I.1.,
£

n

bestdoneon a power,
Method
of

Fig. 185.

making an

Inlakl

band,or circular saw,

checker-board

but
is

it

can be done

by hand

if

the rip saw

good and sharp.

Other built up combinations
the same way.

may

be handled in dark and

For Square spaces, the checkerIt calls for a

board
light light

is

a great favourite.
}/g

veneer of

inch thickness.

Glue up four

and four dark pieces

in alternation as

shown

in

Fig. 185.

When
is

hard, saw out eight strips as wide
thick.

as the veneer

Glue

these

eight

strips

INLAYING
and white Squares come together.
off 3^8-inch slices,

327

together, reversing four of them, so that the black

The

result will

be a solid piece one inch square, and by sawing
each
slice will

be a checker-board

composed

of 3^8-inch cubes.

The very

best glue obtainable
if

is

needed for this

work, especially
as these are so
etrate.

the woods are ebony and holly,

hard that the glue cannot penused to

When
is

a 30-60-90-degree mitre box

is

cut the strips, an entirely different class of designs
obtained.
Fig. 186

shows some

of

the endless
are suit-

possibilities of these combinations.

They

able for the top

and

shelf of

an hexagonal tabourette,

and the oblong
stand.

figures are suitable for the top of

an

oblong box or the space between the wells of an ink-

most effective f orms give the impression of overlapping shown ata, Fig. 183, this
of the simplest yet

Some

being an oblong piece of fancy

wood with a narrow
from
a,

mitred frame around the four sides; b b are pieces
of the

same kind
b,

of

wood but
still

different

with

a narrow frame on three sides; a appears to be
laid over

and

c c,

another kind of wood,

both cut from the same piece.
It looks

more uniform and harmonious

if

the

328

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
wood
are the same.

frames of the five pieces representing three distinct
kinds of
It
is

important in choosing these borders to see

that the outside veneer be in marked contrast to
the surface into which the design
is

to be set.

A
ing
rare

very simple centre piece

may

be made interestor rectangle of

by surrounding a piain oblong

wood with an

interlaced border.

Inlaying of curved designs means some difficulty
in

accurately cutting out the opening to
is

fit

the

design; but this

overcome by reverting to the
Three or more

ancient art called marquetry work.

veneers Vie inch thick are glued together at the
corners and the design
layer.

drawn or glued on the top
that of a butterfly.

Suppose the figure

is

Assume
lines.

that the veneers are holly, mahogany, and rosewood.

With a fine The three

fret

saw cut or saw directly on the

thicknesses being sawed at one time,
fit.

the pieces must exactly

The rosewood may

be used for the outer edge of the wings, the holly

main part of the wings, and the mahogany As all these parts fit accurately, for the body. they may be glued to a 3^-inch backing piece and Flowers, dried under the pressure of hand screws. birds, etc., in infinite variety, and even landscapes,
for the

INLAYING

329

Fig. 186.

Designs cut on 30-60-90-degree mitre box

can be cut out and used in this way. Veneers coloured green are on the market and may be used
for leaves or foliage effects.

A

great deal might be written about this old style

of ornamental

woodwork, but

it

would deal almost

entirely with questions of design, as the

would be practically the same in form of this interesting art is called buhl work, in which sheet brass, German silver, or even theprecious
metals are used.

method every case. One

Brass and ebony were a favourite combination at one time, the two layers being glued
together

with

paper

between.

The

design

was

sawed out, and then a sharp knife blade inserted into the Joint to separate the brass from the ebony. That gave two distinct designs. In one case it was

330

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
In the other,
inlay.

a brass background with ebony inlay.

an ebony background with brass

There

will

always be as

many
is

resulting combina-

tions as there are original layers of material.

A

backing of cheap material

always necessary to
it

support the finished work to which
ly glued.

must be

secure-

In polishing the finished surface, a steel
first

scraper

must

be used, followed by

fine

sand-

paper; then polish.

Some
freedom.

of the

newer forms

of decorat ion,

while

lacking the richness of inlaid work, admit of greater

Pyrography, for example,

is

closely akin

to drawing,

and

in the

hands of a careful worker
Like In woods of

may be made
all

to produce very artistic effects.

arts,

it

also has its limitations.
it will

the pine family, the pitchy sap.

not do at

all,

on account of

In

dark-coloured or very hard
it
is

woods,

it

is

equally unsatisfactory, so that

used almost exclusively on basswood, because of
the white colour, softness, even grain, and freedom

from pitch.
Outfits for

pyrography

may be

purchased quite
forced through
left

reasonably.

They

consist of a glass bottle containis

ing benzine; the vapour from this

a rubber tube by means of a bulb held in the

hand out

to a platinum point.

This point

is first

INLAYING
to ignite the benzine vapour as

331

heated in the flame of an alcohol lamp sufficiently
it

comes out through

openings in the point.

While the
the right

left

hand keeps pumping the vapour,

hand guides the point along the lines of the design, which has been drawn or traced on the
wood.

Many
are to be
faction
articles

articles

made and stamped with
art stores; but the joy

designs
satis-

had at the

and

in

achievement

come from making the
designs.

and originating the
is

Basswood
burning
is

very easily soiled by handling and a

coat of white shellac should be applied after the
finished.

Sometimes staining

is

used

on certain parts
fruit,

of the design,

as for flowers or

and

in that case the staining
is

must be done be-

fore the shellac

applied.

XXXVII
THE CHECKER-BOARD

AFAVOURITE
workers
is
is

project

among young woodWhile
the
it

the checker-board.

closely
it

akin

to

inlaying,

method
is

of

making

to avoid unnecessary labour

here

As the checker-board consists of sixtyfour Squares of equal size and divided equally between two kinds of wood, one dark and the other light, some way must be devised to insure their
suggested.

being exactly alike to

make

the board a success.

Considerable care should be used in the selection
of the woods, for while they

must present a strong

contrast in colour, they should be as nearly as possible
of the

same degree

of hardness, to

make

the working

uniform.

woods are used, red gum and basswood make an agreeable contrast in colour. Basswood
If soft
is

not a very satisfactory wood to polish in

its

natural colour, however.

Among

the hard woods, a combination of black

walnut and rock maple, or mahogany and maple,
332

THE CHECKER-BOARD
or even cherry and maple, can be used.
of these combinations will

333

Any one

be more satisfactory in

the finished work than the soft woods mentioned.

The work
without

will

be harder of course, but in woodwork
is

as in other things, nothing really good
effort.

obtained

Assuming that the woods have been
strips of

selected, four

dark and the same number in light coloured
to a width of

wood should be squared up

1^

or 1 J^

inches according to the size of the Squares to be made.

W///M///S77A

\
/
Fig. 187.

fr/////////frn
!

I g

i

ILjüL
1

-1

i

i
e

Hl
t
1

\
making a checker-board

Method

of

As

in other

woodworking problems, have a

full-

sized or half-sized mechanical drawing ready before

using a tool.

A
will

checker-board built up of lj^-inch Squares
be ten inches square without the frame.
(See

Fig. 187.)

With

lj/o-inch Squares,

it

will

be twelve

inches on each side.

This

is

amply

large

and a

334

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The
material should be
}<±

satisfactory working size.
either

inch or

^ inch thick.

Plane the strips

about sixteen inches long by one inch and a half
wide.

Lay

the four strips of dark

wood on edge on the
in the vise.

bench top and carefully fasten the four

Remove
being

a

light

shaving

to

insure

their

width

all alike.

Treat the light strips the same way.

Next place

all

eight strips together

and examine
problem

for inequalities.

Too much

care cannot be exer-

cised at this point, as the success of the

depends on

it.

To make doubly
strip
all

sure,
if

reverse every alternate
inequalities appear place
light shaving.

end for end, and
of the best

eight strips in the vise

and remove a
for

One
to

methods

making these
or

strips
is

of equal size

and with perfectly square edges
a

construct

shooting board,
a.

arrange

one

alreadv made, as shown at

The

strip s

is

set to a

gauge

line

made V/2

inches

from the edge.

The

strips are laid in this space

and planed
the stop.

in the usual

way, until the plane touches
all

This makes the width of

pieces the

same and gives true edges. These eight strips placed alternately

light

and dark

THE CHECKER-BOARD
are

335

now glued upon a backing of soft wood,

less in thickness.

J^ inch or Gluing must be done thoroughly,

each strip being rubbed back and forth until a good
Joint
is

made with

its

neighbour.
is

A

piece of newspaper

spread over the top,

heavy pieces of flat stock placed top and bottom, and
the pressure from several

hand screws applied while

the glue

is

drying.

The

best liquid glue obtainable should be used,

and the paper on top prevents the hand screws being
glued to the wood.

This combination must stand until the glue

is

thoroughly hard,
it

if it

takes forty-eight hours, which

does sometimes in

damp
if

weather.
off

When
adheres.

dry,

remove hand screws and tear

paper.

Square outside edges

backing projects or glue

With a

large try square or steel square

lay out parallel lines across the combination

1%

inches apart.
unless a mill

Saw on
is

the lines with cross cut saw,
it

handy, when

can be done more

accurately with a circular or

band saw.

The new strips will be 1^ inches wide, less the amount removed by the saw. Dress them down to
a width of l}4 inches on the shooting board.

This

should bring the eight pieces on each strip to Squares 1)2 inches on a side.

336

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
original pieces, being sixteen inches long, allow
strips in case

Eight of these strips make the checker-board.

The
for
in

two or three extra
sawing or planing.

any are spoiled

These finished

strips are

now

to be glued together

on the permanent backing, which should be 34 or

% inch
frame
is

in thickness, of the

same material

as the

and about eight inches each way longer and wider than the checker-board proper.
to be

This should be placed carefully in the centre of
the backing, joints rubbed and fastened by cleats
1

x

3^2

inch tacked to the backing on
this
is

all

four sides.

While
which

drying under pressure of the hand
first

screws as in the
is

gluing, Square

up the moulding
two
styles.

to act as a frame: d shows

In

both mouldings, a rabbet Y2 mcn or so wide and Vg inch deep should be made with rabbet plane. The
outer edges

may

be Square, rounded, or bevelled.

When
it

the checker-board

gluing, this

moulding

is

to

removed from its final be mitred and fitted about
is

making a picture frame. Before doing this, remove all glue from edges with a chisel so that the
as in

frame

will fit

snugly to the checker-board.
is

The frame
While
this
is

to be glued to both backing

and

checker-board and again

placed in

hand

screws.

drying, an inlaid border strip as wide

THE CHECKER-BOARD
pr epared.

337

as the rabbet, either piain or built up, should be

This

strip, as well as

the rabbet,

may

be omitted

but should the f rame be of the same material as one of the woods used in the checker-board it is
entirely,

necessary, and in

any case

it
is

adds
very

a finish to the work that
pleasing.
set

Inlaid designs

may be
if

into the frame
result

and a very
obtained,

elaborate
desired.

After

this

last

gluing,

set

in

the inlay, and
scrape,

when

dry, plane,

and sand-paper the whole
flat,

surface

and square the edges

of the frame.

This makes a very substantial
j i_ and neavy board, wortny
i

i

,

-i

of

p

any
of

Fig. 6 188. Checker-board

^Res

woodworker
table
as
top.

and
Such
Fig.

worthy
a
table
188.

being used

as

a

may

be

constructed

shown
is

in

It calls for mortise
if

and
legs

tenon joints cut at an angle, and

this style of

work

considered

too

difficult

vertical

can be used.
Loard, and

This under structure should be of

the same kind of
if

wood
is

as the

frame

of the checker-

oak

used the stain should be applied

338

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Bay wood
is

before placing the inlaid border.
ferable to oak for inlaying but
is

pre-

more expensive.
legs
is

On

a small table of this
is

size,

where vertical

are used, the base

so small that the structure

top-heavy and easily upset, so that the problem

becomes a very interesting study

in design.

When
polish
if
it.

the entire table has been put together,
If

mahogany,

finish in natural colour;

oak, any of the styles described in the chapter

on staining

may

be used, with care taken to keep
itself in

the checker-board

the natural colours.

:

XXXVIII
TOOL CASES AND CHESTS

AFTER and
^ pupil

our boys had
inlaid boxes,

made

several dovetailed
his

Ralph announced that

was ready to attack the construction
It

of

a tool cabinet.

was to be fastened to the wall
be

over the bench, designed to hold most of the small
tools,

and to be

in such a position that it could

reached from the front of the bench.

The

cabinet designed was really a dovetailed box
all.

30 x 20 x 6 inches over

It

was made

of

Jö-

rnen quartered oak except the back, which was J^inch pine.
1 piece

The

bill

of material

was

pine 30 x 20 x Y2 1 piece oak 30 x 20 x V2

2 pieces oak 20 x 5 Y2 2 pieces oak 30 x 5

%

The front and back, each 30 x 20 inches, were made
of

two pieces 30 x 10

inches, jointed

and glued,

placed in clamps over night and the joints planed

down

to take off the excess glue which

out under pressure of the clamps.

had oozed While these two

parts were gluing, the sides and ends were dovetailed
as in previous boxes.

340

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
the front and back pieces were glued in

When
1-inch

place on the box, they were further fastened by
brads,
set

below

the

surface,

and

the

holes filled with putty, coloured to correspond with

C a.oi7iet~
Tool

oben,

C ahmeT CloseA
detail of too] ra.ck
Fig. 189.
a.

A

tool cabinet

The colour of the finish was a dark, handsome green. The box was sawed in two along a line
the stain.
23/2

inches from the front.

This divided the cabinet into two parts, the door
or front section having a clear depth of 2 inches,

and the back or wall section a depth

of 3 inches.

After hinging the door section in position, the
cabinet was stained inside and out, the outside
polished and a hook for fastening the door shut was

placed in position.

TOOL CASES AND CHESTS
The
shop by four strong screws lj^ inches long.

341

cabinet was fastened to the studding of the

The

various nails, hooks, and tool racks were next added

and the cabinet was ready to
Patent racks for holding

use.
chisels,

gouges,

etc.,

are sold in hardware stores, but our boys preferred
to

make

their own.

Their chisel rack

is

shown

in

Fig. 189.

After squaring up and cutting out the recesses
at the ends, holes were bored, the opening

from the

front cut with back saw, and the sharp edges rounded

with chisel and sand-paper.

Holes for the screws at the ends were bored and
countersunk.

In locating a tool cabinet of this kind, while
should be very easily reached, and
is

it

usually open

during work hours,

it

should be placed high enough

so as to be easily opened or closed without striking
tools

and work on the bench.

In other words,

it

should not be necessary to clear the bench top in
order to open the cabinet.

tween under side
about
right.

of tool

About 6 inches becabinet and bench top is

An
190.

old-fashioned tool ehest, suitable for shipping
is

a whole kit of tools any distance,

shown

in Fig.

These chests were usually

fitted

with trays

342

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
into

divided

compartments

for

small

tools

and

hardware.

Such a ehest may be made
its

of either

hard or soft wood and
After making out a
sides

construetion

is

as follows:

list

of material, Square

up

and ends exactly as
cut and
its
fit

in

making any box.

Lay

out,

the dovetails.

aecount of
pieces.
in

width, will

The bottom, on have to be made of two

These

may

be jointed, glued and placed

clamps or put together with a tongue and groove

Joint.

The

latter plan calls for a special plane.

Having prepared the bottom by either of these methods, bore and countersink holes about 6 inehes apart in the bottom and secure rigidly to sides and ends by lj^ or 1% inch flat-head screws. For the top, make a frame from Y& to inch thick and 3 or 4 inehes wide, putting the ends together with end lap or mortise and tenon joints. Secure this frame to top of box by screws. These

%

may

be round-heads, or

if it is

desirable to hide them,

the method shown in Fig. 190 can be used.

This

is

aecomplished by boring a %6-inch hole through the
top frame.

At the same centre a J^-inch hole is bored partly through. The screw is driven home and a round wooden plug glued into the 3^-inch
hole.

When

dry, this plug

is

sawed

off

and planed

smooth.

TOOL CASES AND CHESTS

343

The top frame having beert secured, two gauge lines are made for sawing the cover, as in previous
boxes,

and the two parts dressed to gauge lines, ready
is

for hinging.

Before putting on the hinges, the top
finished with a

to be
off

raised

panel.

U<

1

*

.

plu.<3

J>lci.7\ed

Square

up

a
Tnethod of conceahny

piece of stock

two inches longer and
wider than the

screWs

Ctoss

sectjon of tojo

Fig. 190.

The

old-fashioned tool ehest;

open space

in the top frame.

Round upper

edges,

and secure to frame by flat-head screws from the under side through holes bored and countersunk. Next put on hinges, which should be large and

844

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
known
fit.

strong, the variety

as strap hinges.

Cut

out space for lock, and

The

holes for key are

bored with a gimlet bit and cut out enough to allow

Tool

Chest

*

Fig. 191,

Suit case tool ehest

the key to enter freely; or hasp, staple and padlock

may

be used.
bevelled base
is

The
added.

mitred at corners, and brass

corner plates to protect these lower corners are

The

strip at the top corresponding to the base

may
on

be mitred and protected with corner plates,

or the ordinary butt Joint can be used.
this

The

bevel

strip

may

be omitted.

A
will

ehest of this

variety,

made

of pine

and painted,

stand a great

deal of rough usage.

Iron or brass handles at the

TOOL CASES AND CHESTS
Our boys were not
tool ehest, as
it

345

ends are recommended for convenience in carrying.
satisfied

with this form of
it,

required two people to carry

some experimenting they evolved one in the form of a dress suit case, long, narrow, and high, that could be easily carried. It is shown in
and
after

Fig. 191.

They
over
all.

first

made

a solid box 30 x 15 x 7 inches
joints

It

was put together with butt
of the

securely nailed, using 3^-inch white wood.

One quarter

box was sawed out, as shown
This quarter was fitted for
in the

on the end view, and hinged to the body by ornamental brass hinges.
drawing.
into the

two saws by making two blocks as shown

The
saw

rip

and

cross cut saws were fitted

kerfs cut in these

two blocks, placed

securely in the cover, and were held in place

by a
tray
füll

small piece of

leather strap

taken from a school

book strap and nailed to
for small tools

inside of cover.

A

was made

of J^-inch stock the

length and width of the inside of the ehest

l^ inches

deep and made to rest flush with the top of lower
section
corners.

on

little

corner strips glued in the four

For handle, two pieces

of

leather

strap

were

secured, one to each top section,

by screws.

When

346

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
came together
to

the box was closed, these two straps

and made a good handle.
solid

The

objection

a

handle

is

that
it

it

must be

entirely

on one section

and that takes
is

out of the centre, so that the weight

not evenly distributed.

This

is

one of the most satisfactory styles of tool
It will hold practically the

carrier devised.
kit

whole

and

may

be picked up

like a dress suit case

and

transported just as readily.

A

hook and eye or

hasp, staple and padlock should be used to hold

the case securely closed.

For carrying
of ticking or

bits of various kinds

and

sizes,

a

roll

denim divided into separate spaces These rolls with straps are sold is very desirable. in tool houses, but may be made at home by the
sewing department.
Besides protecting the
cutrust.

ting edges, they help to keep out

dampness and

XXXIX
BOOKCASES AND MAGAZINE RACKS

THE WALL RACK
modern home, the orderly arrangement of books and magazines calls for ample shelf space and the book shelf becomes a favourite piece of furniture among amateur woodworkers. The book rack for the books of the day has been taken up in Chapter XXVII. The book shelf for

IN

THE

hanging on the wall

is

blocked out in Fig. 192.

The
No.
No.

questions to be considered in the design are:
Methods
of fastening shelves to ends.

1.

2.
3.

No.

The design The back:
Method

of the ends.
is

it

necessary,

and

if

so shall

it

be solid?

Outline of back.

No.

4.

of fastening to wall.

No.

1.

The method

of bringing shelves

and ends

together with piain butt Joint and fastening with a

round-head screw from the outside

is

the easiest
is

and poorest.
carried

by the

The whole weight on screws. This method
is
347

the shelves
is

shown

at a.

At

b,

a better method

indicated, the shelf being

348

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The weight
in this case
is

gained into the end and held in position by the
screws.
carried

by the

ends.

To

hide the Joint, the shelf

may

be slightly

narrower than the end piece as shown in the top

4

s\
v>
<s4*4r

Top

ri>.

riu

7i

p

nzfui

.

Tcjb bleut

O

^
sh*y_

cC^Z

Sl

U

&

sw

view at
parts

c,

or the

two
the
Fig. 192.

may

be

of

same width
gained
half

as at d, the

The problem

of designing a wall

Joint

stopping

book rack

an inch or so short of the

füll

width.

These
floor

details apply to bookcases that stand

on the

as well as to smaller ones.

No.
part

2.

The

design of the ends

is

largely a matter

of artistic taste,
is

and where curves are used, the lower

usually formed in such a

way

as to suggest

a bracket.

BOOK CASES AND MAGAZINE RACKS
No.
3.

349

A

back

is

only necessary to give the rack
If

rigidity
i.

and

to protect the wall.

made

solid

e.,

to cover the

whole space between ends
of using only top

it

uses

a good deal of wood and adds considerable weight.

E

shows a method

and bottom

strips.

They

will

make

the rack sufficiently rigid

and the
ing

strip should

be gained into the ends, bring-

them
4.

flush with the

back

of

end

pieces.

No.
nails

Find the location

of wall studs
it

by drop-

ping a line with weight on

(plumb) from the

on picture moulding, or by bringing the weight

in front of nails

on base board.

Make

fine pencil

marks on the wall where the studs have been
and at
this distance drill holes in

located.

Find the horizontal distance between the marks

back

of

book rack
all

and secure to the studs by screws.
the strain on the back
strips.

This brings

If the

rack has no

back, square up two hard
inch square and as

wood
as

strips

about

%

long

the

shelves.

Drill

screw holes in these strips
Drill vertical holes at the

and fasten to
back
of

studs.

each shelf

%

inch in from edge,
screw

fit

the shelves over cleats and
side of shelves.

down
book

into

them from upper

The
as the

cleats should

be finished in the same colour

rack.

This method makes a very solid

and permanent fastening.

350

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
length of a wall rack should be limited or-

The
books

dinarily to three feet, as the weight of three feet of
will give considerable sag to the shelves,

and a

greater length will call for a vertical partition and

corresponding bracket underneath for

its

support.

THE BOOKCASE
This piece of furniture
is

seen in so

many

forms

that a volume would be necessary simply to catalogue them.

The

essential features are strong ends

or sides, usually a solid back, a base, shelves, often

adjustable as to spacing, a top more or less orna-

mental, and often glass doors.

Perhaps the most important point in the construction
tion,
is

strength.

A wobbly bookcase is an abominais

and the weight to be carried

frequently

enormous.

A typical
this

case without doors will be taken up and
modified, used as a unit and doubled or

may be

trebled at the will of the
If it is

young carpenter.

(Fig. 193.)

made

to occupy a certain space in a perit

manent home,

may

be built in and made
is

solid

with the wall, but this
ticularly in America,

not often desirable, par-

where people move frequently.

As a general

rule,

two small bookcases are better

than one large one.

They may be

easily shifted,

BOOKCASES AND MAGAZINE RACKS
between windows.

351

changed from room to room, and are more apt to
fit

The

uprights 4 feet 4 inches long, 8 inches wide

r^M^

7 and /s mcn

thick, are

rabbeted at the back
so that the Joint will

not
side.

show
}/2 "

from

the
is

The back

to

be of

mcn

white

wood
H
1

stained the
as

same
piece

colour

the sides.

The under top

and bottom are gained
- 4
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<5Kft.

ü£
iSiötion.

Fig. 193.

The bookcase

into

the

sides,

both

joints

being

hidden

by

.

852

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The
3-inch

the later construction.
is

bevelled base
off

mitred at the corners

and cut

Square at
is

the back, covering only three sides, as the back
to be flush from top to bottom.

The top

is

to

have

a moulded edge on three sides, and to be fastened to

under top piece by flat-head screws from the under
side through countersunk holes.

The

four solid shelves are

made

adjustable

in

their spacing

by the old-fashioned method
Strips J
3

of saw3^2

toothed strips in each corner.
are
rest

x

mcn

made

to

fit

in the

toothed spaces, and the shelves

on these

strips, of

which two must be provided

for each shelf

The

four toothed strips should be laid out and

cut together to insure the shelves being level.

The

dimensions for

all

these pieces are given in the

detailed drawings.

The
beaded
are set

front edges are covered
if

desired, mitred at

by 3^-inch strips, the top and cut to fit

the bevelled base below.

Nailed on with brads, these
with putty, coloured to

and the holes
finish.

filled

match the

In the mission

style, the shelves are frequently

mortised through the sides and secured by pins
or wedges.
is

In this type of bookcase, a solid back

rarely used,

and base and top are omitted.

In

BOOKCASES AND MAGAZINE RACKS
rack with ornamental ends.

353

a design of this kind, the top shelf becomes a book

Often only the upper

and lower shelves are mortised, the others being
gained into the sides as described under wall racks.

The lower
stable.

part of the side

is

frequently modified

to give a wider base

and to make the case more
is

One

objection to this

the

amount

of

material wasted in cutting out, as the

stock for

the sides must be the

füll

width of the base.

XL
THE MEDICINE CABINET

THE
details of

wall cabinet for drugs and toilet articles,

where the various household remedies
be found quickly,
is

may
and

illustrated in Fig. 194.

It calls for a panelled door, the construction

which are given
squaring

in the drawing.

After

up the four
3^-i n ch

pieces

for

styles

and
inch

rails,

plough a

groove
all

deep on the inner edge of
is

^s of an the pieces.
is

This groove

to receive the panel which

planed

down

to

fit.

The two

uprights are to be mortised
lines

at each end, as

shown by dotted
This
closes

and edge view.
are cut with

The tenons on
a Shoulder.

the ends of the

rails

the space

made by

the

plough on the uprights, as shown in the top view.

The panel
long bevel
is

is

squared up

% inch larger each way
rails

than the open space between

and

styles

and a

planed on each of the four

sides, leav-

ing the thickness of the edges just great enough to
fit

the bottom of the grooves of

rails

and
is

styles.

Another method

of

making a panel
354

to use thin

THE MEDICINE CABINET
wood which
will just fit the grooves,

355
fill

and to

the

joints with a simple

moulding mitred at the corners.
not
difficult to

The

raised panel
is little

is

make, however,

and there

difference in the time

consumed by

the two methods.

When

the five parts are ready for assembling,

the mortise joints are glued, the panel slipped into
place and left free to shrink in the grooves.

The
a door

door

is

placed in hand screws or clamps over night.
to
fit

As

it is

a definite space, always

make

slightly larger

than

its

finished dimensions, to allow

for planing off

and

fitting.

While

it is

drying, proceed with the building of

the cabinet.

The back

inner edges of the sides are

to be rabbeted to receive the back, which

may

be

made

of 34 or

% mcn
may may

white wood.

Material for

the cabinet proper

be any hard wood, or even

white wood.

The
span.

shelves
is

material

be 3^ mcn thick. Heavier not necessary, on account of the short
are to be gained into the sides to the

They

depth of Y% or y% inch. The spacing of the shelves should be adapted to the sizes of bottles to be ac-

commodated, and the dimensions given
ing are merely suggestive.

in the

draw-

The overhanging top may be made

either with

356

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
sides or be left Square.
is

moulded edges on front and
It
false top.

secured by screws from the under side of the

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Kg. 194. The medicine cabinet

THE MEDICINE CABINET
The
sides are

357

shown modified at the bottom to give a pleasing effect, and the back piece may either be brought down and cut to a curved outline, as indicated
in the drawing, or stopped at the first shelf.

In assembling,

first

put the

false top in place

and

nail it to the sides;
slip

next put the top on withscrews,

the shelves into their respective grooves, and

glue.

Put on the back,

nailing securely to sides

and

shelves.

To make
brads
fill

the cabinet more rigid, drive
the
shelves from

1-inch
set

into

the

outside

and

the holes.

Last of

all, fit

the door, and fasten
lock

it

with hinges
is

and a catch.
key

A

may be

used, but that

hardly advisable, as in case of an emergency the

may

be

lost at the

critical

moment.

Stain

and

polish.

The method

of f astening

is

by screws through the

back into the wall studs.
Cabinets for various purposes can be designed
along the lines just described, but in each case the

method

of

construction
if

is

similar.

A

stronger

cabinet would result

the top and bottom shelves
style.

were mortised through the sides in the mission

The only
way.

objection to this

is

that

if

the horizontal

space be limited, the projecting tenon

may

be

in the

358
\

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

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Fig 195

.

A filing cabinet

THE MEDICINE CABINET
The
is

359

filing

cabinet for papers shown in Fig. 195
different

of

radically

construction.

As

it

is

designed to stand on a desk, or independent shelf,
the base

may be

very simple or omitted entirely,

as in the drawing. It
is

divided into twelve compartments, with a

clear space in each of 123^ x 5}/2 x 3J^ inches, these

being the outside dimensions of the drawers.
It
is

important in building up these compartments

to use

lumber that

is

well seasoned

and

free

from

warp.

Gain the shelves into outside uprights, stop-

ping the groove half an inch from the front.
Before sliding the shelves into the grooves, lay
out on the four pieces the grooves for the three
vertical partitions.

It will

be much easier to cut

these grooves clear through from front to back, but

a better appearance from the front can be obtained

by stopping the grooves
the sides.

half

an inch back, as on

Each

vertical partition will then consist of three

separate pieces slipped in from the back.
section of the cabinet will appear, as a.

A

cross

The quartershown
at
c,

inch back

is

to be gained into the sides as

in the top view.

The construction
the sides being cut

of the

drawer

is

shown

away toward the back.

Other-

360

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

wise the drawer

simply an open box

made

of

%-

inch pine or white vvood, with 34~ mcn bottom put

together with brads.

The
Covers

false front,

made

of the

same material

as

top and sides, gives a suitable
all joints; it is

finish,

and practically

secured by flat-head screws

from the

inside.
it

In assembling the drawer,

should be

made
it is

about Vie inch smaller than the compartment
fit,

to

to prevent binding in

damp

weather.
is

Bay wood,
of

a light-coloured mahogany,

very ap-

propriate for this piece of office furniture, the edges
partitions

being

stained

to

match.

A

brass
is

drawer-pull, with a space left for a printed label,
to be put on after the polishing Filing cabinets
course, be
tions
is

done.

made by

this

method may,

of

made with drawers of different proporand with any number of compartments, but
letters,

this size is designed to hold long envelopes,
bills, etc.

XLI
MISSION FURNITURE

THE
To
point
it is

library table (Fig. 196)

is

a good example

of solid

tion.

and permanent furniture construcIt represents the main principles of

the mission style

solidity,

strength,

simplicity,

straight lines, mortise

and tenon

joints, etc.

a boy

who has worked
is

carefully

up

to this

entirely possible.

As the top
this

the only part to be glued up,

should

be

done

first.

Three

boards

of

%-inch quartered oak 10 inehes wide, or an
that
will

equivalent
inehes,

aggregate a

trifle

over

30

and 4

feet

long,

should

be jointed

and

prepared for dowelling.
is

The method

of doing this

shown

at a, where

two jointed pieces are clamped

together.

The

distance between dowels lengthwise

should be measured, and lines squared across the
edges with knife and try square.
as at
6,

Two

pencil lines,
Joint.

should

be made across the
at

Set

the

marking

gauge

%e

inch.

Remove

the

boards

from vise or clamp, and from the faces
361

36«

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
lines,

touched by pencil

gauge

lines cutting across

the three knife lines on each edge.
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Fig. 196.

4

w«d^««

A

mission library table

Where

these lines cross, bore ^-inch holes with a
1 inch.

dowel bit to the depth of at least

Lay out

MISSION FURNITURE
the other dowelled Joint in the same manner.
six pieces of ^g-inch

363

Saw

dowel 2 inches long, and glue

ends of each dowel in the holes prepared in the

middle board, as shown at

c.

Put a thin layer of glue on the joints with a brush and clamp the three pieces together. While the
glue
is

hardening, proceed with the frame.

This

consists of four legs, four top rails, the lower cross
rails,

a shelf, and four wedges.
sizes are as follows:

The

Top Top

rails rails
rails

2 42 x 3 x

2 24 x 3 x

% %

Cross

2 26 1 /2 x 3 x

Shelf 1

44%

x 12 x x

Wedges 4

2%

% or %x%

%
7

/ 8

The

construction of the top rails

is

shown

at d

in the detail drawing.

The only

point calling for

special attention

is

to see that the tenons are flush

with outside of

rail,

being cut on only three sides,

and the mitre at the end of each. The necessitv for this mitre is shown in the drawing of the top of
leg at
e,

where the two tenons are shown meeting

in the blind mortises.

The

short rails are identical

with those shown at

d,

except in length.
is

The

detailed drawing of the legs

shown

at /,

and to make sure that the four are uniform, they
should be laid out in pairs, the two at one end

364

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
two

together, then the second pair; and finally the
pairs

must be compared

to

discover any possible

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Fig. 196.

A

mission library table (continued)

MISSION FURNITURE
inaccuracies.

365

The

cutting of the mortises

may

be

hastened by boring several holes inside the lines

from each

side.

The drawing
rails,

at g shows the layout of the lower
flat sides

with tenons atthe ends, and mortises on

to receive the tenons

on ends

of the shelf

.

As in previ-

ous cases, these two pieces should be laid out together.

The most

difficult

work up to

this point is the

cutting of the two blind mortises at the top of each
leg to receive the mitred tenons.

This Operation

could be simplified, by replacing the mortise and tenon
at that point

by a dowel

Joint,

but

it

would no longer

be genuine mission furniture, and a

much weaker
itself,

form of construction.

The drawing

of

the long shelf explains
at

two tenons being cut

each end and

a rec-

tangular hole cut through each tenon for the wedge.

The tenons
is

shown with a slight bevel, which cut with a chisel when all other work is finished.
are
it will

Before proceeding further,

be wise to try

and
final

fit

all

the joints.

Number
it is

or letter the

two

parts of each Joint, as

finished, to assist in the

assembling.

This process
it

of

fitting

should
safely.

take some time, for

cannot be hurried

When

it is

finished, the

way

to fasten the top to

the frame should be considered.

366

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
and
i,

Several methods are in use, and two are shown
at h
rail.

At h a

hole

is

bored at an angle in the

As

it

goes only part

way

through,

it

provides
is

a Shoulder for the screw head, and

the screw

driven through a hole drilled for the purpose into
the solid top.
If this

method

is

used, at least ten screws would
size,

be needed for a table of this

three on each side

and two on each end.

The method shown
of the two.

at i

is

probably the better

Blocks of wood of the shape and size

given in the drawing are

made and

fitted into a

groove ploughed in the
This groove

rails.

may be ploughed the füll length of rail,
two with a
chisel.

or cut out for an inch or

The

tongue and groove should

fit

snugly, and the block be

securely fastened to the top with screws.

Two blocks
be
sufficient.

on each

side

and one on each end
is

will

A

simple method

to fasten top and frame

by

angle irons 2 inches long, on the inside.

This question having been decided, take the glued-

The up top from clamps and dress down to size. under side should be trued up enough to fit neatly over tops of legs and rails, and the upper side should
be planed, scraped, and sand-papered.

The

final

assembling should be done in this order:

MISSION FÜRNITURE

367

Assemble the two ends separately. Each end The consists of two legs, a top and a bottom rail.
mortise and tenon joints should be glued, and a clamp

used at top

and bottom.

Test for squareness.
insert shelf tenons

When
wise.

dry,

remove clamps,

and

those of top

rails in their mortises,

and clamp length-

Drive a wire brad through each tenon, from

the side of leg least conspicuous, and set with nail

punch.

Put on the
necessary.

top,

and
all

level

bottom

of legs

where
brad

Remove

traces of glue,

and

fill

holes with putty, coloured

same

as stain to be used.

Place wedges in mortises provided, and fasten

each one with a small brad driven through the side
of shelf tenons.

Stain and polish.

THE TEA TABLE
This table
is

made low

purposely, the legs being

exactly two feet in length.
sists of

The

construction conrails,

four legs, two sets of cross

and a
is

cir-

cular top

two

feet in diameter.

As

this top

too

wide to be cut from one board, Joint two pieces of %-inch stock, glue together, and place in clamp.

The

Joint

may

be strengthened with dowels, as in
(Fig. 197.)

previous cases.

By

proceeding in this order

— gluing

up

first

y h

368

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
lost in waiting.

no time need be
legs

Square up the four

and lay out the eight mortises, placing the four

pieces in a vise or

clamp to insure uniformity.

Cut

the mortises and lay the legs one side.
sets of cross rails are to

The two
0) JL

be halved at the centre, and

Q>

U

Xrl

K
f/

« >

d

d

nn
may be
or
7wO
7R<X
»

straight

s

1 i

gh

1

1

7s

ho.)vecL

a-t centre.

curved, as shown. The

iz

JT

T
1
A
if

ZI

curve improves
the appearance

without

reduc-

Fig. 197.

mission tea table

m g the strengt
is

seriously,

but

this

form

decided on, the curve
Joint.

must be cut before laying out the halved

MISSION FURNITURE

369

After finishing the Joint, the two rails of each set
are clamped together

and tenons

laid out.

Remove
is

from clamp or vise and cut tenons.
to

Test each set
satisfac-

make
and

sure the halved Joint at centre
insert tenons in the mortises.
of the

tory,

Draw bore
as

and fasten with round pins
the legs.

same material

Before fastening the top

rails in position, drill

and

countersink two holes in each piece for the screws,
in the position

shown

in drawing.

The

bevels on

end

of tenons should

be cut with the

chisel before

the final fastening.

The two boards composing the top when removed from clamps should be dressed flat on
both
sides, tested

with a straight edge, and

circle

laid out

with

steel dividers set at

a radius of twelve

inches.

Saw
to line,

close to this line with turning saw, chisel

and smooth with spokeshave and sand-paper
piece of pine 3 x 2 x

block

—a

%

inches, with the

sand-paper tacked on the J/g-inch edge.
sand-paper top.

Scrape and

To fasten this top to the frame, lay the top upside down on the floor, and set the frame, inverted, on it.
Measure
position,

carefully to locate the

frame
or

in

proper

and fasten with four

2^

%% mcn

A at

370

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Assuming that
all

head screws.

parts of the frame

have been scraped and sand-papered before assembling, the table
is

ready for polishing.
for this piece
is

Oak
in

is

the

wood commonly used
if

of furniture,

but

well seasoned, chestnut

lighter

weight and just as satisfactory as to grain and
(See staining and polishing.)
in mission furniture

finish.

Sometimes
table

the legs of the

are

allowed to come up through the top.
is

This design
of the top
is

shown

at Fig.

198.

The diameter
is

24 inches, but the height

increased,

as this

is

designed as a centre or reading table.

On

account of the support furnished by the Shoulder
at the top of legs, the top set of rails
is

omitted, and

the fastening

made by

four angle irons securely

screwed to the top and

legs.

This table, on account of the greater span be-

tween the

legs, is as stable as

the previous design.

The
shelf

cross rails are halved,
side.

curved on under

If

and may be straight or desired, a commodious
rails.

may
will

be had by fastening a circular piece 19
top piece.

inches or less in diameter to the top of cross

This

need to be glued up and cut

like
is

The square tenon

at the top of legs

shown

in

the detailed drawing, and care should be taken in
laying out to insure the distance from the Shoulder

MISSION FURNITURE

371

r

*7f
=A=AI

TT

r
47e.9&
f

*5

19

,^

7wc»7 ?a.#7s
:

ha.7ve.cL
<5

TT
MV

a,t

cenfre.

u

T
va

nO

2 5"

/?'

Ä *| £

^—^

^.

4.1
v

__
r

1

1-4

.

\
..

r

* T
Fig. 198.

-

-*

A

mission style centre table

_

372

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
bottom
of leg being alike

to
is

on

all

four,

if

the top

to be level.

After gluing up and dressing out circle and two-inch
tenons.

down

the top, lay the

square openings for

Test these Squares carefully before cutting,

±
rt

to

make

sure they

are equally

=j—.
7*T

spaced, saw out circle, and finish
as in previous table.

Saw out
and

the

Squares close to line

finish

with
30
izi'

chisel.

In putting on angle
first

irons,

screw them to the top
it

and press
*"

tightly

down on

the

Shoulders before fastening to legs.

-"fr
J
LJ _.J.

A strong cleat
f astened

18 or 20 inches long

to under side of top across

the grain with four or five screws
will help to

prevent warping, but

is

notabsolutely necessary. If thecircular shelf
Fig.

is

added,
rails

it is

to be f ast-

ened to cross
199.

by screws from

Mission

plant stand

the under side through drilled holes.

DESIGNING MISSION FURNITURE

Boys who have followed the preceding Instructions will be able to plan and construct the following
designs without detailed explanations.

MISSION PURNITUKE

373

The two drawings for plant Stands
of suggestions,

are in the nature

and although taken from pieces

ao

tually

made they show
is

the great difference in form

that

is

possible in meeting the

same

conditions.

Fig. 199 called

thoroughly representative of the sostyle

mission
its

with

mortise and

tenon

joints

and

straight Square legs.

The
ing

shelf for holdis

the jardiniere

indicated
lines,

by dotted and it is held by

cleats fastened to the

sides
screws.

by
dark

flat-head

A
is

finish,

an-

[y

tique or rieh

brown,
for

appropriate

either design. Fig. 200

shows a radically
f erent
is

dif-


Fig. 200.

form.

The shelf

Design for a plant stand

octagonal or square
fit

with the corners cut at 45 degrees to

the legs.

The
rails

detail

view shows the arrangement of lower

meeting the legs at the same angle.

The ends

374

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
and secured by wire
nails set

of rails are mitred

below the surface and holes filled. The fastening between upper shelf and legs may be either round-

head blue screws or dowel pins

of the

same material
weaker

as the legs, with the outer ends slightly rounded.

The shape
stable base
upset.

of the legs

makes
this

this design

than Fig. 199, but their spread results

in a

more

and makes

stand

less

Kable to

The

foot rest (Fig. 201)

is

to be provided with a

cushion covered with leather nailed on withlarge-

head craftsman

nails.
filled

The cushion may be

with hair, excelsior,

or even fine shavings, securely sewed in a cover of
/
Cujhton
o
o o o
Cu.

shic
o

o

o

o

o o

o

o

o

rf13'

13"

#
IZ

:li
L

r n

Y
J

[

J.

I*-

Fig. 201.

Foot

rest

Fig. 202.

Footstool in mission style

ticking

and held

in

place

by the
rails.

leather cover.

The

leather

must be brought down and nailed to
Fasten the top

the lower edge of the cross

to cleats screwed on inside of ends.

MISSION FURNITURE
Fig. 202

375

shows the same problem worked out
all

in

straight lines, the leather being nailed to

four

top

rails.

Each of these pieces of furniture one, and chairs, settees, umbrella
(TL

suggests a

new

Stands, writing

Figs.

203 and 204.

Mission desks.

A

study in design

desks,etc,

may be made along the same general lines.

The plant stand (Fig. 199) suggests the umbrella The shelf is simply shifted from the top to rack.
bottom and provided with a brass tray to catch the
water.

Valuable suggestions for

such

furniture

may

be obtained by Consulting catalogues of fur-

niture,
pieces.

and by constant observations

of well-made

These designs should never be copied, but used
only as aids to the working out of original ideas.

The

typical

writing desk

shown

at

Fig.

203

376

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
While
fairly well proportioned,

illustrates this point.

the legs could well be heavier.
faulty.
Its

The drawer
necessary to

is

also

position

makes

it

move

away from the desk
cross
rail

in order to

open

it.

The lower
crit-

will

be a nuisance when sitting close

enough to write and other features might be
icised.

Whether your design
are thought out.
Fig.

will

be

a

success
all

or not depends on the elearness with which
details

these

204 shows several

of the

above defects corrected.

.

XLII
THE CHEST

THIS
it

is

one of the most convenient and sub-

stantial pieces of f urniture

about the house.
fürs, or clothing

For the storage of
is

linen,

invaluable.
liberal

It

may
seat.

be placed in a corner,

and with a

supply of sofa cushions makes an

ideal cosey corner

and
is

The
and

construction
for

purposely strong and heavy,
like

calls

good material

quartered oak,
latter

chestnut, walnut, or cedar.
pecially red cedar,
in colour,
is

The

wood,

es-

light in weight,

but attractive

and has the further advantage of being
shows a
well-proportioned
ehest of

moth proof
Fig. 205 a

quartered oak.
into the

The
legs,

horizontal rails are mortised

heavy

and the panels may be arranged
rails,

as

shown

in the detail.
is

A

rabbet

cut on the inner edge of the

and

a corresponding groove ploughed in the
panel

legs.

The

may

be of one piece, set into the rabbet and
expanse
377

grooyes.

Its large

may

be carved, raised,

378

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

or simply polished piain, allowing the natural grain
to furnish the ornamentation.

The

legs

may be piain,

as shown, or curved slightly

at the bottom, as suggested in the detail.
3-6

The top

11

1

t

-i

3-3
K|(0

^ane7

/3a.?ie J

36

k- 6'-H

;>o

J

Zofi

H

l/.

£<XT,*/

I

»

Secf/On
a.»cL
~/3iu.r\a

ra.th
f.

k

j'-4

Fig. 205.

The

linen ehest

is

too large to be

made

in

one piece, and

it

should be

built
rail

up

like a table top,

and hinged to Upper back

by strong

iron or brass ornamental hinges.

THE CHEST
If finished in a

379

dark colour with dull surface, the
will

metal corner plates and escutcheon

greatly

enhance

its

appearance.

These

may be made

out of sheet brass.

First

lay out the design on paper.

Cut out to the outline,
of the sheet metal.

and trace upon the surface

A

metal-cutting saw blade obtained from the hardware
störe can be fitted into the frame of the coping saw.

With

this tool,

saw on the

lines exactly as

in

thin wood, and ßle the edges smooth.

The

holes for

the heavy nails are drilled.
nails

If suitable

big-headed

cannot be found, brass screws
in position, the

may

be used,

and when
shape.

heads

filed to

any desired

An

ancient green effect can be produced on such

brass Ornaments

by painting with ammonia.

The cover of a large ehest like this will need to be reinforced by strong cleats on theunderside across the grain. They should be 3 x J^ inches, just long
enough to allow the cover to
be secured by five or
six

close readily,

and should

screws on each cleat.
or white wood, secured

The bottom may be pine

by nails or screws to J^-inch Square cleats screwed on the inside of ends and sides. A ehest of better Proportion, but slightly more complicated in construetion,
is

shown at

6.

Here the front

is

broken

380

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
The whole
front in this case

up into three panels, and a better space arrangement
secured.

may

be put

together with mortise and tenon joints, as in panel

method just described may be used. The mortise and tenon form is the better wav, and as usual takes more time. Carved panels suggest a very rieh and valuable
door
construction,
or

the

simpler

piece of furniture, but they are not necessary, as a

good

flat polish
is

showing the natural grain of the

wood

very satisfactory.

XLIII THE DRAWING OUTFIT

AN
"

equipment
in the

for

mechanical drawing, ex-

cept the instruments, can be easily

made

shop by any boy who has had some

practice with tools.

The drawing board is the first thing needed, and several makes are in use, the object of all of them being to insure a true flat surface by overcoming the natural tendency of wood to warp.
Shrinkage
tions,
will
is

take place in spite of

all

precau-

but

this

not a serious matter, and does not

affect the usefulness of the board.

All boards,

it is

conceded, should be "built up,"

rather than consist of one piece.

The

idea

is

that

the warping of one piece
acted

is

somewhat counter-

by that

of

the

adjoining pieces in other

directions.

Fig. 206

shows three forms

in

common

use.

At

a the ends are united to wide cleats by a tongue and groove
Joint.

In shrinking and expanding with weather changes,
381

382

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

the board

free to slide along the Joint, being glued

only at the centre.

At

b

two dovetail-shaped

strips are inserted

on

the under side across the grain.

This

is

more

diffi-

//<w ez^

j-yfez

^

<

\

•Jhootiny

board for

trueinj bhdet

Fig. 206.

The drawing board

cult

to

make on account
it is

of

the

shape of the

groove, but

otherwise satisfactory.

At

c

two

strong cleats are fastened across the under side by
screws.

This

is

the easiest and least satisfactory
in the

method, as the cleats are often
the board clumsy,

way, making
it

and furthermore

does not

allow for shrinkage, unless the screws are secured
in grooves instead of in piain holes.

A

good proportion for a small board
If

is
is

24 x 18

inches.

the

first

method

of construction

decided

on, glue

up four

or five strips of well seasoned white

THE DRAWING OUTFIT
pine,
14>

383

inch thick, of the width desired, and four

inches shorter than the final length of board.
in

Place

clamps for twenty-four hours, and when dry dress
perfectly true to a

down

thickness

of

%

inch.

Test for warp and wind, and Square the ends.

Square up two pieces of stock 2J^ inches wide, with a length equal to width of board. For the
tongue and groove Joint, a set of tongue and grooving
planes will

be necessary.

Two

cutters

for

this

purpose come with the modern universal plane,

and

if

available this

may

be used.

In either case,

set the

depth gauge at half an inch, and plow a

groove on one edge of each strip 34 inch wide to the
füll

depth, as shown at d.

On both ends

of the board,
e.

plane the tongue same size as groove at

Coat

the tongue at each end of board with glue for a dis-

tance of six or eight inches at the centre,
strips in position,

fit

the end

and place

in

clamps over night.

When

dry, give the surf ace a final truing up,

and

also

the ends, as the clamps

may have made

a slight

change.

Go

all

over the surface with a sand-paper block,
all

using 00 sand-paper, and shellac the board

over.

When dry rub flat with the
board
is

sand-paper block.

Make

a final test for any possible inaccuracy, and the

ready for use.

384

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
square and
triangles

T

may

be made, but as

rubber or celluloid triangles are better in some ways

than wood, the former are recommended.

The
The

T

square

is

a very pretty

little

problem

in

woodwork, and may be made
design for the head

as follows:

may

be either a or b

(Fig. 207), a being simply a rectangular piece of
Hetd b

hard
üe»<t

a

r

t

i
to

..i~

A

i"r,

Sectio»

/t'ner

med»

frvm tna*j/e

Fig. 207.

T

square and triangles

wood, with two rounded corners;
shown, sawed near the
with
spokeshave.
line

b is laid

out as

and curved
side

side finished

The

straight

should

be

perfedly straight, as any Variation will give horizontal
lines

out of parallel.
of

The blade may be

one piece, or built up.

A

THE DRAWING OUTFIT
very satisfactory combination
of black walnut,
is

385

to

make

the head

and the blade
It will

of

hard maple, with

black walnut edges.
shooting board for this

pay to make a special work, and to make several T
(See Fig. 206.)

Squares at the same time. This shooting board should

be slightly longer than the blade.

Gauge a
of

line at

a distance x from the edge, equal

to the width of 2 inches,

and tack a straight

strip

wood up

to this line as a guide.
its

When
3^8

the blade
it is

has been planed to

thickness of

inch,

to

be placed in space x and planed to width.

To
of

plane a piece of hard wood
it

down

to an eighth

an inch, tack

to a pine board with three 1-inch

brads.

The

location of these brads can be such that
left in

only one hole will be

the blade to be

filled

up afterward.

One should be
is

in the position of

the central screw over the head, the second at the
point where hole h
to be bored, the third at about

the centre of the blade.

Set these brads slightly

below the surface, and dress down smooth.

When

tested

and found

true,
it,

lift

the blade

by

inserting a knife blade under

again fasten to the

board with unfinished side up, and again dress down.
Before removing from the board, lay out the curved

end to correspond with the curve of the head, and
cut to line with a chisel.

386

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
board, finish curved end with sandfor

Remove from
paper block.
holes for screws,

Bore hole h

hanging up, locate

and

drill

just large

enough to allow
screws
to

J^-inch

round-head

brass

or

blued

pass through.

In attaching the head, make sure

that the two parts are at right angles, and use thin

copper burrs or washers under the screw heads.
If the

blade

is

to

have edges
planing
flat

of a different colour,

Joint the
strips

maple on shooting board, and glue the
it,

to

before

to

thickness.

This

should be done on a
it

board, with paper between

and the blade. Glue the three pieces together, and drive 134-inch brads up close to and touching
the outside strips, at intervals of four inches.

By

bending these slightly over the blade, considerable
pressure will be obtained, tending to keep the pieces

together while glue

is

hardening.

Then proceed
fore.

to dress down,
is

and true up

as be-

When

the process

once learned, consider-

money may be made by disposing of the Squares, and that will help to buy material for other
able pin
things.

Triangles

made from

single pieces of

wood

are

absolutely unreliable.

Referring to Fig. 207, the

45-degree triangle shows the grain running

up and

down.

As shrinkage takes place

m

will

not change,

THE DRAWING OUTFIT
but n
will,

387

and

this will alter the angles;

and besides

a piece of thin

wood

this size will

warp and make

the triangle useless f or mechanical drawing.

The

30-60 triangle illustrates the usual method

of eonstructing a

wooden

triangle.

Aside from bisecting the 90, 60, and 30 degree
angles to get the mitres, these joints,
glued, will be too
if

simply

weak

for practical use.

The edge

view and dotted

lines indicate

a thin feather of

wood glued
of It

saw cut made through the edge each corner, the usual method of strengthening. is a delicate Operation, and is only recommended
into a

to boys

who

are fond of fine work.

A

very serviceable section liner

may

be made

from a wooden triangle by carefully cutting out of
one side a rectangular opening, as shown in the
detail.
}/%-

Make

a piece of thin

wood

to

fit

this space,

but

inch shorter, and fitted so as to

move

freely.

By

moving

this

block and the triangle, alternately,

vertical or oblique lines

can be drawn for sectioning,

and they
It

will

be equally spaced.

Other blocks

varying in length will give a variety of spacings.
is

possibly one of the cheapest section liners,
of

and the most satisfactory within the means
one.

any

Irregulär or French curves

may

be made in
surface,

thin wood.

They should be drawn on the

388

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
As
their thickness should be
frail

sawed out with the coping saw, and sand-papered
smooth.

but a

trifle

over Viq inch, they are very

and

easily broken.

These curves can be

easily

made

in sheet

aluminum,
This

and they
metal
is

will

be

much more

satisfactory.

handled similarly to thin wood, except that

the saw must be a metal cutting blade.
Triangles

may

be made of the same material.

Lay out
saw

the form with a sharp steel point or scriber,

as close to lines as possible,

and with a

fine file

finish to line.

Then smooth the curves with
pencil.

fine

emery paper wrapped around a lead

To

make

straight edges, as on triangles, lay a sheet of
triangle

emery cloth on bench,and rub

back and forth.

THE PANTAGRAPH
For copying designs,
this old-fashioned

for reducing or enlarging,

instrument

may

be easily conof four strips of

structed.

Fig. 208

shows

it

made

thin

wood
will

of equal length.

Either pine or white

wood

answer.

The

pieces

have to be squared,

twenty-five inches long, three quarters of an inch
wide, and a quarter inch thick.

Bore or
vise,

drill

through the four pieces held in a
in

and space the holes shown

drawing three

inches apart, Y% inch in size.

THE DRAWING OUTFIT

389
line.

When
Point a
to

put together,

a, b

and

c

should be in

is

to remain fixed, the pantagraph being free
it

move around

as a pivot.
9

To accomplish

this,

cut out a block, as shown at x

with a hole drilled

Fig. 208.

The pantagraph

at the centre for pivot,

and two others

for screwing

to the drawing table or board.

The
d, e,

pin for this pivot

may

be a thick flat-head

wire nail, screw, or even a screw eye.

The

joints

and / are

graph.

moving with the pantaThey may consist of thumb screws, and
also pivots

390

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
screw eyes, and must

nuts, or

move

freely,

yet

without play.
Points b and
c

are to be interchangeable, one

having a tracing point, the other a pencil.

The

tracing point

may

be a wire

nail, rivet, or

screw, with the point filed sharp,

and then

slightly

rounded.

The

pencil point should be a piece of

lead pencil, whittled

down

to such a size as to pass
c,

through the hole at b and

and make a snug

fit.

To
with

enlarge a design, place tracing point at
original design

6,

and fasten

under

it

to drawing board

thumb tacks. Under c fasten a

sheet of drawing paper.
6,

With

the right hand at

trace the design

sliding tracing point along the lines.

by carefully At the same
at
c

time, with the left

hand keep

pencil point

sufiiciently in contact

with the paper to

make a
bringing
c.

clear line.

To

reduce a drawing, reverse b and

c,

pencil point

and paper to
c,

6,

and

original to

Pass

tracer over design at

be traced at
original

b.

and the reduced design will Different proportions between
shift-

and reproduction may be obtained by
/.

ing the position of pivots e and
Fig. 208

shows pivot

e shifted

to position h.
f,

As

distance c e should always equal distance d

it

now

THE DRAWING OUTFIT
becomes necessary to move pivot / to point
g.

391

By

remembering
positions, a

this rule,

and placing pivots

in various

wide ränge of proportions

is

possible.

THE DRAWING TABLE

A
less
is

table to hold the drawing board should be not

than 3 feet % inches high, as

much

of the

work
sit

performed standing up.

A

stool with revolving

seat should be provided for the

draughtsman to

on

occasionally.

The

table top

may

be made slanting, but

it

is

better practice to have a

heavy

flat

top of pine, which
itself,

may

be used as a large drawing board

and to
or

provide for the slant by using a triangulär block

under the farther end of drawing board.
three blocks

Two

may

be made, about two feet long and

of different sizes, to give different degrees of slant.

Tables for this purpose are often

made with

tops,

which

may

be adjusted at different angles, and the
his inventive talent in this
will

young designer may try
large field, but

any arrangement which
is

bring

an element of instability

to be studiously avoided.

The drawing
as possible.

table should be as solid

and

rigid

made by our boys, and has proved very satisfactory. It has much of the
design in Fig. 209 was

The

392

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
it,

mission style about

with

its

Square legs and

mortised joints.
After the description of mission furniture con-

Str/ps

&

>

S&rtp <S

i

^raic/»qs

"Stde.

Boitom P*"
Station
.

Soltom.
'jr2a££ead 45 *
•'icncios.

IT

TT

EE2

J^vtiZ
•**~~-jFaZse

1_
t

_b c
*


^

front.

1

V _[

bellt Kg.

<&««

A^drmiueT:

^„


J.

BflH

rr~tl l»*W.

SM*«
Fig. 209.

Drawer

for table

and table

for mechanical

drawing

struction in previous chapters, only a few points in

the construction need be mentioned.

THE DRAWING OUTFIT
The board a, used as a foot rest, when sitting at the table on account
and
it
is

393

necessary

of its height,
front.

also ties the

frame together in the

The

cross rail b acts in the

same capacity
is

at the back.
like

The heavy pine top
3 x

"built

up"

a drawing

board of several pieces, and supported by two cleats
J/g

inches across the grain underneath.

It

may

be attached to the frame by any one of the methods
described under mission furniture, and
its

left-hand

edge should be as true as that of the drawing board.
If

an especially accurate edge
be
let into this edge, as

is

desired, a piece

of iron 1 x 3^ inch,

planed straight by a machinist,

may

shown

in the drawing,

and secured by flat-head screws through
drilled

hol es

and countersunk. This arrangement
it is

is

seldom

seen,

but

well

worth the added
is

cost.

The

table

shown
This

provided with a generous-

sized drawer.

may

be omitted, but

is

a great
Its

convenience for keeping plans and sketches.
construction
is

shown

in

detail.

The

sides

and

front have a 3^-inch groove, ploughed to receive

the bottom, and at the back end a vertical groove
is

cut to hold the back piece which

is

dadoed to

fit.

At the top
Square.

of each side is nailed a strip 5 / 1Q

inch
s.

These

cleats

are to retain the strips

Make

these strips s of hard wood, preferably ash,

394

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Vis inch longer than the width of drawer,
inside.

and about
measured

By placing the

strips

on top

of

drawings obliquely,

and then straightening them across the drawer,
they bind against the
flat.

sides,

and keep drawings down

The

cleats at top of

drawer prevent them from

escaping at the top, especially
füll.

when it becomes nearly
rounded
is

The

extra front on the drawer with

edges Covers up the joints around front of box, and

a purely ornamental feature.
to real front

If this is used, secure

by

flat-head screws from the inside.

The box which holds the drawers is to be secured to the legs by screws countersunk. Many modifications of this table will occur to the

woodworker, such

as additional drawers, but

it

must be kept
is

that comfortable knee room

essential,
is

mind and the
in

space on under side

of the

top

largely

to

be

reserved for this important purpose.

A

box

for holding instruments has

been described

in another chapter,

and

triangles, rules, etc.,

may

be kept in

it.

The
end
blade

T square
may have

should be hung on a hook at either

of table, to

overcome any tendency the thin
to twist or warp, the weight of the
it

head helping to draw

out straight.

THE DRAWING OUTFIT
All

395
title,

drawings should have a neat

and a

number.

To work out a System of numbering so that any drawing may be f ound quickly
is

ßtoX.

a good job for a rainy day.

y\.
is

A

good

filing

cabinet for plans

suggested in Fig. 210.

Dimendrawing

sions are not given, as they will

depend on the
paper used.

size

of

A uniform-sized sheet

should be adopted at the start,

E
Fig. 210.

and the drawings scaled to accom-

A

filing

cabinet

modate

,

.

tnis size ol paper.

.,

.

.

»

The

shelves should be J^ inch thick, and gained

into sides as shown.

A

clear space oi V/2 inches

between the shelves
circular curve should

will

be ample, and a semi-

be cut in the front.

The

depth of cabinet should not be over half an inch

more than the width of the sheets. A top and mitred base are shown, and the space between should be closed by a panelled door to keep
out dust.

A

cabinet of this style should not be less than

thirty inches high,

and

if

the whole space

is

not

required for drawings, the lower part

may be changed

and

fitted

with drawers for modeis, specimens, and

other treasures.

396

CARPEXTRY AND WOODWORK
in collecting,

For boys who are interested

whether

minerals, butterflies, or other things, such a cabinet

may

be made entirely of drawers, and the panelled
moths, and

door omitted.

For the safe keeping

of butterflies,

other insects, an eminent scientist has

recommended
This

a drawer construction as shown at Fig. 211.
detail

shows a section at the front, with the bottom
covered with a

piece gained into a groove.

drawer

is


j

The bottom
<ra**t

of the

layer of sheet cork, and

"* Giw
T *f" r f '
Fig. 211

over

it

oiled paper.
is

The
not

(P
1

upper part of box
fastened, but
is

1 |^

jCcrk^

^~

%~w~

slipped
s,

down

inside strips

which have rounded tops, and
sides.

extend around the four

The upper half is grooved to receive a sheet of By glass, w hich is held in place by a small cleat. this method the drawer is covered while the specimens are visible, and dampness is kept out. The
T

cork bottom

is

to receive the pins,

and the specimens

may

be reached by simply taking out the top.

The

dimensions

recommended

for the

drawer are 22 x

16x2

inches, outside measurements,

and

if

a

number

are to be used, the Spaces between the shelves of

the cabinet should correspond with these figures.

THE DRAWING OUTFIT

397

A

quaint conceit sometimes used by enthusiastic
is

collectors

to

make

their boxes in the

form

of

books, as shown at a (Fig. 212).

The

outside has the shape of a book, the

two

a*

ff

PENS

MNW

aiPi 5UMPJ

ms

Fig.

212

halves being fitted by tongue and groove Joint.

This keeps out moisture, the great enemy of dried
specimens, and

when a number

of

these

boxes,

properly coloured and labelled, are piled on a shelf,

they have the appearance of so

many

large volumes.

This unique idea

may
is

be used in other ways.

A

very pretty illustration

a stamp box for the writing

398

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
in the

desk,made up
has a
is

form of a book, which apparently
This ribbon
drawer, which pulls out, dis-

silk

ribbon for a book mark.
little

the handle of a

closing the contents.

The arrangement
be carried
still

is

shown
by a book

at

b.

The

idea

may

farther
in

having half a dozen of these small volumes
rack, the labeis reading

— "rubber bands," "pens,"
a uniform
still

"stamps, "
colour,

etc.

All should be stained
illusion

and the

may

be carried

farther
of

by

gilding the parts

which represent the edges

the leaves.

:

XLIV
WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
THE TENNIS COURT

THE
and
sive one,
if

young woodworker
has

is

especially well

fitted for the preparation of a tennis court.

He

learned the value
is

of

accurate

measurements, and
finished Job.

accustomed to make a neat
of

While the making
it

a court

seems a simple proposition,

may

be a very expenall

help has to be hired, and

the equip-

ment bought ready for use. The first step is to select the exact
should either be level or practically

location,
so.

which
dis-

Any
is

cussion as to the merits of dirt or sod courts

must

be

left to

the reader.

The

court proper

78 x 36

feet,

the posts for the tennis net being three feet

outside on either side, and the space at the ends

between the court and stop nets
feet more,

fifteen to

twenty

making a total length of 118 feet. The following method of laying out the court is recommended Make sure that the long way is exactly north and
399

400

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

south, and drive in the ground a

northeast corner

A

(Fig. 213).

wooden stake at AtB, directly west,
is

drive stake 36 feet from A.

A steel tape measure

by

far the best thing to use for laying out, as cord

Stretches

and leads to inaccuracies, and two tapes
of

are better than one.

At the centre

each stake drive a strong

nail.

From B measure 78 feet south, and place a temporary stake. To insure the angle being 90 degrees, apply From B along the line laid out last, this test:
measure 48
feet
:

slip

the ring of the tape measure

over the nail at A, and measure to this new point.
If the angle is

90 degrees, this diagonal measurement
feet.

should be 60

If this

measurement does not

come
is

right, shift the stake C, until this oblique line

exactly 60 feet, then lines

A-B

and

B

-

C

are at

right angles.

from

B

to

Having fixed this C, and drive stake C
should

angle, again

measure

at 78 feet

from B.

Locate stake

D 78 feet from A, and

36 feet from C.

A

now be made by measuring the diagonals B - D and A - C. They should be exactly These corner stakes may now be driven in alike.
final test

flush with the surface,

and they should be allowed to remain, to avoid the necessity of doing the work all over again later in the season whenthe lines become
obscure.

Measure

in

from each stake

4^

f ee t

f° r

WOOD WORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
•tl'
'

401

*fr

IV
Back- »top

>i*

tl'-

>
/
V
r -i"t—
,

-5

A

^>r*y SsP*3t*'*4*

-JL«
2^

ü.
12'

iUka

/
/
/«•

/

/

/
-f

V tUki

/
!*»'

/
/
/W*y

/

/

/
P<«.'

V

V
id

/
Atty

../

*4i*

/a'

-&

*..
S6'

*jr

Fig. 213.

The

tennis court

the alleys and drive stakes in flush.

Next measure from stakes A,B,C,D 18

feet along

402

CARPENTRY AND WOODVVORK
a, b, c,

outside lines, and again drive in stakes

d.

By

passing a cord froin a to

6,

and from

c to

d the
r

Service lines

are laid out, ornitting alleys.
e

Find

centre of service lines, and connect points

and

/.

The net

crosses the centre of court

from east
side.

to

west, extending three feet

beyond on each
left in

At

these two points x and y, set the posts in the ground.

By

this

method, the only stakes

the ground
in

are on the outside lines,
so that under

and they must be driven
will a player

no circumstances

stumble

over them.
storm,

They can always be found and new lines laid out.
Plane them
off

after a rain

The

posts for the net should be seven feet long

and four inches square.
coat the end which
sote or coal tar.
is

smooth, and

to be in the ground with creo-

This coating should extend three feet

six inches

from the bottom, and as the post
in the ground, this coating will

is

to be three feet
six inches

extend

above.

Decay takes place

at the point of contact
will

with the ground, and the creosote
life

prolong the

of the posts for

many
in

years,

if

the

wood

is

well

seasoned.

Many
three

posts for
feet

tennis

nets

are not

sunk

fully

the ground,

and

con-

sequently require guy ropes or wires to keep them
upright.

The time spent

in digging the holes

and

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR
tamping the
pull
dirt

SPORTS

403

around posts
is

is

well spent, as the

on

them

severe,

and they must stand
a hole

upright.

Six inches from the top, bore
in diameter, east

%

inch
three

and west.

The net must be

feet high at its centre,

and three These
of

feet six inches at

the posts.

Pass the rope through these holes, and
cleats

make

fast to a cleat.

may

be of iron

or wood, a sketch of a
Fig. 215.

wooden

cleat being

shown at

They should be

oak or other hard wood,

put on with two strong screws through holes which

have been bored and countersunk.
of post

On

the side

toward the

net,

three strong screw eyes

should be put about a foot apart, the lower one six
inches from the ground.

The net
it

is

to be fastened

to these screw eyes to keep

in position.

When

everything

is

ready, paint the posts two coats of

dark or bronze green.

The
are

position of the tall poles for the back stop

shown in Fig. 213. Fifteen feet is none too far from the court for the stop net, and twenty would
be better.

Purchase twelve foot four by fours,
This
reduce

and plane smooth, or have them dressed at the
mill

when

ordering.

will

them to
whole
to, unless

3% x 3% inches.

The method
is

of enclosing the

court by wire netting

seldom resorted

404

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

the space available

very limited.

The method

here suggested of bringing the ends about at an
angle of 45 degrees has been found very satisfactory
in

stopping swift service.

Locate the post holes
feet deep.

12 feet apart, and dig

them three

After

treating the lower ends of posts for three

and a half

feet with creosote or tar, place in the ground,

plumb

each one while

filling in,

and tamp the earth about
12 feet

them

firmly.

Strips

1x3

inches and

long

must be
of

used to join the posts at the top, eise the pull necessary to straighten the wire will bring

them out
at

plumb.
the

These

strips

are

to

be nailed
nails.

the

extreme top by eight-penny wire
structure
is

When
wire,

finished,

except for

the

paint with two coats of the same colour as the

net posts.

The
will

wire netting

is

chicken wire, inch and a half

mesh, and three feet wide.

Three

of these strips

cover the space from the ground to the top.

It

is

put on with staples nailed to the posts, stretched

taut,

and the

joints

where the

strips

touch wired

together at intervals of three feet with soft iron
wire.
If

arranged as shown in the drawing,

it will

take

six strips sixty feet

long by three wide for the back

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
stop, or 1080

405

Square

feet,

and

will cost

$9 or $10.

Cheap cotton back
in dry weather.

stops are sold, but they are not

very satisfactory, as they tighten in

damp and

sag

For a permanent court belonging
is

to a club

the galvanized wire

well

worth the

difference in cost.

The

size of

the

mesh

is

important, because

al-

though a tennis

2J^ inches in diameter, when driven hard it frequently goes through two-inch mesh.
ball is

There are many opportunities about the tennis
court for the young woodworker to show his
skill.

Camp

stools, settees,

benches either piain or
balls,

rustic,

a ehest to keep racquets and

fitted

with a

strong padlock, shelters for the speetators or club

members, and even a small club house are among
the possibilities.

Permanent

struetures, such as shelters

and heavy

benches, should generally be on the west side of

the court, as speetators are usually present after
the sun has passed the meridian, and
it will

then

be at their back.

Tennis Court Accessories
the camp-stool
Use hard wood such as maple,
ash, or oak.

The

stock required for each stool will

be four pieces

-

406

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
2 1

20

Y x V/2 x

inches,

two

pieces

14 x

\%

x

\%

inches,

and two pieces 10J^

x%x% inches.
Tn—7—

— //H
^^J-

*/

**/
/fVJ
//-fe //i/J

i"?u7e

uiew

CXMP STQOL
Fig. 214.

The camp-stool

The four legs are made as shown at a (Fig. 214). The small end is to be rounded to a diameter of

%
is

inch;

8^

inches from this end a %6-inch hole
is

bored for the rivet or bolt, which
together.

to hold the

legs

Seven inches from the lower or
is

foot

end

a 3^-inch hole
is

bored

^

or

% mcn

deep.

This

to receive the cross rod or dowel.

The two top
on two

pieces 14 x V/% x

V/

inches are rounded

of their edges as

side of one of

shown at b. On the flat these bore two holes /% inch diameter
the

and

%

inch deep, 9 inches apart, to receive

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
small end of the leg.

407

On

the other top piece, the

holes are eleven inches apart.

The two

cross pieces

may

be rounded, or pieces

of 5^-inch niaple dowel used.

In either case, the
to be sawed nine

ends must be pared down to a diameter of 3^ inch
to
fit

the holes of this

size.

One
of

is

inches long, the other eleven.

The camp-stool
together.

is

composed

two frames pivoted
first

Put together the inner frame,

gluing

the legs into holes bored in top pieces, and at the

same time gluing in the cross piece. These joints may be fastened by driving a brad through from the
outside,

or

by wedges,

as described
is
is

in

previous
together,

chapters.

The

outer frame

now put

and the two pivoted.
rivet,

This

usually done with a

a thin washer having been placed between

the two sets of legs to relieve the friction.
bolt

A

small

and nut may be used, but as the nut
off,

is liable

to

come

the bolt end should be riveted over the

nut with the hammer.

Canvas or even a piece
for the seat.

of carpet

may

be used
ends

The
is

size required is 15

by

12, the

being tacked to the lower side of the top pieces.

When

canvas

used,

it is

usually turned under an

inch on each side, and

hemmed.

In this case,

its

width must be at

least fourteen inches.

All articles

408

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
rounded; this rule applies to the camp-stool.

which are to be handled much should have the edges
slightly

BENCHES
Folding settees for outdoor use are on the market
at very cheap prices, but they are neither comfort-

able nor substantial.
of

Fixed benches can be made

heavy but simple construction, as well as movFig. 215

able ones.

shows the simplest possible form.

Posts

of locust, chestnut, or cedar are set in the

ground

to a depth of

two

feet or more.

The diameter

should be at least four inches.

A

space one inch by three should be sawed out of

each, as a rest for the cross pieces.

These should

be two by four stock, ten inches long, and must

be securely nailed to the posts by eight or ten

penny
least

nails.

The

seat should be 16 inches or 18

inches above the ground,

made

of

heavy plank at

two inches thick and 14 inches wide. Bore quarter-inch holes, countersink and fasten the top to cross pieces by three-inch flat-head screws. The
span between cross pieces should not be over
feet,

five

four would be better, so that a bench twelve

feet long

would

call

for six posts

and three

cross

pieces, besides the top.

Space the posts

five feet

WOOD WORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
apart between centres.
of

409

This

will allow

an overhang

one foot at each end.

The

seat should be planed

smooth, edges slightly rounded, and then two coats
of

boiled

linseed

oil

applied.

Painting

seats

is

"Tri

r.
//et

qrrxind ?me

yo'

^Tost

&*

SO

W
Fig. 215.

Z^
irr
so
areunt/
ti'n»

FhteJ Seat

A

simple bench

not advised, and varnish for outside work
satisfactory.

is

seldom

The wood

for the top should be of

some kind that is free from pitch, as the sun will draw it out, and a sticky seat result. Oak or maple
will

be very satisfactory.

410

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
movable
settee of

A

heavy construction

is

sug-

gested in Fig. 216.

The main dimensions

for the

Standards supporting the seat and back strips are
given, but the form

may
r
back

be modified to suit the
J
if
i'rt/oj

j-

L_

e/mtifi

5?
^f-

Trtfeil

3effe

Fig. 216.

Settee for tennis court

young

designer.

There

is

considerable

waste in

making Standards
the drawing.

of this sort,

and

it

is

important

to have the grain run in the direction indicated in

The two

strips for the back, as well

as the seat, should be put

on with screws.

The

horizontal pieces on this settee will not

give the

necessary rigidity lengthwise, and
to

it will

be important

add braces under the

seat.

These

may

be

in

the form of heavy angle irons or Square blocks,

shown at a. These blocks should be two inches Square, and fastened with three-inch screws to both
as

WOOD WORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
seat
is

411

and Standard.

Everything about this settee
all

heavy and substantial, as

outdoor work should
all

be.

The camp-stool

furnishes

the light furniture

necessary.

The Standards should never be more than
long,

four

feet apart, so that a settee in this style, eight feet

would require three Standards.

This design can be changed to a simple bench

by omitting the back and sawing the Standard on its back edge to the same outline as the front, as suggested by the dotted line. The trefoil opening is made by boring three holes with a large bit at
the points of a triangle.

The covered

seat

shown at

Fig. 217

is

one that
size,

may be

constructed as shown, or modified in

proportions, etc.

Small as

it is, it will

tax the

skill of

the young

worker, and give

him many
of

of the

problems of outIt includes the

door construction to figure out.
setting

and

levelling

posts,

framing, roofing,

flooring, etc.

The
is

material necessary should be

first

carefully

estimated, with allowance

made

for waste.

This

an item often forgotten by the amateur, and one
be provided for in framing.
If the

especially to

dimensions are to vary from those shown in our

412

Fig. 217.

A

covered seat

Wir
Hihqed
*-

I

cöver

Tr^r
.1

-IS-5-4

+><

—/S
i2x4

*

W .tst

m &4
\9
«.I

Uhr tj fit

Posf

4xf

4x4 7Wl

1

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
sketch,
first.

413

it

would be wise to make a careful drawing
all

In

outdoor struktures, wind, rain, snow,

and the

effect of strong sunlight

must be considered.
a tennis court, the

As

this shelter is primarily for

timbers for the frame should be planed by hand or
dressed at the mill,

when purchased.
size,

The 4x4
as this
is

uprights should be bought 12 feet long,

a Standard

and

set

into the ground

deep enough to bring the top nine feet above ground.

The temptation to place posts only a little way in the ground must be overcome. The roof should be
counted on to withstand a wind pressure of sixty miles

an hour, and three

feet in the

ground

is

necessary in
it.

this case, as there are

no braces to help support
for the horizontal

Having cut the mortises
piece a, place the
first

tie
it,

post in the hole dug for
it,

tamp the

earth around

and plumb with "level

and plumb."
Another method would be to lay both uprights

on the ground, place the
with

tie piece in position, fasten

wooden pins driven through holes bored through the mortise and tenon joints, and nail the 2x4 plate on top of both posts. Then raise the structure, and place both posts in their respective holes at the same time. In any work of this character, two boys should

414

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
1
!

t

Roor 6-4- n
L.
ovzr all

2*6

***>!

f

TV
-3-3

•w
fCrraund ttn»
I •

H
Upriqktl

k

I
I
l

TosTs

Fosf

y°b5/-

Fig. 217a.

A

covered seat (continued)

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
work
together,

415
will

and two

trestles or

saw horses

be a necessary part of their equipment.

In mortise

and tenon

joints of this character
is

a method called
(See
6,

draw boring

frequently used.

Fig. 2176.)

The

hole for the pin or dowel

is first

bored across
is

the centre of the mortise.

The tenon
is

inserted

snugly, and the bit again inserted until

it

makes
the

a

mark on the

tenon.

The tenon

withdrawn,
hole bored.
x.

and the centre

of bit placed Vi6 inch nearer

Shoulder than the

mark made, and the
less

This brings the distance y slightly

than

The

three holes through which the pin

is

to pass

when the tenon is again placed in mortise. The result is to draw the tenon tight, when the pin is driven home, and to make the Joint
are not in line

a very snug one, as
If this

it

should be.

method
7enon

of constructing the

frame on the

u. *
h

/.

i

«>•>

1

r

Od«T^

1touthj

7/»e

n

l
Draw
boring a Joint and method of levelling posts

Fig. 217ö.

ground

is

not used, the

tie piece

must be placed
is set.

in

Position before the second post
joints with the pins,

Fasten the
If

and

level the tie piece.

the two posts have been laid out together on the

i

416

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
tops must

trestles, their

now come

level
is

and

true.

This

first

step in

making the structure

extremely

important, as the success of the following work

depends on

it.

After tamping the uprights solidly, the corner
posts for supporting the floor

may

be set in the

'«'

iL 3_
i

1

1

l

1

I

1

ii

—^—

i

———
i

]*
and forms
of rafters

i

Fig. 218.

Details of roof construction

ground.
nut,

They should be
less

of locust, cedar, or chest-

and at

least four inches in diameter.

Set

them

in the

ground not

than thirty inches, and flush
It will
soil

with the ground

line.

be better to dig out

three or four inches of top

from the whole area,
help

and afterward
hold
the

fill

in with gravel, as this does not

moisture.

This

precaution

will

to prevent decay, and, wherever possible, all the

parts in contact with the earth should be painted

with creosote.
feet

The

outside of posts should be five

one way and four feet eight inches the other.
off level.

Their tops should be sawed

This

may

be

done after

setting.

Saw one

post at the desired

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
height.

417

To
its

level the others

with

it,

rest a straight

board on
level

first

post,

and while one boy holds the
let

on

upper edge,

the other

make

a pencil

mark on the next post along under side of the board. Saw to this line, and level the remaining posts in the same manner. (Fig. 2176.) The sill or frame for flooring must now be prepared. Use either 2 x 6 or 2 x 4 inch spruce. Cut
two pieces
five feet long,

and two pieces four

feet

eight inches.

Lay out
lines.

half lap joints at the ends,

and saw to the

Spike this frame to the locust posts, and as

it

touches the outside of the uprights, nail to the latter,

with ten-penny wire

nails.

As additional support will be needed for the flooring, cut two 2x4, and fasten them across the frame either by half lap Joint or spikes.
If this

frame

is

planed on the outside, no finishing
if it is

strip will

be needed, but
1

rough sawed stock,

a f acing strip of

x 4 inch material should be placed
using tongue and

on the outside, flush with the top of the frame.

The

flooring

may now be
it

laid,

groove stock, and allowing

to project an inch be-

yond the frame on

all

four sides.

The edges

of this

projection should be rounded with the plane.
flooring should be neatly fitted

The

around the uprights,

418

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
may
appear to come up through
inches.

so that the latter

a solid fioor 5 feet 4 inches by 5 feet

The

roof should be

made

next, leaving the con-

struction of the seat to the last.

The

roof timbers
six braces

consist of six rafters four feet long,

and

two

feet

one and a half inches long.

are shown, and several combinations

Two methods may be used.

The

rafters

curved

may have Square ends, or some simple design may be sawed out, as suggested in the
(Fig. 218.)

detailed drawing.

The
Joint,

braces

may meet

the rafters in a piain butt

and be

nailed, or they

may

be gained into the
This latter method

rafters, as

shown
Job,

in side view.

makes a neat
strength
is

but

it is

not necessary, as far as

concerned. Nails are used in either case.
is

The
easier
slight

straight rafter

of course the simpler
effect

and

way, but the Japanese

produced by a
is

curve at the ends on the upper side
additional labour that
it

worth

the

little

requires.

To

secure this curve, saw out a template in white

pine about fifteen inches long and
at one end, as
first

l^

inches wide,

drawn

in

shown in detail. The curve may be pencil, and then sawed on the line.
lay out six pieces of scrap, 2x4,
all

From this template
and saw them

out the same size and shape.
of the rafters

Nail
side.

them to the lower ends

on their top

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
The upper ends
(Fig. 219.)

419

of the rafters are to

be mitred, and

the V-shaped notch cut as shown in detail drawing.

The

braces are Square at one end, and mitred at

the other.

Nail two rafters together at their mitred ends,
using ten
or

twelve penny wire

nails.

Place in

Position over plate,

and

nail to

it.

Nail mitred end
rafter.

of braces to the upright,

and then to

The
is

method
detail.

of fastening

two

joints at right angles

called toe-nailing

— nailing obliquely — as shown in
need to be somewhat longer than
Their exact length

The

braces for middle rafters are fastened to the

tie piece,

and

will

the f our fastened to the uprights.

should be determined by measurement, after the

end

rafters are secured.

be the Square end,

The end sawed off should measurements being made from
For
this purpose,
is

the extreme point of the mitred corner.

The

roof

is

to be shingled.

shingle lath, a Standard commercial article,

to

be nailed to the rafters at intervals of 5J^ or 6 inches. For a steep roof like this, 6 inches will
ans wer.

This lath

is

to project

beyond the outside

rafters 9 inches or 1 foot.

There must be a shingle no matter how near

lath at the top of each rafter,

420

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
may
come, and sometimes the whole
is

the next one
roof

covered with boards as a support for the

shingles, instead of lath.

Begin shingling at the lower end of the
allowing the
first

rafters,

course to project an inch beyond
insure the end of the roof being

the

first lath.

To

straight, it is best to

saw the lath

after

it is

nailed

to rafters.

The
e. 9

first

course of shingles should be double

-i.

one over the other, joints broken.

On good and permanent
is

roofs,

where the pitch
After the

not as great as in this case, the method shown at
is

a (Fig. 218)
course
is laid,

frequently used.
is

first

the second

begun with a third

of

a shingle, the next with two thirds, the next with a

whole one.

makes a tighter roof than that in which each Joint comes over the centre of the one below. The carpenter marks the courses after the Measure up six inches from first with a chalk line. the lower edge, at each end of the roof. Take a
It

piece of mason's line or strong cord, rub
piece of chalk, hold
it

it

with a

taut at the two pencil marks,

pull it*up in the centre,

and allow

it

to snap back to

the roof.
to end,
shingles

It will leave a straight chalk line

from end

and the lower edge
is

of the next course of

laid to this line.

Two

shingle nails are

WOODWORK FOR OÜTDOOR SPORTS
lath high

421

to be used on each shingle, driven into the shingle

enough up to be covered by the next course.
planed, but for ordinary pur-

On

very fine work, the edges of shingles where
first

they touch are
poses this
is

not necessary.

Shingle one side of the roof clear

up to the

ridge,

allowing the last course to present six inches or so
to the weather.

Saw off carefully all that part which
This
will

projects, close to the ridge.

allow the

shingles
of the
it is

from the second

side to project over those
side
is

first,

and when the second
off

finished

to be

sawed

at the ridge as before.

To

protect the ridge from leaks, saddle boards are

sometimes added.
If the
will
it is

These are

strips of pine

lapped

over the top and nailed, as shown in detailed drawing.

curved rafters are used, the pull of the nails
the shingles conform to the curve, unless

make

excessive.

Many methods
roofs,

by carpenters in and considerable time and material
are used

finishing

are used

in constructing cornices.
if

In this simple structure,
it

the timbers have been planed as suggested,

will

be well to leave
if

it

as

it

is,

with the rafters

exposed, especially

the ornamental curves have
If the roof

been sawed before erection.

has been

made with

boards, instead of shingle laths, the whole

422

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

construction
old-fashioned

honestly and frankly visible.

The

method of putting on "gingerbread" work, Ornaments sawed on a hand or jig-saw, is to
Let all your construction be strong,

be condemned.
simple,

and straightforward.
are

Shingles

sometimes

stained

or

painted.

Staining

is

by

far the better treatment,

but the

shingles should be dipped into the stain
fore they are put on.
stores

and dried be-

The

stains sold

by most paint

come

in a variety of colours.

Some shade

of green, red, or

to

brown should be selected, according the colour of the body of the structure. A red
it is

roof on a white structure looks well, as

usually

seen against a background of blue sky and green
foliage.

A

light

gray building with white trimmings

and red roof makes a pleasing combination.
It only

remains to construct the

seat.

This

is

made

double, with a back between
is

the uprights,

and the seat cover
belowfor racquets,
etc.

hinged to make This double seat
is

a ehest

designed

to give the greatest possible seating
for this size of shelter.

aecommodation
the structure

It has the disadvantage of
if

one seat facing the wrong way, and
is

made

longer

it

is

suggested

that

the

back

seat be omitted.

Construct a box without top or bottom 34 inches

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR SPORTS
by
3 feet 8 inches.

423

The

material
it

may

be the same

must be tongue and groove matched boards. This box will just slip in between the uprights and must be securely nailed
as the floor, but in

any case

UPRIGHT 4-*4-

to them.

To

fasten to the floor, nail cleats to the

latter just inside the box,

and

nail the sides

and ends

of the

box to these

cleats.

Further to strengthen

the box, square cleats should be nailed upright in each corner of the inside.

424

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
of

The backbone
spruce.
Its

the box

is

a piece

of 2 x 4

length will be the distance between

the uprights or the length of the box.

Saw down

through the box ends exactly 2 inches, with the

saw against the uprights, and remove the piece 4 x 2 from each end. Into these two Spaces slip the

2x4
this

and

toenail to uprights.

Nail to the top of
1

2x4

along

its

centre a piece of

x 3 pine, the

same length
edge of the

as the

2x4.
will

The box

Covers are to

be hinged to this pine strip and

will rest

on the

2x4

which

carry the weight.

Seat Covers are to be the same length as the box,

with just enough clearance to

let

them move
are

freely

between the uprights.
wide,
it
is

As they

16

inches

doubtful whether a single board that

width

will

be available.

They may be made
J/g

of

tongue and groove boards, with cleats 3 x
screwed on the under
the cover to close.
side, just

inches

long enough to allow

Outside edges should be rounded

and three strong hinges used on each cover.
no extra support
If a
will

As

it

has a bearing surface on front and ends of the box,

be needed.
is

support for the back
with rounded edges

desired,

two

strips

3 x l^t

the uprights, and as the

may be fastened to pressure may be both ways,

they should be nailed between two upright cleats

at

WOODWORK FOR OUTDOOR each end. The cleats % x 1%
may
The sharp edges
of the uprights

SPORTS
are

425

nailed

to

uprights, or the strips

be mortised through.

may

be bevelled

or chamfered

where people are

likely to

come

in

contact with them.

The
all nails

structure

is

now ready

for painting.
first

Set

with nail punch, and give the

or prim-

ing coat to the whole structure, shingles excepted.

This should be done when the wood
directly after a rain.
all nail

is

dry, not
fill

When

this coat is dry,

holes with putty
If the

and give second coat
result.

of

paint.

priming coat was thin a third coat

may
little
it

be necessary to give the desired
drier in the paint

Use a

and when necessary to thin
oil.

use boiled linseed
able for the seats

As white would not be
floor,

suit-

and

a light gray for the seats

and a darker shade

for the floor

may

be used.

XLV
THE PERGOLA

4 MONG
I
-*
It
is

the

many
is

structures used to beautify

%

*

the grounds of a suburban or country place, the pergola
seen less than
a couch
it

should be.

a luxury, but so

is

hammock, and many
life

other details of our modern

might be placed

under the same heading.
ing of the vines,

As an arbour f or the trainthe pergola adds more dignity to
and
in

a place than any other structure, always assuming

that

it

is

well built

good proportion.

Its

length must of course depend on the local circumstances.
It should lead

somewhere, as from the

house to the flower garden, or from house to stable.
It should, in other

words,not be placed on the grounds
Its

simply as an ornament.
give a certain

purpose should be to

amount

of privacy to a walk.
is

The known

oldest
as post

recognized style of architecture

and beam construction, as suggested
This style was used by the
426

in Fig. 219,

where two vertical members support

a horizontal one.

Egyptians and Greeks, and was a large factor in

THE PERGOLA
deciding the form of the old Greek temples.

427

The

pergola consists of two parallel rows of columns

connected by longitudinal beams and cross beams.

A
work
sized

very

artistic

one

may

be built by two boys
If a smallbuilt,

with the assistance of a third person in the heavy
of lifting

and placing the columns.
with 6-inch columns
is

structure

two

boys can handle the whole construction alone.
This small
size is

not recommended, however, as
is

one of the

first

requisites of the pergola

a massive

appearance of solidity and permanence.

The proportions
drawing, and they

for

two

sizes

are given in the

may be
in

modified to suit the size
(Fig. 220.)

of the ground, buildings, etc.

Wooden columns
any lumber
rate
dealer.

many

styles, sizes,

and pro-

portions are on the market and

may

be bought from

The

bases and caps are sepafit

and should be ordered to

the columns.

The
The

construction of the pergola brings the young

carpenter in contact with several
first is

new problems.
These

the subject of foundations.
is

may

be in the form of concrete, which
solid,

permanent and
as nearly

and

will

not decay, as any form of wooden post

will

do

in time.

The ground should be
shown
in the drawing.

level as possible,

and should be staked out with
(Fig. 221.)

eight stakes, as

428

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

:

nrq

HE PERGOLA
and angle a
c

429

The

stakes are three feet from the centre of the
in each case,

columns

d should be

made Square

Measure distance From a measure along a a b equal to c d. line stretched from a to b three feet, and then three spaces of twelve feet each. Measure the same disat the beginning.

tance from
point.

c

along

c

d,

and place stakes at each

A line

stretched from e to / should pass over

the centre of the stakes marking the centre of each

column, as these latter stakes
process
stakes
e

will

be dug out in the
while

of

excavating for the foundation,

and / are necessary
first

for the proper location

of the holes.

After digging the

two

holes, test their accu-

racy by again stretching a cord or masons' line from
e to /.

Proceed with the next set of holes in the
feet out

same way, placing new stakes three
centres to correspond with e and/.
holes

from

When
left in

the eight

have been dug, the arrangement
at
g,

will

appear

as

shown

twelve stakes being

the ground.

Should the pergola be longer or narrower, the same

method would be
altered.
following

used, the dimensions only being

The

size of

the holes will depend on the

considerations
large pergola

Assuming that we are building the

with eight-inch columns, the base will be about twelve

480

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

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THE PERGOLA
inches square.
to
it,

431

Measure the base and add two inches
size
a,

making, say, a fourteen-inch square, the

of the f oundation.

A box
It
is

in the

form shown at

14

inches square inside,

must be made.
held together

No
by

nails are
c.

used on the box.

cleats c

They must be made to fit snugly, and are knocked off when the cement has hardened
about four days after making.

to be
i. e. 9

These boxes
feet, or, as is

may

be

füll

depth of the hole, three
is

sometimes done, the hole
into the top as

made
i.

just

the right size and the box, about eighteen inches in
length,

wedged

shown

at

This

method

calls for

considerable care in levelling the

top of the box and securing the proper protection

above ground, as well as in pouring in the cement
without dislodging
it,

but

the

box

is

removed
füll -length

more
one.

easily

than

is

the case with a

The

decision about this point determines the

size of the hole.

In case the short box

is

used, the

hole

must be fifteen inches square and just enough shaved from the sides at top to receive the box.
If the füll length

box

is

used, the hole should

be about twenty inches square, to allow the cleats
to be knocked
off

and boards withdrawn.

This weighty question having been decided, prepare to mix concrete.

Make

a mixing board about

432

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Sfl

NJ

m
y

m

h

l &j

u

m

-B-

-Oh,

B•Ä

H3-i

H^

THE PERGOLA
five or six feet

433

Square of flooring boards f astened to
side.

heavy

cleats

on the under

It should

have two

shown at k. Also prepare eight wooden blocks, as shown in drawing. These may be fifteen to eighteen inches long, sawed from 4x4 timber, planed smooth and with a slight taper
or three sides nailed on, as

toward the lower end.
will

be apparent later

The purpose of these blocks on. The concrete is composed

of four parts clean gravel to one of Portland cement,

and the best

is

always the cheapest in the long run.
pailfuls of gravel
this

Use a pail f or mixing and place four on the mixing board. Pour over
of dry

one pailful

cement and mix thoroughly, turning the

whole mass several times.

When thoroughly mixed,
and turn again
wet.
is

pour on water, half a

pailful at a time,

with the shovel until the whole mass
this into the first box.

Shovel

It will

probably take two

such mixings to

fill it.

Now

place in the top of the
it

concrete one of the tapering blocks, allowing

to

project about three or four inches above the surface
of the concrete.

grease or
easily.

oil

The block should be rubbed with before insertion to make it withdraw
as the block
is

As soon
e to

placed, pass the line
is

from stakes

/ and make sure that the block
it is

exactly at the centre.

In every case

to be

withdrawn

in

about an

:

434

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

hour, or as soon as the concrete has set, but before
it

has gripped the block too tightly; otherwise withwill

drawal

be a

difficult

matter.

The

object of this

Performance is to leave in the centre of the f oundation
a hole about a foot deep and four inches across.

Level the top of concrete with a trowel and test
with the
level.

All the foundations are

made

alike

and no

effort

should be spared to see that the boxes are level and
in
line
c

with each other.

Test from end stakes

a b
line.

d and from across stakes with the masons'
This work
will

be easier
first.

if

the

four

end

foundations are

made

To do

the work thoroughly, two boys

may

count

on the process, from the staking out to the finishing
of foundations,

occupying about three days.

It is

the most important and laborious part of the work

and when

finished represents about

one third of
days

the labour on the pergola.

The
before

concrete
it is

should

stand

at

least four

touched again, and during that time the
Besides the eight columns,

timber

may be prepared.
4x6 3x6

there will be needed
ins. 16 ft. long 6 pcs. 15 pcs. ins. 14 ft. long 144 ft. (running) ins. 8 pcs. of %-in. round iron

— —

1x2

THE PERGOLA
The
the
iron

435

should be
of

18

inches

longer

than
in-

total

height

the

wooden

columns,

cluding base and cap.

This should be determined

The rods can be obtained from a blacksmith. Have him cut a thread at each end and provide two nuts for each rod. They
by actual measurement.
are to extend clear through each column from the

bottom

of the hole in the foundation,

through the

longitudinal timbers that rest on the cap, to bolt

the whole structure together securely.

Columns come
solid

either

built

up or
out

solid.

The
the

ones have a core bored

through

centre, so that in either case the rod can easily

pass through from top to bottom.

A

hole should

be bored

% inch diameter through the centre of both
easily.
all

cap and base to allow the bolt to pass

In ordering timbers, have them dressed on
sides

at

the

null.

Have

the

fifteen
Z,

3x6

inch

pieces

sawed on both ends as shown at

and have

one end on f our of the

4x6

inch pieces sawed the inch pieces

same shape.

The two remaining 4x6

are to be Square on the ends.

making the concrete foundations, the boxes having been removed and the holes filled in with earth well tamped down, the openings in

A

week

after

the top

may

be cut out with a long cold

chisel, as

436

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
at m.

shown
job.

This need not be a very particular
is

The
it

object

to dovetail the cement, to be to the foundation, setting of the col-

used in

filling

up the opening

and

can be done roughly.
their foundations
is

The

umns on

performed as follows:
slip

Nail base and cap to each column and
bolt clear through.

a long

At the bottom the bolt will be allowed to project. At the top pass it through a piece of wood 6 inches high, a %-inch hole being
bored for the purpose.
Fill

the opening in the foundation with clear
it

cement mixed with enough water to bring
consistency
of

to the
its

paint.

Set

the

column on
its

foundation, with the end of the bolt and

nut

and
This

a

large

washer immersed

in

the

cement.

will

harden quickly, making a strong bond
rigid.

with the foundation and holding the bolt

Plumb
when
been

the column, and

if

it

shows a tendency to
it

lean, place thin

wedges under

until it Stands true

tested
all

Treat
set,

by the plumb and level on all sides. the posts alike and when one row has
line along the bolts

run the masons'

on top

and see that they are

in line.

Everything should

be ready before starting this job, as clear cement
hardens quickly and any moving of the columns that

may

be necessary in lining them up must be done

THE PERGOLA
before
it sets.

437

A

good method

is

to place the end

posts

first, tie

the masons' line to the bolts and line
set.

the other two posts as they are

When

they are

all

on their foundations at

last

you will begin to realize for the first time the value and beauty of the task you have undertaken. Our
boys were so excited that every member of the
f amily,

and some

of the neighbours,

were dragged out

as spectators.

It did

not seem possible that two boys
it

could handle such a large proposition, but there

stood as

if it

were intended to stand for a Century.

Harry was for putting on the superstructure at once, but Ralph had to warn him not to touch it
until the

cement had thoroughly hardened.
it

They allowed

to stand

two days before they

removed the 6-inch blocks from the bolts at the top and began the work of placing the long 4x6 inch timbers. These members were lapped as shown in
the drawing, j^-inch holes being bored to receive
the bolts.

When
a

all

the timbers on one side were in place,

the nuts were screwed

monkey wrench.

down snug on each bolt with The work, with the cutting,

fitting,

and boring, consumed a whole day, and a second day was used up on the second row. It was not necessary to
call

the family out again.

The

438

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
all

boys had

the help that could be desired in

lifting,

and were

also blessed with a continuous audience.

The

cross timbers were gained out to a depth of
fitted

\Y2 inches, and
pieces, as

over

the

long

4x6

inch

shown

at n.

There was one over the

centre of each column, and an additional piece was

removed

to provide for the nut, which

was thereby
all

entirely concealed.

The remaining
6's.

cross pieces were

spaced three feet apart on centres, and
securely to the 4 x
It

spiked
to

was found advisable
set.

bore J^-inch holes for the spikes, and to sink their

heads below the surface with a nail
It only
five

remained to
1

nail

on to the cross pieces

rows of

x 2 in the position shown.

All nail holes
entire

and cracks were puttied, and the

structure

down
will

to the cement foundation

was given three coats
manner, the pergola

of white paint.

Built in this
years,

stand for

many

and

already the boys have planted wistaria, honeysuckles,

crimson rambler, trumpet, and other vines to cover

it.

The columns themselves may be easily made of The form may be made of six or eight concrete.
inch iron pipe.

When

this

is

bought, have

it split

in

half lengthwise at a
in this

machine shop. Six-inch pipe cut
about a dollar a
foot,

way

will cost
if

but

it

will last

a lifetime

protected from rust, and very

.

THE PERGOLA
often the concrete posts

439
sold, so that the

may be

form

will

soon pay for

itself

Have a blacksmith make two iron bands, as shown Have a %6-inch hole drilled at a through both at o.
ends.

These bands are used to hold the two halves

of the iron

form together, and are tightened by a
a.

bolt

and mit at

Dig a
cement

pit for the

form to stand
in.

in,

so that the

may

be easily poured

This pit

may

be

about three feet deep by two feet Square, and the

by a box without a bottom. To make a column, clamp the two bands about the form, and place in the bottom end a circular
sides supported

piece of wood, with a hole in the centre to insure the
iron rod being in the middle.
right in the pit,
of

Place the form up-

and secure

it

flrmly

by

nailing strips

wood

across the top of the box.
it

Place the iron

rod in the centre, passing
the bottom.
it

through the hole in

Pour

in the

cement quite wet, and tamp
füll.

down

occasionally until

It will settle a little,

and

will

need to be

filled

to the top.

A

circular

piece of wood, similar to the one at the bottom,

may

be used to centre the rod at the top.

This must be
before the con-

done as soon as the form
crete has

is filled,

had a chance to

set.

Use four parts

of fine, clean sifted gravel to

one of

440

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Allow the form to stand four days.

cement.

Re-

move

the clamps, arid

ground.
iron pipe.

Tap

it

gently,
it

draw the form out on the and remove one half of the

Roll

over upon two pieces of board,
half.

and remove the other

The

concrete will be very

heavy, and the assistance of a full-grown

man may

be needed to draw the form out of the

pit.

The

inside of the
oiled.

form should be cleaned and

thoroughly

This should always be done before
its

making a column to insure
as

Coming out

easily,

concrete forms a strong bond with iron, and

otherwise the column
get
it

may

be broken in trying to be a perfectly round but
It should be coated

out.

The

result will

not perfectly smooth column.

with a wash of clear cement and water, using a wide
brush.

The colour may be made white by adding
about the consistency of milk

a

lump

of lime to the

cement and water, and two coats
will

of this Solution

be necessary.

columns are

The last coat may be put on after the on their foundations. The placing of
is

the posts on the Square foundations

heavy work

and the help

of a labourer should be secured.

These piain posts are not as ornamental as wooden
columns, with their bases and capitals, but they

make

a very substantial structure that cannot decay and
will last

a Century.

XL VI
POULTRY HOUSES

THERE and
ens,

are a hundred

ways

of raising chick-

ninety of them are wrong.

This
for there are

is

not a treatise on poultry raising,
elements which enter into the
brooding, feeding, etc.

many

problem

— incubation,

But
is

assuming that one of the main points aimed at
the production of eggs in winter,
scarce

when they

are

and expensive, the housing

of chickens is
first

admitted by poultry raisers to be one of the
considerations.

The house should be
face south,
struction.

sixteen feet deep, should

and no

glass should

be used in

its

con-

A

window nine
it

or ten feet long

by two

and a
is

half feet high placed f our feet

above the ground

recommended, and

should be covered with

netting or chicken wire on the outside, but left open
all

day> even in zero weather.

It

is

closed at night,

by a screen of canvas or duck fastened to a light wooden frame. The frame is hinged at the top, and,
hooked up to the
ceiling during the day.
441

44ä

carpentry and woodwork
following description
is

The

taken from the ex-

perience of several poultry
successful,

and

men who have been have made money by selling
is

eggs.

The
tion
is

principle of this construction

that Ventilais

a prime necessity, and that dampness

the

With these objects attained, chickens will stand almost any amount of cold, and with proper feeding and the strictest
one thing to be avoided.
cleanliness, egg production will continue

throughout

the

w inter. Some successful men insist on a wooden floor, others recommend one of gravel ten inches deep. The construction given here calls for the gravel
T

floor

on the ground

level.

Many recommend
or

a

litter of

straw

ten

inches

more deep on the gravel. The morning meal is thrown on this litter so that the chickens are forced

to Scratch for their breakfast, getting the blood in
circulation

by this As the method

early

morning

exercise.
is

of building this house
it will

typical

of

many

outdoor structures,

be taken up in

detail.

It

would make an excellent work shop or
Before

cabin, with a few modifications, such as a floor of

boards, and the addition of a few Windows.
it
is

finished the builders will probably regret, as

POULTRY HOUSES
our boys did, that
it

443

was to be used by
Ml
, I
1

their

chickens instead of for themselves.
;

(See Fig. 222.)
,^-ff

.

,

U
i

j
I

5

i

,

,

,

Set eight locust or chestnut posts in the ground

and saw

off

six

inches

above the lowest point.

444

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
sheltered

Level in the same manner as for the
seat described for the tennis court,

and see that

the ontsides of posts measure 15 feet 10 inches over
all

measurements.

Square the corners by the
the
this.

3-4-5

method, laying

4x4

inch

sill

pieces on top of posts while doing
Joint,

The

sill is

put together with halved

and

spiked to the posts with twelve-penny wire

nails.

The

corner posts are

4x4
sill.

inch spruce, with square

ends toenailed to the

Plumbthese posts, and
of boards.

tie in position

by temporary

braces, using for this purpose shingle lath or strips

The

plates along front

and back are
finished

2x4

inches,

nailed to posts from the top.

The frame may now be
2 x 4-inch

by placing the
sill

studding, toenailing to
sill

and plates
sides.

on the ends, and

and

rafters

on the

The frames

for door

and window are shown

in

the illustration.

The

rafters spaced three feet apart are 2 x 8 or

2 x 10 inches.

This large
feet,

size

is

due to the long

span of sixteen
underneath.

with no middle support from

The ends

of rafters are cut to

fit

snugly over

the plates, as shown, and sawed straight up and

down

POULTRY HOUSES
to correspond with vertical walls front

445

and back.

No

overhang

is

provided for the roof as commercial
,

roofing paper

is

to cover the whole outside of the
it is

house.

In case

to be used for other purposes

than poultry

raising, this feature

should be modified,

and the
back.

rafters allowed to project

both front and

With the
braces

rafters nailed in position,

permanent

may

be put in at the corners, as shown in the

drawing, and temporary braces removed.
If the building is to

be used as a shop, a second
is

door directly opposite the one shown

recom-

mended.

For

this

purpose the position of the work

bench would be on the front directly under the long

window, and the two doors would then be

in the

proper place to permit the planing of long boards.

When
building

the frame

is

finished, the question of siding
If the original

must be taken up.
is

purpose of the

to be carried out, poultry experts claim
is

that a double wall

very desirable as a barrier

against dampness, which arises primarily from the exhalations of the birds.
If the walls are cold, this

dampness
with the

will

condense on them, while with a double

wall this does not take place, as the
air.

dampness escapes

The

outside casing

may

be of ship-

lap boards or tongued

and grooved material.

For

446

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
may
be used.

a cabin or shop, novelty siding, clapboards or even
shingles

Bring the square ends of

the boards flush with the openings for door and

window, and
eight or ten

nail to corner posts

and studding with
off

penny wire

nails.

Finish the two sides, sawing

the sheathing
clear

along the top of rafters.

Cover front and back

up

to top of rafters,

and bring ends

of boards flush

with outside of the side sheathing.
Several methods of finishing corners of frame
buildings are

shown

in Fig. 223.

At a

is

shown the

corner of this chicken house.

No

corner boards are

used over the outer sheathing, as the whole structure
is

to be covered with roofing paper.

At
This

b is

shown the

finish for a stable or

cheap

cottage, with outside trim nailed over the sheathing.
is

the cheapest, easiest, and poorest method

of corner finish for ordinary outhouses.

At

c

a

better

method

is

shown, with trim nailed to the posts,
fltted
still

and clapboards
corner posts.

up

close to

it
is

and nailed

to

A
is

better finish

shown

at d,

where the trim

nailed to posts but not lapped.
filled

The

angles between corner trim

with a quarter
finish.

round moulding make a good Joint and a neat
If the
is

double wall

is

to be used, a second boarding

made on

the inside of studding and under side

POULTRY HOUSES

447

fest
aSr ^
1

SiJi ny.

^V^
t
Corner hedrds

_V

D

•Post
Stdtng-.
>-

Cerner board

MeulJtrij (yuarter round)

Sind

Center Pett

2-,
Staple

Double Door-s fer Heute wtlh
Deutle Weih

VA
y'A
i

E|a_JMa

feed Troujh

<T StopU
*i>

riith ntttt

inst Je

truetton

7~eultru

of J)oor fer Heus»

Fig. 223. Details of poultry house

448

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
first

of rafters,

covering the space with building

paper tacked to the inside of studding, and nailing
the boards

— either ship lap
sills

or tongue

and groove

— to the frame work.
Door and window
are

made with an outward

slant to provide a water table.

A

cross section of

window sill is shown in the detail drawing at e. As there is no window in this building except the canvas screen, the construction of a window frame
is

not necessary.

If the

double wall

is

made, a
will

double door, one opening in and the other out,

be in order.
sheathing, and

The

outside door, flush with outer

the same arrangement inside are

shown

at

f.

A
is

door

sill

will

not be necessary, and the conis

struction of the doors

shown

at

g.

The

material

tongue and groove boards

fitted to the opening,

so as to close easily, yet to provide for expansion
in

wet weather, and held together by heavy
]/s

cleats

3 x

inches on the inside, as shown.

The

inner

door

is

fastened by a hook and eye, and the outer

one with hasp, staple, and padlock.

As the window opening
only

is is

covered with wire, the

by cutting the wire and canvas or by drawing the staple. The latter method can be prevented by the use of special staples, with

way

a thief can get in

POULTRY HOUSES
threads cut
inside

449

on each
hardware

end,

and fastened on the
These staples are

by

nuts, as

shown

at h.

sold at all

stores.

The
screen

construction of the frame for the canvas
is

shown in Fig. 222. The lap Joint is used throughout, and the outside dimensions are two inches greater than the window opening. Tack the
canvas or duck to the side of the frame next the win-

dow, and providetwo hooks and eyes to fasten
at night.
this frame,

it

down

Strong iron butt hinges should be used on

and heavy T or strap hinges on the doors.
is

The

outside of the house

finished, except for a

water-shed over the window, and the cover for the
entire outside of strong roofing paper.

This

is

sold

usually with a special cement for

making

tight joints

and with
is

tin

washers for the

nails.

The water
(Fig.

table

simply a board projecting at an angle and fastened

to triangulär brackets, as

shown at a

222).

The

roofing paper brought

down over this board, and

tacked to the under side or edge, makes a watertight Joint.

The

inside

woodwork

consists of roosts, dropping

platform, and nests.

The dropping platform

is

a floor of tongue and

groove boards, placed three feet from the ground

on posts, and extending the

füll

length of the house.

450

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
roosts are fastened to a strong frame, as
in drawing,

The
shown
raised,

and the frame
ceiling,

in sections

is

hinged at the back.

Each morning

this

frame

is

hooked to the

and the dropping
a subject on which
is

platform cleaned.

The construction

of the nests

is

poultry experts differ widely, but whatever form

adopted, the material

may
for

usually be obtained from

old boxes or packing cases.

The outdoor runs
If other

summer

consist of wire

netting fastened to chestnut, cedar, or locust posts.

woods are used, the lower parts should be
This
is

coated with creosote.

also a

good

disin-

fectant, to be used for cleaning theroostsoccasionally.

Many
made
of

accessories for the poultry house

may

be

wood, but opinions of
that
it is

specialists are so

antagonistic

hardly safe to advocate any
is

one type.
It

A

feed trough

shown

at

i (Fig.

223).

may be made from box

material,

and

consists of

two boards nailed together at
at the ends

right angles, supported

by two horizontal pieces nailed on. Brooder houses, feed, and incubator houses, and the

many

other details of poultry raising are well within

the power of any careful boy, and the designs should

be selected from the expert whose System he
decided to follow.

has

xxvn
HOUSING OF OUTDOOR PETS

THE
tection

care of rabbits, guinea pigs,

and other

pets becomes of absorbing interest to every

boy at some time, and he is fortunate indeed if he has room outdoors to engage in this
pastime properly.

The comfort
from

of the little animals,

and

their pro-

their natural

enemies, the cat, dog,
Fig. 224

weasel, etc., should be well looked after.

shows a very simple and convenient house f or animals

which do not gnaw through wood, as the rabbit

and guinea

pig. will

These two animals
peaceably, except

usually

live

together

when

breeding.
of

come

sensitive

and jealous

The mothers beall strangers when
a sloping

raising a family.

The house proper has
of the inside.
all

roof which
,

is

hinged to provide a convenient method

of reaching

any part

The
netting

large
is

space covered on

sides

by wire
and be

the yard, or runway.

The

front of the house should face south,
451

45S

CARPEXTRY AND WOODWORK
in the

covered with netting. except the door, which slides

up

grooves provided, as shown in the detail.
of
off

The northern end
the top.

yard

is

boarded clear up to

This shuts

the cold north winds, and in

that kind of a house rabbits will live the year round.

Fig. 224.

Rabbit house

Guinea pigs

will thrive in

such a structure until

the thermometer reaehes zero.

These interesting and harmless creatures come
from
Brazil.
it is

and when the temperature reaehes that

point.

better to take

them

indoors, as they catch

cold and die of pneumonia, like

human

beings.

HOUSING OF OUTDOOR PETS
The runway
is

453

covered at the top with two-inch

wire netting to keep out cats,
delight in killing both pigs

who seem

to take

and

rabbits.

The upright
two
feet in
strips, to

corner posts should be set at least

the ground, braced along the top by
is

which the netting

fastened with staples,

or double-pointed tacks.

A
two

hemlock board should be

set in the

ground

all

around the yard, with a projection of an inch or
for securing the netting at the

ground

line.

Hemlock is cheap and will
than spruce.

last longer in the

ground

If the rabbits start to

burrow, they

become discouraged by finding this board in the way on every side. These planks or boards may be
rough-sawed lumber.

The

inside of the house should

be coated with

creosote and painted outside a bronze green.

A

dark-coloured house

may
first

be easily

warmer than a white one, as proved by placing a thermometer,
is

under a black hat, then under a white one.
is

This

probably the reason

why

people in the tropics

wear white clothing.

A

door the

füll

height of the yard should be
it is

provided at the far end, as

sometimes necessary

to get in for cleaning or other purposes.

The hinged

roof should be

made water

tight

by

454

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
well painted.

covering with some form of commercial roofing paper,
or

by using tongue and grooved boards

The door

sliding in grooves, as

shown, has a long

handle, which projects

up
be

through the top of the run-

way, so that

it

may

opened or closed from the
outside.
It

can be

made
these

from box material.

A
houses

number

of

may

be placed in

a row and allowed to open
into a large yard, or there

may
The
more
large
ßox
Ticja *a*

be individual runs.
latter

method
as

is

satisfactory,

a

run can easily

be

obtained

by

providing

doors between the yards. In the country, where
weasels,

mink or otherwild

enemies bother the rabFig. 225.

Traps

^

they caR be caught
225,

m
is

traps.

The ordinary box

trap ata, Fig.

designed to catch the animals alive.
is

Its construction

clearly

shown in the drawing, one end covered with

HOUSING OF OUTDOOR PETS
wire netting, or

455

made

solid,

and the other provided

with a door, arranged to drop easily in the groove

when the

trigger has

been disturbed.
is

The simple
in the detail,

construction of the trigger

shown

while the bait

is

attached to a string.

As soon as
at
b.

this is disturbed the

door drops.
is

A

typical dead-fall trap

shown

The
this

weights placed on the sloping board should be heavy,
as this trap
is

designed to

kill its

victim.

For
is

reason

it

should never be used where there

any

possibility of a pet cat or

dog being caught.
weight

The

trigger

is

very sensitive, and the slightest pull at
sufficient to bring the

the bait

is

down on the

unfortunate animal.

The

uprights should be mortised through the

base board, and the cross piece at top halved to the
uprights.

The

sloping board with weights fastened

to

it

has a generous-sized hole fitted loosely over a

dowel at the right-hand end of bottom board.
to
tightly

A

groove cut in the latter allows the weighted board
fit

when

it falls,

the dowel with bait drop-

ping into the groove.
Fig. 225 at c

shows a snare frequently used.

It

should be placed in front of a hollow log, box, or
barrel, so that the

animal must put his head through

the loop of wire in order to reach the bait.

456

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
first

The

pull at the

end of the trigger releases
rest.

the spindle, and the bent sapling does the

The

loop of wire should be held open and in position by

twigs conveniently placed.

The

killing of

our few remaining wild creatures,
It
is

however, should never be done for sport.
excusable only

when they become

destructive or

troublesome.

Squirrels. rabbits,

and chipmunks are

much more

interesting as friends than as caged or

killed victims.

XLVIII
OUTDOOR CARPENTRY

OUTDOOR
ance with
tools,

construction or carpentry, as dis-

tinguished from the indoor

work

of the

cabinet maker, calls f or a general acquaint-

knowledge of
supply of

some mathematics, an elementary the strength of materials, and a good
sense.
effects

common

It

demands

also

some

knowledge of the

of frost

on foundations,

and requires judgment

in

providing for the ele-

ments, wind, rain, snow, and sun.

Every building may be resolved into certain
parts, such as foundations, framing, roof, door,

and

window frames, outside covering or siding, flooring, partitions, doors and windows, wall covering or
ceiling, interior finish,

hardware,

etc.

These

will

be

taken up in their order.

FOUNDATIONS
These, like
all

details,

depend on the

size

and

purpose of the building.
457

The method

of setting

a small building on posts has been explained under

458

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
be used only for small structures, such as
andout-buildings.
their advantages,

poultry house, and sheltered seat for tennis court.
It should

camp buildings, sea-shore cottages,
Brick, stone, andconcrete
all

have

but for young builders, concrete

is

perhaps the best
necessary
its

and

easiest to handle.

The woodwork

for concrete
possibilities

work

is

extremely important, and

have hardly been touched, even to-day.

The box

or form should present the

smooth

side

of the boards to the concrete,

and should be so conlike a

structed that the form

may

be readily removed af ter
This sounds
in

the concrete has hardened.

simple
cases.

matter, but

it

becomes complicated

many

The method
making
building

of f astening the
is

wooden frame

to a con-

crete foundation

suggested in the chapter on the

of a pergola.

In some houses the frame

is

simply laid on the concrete, and the weight of the
is

trusted to keep

it

in place.

In the case of small structures this would not be
sufficient,

and a better way would be to imbed bolts
it

in the

cement before

hardens.
sill,

Pass these bolts

through holes bored in the

and fasten them with

nut and washer on top, after the concrete has
hardened.

Any

foundation should be sunk at least three
it

feet in the ground, otherwise

will

be "heaved"

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
by the
frost.

459

Where a

cellar

is

to be built, the

foundation should be of sufficient depth to leave at
least 6 feet 6 inches in the clear
cellar

between

floor

of

and under
better.

side of floor
If the
its

beams, and seven feet

would be
feet

foundation extends two

above the ground,

bottom would be 5

feet

6 inches below the ground level.

The
on the

thickness of the concrete wall
size

and weight
it

of

must depend the building, and for a
less

small cottage

should not be

than ten inches.

The columns
excellent

described for the pergola
for

make an

foundation

a small building to be

placed on posts, as they do not decay and are per-

manent.

They may be used to advantage porches in place of wooden posts. After a building is completed, some of the top
in digging the cellar should

for

soil

removed

be graded up

to the foundation at a slight slope, to shed the rain

and carry

it

away from the
is

building.

The box

for

a concrete wall should be well supported and braced,
as the weight
Position.
sufficient to force the

boards out of
is

The method shown

at Fig. 226

frequently

used, the

%

or 1 inch

plank being supported by
omitted, the

2x4
On

inch studs, which in turn are braced as shown.
is

cheap work the outside boarding

earth being shaved with the shovel as near the posi-

.

460

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Of course,
this
is

tion of outer casing as possible.

earth wall

only useful within a foot or so from the

»niT7rrn>>>t>r/)nirr/rti>mmttir>>>>}nnfJ)n>
Stakt

Fig. 226.

Concrete foundations

surface.

At

this point the

n

'cor

krttm

outer boarding must com-

mence, and be continued to
top of foundation.

^^

.

.

'SS//SSSS.

In order

to have the foundation level

on top,

it is

best to level the
all

wooden form
four sides.
is

around the

Ctlhr

fl,

'}/////? tr/ 77/>>

/f 7 >

// /?) /FT

If the concrete

brought exactly to the top, and a straight edge run along the edges of the form, the resulting

is

wall
so.

must be

level,

provided the box has been made
itself.

Concrete does not flow enough to level

FRAMING
This
is

a subject on which volumes have been

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
written.

461

The

general arrangement with the

names
in the

and

sizes of the various

members

is

shown

drawing, a design for a small cottage, or bungalow.
(Fig. 227.)

The heavy timbers forming the
the corners.

sill

are cut to the

outside dimensions of foundation and halved at

Fasten the joints with ten or twelve

penny

nails.

Cut

all

corner posts exactly the same
sill,

length, toenail at corners to

and hold

in position

by temporary
are nailed.

braces.

Plumb

the posts as the braces

Two

boys must work at this Job, one

holding the plumb and the other nailing the braces.

Cut and halve the ends of plate the same length as sill, and nail to corner posts. Cut 2x4 studs same length as posts, then nail to sill and plate 16 inches
apart on centres.

The openings

to be left for doors

and windows
studs, but
it

will

break up the even spacing of the

should be

The

spaces for

made as uniform as possible. door and window frames are to be
in

enclosed with double studs to give the necessary
strength.

Corner braces are very desirable and

the old-fashioned braced frame were mortised into
plate

and

post,

and

sill

and

post.

(Fig. 227a.)»

For a simple structure

the

necessary bracing

may

be obtained by "letting into" the studding
inch strips, as shown in drawing.

3x1

To do

this

462

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Fig. 227.

Corner framing

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY

463

00

a

464

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
it is

hold the brace in the position

to occupy,

and

make a

pencil

mark on both sides

of it

on each timber,
depth equal to

sawing on the inside of these
thickness of brace.
cuts with a chisel.
flush

lines to a

Remove

the

wood between saw

Test to see that brace comes

with outside of studs, and nail securely in

position.

When

the frame

is

finished

up to the roof the
begin at any time.

putting on of the siding

may

SIDING

The

outside of the building, siding or weather
is

boarding,

an important item, as

it is

designed to
It

protect the interior from sun, cold, and storms.

should be watertight, and

may beimade

of various

materials, put on in several ways.

In a house to be used in winter, the
should be of wide ship-lap boards.
onally
this
is

first

layer

If

put on diag-

it will

act as a

permanent bracing, and while
,

the better

way

it

takes more time than hori-

zontal siding.

In either case nail to every stud and

timber the
of
sill,

board touches.

Begin at the

bottom

break joints as the work progresses upward,

and saw ends even with outside of posts. At all door and window openings bring edges
of siding flush with openings.

This inner siding

is

to be covered with building

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
paper

465

door

and
set,

window frames
tin flashing

nailed

over doors and Win-

dows

,

and
put

outer
on.

covering

Before
ing

proceedoutside

with

sheathing,

how

i.

-f.'-*'

ever, the roof
should

be framed

MTCHE.IVJ

and covered. ROOFING
It
is

BE.D

ROOM

tP^J
UV1NS BOOM

£5

<J

a

difficult
veSTlBOLE.

matter to say that one part of a house
is

Hu

c

more important
another,
are
as

than
all

parts

ima
Fig. 228.

portant, but
building with

Plan and elevation of a bungalow
is

an unstable or leaky roof

an

abomination.

The

framing

of

the

roof

must

be strong enough to
snow.
.

withstand gales,

blizzards,

drenching rains, and the weight of

tons of wet

As the method

of shingling

has been described

466

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
shelter, it
is

under tennis court

only necessary to

take up the subject of the frame.

Boys

will

do well

to confine their early efforts to piain sloping, or

possibly hipped roofs.

These two

styles are illustrated in Fig. 229.
/

Mi—aSci
i

iw
:

\

s

4
s
ty
tfujf e

ii

~l*"J

R,J]t

'ii

nr
* $/y

f
Pl*C
1

\

// U

}
Tc/r

Kern

Tcpv;,

rr«/?* £><&a r

ttid<K
i

v
yy ¥ Ä

ß

1
rufe
riir*
1
L

1

4L
l
<:

Xäbl fft»

K*~
|

i

U
Fig. 229.

Roof framing

The
that
is

hip roof

is

the more pleasing and the more
It reduces
is

difficult

to make.

the attic space,

if

a consideration, and
it

harder to cover, or
of

rather

consumes more time, as the question
is difficult

whether a piece of work

or not

is

really
it.

a question of whether or not

you know how to do

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
The method of Fig. 230. To find
level
fitting the rafters is

467

shown at
a drawing

length of rafters,

make

to scale, in which a

-

b is the height

above plate
meas-

and c-b

half the width of the building
sill.

ured on the plate or
the mitre at the ridge

The

angle for cutting

may

be obtained from the
fit

drawing, also the angles where the
the plate.
plus about

occurs

at

The
two

length

should be distance a - c

feet for the overhang.
is

A

ridge board

usually inserted between the
if

top ends of the rafters, and

made from

a J^-inch

board, half an inch should be deducted from the
length of rafters to allow for the difference.

The shape
are

of lower

end of rafters

will

depend on

the kind of finish or cornice to be used.

Two

kinds

shown, the

first

and simpler being suitable

for a

barn or rough building.
account of the high price of lumber, most boys

On
will
finish.

be obliged to use the most inexpensive style of
the rafters the same

Cut

all

size,

and

in erecting

space them as nearly two feet apart as possible.

The
plate

first

pair should be flush with the edge of
in position

and temporarily held
It will

by braces

of

shingle lath.

be necessary in erecting the
floor

roof to place timbers

and

boards across the top

468

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

OÜTDOOR CARPENTRY
of

469

plate

as

a

temporary

floor

to

work

on.

Nail

rafters to ridge board,

and plate with ten-

penny wire nails. gether on this Job,
be plumb.

Two

boys

must

as every part of

work tothe work must
fit

When

all

the rafters are in place, cut and

the short studs between plate and rafters, being
careful to leave the openings for

Windows

in the

places called for on the plan.

The ship-lap siding may now be continued upto top
edge of
edge.
If

rafters,

and sawed
is

off

even with upper

novelty siding
it

used without any under

sheathing,

Shingling

may be treated in tlje same way. may now be done as described

under

tennis court accessories.

WINDOW AND DOOR FRAMES
These

may

be bought at the mill ready made.
their

Very few carpenters make
staple articles

own, as they are
Second-

Coming

in Standard sizes.

hand sashes and frames may often be bought at
very reasonable rates, and
either.
it

never pays to

make

Set the frames in the openings
nail to studs.

left for

them, and

To make

sure that the
it is

fit

between

frames and openings shall be right,

best to take

470

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
man
just
is

the plans to the mill, and explain to the mill

what

desired.

FLOORING

beams may be set at any time after the frame has been erected up to the plate. As it will be necessary to work around inside more or less,

The

floor

the sooner they are in position the better.

As these
in

beams, supposed to be 10 x 2 inches, often vary
width, the floor
are cut to
fit

is

liable to

be uneven, unless they

the

sill.

The amount

cut out need not be very much, but

a certain distance, say nine inches, should be marked

from the top edge, and the lower corner cut out as

shown

at

d

(Fig. 230).

This

will bring all the

top

edges level,

when they

are in position.

The span
the
floor
sill

of the floor

to the next
called

— the distance from support — important, as a
beams
is

is

weight, as

upon sometimes to support great when a number of people are present, or
piece
of

a

heavy
on

furniture

such

as

a

piano

rests

it.

For
twelve

floor

beams 2 x
should

8,

a

span

of

not

over
a

feet

be

allowed;
;

for

2 x 10

slightly greater

span

may be
in

used but in either case

the supporting

beam

the centre of the floor
sill

should be halved into the

with upper edge flush,

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
and should be supported at intervals
feet in the of ten feet

471

by

posts set in the floor of cellar, or to a depth of three

ground

in case there

is

no

cellar.

This
sill

supporting
is

beam should be

placed

when the
sill,

set

on foundation.

Nail floor beams to

and
in

where the two beams from opposite sides of the
building lap or pass each other over the
centre, nail

beam

them

to each other

and to the beam.
stuff

The
be

flooring of tongue

and groove

may now
them up

laid,

cutting ends Square and fitting

close to studding, or,

what

is still

better, clear out

to the sheathing.

The

outside weather boards

may now

be put

on, after deciding on one of the

corner finishes

described under poultry house.

painted

— must

A

flashing of tin

be placed over door and window
clapboarding or siding reaches
is

frames, before the
these points.

This siding

sawed

off

Square, and
of door

makes a butt Joint with the outer casing and window frames.

Some form
first

of building

paper

is

nailed to the
itself in

siding in

good buildings, and pays for

the long run, by reducing the

amount of f uel necessary

to heat the building in winter.
If the

house

is

a sea-shore cottage or

camp

only

to be used in summer, both the paper and inner

472

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
may
be omitted, and the expense accouni.

sheathing

materially reduced.

The
last,

finishing of the interior

may

be

left to

the
;

or done on stormy days.

In the meanwhile

several important questions
is

the style of flue

must be settled. One or chimney to be provided for
chimney

the stove.
If

the building

is

to be permanent, a brick

The danger of fire originating from defective bricklaying makes it advisable to have this work done by a tradesman. For summer cottages or camp buildings a simple
should be built by a mason.
stove pipe can be used, but in any event
it

should

be put up before the
"flashed," that
timbers, and
is

final roof

covering

is

on,

and

protected

by

tin laid over the roof

made

watertight.

This does away with
tin should

leaks around the chimney,

and the

be put

on

in

such a

way

as to prevent the shingles

from

Coming
for

in direct contact
oil

with the hot chimney.

In these days of

stoves,

which are often used

summer cooking, the chimney may be omitted At the same time it must be remembered entirely. that there are cold, damp nights, when a stove is
very comfortable at the shore or in the woods.

In regard to interior

finish,

if

the walls are to be

plastered, three coats will need to be put

on by a

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
skilled piasterer.

473

Thin yellow pine
is

ceiling stuff , often

used for

camp

buildings,

easily

put on, and quite
it is

satisfactory.

Laid on diagonally

very pleasing,

but the beads catch more dust than the vertical
strips do.

The

latter

method

calls for

horizontal

strips laid

between the studs for nailing, while a
all

simple quarter round moulding laid in
gives
is

corners

the

finish.

A common

practice

in

camps

to

have no

interior wall covering,

but to leave the

timbers exposed.

For a dwelling, the frame should

be of dressed lumber, which

may

be stained to con-

form with the gener al colour scheme.

The inside trim around doors and windows may now be put on. Three methods of finishing around
windows are shown at
the trim from the mill.
plified as
e,

f,

g (Fig. 230),

and one

of these types should be

adopted before ordering
This work should be sim-

much

as possible, not only to save time,

but because decoration
artistic

may

well be left to pictures,

metal work, trophies; and things which are

of interest

from

their history or association.

DOORS AND WINDOWS
If

second-hand material

is

not used

it is

advisable

to purchase these staple articles from a mill where

they are made in Standard

sizes.

474

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
ordered for certain size spaces they come
too large.

When
a
little

This allowance

is

for material

to be removed in fitting.

Inside doors are usually

the last things to be hung.

The Windows should
will allow
it,

be hung as soon as the construction
in order to

keep out

rain.

Secure the pulleys for upper and lower sash into
the

window frame on both

sides of parting strip

about four inches from top

of

window frame.
its

Attach the sash cord and find

proper length

by experiment. Tie securely to sash weights. See that the two sashes make a good, tight Joint where they meet, and tack the window stop to frame with brads. The stop is to be ordered with the trim, and mitred at the top. The construction at the sill is shown at a (Fig. 230). The arrangement of door frames is shown at
b.

After

mitring

the

door
its

stop, nail to door

frame at a distance from
of door.

edge equal to thickness
to the space

Fit the door

by planing

inside frame.

The

hinges are put on as shown, being

sunk

flush with edge of

both door and door frame.
it is

When

hanging the door,
it,

a good plan to place

small wedges under

to allow for the sag which will
is

result as soon as its weight

thrown on the hinges.

Saddles are usually placed under doors to allow

,

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
them
to swing clear of carpet

475

and

rugs.

To

allow

for the thickness of these saddles,

%

inch should

be allowed between floor and bottom of door.

The

saddles are to be fitted around edges of door frame,

making a neat finish. For plastered walls a
sary.

six-inch base board

is

neces-

This

may be put on

with butt joints and

nailed to studding with small head finishing nails
as for all trim.

The base

is

usually topped

by a base moulding
is

mitred in the corners.
This style of construction
house.
for a

permanent

For rough or temporary buildings, many

modifications

may

be adopted.

Batten doors, as

described for the poultry house,

may

be cheaply

and readily made.
Batten blinds made by the same method are very
desirable for buildings like

are to be vacant for long

summer camps, which periods. This does away

with the temptation some people find to break Win-

dows

in

unoccupied houses.

The
lumber

siding for a small building

may

be of tongue
important.

and groove boards put on
is

vertically,

and now that
all

so expensive these items are cases

The lumber from packing
making very many

may

be used for

of the pieces of furniture in a

476

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
stools, benches, tables, shelves,

camp, such as
boards,
articles

cup-

bookcases, etc.

Many

of

these

useful

can be made without tearing the boxes

apart.

A

very useful ehest and seat combined
fitting

may

be

made by

a

box

with
its

a

strong

cover,

strengthened by cleats on

under side and hinged
with shavings, straw,
this a

with strap hinges to the back.

A

cushion of burlap

filled

seaweed, or sweet grass will

make

very satis-

factory settee, and the storage space inside will al-

ways be

available.
all nail

The

outside of the box should

be smoothed,

holes filled with putty,

and the

whole thing stained.

Very interesting panelling

effects

may

be obtained

by tacking on
the

strips

of

the same

thickness as

outside cleats.
of

Where the supply
similar
articles
will

wood

is

limited,

many
to the

suggest

themselves

young carpenter.
can
the
all

be made of
legs.

The chair shown at -Fig. 231a wood from packing boxes, except
These

square

may
in

be
half

obtained

by

sawing
smooth.

2x4
The

inch
rails

spruce

and planing
legs

can be put on with mortise

and tenon, or they may be gained into the and fastened
with
nails

or

screws.

The

seat

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
is

477

built

np

of
side,

several

pieces

fastened

to cleats

on

imder
this

with front edges rounded.

To
fast-

make

hard bottomed chair more comfortable,
a
t

have a thin cushion of canvas or burlap
ened by
cover and
to edges.

canvas
acked

The wide
back
in

strip across the

s
Fig. 231.

Cover hJwjed
with

T hinyes

^
S

may

be treated

the same way.

One
or

j
a very

coat of
t

stain, or

wo

Chest made from packing case

of Japalac

some

similarly prepared varnish will

make

serviceable finish for

camp
of a

purposes.

The proportions

porch settee of the same

general character are given at Fig. 2316.

The

n

legs

may
all

be cut out of

pieces of spruce studding,

and
/8
ie.

but the long

rails

obtained from box material.

These long pieces
be cut from %-inch

may

U
Fig. 231a.

siding lef t over
Jh
Chair

when putFloor
will
off

ting

up the

cabin.

boards with

tongue and groove planed

ans wer very well.

-

478

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
long back strip will be more rigid
if

The
to give

mortised

into the ends,
it

and the upright

strips will

be needed

the necessary strength.

One

of the

most comfortable
r

articles for a
1

camp


1

Q

1

r

Ci/l/wnn

rr-s.

._....

i M

1
L

«-

-fl*i

-1


_
1

»

s
material

J
The
materials

Fig. 2316.

Settee

made from box

in the

woods

is

the couch

hammock.

required are:

A

cot.

Four yards

of strong

canvas a yard wide.

Forty feet of clothesline.

Two

chains or strong pieces of rope about 4 or 5 feet long.
set

A grommet

and some grommets.

Remove
a cold

the legs from the cot.
If

They

are usually

attached by bolts or rivets.
chisel.

the latter, cut with

Lay

the canvas in one piece on the floor and
its

place the cot at

centre.

Make

pencil

marks

at the ends to indicate where the fold begins as at

BB

(Fig. 232).

Lap

the canvas as shown and sew

securely, leaving a space at the fold for the clothesline to pass through.

OUTDOOR CARPENTRY
The square ends
are to be

479

hemmed and

folded

over pieces of broomstick.

With the grommet punch make
with the grommets.
inches apart.
to pass
f

holes through

the canvas just below the broomstick and secure

Make

these holes

about 5
is

They

are to hold the line which
flrst

rom iron fitting C through

grommet hole

ST/C/x-.

CUSH/ON
GROMMET,
fiAHO WOOD
.;-

CANVAS

B
i

7?//VG

cor
GROMMETS
8
Fig. 232.

<

5

CANVAS
B
Couch hammoek made from a cot
it

and back
grommet.

until

has passed once

through

each

The

fitting is

found on

all

hammocks and can

be taken from an old one, or an iron ring
substituted.

may

be

Before beginning to weave the rope
its

through the grommets, pass

end down to

B and

make
of

fast to a stout screw eye f astened to
cot.

under side

frame of

This brings the weight on the rope

480

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
when
people
sit

instead of on the canvas, an important item
five or six

on the couch at one time.

Treat both ends

alike.

The canvas

will

be wide

enough to
cot.

fold

up and

entirely cover the edges of

When

everything has been adjusted, fasten

the chains or heavy rope to the iron rings, and secure
to the trees or veranda columns

by heavy hooks.
and several
to

A

light mattress

covered with blankets, or a specially

made cushion

to cover the whole cot,

sofa pillows will

add the

finishing touches
article.

a

very serviceable and satisfactory

The
and
set

cost will be about one third of those on sale,

this

may

be reduced 50 per cent.
this
is

if

a

grommet

can be borrowed, as

the chief item of
is

expense, assuming that an old cot

used.

This

hammock

should not be

left

out in the

rain.

as its steel Springs will rust.

v^r

XLIX
STAINING, POLISHING,
of

AND FINISHING
is
p„

woodwork THIS branch and under modern
seif

trade by

it-

met.iods of specialithis

zation

the

men

who do
little

work do

nothing

eise.

The methods

of finishing are legion

and every polisher has a few

'kinks" of his

own which he regards as trade secrets. The personal equation enters very
the work, and
if

largely into

twenty boys have a given method
all polish,

explained to

them and they

say, a

box

of

the same size and material, there will result twenty
different kinds of polished surfaces.

This

is

due to difference
patient

in

temperament.

Some
are
it

boys

are

and

painstaking.

Others

nervously anxious to get through and see
looks.
it

how

It

is

a fact particularly true of finishing that
result.

cannot be hurried without endangering the

Every coat must be thoroughly dry and hard before
the next one
is

put on.

Different

woods require
of

different treatment,

and the elements
all
481

good

taste,

colour,

and harmony

enter into the problem.

482

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

These Statements are not made to discourage the
you'ng woodworker, because finishing can be done
well

by any boy who

will use
it is

reasonable care, but to

emphasize the fact that
a fine piece of
last

poor policy to make
spoil it at the

woodwork and then moment by hurry.
is

Staining
greatly.

so iiething
(

on which opinions

differ

Sonic

'.trtists

claim that only the natural

colour of the
staining
is

wood should be used, but a great deal of done, and we must leave artistic arguis

ments to

others.

The
of

extent to which staining

carried

may

be

illustrated

by the following

finishes used

on one kind

wood — oak:
Antwerp oak
Rotterdam
Antique
Cathedral oak

Golden oak
English oak
Forest green

Ox blood
Weathered oak
Flemish brown

Austrian
Silver gray

Flemish green
Filipino

Sumatra brown
Malachite

Mission oak

Fumed oak

Bog oak

The
tations

writer believes that staining to
is

make

imi-

wrong, such as staining cherry or birch

to give the impression of

mahogany.
is

The
ing,

list

of materials for staining

very bewilderlist

and

it is

advisable to reduce the
well.

to a few

reliable ones

and learn to use them

They may

STAINING, POLISHING,

AND FINISHING
classes:
oil

483

be divided roughly into three

stains,

water stains, and stains produced from drugs or
chemicals.
Oil stains are dry colours

ground in

oil

such as

chrome yellow, Prussian
sienna, etc.

blue, burnt

umber, burnt

When
it

preparing one of these for use,

thin with turpentine and linseed

a brush.
off

After

has stood for

and apply with a few moments rub
oil

with a piece of cotton waste or rag.
stains are colours dissolved in water.
it

Water

After applying this kind allow

to dry.

Sandof

paper the surface
half the strength.

flat

and apply a second coat

Stains produced from drugs and chemicals in-

clude such materials as logwood,

bichromate of

potash, ammonia, iron sulphate, acetate of iron, etc.

The preparation

of the surfaces to

be finished

is

very important and means the removing of any
defects, such as Scratches,

by means

of plane, scraper,

and

fine sand-paper.

These defects always show much more prominently after polishing than before, so that too great
pains cannot be taken in preparation.

Assuming

that the surface
considered
grained.
If
is

is

ready, the

flrst
is

question to be

whether the wood

open or close

an open grained wood, a coat of filier may

484

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
this

be used;if close grained

may be dispensed with.
the beginner to

The

following

list

will

enable

decide:
Open grained woods
requiring
filier:

Oak, ash, chestnut, mahogany, walnut, butternut.
Close grained woods; no
filier

required:

White wood,

pine, cherry,

birch,

beech,

gum,

sycamore

or

button

ball;

maple, cedar, cypress, red wood.
it
is

Filier

may

be made at home, but
in paint stores

a staple
advisable
liquid

article to

be found

and

it is

to

buy

it

ready made.
is

It

comes

in paste

and

forms, and the paste

must be thinned with turpentine to the consistency of cream and applied with a brush. As soon as it begins to
It

recommended.

dry, rub off the excess across the grain with a handful
of excelsior, waste, burlap, or rags

and allow

it

to

stand over night to dry.

When

the

wood

is

to be stained the colour
filier.

is f re-

quently mixed with the

The object wood to give

of all this

is

to

fill

up the pores

of the

a

flat, solid

surface for the polishing.
filier is

Sometimes even on open grained woods
omitted entirely.

Suppose that the work
or tabourette

in

hand

is

a footstool
it

made
finish.

of

oak and we wish to give

a forest green

The

process would be as follows:

Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

Staining and Polishing

STAINING, POLISHING,

AND FINISHING

485

Prepare the stain by mixing a small quantity
of

chrome yellow and Prussian blue on a piece

of

wood.
chisel

Mix thoroughly with a putty
and thin with boiled linseed
oil

knife or old

and turpentine;
dark green
is

add blue or yellow
obtained.

until a beautiful
filier,

Add

this to the

using turpentine
is

for thinning, until the

whole mass of liquid

the

desired colour

and as thick as cream. Paint the
filier.

foot-

stool all over with this

As soon

as

it

Starts

to dry, rub off as explained.

The next day sand-paper smooth and
of shellac.

give a coat

When

hard, sand-paper

flat

and give a

second coat of shellac.

Fromthispoint on the process depends on whether
a glossy polish
is

desired or a dead flat

surface.

For an

article of furniture like a footstool a highly

polis led surface

would be a mistake, as
is

it

would

soon %e scratched, and while furniture
abused,
it

not to be

is

to

be

used,

and shoe

nails

make

Scratches.

A

dead

flat

surface

may be
of

obtained by rubbing

down

the third

coat

shellac with fine^ground
If

pumice stone or rotten stone and water.
rub the surface with raw linseed
oil

too

flat,

and wipe dry.
with two

Some boys

will obtain a better finish

coats of shellac than others will with four.

486

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
first

After the

coat of shellac, varnish
it

is

often used

for the remaining coats, but

takes

much

longer

to harden

and requires careful handling.
is

Shellac

a product obtained from certain trees
It

in the Orient.

may

be bought in the dry state
in

at paint

stores

and dissolved
will

alcohol.

Grain

alcohol

is
is

the best and most expensive, but

wood
all

alcohol

cheaper and

answer

all

ordinary

purposes.

The

shellac

may

be bought in cans

ready for use, and there are two distinct kinds
orange and white.

White

shellac

is

the more expensive, but should
T

be used on light-coloured w oods, such as maple, to
avoid spoiling the colour.

Varnish comes in so
it is

many

grades and kinds that
teil

best to go to a reliable dealer and

him

just

for

what purpose you expect

to use

it.

There are

outside varnishes, rubbing varnishes, light flowing
varnishes, etc.

When by
turpentine.

exposure
it

it

becomes thick so that the
thinned

brush drags,

should be

with a

little

There

is

a great difference in the methods of

using shellac and varnish.

The former being

disit

solved in alcohol evaporates quickly,

so that

must be put on

thinly

and as rapidly as

possible.

STAINING, POLISHING,
Varnish, on the other hand,

AND FINISHING
may

487

take forty-eight

hours or more to dry, so that the brush can be

drawn over the
bubbles.
It
is

surface several times to

remove

air

not possible to do this with shellac.
in shellac should never
it will

The brush used
short time.
item.

be laid on

the top of the jaror can, as

harden in a very
is

The

care of brushes

an important
be
with
all

Varnish
turpentine,

brushes
shellac
it is

should
brushes

cleaned
alcohol,

with

and when cleaned
in a pail of water

better to keep

brushes

than to allow them to become dry.

The

jar or

wide mouthed bottle used for shellac

should be kept covered eise a great deal will be lost

by evaporation.

A

jam
it

receptacle for this, as

makes a convenient has an opening wide enough
jar

to allow the use of a flat brush.

Evaporation

may

be prevented by inverting another jar of the same
size

over

it.

The

shellac

on the rim

will

hold them

together practically airtight with the brush inside.

RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF OIL AND WATER STAINS

The

merits of these two classes of stains
briefly.

may

be stated

into the pores of

Water stains enter more deeply the wood because of their lighter
parts of the surface hold practi-

body.
cally

The hard
none

of the stain

and constitute the high

lights

488

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
But water
For
this

of the finished surface.

stains raise the

grain and

make sand-papering
flat

necessary to bring
reason,

the

surface

again.

some

polishers first give a coat of water to raise the grain

and when dry sand-paper
Oil stains

flat

before staining.

do not

raise the grain,

but owing to
so deeply
off.

their heavier

body do not penetrate
is

and

more
with
or

of the stain

lost in

rubbing

Oil has a

tendency to darken wood, so that wood stained
oil

colours has a tendency to

become clouded

muddy

with age.
oil

For staining old work,
rather than water stains.

stains should be used

Old work has the pores
has
little

already

filled

and

water

chance

to

penetrate.

Some
factory.

chemicals and aniline dyes are very satis-

Bismarck brown, which may be bought
is

at the chemist's as a powder,

soluble in alcohol
It
is

and gives a
of potash
It
is

rieh reddish brown.
is

very powerful

and a very small quantity comes
in the

necessary.
of

Bichromate
crystals.

form

lumps and

soluble in water.

Put

half a dozen crystals
it

in a quart

milk bottle of water and allow

to stand

over night.
crystals

Warm

or hot water will dissolve the

more quickly. It is to be put on with a brush and gives rieh brown tints, the shade depending on its

STAINING, POLISHING,
strength, the kind of
It gives excellent results
is

AND FINISHING

489

wood and the number

of coats.

on oak and chestnut, and

used to " age " bay wood to a dark mahogany, while
it will

several coats of

bring white

wood to the colour
and then be

of natural black walnut.

Each coat must be allowed
rubbed
flat

to dry

with fine sand-paper.

This treatment

may
finish

be followed by two or three

coats of orange shellac, rubbed down.

For "antique"

on oak or chestnut, dissolve

lampblack in turpentine,

mix with

filier

and pro-

ceed with polishing as explained.

A
is

decoction of logwood

is

often used to produce

dark and even black

effects.

The logwood

extract

cheap and comes in the form of

gum

or resin.

Several lumps of this are boiled in a gallon of water

and applied as any water
Acetate of iron,
egar,
filings
is

stain.

made from

iron fiüngs

and vin-

used for dark browns occasionally.

The
It

should be allowed to stand for several days

in

the vinegar.

The

acid

present

is

acetic.

unites with the iron forming the acetate of iron.

POLISHING

The method given above
solid finish,

is

for

a substantial

but sometimes a boy

will

have some

.

490
difficulty

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
in

obtaining the desired finish through

lack of patience or

some other

cause.

A

French polish

may

help to give the finishing

touch.

For

this

a piece of cheese cloth about 6

inches Square, a piece of cotton waste about the size
of a walnut, a
little

shellac

and raw linseed

oil

are necessary.

Dip the waste lightly in shellac; fold the cheese cloth around it, making a soft päd, dip the päd in the oil and rub quickly and constantly in circles, gradually covering the whole surface. As the shellac hardens or sticks, use a little more oil and squeeze the päd slightly to bring the shellac through the
cheese cloth.
sticking

The
little

oil

prevents the shellac from

and a

experience will give the right

balance between the two.
so bright that
it

When the polish becomes
slightest finger
flannel.

shows the

mark,

wipe dry with a piece of soft

WAX
This
It
is

POLISH
flat finish is required.

used where a dull or

can be applied directly after staining or Alling
Dissolve beeswax in turpentine to the consistency

of

filier.

Heat hastens
is

this

part of the process,
is

but

is

not necessary unless time

a consideration.

The wax

applied with a soft rag or waste and

STAINING, POLISHING,
rubbed

AND FINISHING

491

and rubbed.

The

turpentine evaporates,

leaving the wax.

Several rubbings at intervals of

a week will give the desired effect, and the surface

may

be brightened at any time by an additional

application.
It should be retnembered in all forms of polishing

that dust

is

the great enemy.

Wherever possible

a piece of furniture after receiving a coat of shellac
or varnish should be placed in a

room

or closet

where no dust can

settle

on

it.

It should also

be

kept out of the sun to avoid blistering.
of

The
is

action

some

stains like

bichromate of potash

affected

by the sun and should be

either kept out of direct
all

sunlight entirely or so placed that

parts receive

the same amount, eise the parts in shadow will

be of a different shade from the rest of the surface.

DURABILITY, DECAY, AND PRESERVATION OF
IS

WOOD
caused

ITby fungi or low forms
live

now known

that decay in

wood

is

of plant life

which cannot

without a certain amount of water, food,
air.

heat and

A

fence post decays

first

at the place where

it

enters the ground, because at that point the conditions are entirely

most favourable.

If

wood can be kept
is

under water, one item

— air —

lacking, so

the fungous growths cannot exist and the
last indefinitely.

wood
was

will

This has been proved in
of the old Viking ships

many
raised

instances.

One

from the bottom
after

of the Christiania Fjord,

Norway,

having been under water for a thousand years

and

it

was found to be

in a perfect state of preser-

vation.

Even the rudder oar

or steerboard and

wooden shields were intact. As soon as it was brought into the process of decay began, and it became
sary to coat
it

air

the

necesto-

with

preservative.

It

Stands

day, 103 feet long, in the
492

museum

at

Christiania.

DECAY AND PRESERVATION OF WOOD

493

Many other
The
of

instances of under-water preservation

might be mentioned.
other extreme
is

also true.

Wood

which

is

kept perfectly dry

will last indefinitely, as in

the case

woodwork taken from the pyramids
is

of

Egypt,

3,000 years old, which
preserved.

found to be perfectly

But when wood
decays rapidly.
-AM*

is

alternately wet

and dry

it

A
1

pile driven into the

bottom

of a

tidal river is
If

a good illustration.

such a pile be divided into f our
is

*Z£i?£

dzde

sections (see Fig. 233), a

al-

ways
JZow
JzcZe

in the ground, b
is is

is

always

in the water, c

alternately in

^
/jT>?<g

-777777777Ä

air
air.

\77777777T-

and water, d

always in the

Sections a and b

may

be

considered to be under the same
conditions and should last the
\l

longest;

c

should decay

first:
if

Fig. 233.

a

pile

^ would

last indefinitely
;

the

atmosphere were always perfectly dry but humidity

and

rain, air

and heat combined
c

finally bring

about

decay, and although this part of the pile will last
longer

than

it

will in

time decay.

Section c

should be coated with a preservative.

Various woods under the same conditions act very

494

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
and according to no
It
is

differently

well understood law.

For example,
is

in contact with the soil black locust
is

our most durable wood.

very hard, and

its

life

under these conditions
wood.

estimated at from
next,

ninety to a hundred years.

Red cedar comes
in a

though

it is

soft

Oak decays

few years;

chestnut,
long.

much

softer, lasts

two or three times as

Our approaching timber famine has induced
is

a study of this subject, since the preservation of

wood
It

becoming an absolute
before

necessity.

has been found that certain materials put on

the

wood

it is

placed in the ground prolong
tar, paint,

its life.

Coal

tar,

wood

and creosote

all

help, but creosote has so far
It
is

proved to be the best.
is

one of the by-products of coal tar and

being

used extensively by the railroad
prolonging the
life

companies for

of ties.

Experiments with creosote have brought out some
very interesting
facts.

It has

been found that after
all

being treated with the hot creosote

woods

resist

decay

alike, regardless of their

hardness or softness.
will last as
is

Consequently, a treated cheap wood
as as

long

an originally valuable one.
it

This

a great gain,

allows us to

make

use of

wood

like the

poplar

which would otherwise be practically of no value.

The

various coatings

we put on wood, such

as

DECAY AND PRESERVATION OF WOOD
paint, varnish,
oil,

495

etc.,

are intended not only to
it,

beautify but to preserve

which they do by
f ungous

filling

up the pores and excluding moisture, preventing
growths v etc.
t

I

All of these coatings
I

should be put only

on dry wood,

eise

w
1
I
I

they prevent evaporation of the sap and

may

hasten decay.
in-

Drying lumber
creases
as
it

its

strength,

has been found

by experiment, even
as
Fig. 234

much
if

as 400 per

cent.

no checking

occurs.

When

this

happens

it

counteracts

much

of

wood absorbs moisture once more the strength will decrease. The strength of the various timbers varies greatly, and sap wood is
the gain, and
if

the

usually weaker than heart wood.

The

strains

that

may

be brought to bear on

timbers are illustrated in Fig 234, the arrows indicating the directions in which the forces operate.

At a the wood
on
it

is

under tension, the forces at work
it

tending to pull

apart.

At

b the piece is

496

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
its
its fibres
is

under compression, the forces tending to reduce
length by forcing
together.

A

pillar sup-

porting a weight

under compression.

At

c

the

weight tends to bend the beam.
is

The upper part

under tension, the lower part under compression.
is

known as beam action, and depends on whether the beam is supported at one end, as shown, Also it is important to know or on both ends. whether the beam has a uniformly distributed load or whether the weight is at one point only. The problems relative to beam action are largely of an
This
engineering
character

and

involve

considerable

mathematics.
Shearing
is

the sliding of one part of the timber
If

along the grain.

a piece of

wood

is

cut to the
e9

form shown at d and a weight applied at
dency
will

the ten-

be for
/.

this

upper part to
this

slide

down

as

shown at

When

occurs,

shearing

has

taken place.

The

strength of

wood

differs in

resisting these

various strains, the tensile strength being greater

than the crushing or compressive strength.
the square inch, but

Ash, for

example, has a tensile strength of 16,000 pounds to
its

crushing strength

is

only

6800 for the

same
is

size.

The

tensile strength of
its

dry white pine

10,000 pounds,

crushing strength

DECAY AND PRESERVATION OF WOOD
5400 pounds, and
its

497

shearing strength varies from
its

250 pounds to 500 pounds, showing that
point
is

weakest

along the grain. If the young woodworker

becomes ambitious enough to think of designing
a bridge or large building he can find these figures
in

any engineers' hand-book.

There are so many

important factors to be considered that the amateur
will

do well to go ahead with great caution.

Knots

and other defects reduce the proportionate strength
of large

beams

greatly, so that

it

would not be safe
would be
not

to assume that a

beam
of

6 inches square
1

36 times as strong as a piece

inch square.
length,

In

upright

posts

considerable

alone the crushing strength must be considered, but a bending action enters into the problem.

Wher-

ever the question of danger to
bridge or a house,
for safety.
it is

life

enters, as in a

wise to leave a large margin

We

realize this fully

when we read

of

a grand stand holding hundreds or thousands of
people collapsing under the weight.

The

architect

has also to reckon with

still

other elements, such as

wind pressure and Vibration.

LI

MATHEMATICS OF WOODWORK

THE
both
in

woodworker soon discovers that arithmetic is a very practical and necessary

subject.

He
and

will

meet many

problems

drawing and in actual construction which
call for

test his ability

some knowledge even
is

of

elementary geometry.

It

important to be

able to estimate from his drawing just

how much
discover

lumber

will

be needed.

He

will

soon

through intercourse with dealers in lumber that
there are certain Standard sizes,

and he should

make

his 'designs

as far as

possible conform, at

least to

Standard thicknesses.

Common
%.
inch

boards are sawed

1

inch thick.
is

When
1

dressed on two sides the thickness

reduced to

In planning some part of a structure to be
thick
it
it
is

better

to

make

the dimension

%

inch, eise

will
1

be necessary to have heavier
inch and the cost will be that

material planed to

of the heavier lumber, plus the expense of planing.

In buying %-inch dressed lumber, very often inch
498

MATHEMATICS OF WOODWORK
boards are dressed

499

down

to the required thickness,

and the purchaser pays
tion to the dressing.

for

1-inch wood, in addiis

The boy
10, 12,

surprised to find
for inch material.

that

it

costs

more f or %-inch than
are

Standard

lengths

14,

16,

etc.,

feet.

Widths vary, and as wood shrinks only across the grain with one or two exceptions this dimension cannot be depended on, as the amount of shrinkage depends somewhat on the age after cutting.

Whenever possible, it is wise to go to the lumber yard and select your own material, choosing boards that
are free from knots, shakes, etc.

Clear lumber

from knots

— costs more, but
is

—free

is

worth the difference.

MEASUREMENTS

A

measurement

a comparison.
it

We

measure

the length of a lot by comparing
of length, the

with the Standard

yard or
its

foot.

We

measure a farm

by comparing
surface

area with the Standard unit of
acre,

measure, the

Square rod, or square

yard.

In every measurement we must
accepted Standard unit.

first

have an

The

history of units of

measurement is a very interesting one, and its difEculty arises from the fact that no two things in
nature are the same.

One

of

the ancient units

500

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
was the
cubit,

of length of a

supposed to be the length
of

man's forearm, from the elbow to the end

the raiddle finger.

This. like other natural units,

varied and was therefore unreliable.
tion progressed
it

As

civiliza-

governments to

became necessary for the various take up the question of units of
to
define
just

measurements
should be.

and

what

they

Our own Standards
Britain,

are copied frorn those of Great
is

and although congress

empowered
little

to

prescribe

what

shall

be our units,

has been
still

changed, so that with few exceptions we are
using English measurements.

The almost
tables as
12 inches 3 feet

hopeless confusion and unnecessary
is

complication of figures

shown

in the following

compared with the metric System:

= =
}

1

foot

.001

1

yard
.01
.1

(Standard)

5]/ 2 yards
or

= millimetre = centimetre = decimetre

=

1

rod
1.

\&/ 2

feet
J

320 rods
or

10.

1760 yards
or

=

1

mil<

100.

= metre = dekametre = hectometre
=
kilometre

5280 feet

1000.

MATHEMATICS OF WOODWORK
The
"three
original

501

English definition of an inch was

barley

corns"
(

with

rounded ends.

The

meter

is -nr/üiFV.Tnnr

one ten-millionth) of a quadrant
i. e.,

of the earth's circumference,

the distance from

the pole to the equator measured along one of the

meridians of longitude.

The

length of three barley

corns might be different from the next three, so

here

was

the
of

original

difficulty

again.

The
to

designers

the
as

metric

System

went back
no
a

the earth

itself

the only unchangeable
sure

thing
in


of

and
the

are

we
is

there

is

change
decimal
as

the earth's circumference?

The
it
is

great advantage
Sys-

metric

that

tem and
f act

and includes
solids.

weights as

well

surfaces

Our weights
long
of

are

even

more

dis-

tracting

than our

measure.

two kinds

weight

measure

— troy

We

have

in

and

avoirdupois.

TROY

AVOIRDUPOIS
1

METRIC
.001 milligram
.01
.1
1.

= 20 pwt. =
24
gr.

pwt.

16 oz.

= = = =

1 Ib.

1 oz.

112

Ib.

=1
1 1

cwt.

centigram

12 oz.

=1

Ib.

20 cwt.=

ton
long ton
short ton
short cwt.

decigram

5760

gr.

=

1 Ib.

2240 2000
100

Ib.
Ib. Ib.

gram
dekigram
hectogram
kilogram

=1
1

10.

100.

7000

gr.

1 Ib.

1000.

502

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
diflFerences

In surface measurements, the same
are seen:

AMERICAN OR ENGLISH
9
sq. ft.

METRIC
.0001 sq. centimetre
.01
1.

30J4
160 4840

sq. yds. sq.

= =
~~
j

1 sq. 1 sq.

yd.

rod

sq. sq.

decimetre

rods)

sq. yds.

1 L

acre
sq. mile

metre

100.

are

640

acres

=

1

10,000.
1,000,000.

hectare
sq.

kilometre
off:

In measures of volumes we are as badly
DRT
LIQUID
2 pints 4 qts.
1 gal.

METRIC
.001 millilitre
'01
.1

= quart = peck 4 pecks = bushel 4 quarts = 268.8 heaped bushel —
2 pints
1

8 quarts

1

1

= quart = gallon = 231
1
1

centilitre
decilitre
^litre or cu.

cu. ins.

cu. ins.
1/4:

1.

decim.

1

10-

dekalitre
hectolitre
cu.

Struck busheis.

100.

The cone

in a

heaped

1000.

metre or kilolite

bushel must be not
less

than 6
if

ins.

high.

As

this

were not enough, when we go to sea

we

use another System.

The depth

of

water

is

meais

sured in fathoms (6 feet

=

1

fathom), the mile

6086.07
miles

feet long
1

= 1.152664

land miles, and 3 sea

=

league.

In our cubic measure:

1728 cubic inches

27 cubic feet

= =

1

cubic foot cubic yard
ft.

1

A A

cord of

wood

is

4

ft.

x4

ft.

x8

perch of masonry

is

163^ x 13^ x

1

= 128 cubic = 24.75 cubic

feet.

feet

MATHEMATICS OF WOODWORK
Isn't
it

503

about time we used the metric System?

The reader will not mind one more Standard unit. Lumber is measured by the board foot. Its dimensions are

12x12x1
is

inches;
of

it

contains 144 cubic
foot.

inches

and

Y12

a

cubic

A

board

10 feet long,
10 board feet.

1

foot wide

and

1

inch thick contains

One
inch
of

of the

same length and width
contains 5 board feet.
of timber

but

only

%

thick

The contents

any piece

reduced to

cubic inches can be found in board feet

by 144, or from cubic feet As simple examples: How many board
piece
of

by dividing by multiplying by 12.
feet in a

lumber containing
feet.

2,880

cubic

inches?

ViV ™ 20 board
16 feet
16
long,

How much wood
8

in a joist

12 inches wide and 6 inches thick?
8 cubic feet:

X

1

X

Vi

=

X

12

=

96 board

feet.

A simpler method may be
Imagine
foot x
this

used in most cases.

How

much wood in a beam 9 inches x 6 inches,
timber built up
of them, of
1

14 feet long? boards.
ft.

-inch

As there are nine
1

and each 14

x V2

inch and contains 7 board feet (Fig. 235),

7X9 =63
is

board

feet.

Again,

how much wood

in a

timber 8 inches x 4 inches, 18 feet long?
equivalent to 4 boards
1

This

inch thick and 8 inches
is

or

% foot wide.

Each board

18

X

2

/z
6,

X

1

=

12

board feet, and 12

X 4 = 48,

answer. (See

Fig. 235).

504

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
take a theoretical case:

To

How much wo od

in

a solid circular log of uniform diameter, 16 inches
in diameter, 13 feet

and

9 inches long?

Find the area

of a 16-inch circle in Square inches, multiply
in inches
16

by length

and divide by

144.
13
ft.

X 16 X .7854 = 201
201^165
144

9

in.

= 165 inches

= 1S0^ boardfeet 144
method could be cubic feet and multithis
foot.
is

It

is

not likely that a boy would often need to

figure such

an example, but if the approximate weight were desired,

of such a timber

used, reducing the answer to

plying

by the weight per cubic
of square root

A
to

knowledge

often of great value

the woodworker

for

estimating diagonals
latter
is

or

squaring foundations.
the

The

usually based on

known

relation of
is

an hypothenuse to its base and

altitude.

It

the carpenters'

3-4-5
3*

rule.

The
alti-

square of the base added to the square of the

tude

=

square of the hypothenuse.
of 25
is 5.

=9,

4*

= 16;

9+16=25. The square root

(See Fig. 235).

To

square the corner of his foundation the carpenter
If

measures 6 feet one way and 8 the other.
his 10-foot pole just touches the

two marks, the

corner
yjlOO

is

square.

6

2

=

36,

8

2

=

64; 36

+

64

=

100.

=

10.

This method was used in laying out the

MATHEMATICS OF WOODWORK
tennis court, the figures being 36, 48,
5 multiplied

505
4,

60—3,

and

by 12. To take a more practical case, suppose we are called upon to estimate exactly, without any allowance for waste, the amount of lumber in a packing
case built of one-inch stock, whose outside dimensions are 4 feet 8

inches x 3

f eet

2 inches x 2

f eet

8 inches.

Referring to the drawing (Fig. 235, d),
bill

we

draw up the following
2
2

of material:
ft.
ft. ft.

2 pieces (top and bottom) 4

8
8

in. in. in.

x 3 x 2 x 2
füll

ft.

2
6

in.
in.

"
"

(sides)

4 3

ft. ft.

(ends)

6 in.

The top and bottom, extending
width, are the
sides,
füll

length and

dimensions of the box, while the
are not the füll height, on

although

füll length,

account of the thickness of the top and bottom pieces

— hence the dimensions, 2 feet 6 inches.
mension,
simplify
for

From

the
di-

ends must be deducted two inches from each
the

same reason.
as
possible.
;

In multiplying,

as

much

There are four

pieces 2 feet 6 inches wide
is

as their

combined length
2j/£ feet

15 feet 4 inches,
feet.

383^ square

we have 15j/£ feet x The combined length
4 inches

=

of top

and
and

bottom
383^
small

is

9

feet

=

9}/%

x 3|

=

29-|,

+

29|

=

67| or 68 board
as | of a foot.

feet,

ignoring such a
is

amount

This

close figuring,

506

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
it

too close for practical work, but
figure the exact for

is

better to

amount, and then rnake allowances
of

waste,

than to depend on loose methods
figuring,
1

such as dropto take

ping
4
j

fractions,

\

<
1
1

\

care of the waste.
a.

As a good example
estimation,

of

I

take

the

hexagonal

tabourette
178;

shown
five

in Fig.

the

pieces,

aside

from

the hexagon under and

supporting the top, which

may
.&TZA7M5

be

made
in

from
236.

scrap lumber, are shown
laid

out

Fig.

The board must be
least twelve inches

at

wide
it

in order to get out of

the large hexagon.
Fig. 235.

The

A

packing case

legs

may

be laid out as

shown with space left between for sawing, yet even by this method considerable waste will result, and it should be kept constantly in mind that as far as possible waste is to be reduced to a minimum.
"

Wood

butcher"

is

the

common shop name

for

MATHEMATICS OF WOODWORK
the
uses.

507

workman who

spoils

more material than he

The

great advantage of
is

making out a
that
it

bill

of

material before starting

not only makes

you study your drawing, but causes you to consider the best method of laying out the blank pieces.

Fig. 236.

Laying out the picees for a tabourette

It

is

often necessary to find the areas of figures

other than the square or parallelogram.

Assume

we are to floor a room in an octagonal tower or summer house. If the distance across the flat sides
that
of the

octagon

is

sixteen feet, leaving out the item
feet will

of waste,

how many square

be required?

The octagon may be drawn
in the corners. (Fig. 237).
itself

in a square

and

its

area will be that of the square, less the four triangles

So the problem resolves

into finding the area of one of these triangles.

If

we knew the

length of one of the sides of the oc-

tagon, the Solution would be simple, but

we only
following

know

that the eight sides are equal.
out:

The

method may be worked

Find the diagonal

508

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
the sixteen foot Square.
It
is

of

22.6+.

Deduct
it

the distance across the

flats,

16, leaving 6.6 feet

equally divided betwen a and

b;

a

= 3.3 and
is

may

be proved that c

= a = d.
The
its

So

in

each corner we have
6.6 x 3.3.

a triangle whose base

area of a triangle equals half

base by the altitude.

Thereis

fore the area of each triangle
3.3 x 3.3
Fig. 237.

and

3.3 x 3.3 x 4 equals

Finding the

43.56 square feet, the combined

area of an octagon

area of the f our corners.

This de-

ducted from the area of the square leaves the area
of the octagon, or 256

— 43.56 = 212.44

square

feet.

Assume that our problem is to find the narrowest board we can use to cut out a
hexagon whose diameter
teen inches.
is

four-

As shown in Chapter IV, the hexagon is drawn in a One of the sides is equal circle.
to the radius or half the diameter.

Fig 238.

Problem

of

This gives

us
Fig.

the

arrangement
in

the hexagon

shown
our

in

238,

which

problem

is

confined
is

to

the

right-angled

triangle

whose base

seven

and hypothenuse
of
triangles,

fourteen.

From our knowledge

we

deduct the square of seven (49) from the square of

MATHEMATTCS OF WOODWUKK
14 (196), leaving
of the altitude.

509

196—49 =

147,

which

is

the Square

Then aJU7 = 12.12, which is the narrowest board from which we can obtain a hexagon
14 inches in diameter.

These examples are given to show the close connection between

woodwork and

arithmetic.

LH
LUMBER: NO.
IS hardly possible
f or
1

a boy to select and pur-

ITchase
and
in fact

wood

for his various purposes without

some knowledge
two

of the different

woods and

their

peculiar characteristics.

No two

are exactly alike,
in

trees öf the

same kind growing

different parts of the country

under different conor white

ditions will produce timber of very different qualities.

This

is

specially noticeable

in the tulip

wood, for example.
in a

A

tree of this species,

growing

swamp

in the South, will yield a

very different
in

wood from one grown on high ground
North.
Again,
localities

the

the

same wood

is

known
it
is

in

different

by

different

names, so in order tp have a
really necessary

sound knowledge of lumber,
to

know something about
is

the trees.

White wood,
yellow

just mentioned,

called, in

many
is

localities,

poplar.
is it

As a matter

of fact, it

not a poplar, nor

related to the poplars, being a

member

of the

magnolia family.
510

;

LÜMBER
The
the cream of

öil

following pages, devoted to this subject, are

many

talks

between our boys, boiled
of

down
order.

to the important facts
It

was a hobby

some Ralph's, and Harry bein

and arranged

came

so enthusiastic over

it

that they frequently

laid aside their

work and took long walks through

the country study ing trees.

Harry started a small nursery in the garden and is raising young trees from seeds and cuttings.

As he remarked to Ralph one day: "It's astonishing how little people know about trees! Why they are
the most interesting things that grow.
Just think

how many

things

we

get from

them

besides

wood

maple sugar, rubber,
spruce gum,

turpentine,

tannin for making leather, shellac,

wood alcohol, Canada baisam,

and nuts!

All

of

our nuts except

peanuts come from trees

— hickory, walnuts, butteralmonds, etc."
interest

nuts, beechnuts, chestnuts, pecans,

Ralph noticed that as Harry's
trees

in

the
in

grew he became

less

wasteful of his

wood

the shop.
in

The

fact that a tree

most cases

killed, in

had to be cut, and order to furnish him with

lumber, seemed to worry him.

One day when he
be blurted
trees

was thoughtfully at work
out, "It's a

in the shop,

shame that so many
lumber!"

have to be

cut

down

for

512

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
so; yet
if

"Yes," said Ralph, "it seems

no lumber
estimated

was wasted,
that

it

would not be so bad.
of

It

is

75

per cent.

the

wood

cut

down

is

wasted."

"How?"

asked the boy.
first

"Well, in the

place,

many lumbermen
It often

after

cutting the tree down, take just the log or lower

part and leave the top to decay.

happens

that they leave the tops and branches as a great

mass

of litter,

which soon becomes as dry as tinder,
fire,

an invitation to the smallest spark to start a

and more woodland
than I care to
teil

is

destroyed by

fire

each year

you." asked Harry.

"How much?"

"Every year, between twelve and fifteen million acres, and some years three times as much."

"How much
"You can
Island,

is

a million acres?"

get
is

N. Y.,

some idea from this: Long a hundred miles long and about
It contains

twenty across
a
million

in the widest part.

about

acres.

Imagine

this

covered by solid

woods, multiply by fifteen and you would have a

good idea of the amount
every year."

of

woodland burned over
"I should think

"Gracious!" exclaimed the boy.

every tree would have been burned years ago."

LÜMBER
"Well, this
figured
it is

513

a big country," said Ralph.

"I
large

out once.
six

The United

States

is

enough to make
necticut,

hundred states the

size of

Con-

more.
into a

and have room for twenty-five or thirty The state of Texas alone could be cut up
forest fire
is

hundred pieces as large as Connecticut.
one of our worst enemies.
gives hundreds
It

"The
is

far worse

than the lumberman, because when
it

he cuts down trees
seedlings

of

young
shade a

which are struggling to
these

live in the

chance to grow and cover the ground with a new
forest;

but the

fire kills

young

seedlings

and

even burns the seeds that are lying in the leaves
waiting to grow.

That

is

one of the worst things

to be said against the forest fire."

"Does

it kill

every tree?"

"Oh, no! Trees like the oak sprout from the old roots, but most evergreen trees are killed outright."

"What happens then?" "Why, it depends. If
woods and
them,
conifers, the
will in

the forest

is

mixed, hard

hard woods, or some of

time send up sprouts, and where you

formerly had a mixed stand, you will in a few years

have only hard woods, unless some of the evergreens were not touched. In that case, their seeds will
in

time replace the old evergreens."

514

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
long does
it

"How
kk

take?"

From forty to a hundred years to have a large Some evergreens, like the spruce, increase forest.
in

diameter very slowly."

'What happens when the
is

forest that
all

is

burned

all

evergreens, and they are

killed?" asked

the irrepressible boy.
4

The

process of reforesting in that case
little

is

very

slow.

Trees of
first,

value, like the poplar or birch,

appear

because their seeds are light and are

carried a
fires

considerable distance

by the wind.

If

pass over the same area every few years, the

forest will never

come back

unless seeds are planted.

There are large areas

in this country thus

denuded,

and instead

of a forest

we have

a scrubby growth of

bushes that are of

little

value to anybody.

"Huckleberries grow in burned-over land luxuriantly,

and

in

some

sections

it is

suspected

that

the people
berries

who make money by
is

gathering the

burn the brush purposely.
forest cover

"The

valuable for other things beslowly in an ever-

sides timber.

The snow melts
füll

green forest, because the rays of the sun cannot
penetrate with
strength.

This allows the water

to sink into the ground slowly,

and to come out

lower

down

in the

form

of Springs

LUMBER
"Where
there
is

515

no

forest

the snow melts

much
is

niore quickly, the water rushes

down
soil,

the hüls in

streams, carrying with
so

it

the top

which

of

much

value to the farmer, cutting the hillsides

into gullies, causing floods in the Valleys,

and

Alling

up the

rivers with silt or

mud.
of

"This spoils the streams, ruins the land, and causes
millions of dollars'
If

worth

damage
Ohio,

to property.

you doubt

it,

read the newspaper accounts of
of the

floods in the Valleys

Missouri, and

Mississippi every spring."

"But
"It

I should think

by

this

time

all

the

soil

would be washed away."
will

be in time.
soil is

There are large areas in

China where the
rock.

washed away to the bare

The population has been obliged to emigrate because when the soil goes, the population can no
longer live."
'Well,

Harry

in

what are we going amazement.

to do about it?" asked

'Wait a minute," said Ralph, warming up to his
subject.

"The

Mississippi carries into the Gulf of
billion

Mexico every year seven and a half
feet

cubic

of soil;

enough to cover Long Island

two

inches deep every year."

'What

are

we going

to

do?" repeated the boy.

516

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

"We can do one of two things," said Ralph sagely, "We can follow in the footsteps of China and let
the land go to ruin; or
of

we can

follow the example

Germany, take care of our forests and plant new ones. left of them

— or what
It is

is

one of

the greatest questions in this country to-day, and

you are going to hear a
twenty-one."

lot

about

it

before you are

LIII

LUMBER: NO.

2
in the great

THE
A
lumber for
grasp.

lumber business ranks fourth

industries of the United States.

The Deesti-

partment of Forestry at Washington
yearly as the annual growth of the forest.

mates that we are using three times as much wood
grand total of 150,000,000,000 board feet of
all

purposes, including firewood,

is

the

estimated amount, a figure the mind can hardly

The
ties.

railroads of our country rest

on 1,200,000,000

The average life of a tie is about ten years, so that we must replace one tenth, or 120,000,000, each year. As the average forest produces two
hundred
ties to

the acre, this item alone calls for

half a million acres of

woods every year.
quantities of lumber being
etc.,

The

tie is

only one item in the great business

of railroading,

immense

required for trestles, platforms, stations, bridges,
so that a füll million of acres

must be cut annually

to keep our railroads operating.
517

518

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK

Place this item against the fifteen million burned,

and the Statement may be made that we burn enough
each year to supply the railroads for fifteen years.

To offset this loss several railroad companies are now planting trees for a future supply, as the many
attempts to supplant the wooden
tie

with a manu-

factured one have not been very successful.

The
year,

six

thousand mines of various kinds within

our border use up 5,000,000,000 board feet every

and so on through the
of

list

of

wood-consuming
To-day,
five

industries.

As our population doubles, the conlumber
quadruples.
is

sumption

hundred

feet of

wood

used annually for every

man, woman, and

child, as

compared with the

sixty

feet used in Europe.

Already our

many

industries

are beginning to feel the shortage, and prices constantly go up.

Turpentine, which
yellow pine,
acres yearly
realize that

made from the Southern requires a new "orchard" of 800,000 to keep up the demand; and when we
is is

one third of the lumber cut

yellow

pine,

it is little

wonder that the price
stores keeps
will it stop?

of turpentine

and other naval

moving upward.

Where and when
electrical energy,

We

read a great

deal about the transformation of water power into

but the flow of streams

is

dependent

LUMBER
on
forests,

519

and the spring
possible to

floods are followed

by
bed

drought.
the spring,

While the Ohio River
it is

rises forty feet in

walk over the

river

almost dry shod the following summer.

We

hear

much about

irrigation,

but irrigation

is

dependent largely on mountain
States, called conservation, or

forests.

So a burning question has arisen in these United
the

husbanding

of

the great resources that have

made our country
from those
of

what

it is.

The

forest resources are different

the mines.

There

is

a definite end to the supply of
silver,

coal, iron, gold,

and

but by proper care the

forest

may

be made to yield a continuous crop of

lumber.
Forestry does not

but the

mean the fencing in of the woods, handling of them in such a way that no
This has been
with

more

is

cut than the annual growth.

practised in

Germany on

scientific principles

such success that the production has been increased

300 per cent., and where seventy-five years ago they
obtained twenty cubic feet from each acre a year,

they

now cut

sixty,

and the

forest continues to

grow

luxuriantly.

What Germany has done we can do, and millions of acres now useless can be made to yield large quan-

520
tities of

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
wood while
continually clothed with growing

forests.

The
sap
is

cutting of lumber

is

usually done

dormant, preferably

in the winter.

when the The logs

are gotten to the mill

by the cheapest method, which usually consists in floating them down a stream or river; but now that most of the remaining forest
remote,
it is

is

quite

common

to have portable
trees are

mills transported into the

woods where the

cut and sawed into planks or the larger sizes of timber and from there loaded on the cars.

method was more picturesque, and the "drive" started with the breaking up of the ice in the spring. Thousands and hundreds of
old-fashioned

The

thousands of logs were guided down stream, pulled

when they became stranded, and the jams were broken up until the smooth water below made
off

shore

sorting possible.

As

several companies

might be driving down the

same stream, each
the private

log

was marked by an axe with
one to which
it

mark

of the

belonged.

After

many

vicissitudes, the drive

would reach the

boom, where the lumber of the various companies would be separated and made up into rafts.
sorting

A boom

is

a chain of logs fastened together by
river.

iron chains,

and extending into the

It

may

LÜMBER
the stream to allow a passage for boats.
case the river end has to be anchored

521

reach clear across, or one end can be anchored in

In that
to

up stream

catch the logs.

One
drive
is

of the

most

serious things encountered
It

on a

the log jam.

may be caused in many ways
etc.

but usually by some obstruction, as a shoal, rocks,
a narrowing of the river,

The lumberman has
jams, solid jams, etc.

a vocabulary of his own, and

he recognizes several kinds of jams, such as wing

No
fore

matter how caused,

it is

the business of the

lumber jack to break up the jam, and sometimes beit

can be done a late freeze
solid ice

will

occur and the
It
it
is

whole mass become
breaking up

and

logs.

some-

times necessary to use dynamite to break
is

up.

a dangerous time for the driver,
his life across the

The who

must sometimes run for mass of logs to the shore.
After they are
to

moving

made

into rafts, steamers are used
It
is

tow the

logs to the various mills.
is

slow work,

but when the destination

reached, the real process

of Converting the tree into

lumber begins.

Often

the rafts stay in the water for months before being

broken up, and the logs guided to the endless chain

which drags them up into the

mill.

522

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
this

From
modern

timc on the action

is

very rapid.

The

mill in a

mass

of rapidly

moving machinery,

guided and controlled by comparatively few men.

Three distinct

classes of

saws are used

circular,

band, and gang saws, and different mills in the same

neighborhood use different methods.

Band saws

are continuous bands of steel, often

48 feet long, and as wide as 8 inches, which pass
over two large wheels like a belt.
straight
of

Gang saws are and move up and down rapidly. A number
are

them

fastened

to

horizontal

pieces,

the

distance apart being adjustable to the thickness of

timber desired.
Before passing through the gang saw, the logs are
usually edged,
sides.
i.

e.,

a slab

is

cut from two opposite

The

log

is

then turned over on one of these
it

flat sides, so

that as
all

passes through the gang saw

the planks are

the same width.

The

slabs or edgings are passed through other
all

saws and cut to the width and length of a lath,
the waste possible being by-products.

made

into lath

or other

As we use four
important item.

billions of lath

a year, this

is

an

The

process varies with the kind of lumber and
is

its

future purpose, but a great deal

wasted

in

many

LUMBER
mills.

523

The

refuse

is

used for

fuel,

and

in

some

cases

burned in Stacks built specially for the purpose of
getting rid of
it.

This

is

one of the forms of waste

which
future,

will

undoubtedly be done away with in the

and already many lumbermen are at work

on the problem.

The sawdust

is

conveyed directly

to the furnaces under the boiler

and used

in the

generation of steam.

LIV
LUMBER: NO.
3

HAVING
Here
in
it

finally

reached
is

the

commercial
to the

stage, the

lumber

shipped away from
rail

the mill either by water or by

lumber yards of the country.
should be seasoned.

In the past this

process consisted of piling the planks in the open air

such a
pile,

way

that air could circulate freely through

the

allowing the sap to evaporate and the

wood

to dry evenly.

This was a sure but slow process,
life

and

in the

hurry of modern

quicker methods

have been

tried.
is

One

of these
is

known
in a

as kiln drying,

by which
It consists

the time

reduced to a few weeks.

of piling the
it

wood

by

artificial

heat.

room like a kiln and drying The result is not so satis-

factory as the natural method, because the sap near

the surface hardens and prevents the inner moisture

from escaping, so that kiln-dried lumber while dry
at the surface
tili

is

"green"
is

inside.

When

planed
is

part of the surface

removed the green wood
524

LÜMBER
brought near to the
to occur.
air again,

525

and warping

is

Kable

Other methods have been
to vaporize the sap,

tried,

such as steaming
in hot

and soaking

water for
all

the same purpose.

Of course these processes

add to the cost of lumber, yet so valuable is time that
it is difficult

to obtain
it

good old-fashioned seasoned

wood
yard.

unless

has lain for some time in a local

In order to understand the phenomena of warping,
shrinkage,
to
all

checking, shakes, etc.,
of

it

is

necessary

know something
cells are

living organisms, it

how the tree grows. Like is made up of minute cells.
is

The new

formed on the outside of the tree

under the bark, and here the sap

most

active.

The cause

of the flow of sap
it

is

not very clearly

understood, but

corresponds to blood in the

human
cells

body, in that
the
cells.
r

it

carries the

nourishment that forms
of soft

As a new mass or layer

new
is

forms each season, the layers

may

be distinctly
not

seen and counted, but the line of Separation

a sharply drawn one, as we find by examining a
cross section of

wood with the microscope.

Howenough

ever, the layers or annual rings are distinct

to be counted, so that the age of the tree at the time
it

was cut down may be readily discovered.

526

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
or sap wood, then,
is

The new

further from the
old
cells

centre each year,

and while the
less

may

not be dead, they contain

and

less

sap, are

therefore drier, and after a few years change colour,

becoming darker.
There
is

often a very great contrast between the

colour of the heart

wood and that

of the sap

wood,

although the latter
years of growth.

may

be represented by several
but

These annual rings are not actually
in others.
ing,

circular,

very irregulär, and often wider in some parts than

The study
it

of these rings

is

very interestin

and

shows that the tree usually increases
first

diameter more rapidly during the

few years

than

later.

Very

often, after

growing slowly for

several years, the tree will apparently
again.

grow rapidly

The cause

of

this

cannot be determined
tree's history.

without a knowledge of the
It has

been proved by experiment that thinning
per

the forest increases the growth of the remaining
trees

18

cent.,

and

these

peculiarities

in

the rings

may have
of this
is

been due to some

like cause.

The bearing
is

f act

on the

peculiarities of

warp-

ing and shrinkage
drier at the

when cut down the log heart and more sappy at the outside,
that

so that evaporation occurs near the surface.

LUMBER
The
it,

527

effect of it is

shown

in Fig. 239.

The

outside
"

drawing together has opened the wood, or "checked

most at the outside, diminishing toward theeentre.

feftTOTgS

^
Fig. 239.

Warping, wind, and shrinkage.

The evaporation would have occurred
had the
curl as

log been cut into

same planks, causing them to
just the
is

shown
is

at a.

This

known

as

warping,

and

it

one of the troubles of the woodworker.
it

must be constantly guarded against, and overcome as far as possible. It cannot be entirely prevented, but if the wood has been
In construction
well seasoned before
it is

used a large part of the
mill, or in

warp

will

be taken out in the planing

the squaring up.
Twisting, winding, and warping are also caused

by the two
plank
is

sides of a

board having been subjected
If

to difterent degrees of heat, moisture, etc.
laid

a

on the
air

floor,

the upper part

is

more

exposed to the

and to changes
it curls.

of temperature

and humidity; therefore
If a

board
is

is

stood on end or placed in a rack
air,

where there

a free circulation of

the curling

528
will

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
be

much

less.

Even

in a rack,

if

several boards

are piled one on another, the top one will have different conditions from the others

and be apt to

curl

or wind.

Shrinkage

is

a term applied to the decrease in
tree,

diameter of the

due to sap evaporation.

In the case of the board
width, and
their
it

varies

means a decrease in greatly in different trees and
it

woods.

As shrinkage
on a

is

always across the

grain, its effect

common Joint may be
illustrated in Fig. 240.

s
\l

At a

is

shown a mid-

i
Fig. 240.

dle lap Joint just put

together. If the
is it

wood

Effect of shrinkage on lumber

not well seasoned, shrinkage
to the form
6,

will in
is

time change

shown at make the meaning clear.

which

exaggerated to

A

Square piece of timber, one corner of which
the tree, will change from

is

the centre of

c to d.

Shrinkage as well as warping must be taken into
consideration in construction.

The development
illustration.

of the panelled door

is

a good

Suppose we wish to close a space
little

with a door, knowing
us construct
it

about shrinkage.

Let

by the simplest method, say four

LUMBER
vertical boards.
If the

529

width of these boards equals
is

the opening
will

when the door

built (Fig. 241) there

soon be an opening wide enough for the fingers to enter and lift up a latch on the inside. The door We notice, however, that is very much of a failure.

&^
epetiitif

7 T .jTP?T^i
i
i -

TW

»pmi*l
P»n*i

Shrtnkt
Ha.l

opentnj

Fig. 241.

The development

of the panelled door

there

is

no opening at top or bottom.

An

idea!

We construct a door with planks placed horizontally.
Now
The
although we find after a while no opening at
the sides

we do

find openings at top
is

and bottom.

panelled door

not constructed solely for

beauty but to overcome shrinkage as far as possible.
Fig. 241

shows the various parts.

The

rails

main-

tain the width, the only shrinkage being in the cross

grain of the

Stiles,

and they preserve the height

530

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
rails.

except for the small amount in the

The

re-

maining Spaces are panelled, the construction being

shown

at a.

Both

Stiles

and

rails

have a groove
This
it

plowed out to receive the edges
but
the mistake

of the panel.

should be free to shrink in the grooves, where
is

invisible,

if

is

made

of fastening

the panel edges rigidly in these grooves the panel
will

shrink

anyway and frequently

split

from top

to bottom.

Many

other forms of construction which

we have

we can remember have equally sound reasons for their form. No piece of woodwork should be designed without considering how it will be affected by shrinkage and warping.
seen daily as long as

In selecting lumber always look out for "shakes."
This
is

a defect caused by the Separation of the

annual rings.
of

A

tree

may
of
is

be considered as a
diminishing

series

irregulär

cy linders

diameters.

The

forest-grown tree

much more

spindling, tall,

and straight than the low-crowned, heavy-branched
specimen grown
crowding.
in

the open, where there

is

no

The swaying of the forest tree in the wind, especially when its neighbours have been cut down, is sometimes sufficient to make the rings separate
and
slide

one within the other.

This

is

more

LUMBER
noticeable in

531

some species than others and it gives the
(Fig. 239).
is

wood a

serious fault.

"Winding''
wood,

the result

when the ends and
all

sides

are no longer parallel.
tics of

Like

peculiar characteris-

this varies greatly in

lumber

of various

and may be largely avoided by exposing both sides to the same conditions, or keeping equally distributed weight on it until used. When winding
kinds,

becomes excessive, the board
of work.

is

useless for

any kind

LV
LUMBER: NO.
4

THE
leaves in

woods

of the

United States are
hard

classi-

fied

roughly

as

and

soft;

and

trees as

broad-leaved or

deciduous, and

evergreen or coniferous.

In a general way, the trees which drop their
the
fall

— the

broad-leaved

— produce
There
is

hard woods and the evergreens soft woods.
are so

many

exceptions, however, that the rule

a very rough guide.
Several of the coniferous trees drop their leaves
or needles in the
fall, like

the larch or tamarack,

and some woods from evergreens are harder than

some woods from broad-leaved
is

trees.

Yellow pine

harder than basswood, which, according to the
should be a hard wood.

rule,
it is

softer

than the majority of

As a matter of fact, woods cut from everis

greens.

The only way
Making a

to gain a comprehensive

knowledge of

this interesting subject

by experience

and study.

collection of woods, leaves,

and seeds

is

one of the most fascinating studies a
532

boy can take up.
only
is

LUMBER He will soon

533

discover that not

every wood different from every other wood

in grain, colour, odour,

and hardness, but some woods

are strong and elastic, others strong

and

brittle,

weak,

etc.,

and that every

tree has a different leaf,
its

bark, flower, and seed from

neighbour.

He

will

find groups or families, such as the oaks, the maples,

the pines, spruces, cedars,
of

etc.,

with several members
yet having family

each group,

all

different,
will

characteristics.

He

be surprised at the endless

extent of the subject; the willow for instance has a

hundred and
himself,
like

fifty

known

varieties.

He

will find

our boys, dipping into botany and

geology to discover perhaps, as Harry did, that the

oak was once an evergreen, and that
a good proportion of
its

it still

holds

leaves

all

winter.

He

will learn that there are

broad-leaved ever-

greens like the laurel and rhododendron; that some
trees are evergreen in the

South, and lose their
of the

leaves in the North that
;

some shrubs
"

Northern
even

states

become

trees farther south.

He may
is

wrestle with the problem

What

a tree?" or,

" Where does the shrub leave off and the tree begin? "

The study

of the

many methods nature has devised
whole volumes;

for distributing seeds has evolved

so has the question of

how

the buds on the trees are

534

CARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK
There are
definite

protected in winter.

ways

in

which the tiny leaves are folded up
buds,
all

in these winter

ready to unfold in a certain

way

in the
all this

spring.

Perhaps the reader wonders what

has to do with woodwork, but to a boy
begins to collect specimens,
of
it will

who once

follow as a matter

course.

Knowing something about woods he
begins
to

naturally

study

trees,

and gradually
of

observes
flower,

the

wonderful

phenomena

growth,

and

seed.

Planting seeds to see

how they

grow

is

the next step, and before long he has a young

nursery in the yard; while the reading of the work
of such

men

as

Luther Burbank

will

induce him to

try his

hand

at grafting

and budding.

The man who makes twoapplesgrow whereonegrew before is as valuable a Citizen as the man who makes
two blades
less cactus,

of grass

grow

in the place of one.

When
conferniil-

Mr. Burbank converts the prickly cactus into a thornvaluable as a forage plant, he
is

ring a great benefit on the whole race

by making

lions of acres of desert land available f or stock raising.

Incidentally,

these
T

wonders performed by the
die with

Wizard
but

of California

w ill not

Mr. Burbank,
a tempting

will constitute the

beginning of a new profession
off er

which, combined with forestry, will
field for

the rising generation.

LUMBER
COMMON TIMBER TREES AND THEIR WOOD
EVERGREENS OR CONIFEROUS TREES
White Pine.
greens.

535

— One
of

of our

most beautiful ever-

Growing throughout the North-eastern and Lake states, and formerly forming dense forests

from the Bay

Fundy

to Minnesota.

Needles

grow

in groups of five of a light bluish green

from

three to four inches long.

Seeds are "winged" and

grow

in cones five or six inches long protected

by

the scales.

Cones mature at end of second season.
light coloured,

Wood

soft,

free

from sap,

easily

worked and used

in

many

trades, for pattern

mak-

ing, various parts of houses, toys, crates, boxes, etc.

Becoming very
in construction
is

scarce,

owing to the destruction
the Pacific coast
its

of the great forests.

On

place

taken by the sugar pine and other

woods.
Yellow

and

Georgia Pine.

— Two

trees

whose

wood

is

frequently confounded
is

by the woodworker.

Georgia pine

a tree with very long needles, from

twelve to fifteen inches, and in groups of three.

Cones from

six

to ten inches.

A

southern tree
tops of the

found from Texas to Virginia.

The

young trees,

like

green fountains, are used in

many

places as Christmas decorations.

Wood

hard and

resinous, used for flooring, interior finish,

and deeks.

536

(

ARPENTRY AND WOOD WORK

Yellow Pine.

—A

southern tree with needles in

groups of two, sometimes three, about three inches
long.

Cones small, about two inches.
for the

Wood

hard

same purposes as Georgia pine. Red Pine, Norway Pine, Canadian Pine. Three names for the same tree. Grows throughout the North, from Nova Scotia to western Minnesota. Cut principally in Canada. Needles, two in a

and used

group, about five inches long.
inches
long,

Cones about two
season.

mature the second

Wood

reddish in colour,1iard, and used for
bridges, etc.

piles, spars,

Pitch Pine.

—A

different trees.

name locally given to several The wood is soft, brittle, resinous,
Needles in groups of three

and
for

is

used for fuel and for making charcoal, rarely

rough building.

and three to

five inches long.
it

Sometimes

called

scrub pine, although
fifty to sixty feet.

often reaches a height of
cones,

The

two or three inches
It is the

long, often

remain on the tree for years.

tree

found along the Atlantic coast from Maine

to Georgia, growing in sand, in
rocks.

swamps, and among
for
its

To be recommended
is

persistence
if

in living
its

under the most trying conditions, even
not very valuable.

wood

In the construction of a frame house several

LUMBER
kinds of

537

wood

are needed.

First, the

framework

of

rough-sawed spruce.
the outside covering.

Second, a better wood, like
Third,

white pine, for door and window frames.

This

may be
to

clapboards, for
al-

which nothing has ever approached white pine,
though
it
if

is

necessary

now

find

Substitutes.

The

roof,

shingled,
is

may

be of cedar, or cypress

some spruce
floors

used to-day.

For

interior work,

may be

spruce, white pine, cypress, yellow

pine, or hard woods.

For finish or trim, many woods

are

used such as white wood, oak, yellow pine,

cypress, cherry,

and bay wood.

Spruce.

— This

wood has been used almost
in the supply, especially

ex-

clusively in the past for framing, but great inroads

have been made
manufacturers of
cost
is

by the

paper pulp.

Consequently the

increasing rapidly.
varieties are recognized, white, black,
is

Three
red.

and

White spruce
the
tall

a distinctly northern tree,

delighting in the cold climate of Canada, but dipping

down along
straight,

Maine

coast.

It

is

a beautiful,

and

specimen,

frequently

found as
needles are

high as a hundred and

fifty feet.

The
less, in

only three quarters of an inch/or
clothe the twigs in an entire circle.

length and

Cones two inches
winged seeds.

long, bearing under their scales tiny

538
It
is

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
used often as an ornamental evergreen for

lawns, and for this purpose probably has no equal,
as,

unlike the

Norway

spruce,

it

holds

its

foliage,

dense and green, close to the ground.

The wood
for

is

weak, knotty, and

soft,

but suitable

rough framing.

Black Spruce.

— Another

northern

tree,

rarely

found

in forests

below the Canadian border, except
white spruce, but

around the Great Lakes. Leaves about same
a half long.
size as in

cones smaller, more oval in form, and one inch and

Spruce

gum
used

is

obtained from this tree, which has

a more pleasant odour than white spruce.

Wood
ments.

for

pulp

making,

framing,

and,

quartered, for sounding-boards of musical

instru-

Red Spruce.
reaching

—A
best

close

relative of the black
it,

and

sometimes confused with
its

but

it is

a distinct tree,

development

several

hundred

miles south of the black spruce, in the Appalachian

Mountains, and extending as far south as North
Carolina; while the black variety barely crosses
the borders of

Canada

into Maine.

Needles about half an inch long.

Cones small,

sometimes barely an inch and a

half.

They

fall

LUMBER
the
first

539

winter, while those of the black remain on

the tree often for years.

Wood
weight.
boards.

is

similar to black spruce but lighter in
for

Used

pulp.

framing, and

sounding-

Hemlock.

—The most

dainty of the eastern ever-

greens, with little cones about three quarters of an

inch long, and needles half an inch.

out the country east of

Found throughthe Mississippi and in some

sections used for Christmas decorations.

A

slow growing tree with
brittle, light,

wood

of little value,

being

and
is

difficult to

work, as

it

has
tree

a crooked grain and

Kable to splinter.

The

makes up in beauty what it lacks as a timber producer and its bark is rieh in tannin. Larch, Tamarack or Hackmatack. Local names for the same tree. Drops all its needles in the fall, like


is

a broad-leaved tree, but the beauty of the brilliant

new green

needles in the spring
see.

a sight worth

going miles to

Found from the Lake
Circle.

states north to the Arctic

Needles an inch long.

Cones from one half

to three quarters.

Wood
Fir,

is

heavy, hard and strong.

Used
ties.

in ship

building, for telegraph poles, posts,

and

Balsam

Fir, Balsam.

— On

all firs

the cones

540

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
As these two
firs

stand upright on the branches, while on spruces

they hang down.
intermingled, this
is

trees

are often

an easy way to distinguish them.
are also blunt, while those

The

needles of the

of the spruces are sharply pointed.

This

is

the so-called Christmas tree and baisam

pillows are

made from

its

needles.

Needles about three quarters of an inch long,
cones

almost black in

colour,

from two to four

inches long.

Wood
is

of little value, being soft
in the

and weak.

The sap

form

of

gum
is

called

Canada baisam

used in medicine, and

obtained from blisters

on the bark or by cutting the bark.
Southern
Cypress.

Cypress,

Bald

Cypress,

Deciduous

— Found growing
but
will

naturally in the
in drier soil,
if

swamps
planted

of the South,
in the North.

grow

Several fine specimens in the parks

of

Philadelphia,

New
in

York, and Brooklyn.
near the
native

.

The

lower part broadens out
conical base

ground into a

and

send
knees.

up peculiar

swamps the roots formations known as cypress
its

Leaves very delicate and feathery, not often over
half

an inch long, cones round and an inch

in

difall.

ameter.

Drops

its

needles like the larch each

LUMBER
Wood
very durable in

541

damp

situations, valuable

for flooring

and

interior finish.

Red Cedar.
States,

— The
all its

common
sections

cedar of the United

found in

where

trees

can grow

at

all,

in sand,

swamp, rocky hillside, and abandoned
greatest height in the South.

farm.

Reaches

Wood
Used
in

of beautiful colour

and

grain, soft

and not

strong, easily worked, but inclined to brittleness.

many

trades;

it

furnished in the past the

only wood for lead pencils.
Substitutes are

Owing

to its scarcity,
in

now

being tried.
soil.

Very durable

contact with water and
posts,

Used extensively small boats, cooperage, ties, chests, and

for
in-

terior finish.

Foliage difficult to describe, being sharp and awl-

shaped in the young
to a flat scale shape.

trees,

changing in later years

Very often both forms are
Seeds are the

found on the same

tree.

common

cedar berry, pale green in colour, about a quarter of

an inch
seeds.

long, each berry containing

These are liked

two or three by the birds and they are

dropped along fences frequently, so that in a few
years the fences become lined with young cedar
trees.

White Cedar.
lantic

— Found
coasts.

and Gulf

swamps along the AtHas a more delicate foliage
in

548

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
is

than red cedar, and, growing in dense thickets,
apt to be taller and straighter.

The wood
like

is

light

brown

in colour, soft,

weak. and,

red cedar,

durable in moist situations.

Used
for the

for

making

shingles, for boat-building,

and

same general work
Arbor Yitae
It is

as the red variety.

— called in may sections

white cedar.
real white

an entirely different tree

from the

cedar, having decidedly flattened
foliage.

and very aromatic
before the

Used a great deal

for hedges

days of the California privet.
cone half an inch long.

Seed borne in a tiny

Large quantities are cut
inces of

in the

Maritime Prov-

Canada

to be

made
of

into shingles.

Grows

sixty feet high

and two
tree

feet or
life,

Arbor

vitce

means

more and

in diameter.

as

the bark

and young twigs were at one time used medicinally,
that

may have been the origin of the name. Wood is light, soft, coarse-grained, but,
Used
for ties, posts,

like the

cedars, durable.

and

shingles.

LVI
BROAD-LEAVED TREES

THE
1.

broad-leaved trees are more numerous
evergreens,

as to varieties than the

and

from the standpoint
divided into three groups:

of leaf

forms

may be

Trees bearing simple leaves.

2.
3.

Trees bearing Compound leaves. Trees bearing doubly Compound leaves.
first

The

group

is

the largest, including as

it

does

such large families as the maples, oaks, willows,
poplars.

The second group comes next with the wellknown walnuts, hickories, ashes, and buckeyes.

The

third group

is

very small, there being but

three well-known trees bearing doubly
leaves: the

Compound
coffee
tree,

honey

locust,

Kentucky

and Hercules Club.

The The

three forms are
leaf

ends at
All

the leaf stem.

shown at Fig. 242. the bud growing at the end of above this bud constitutes the
543

544
leaf,

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
no matter what
its

shape or

size,

and

falls

in the

autumn, with a few exceptions.
small leaflets on the

The

Compound

leaf are

simply

parts of a leaf, not separate leaves, as there are no

buds at the point where they join the stem.

The

Fig. 242

Three types

of leaves

arrangement of these

leaflets varies.

In the buck-

eye and horse chestnut they radiate from a

common

point, while in the locust they are in parallel rows

on opposite sides of the stem.
In doubly Compound leaves the
selves
leaflets are

them-

Compound, making the whole

leaf

very large,

those of the Kentucky coffee tree being three feet
in length.

THE MAPLES
Probably the best known and most
especially in

common
of

trees,

towns and

cities.

Most

them grow

quickly and therefore become valuable as shade

BROAD-LEAVED TKEES
trees.

545

They do not make the most permanent
however, and should be planted in alternation
trees, for

trees,

with oaks, or other long-lived
shade.

permanent

The
their

seeds of

all

maples are winged, which helps
over large areas, in the same

distribution

manner

as the seeds of evergreens.

Sugar or Rock Maple.
tree of the group, its

— The most valuable timber
strong,
light in colour

wood being heavy, hard,
Very

and close-grained.

and valu-

able for flooring and interior finish, furniture, tool

handles, and bench tops.
It

grows throughout the Eastern

states,

but not
so that

in all soils.

Very rapid

in growth, so

much

when a portion of the woods has been cut down, the young saplings cannot
in the dense forest Stands,

always withstand the wind pressure and are blown

down.

Reaches a height in the forest of a hundred
feet,

and twenty

but in the open
shade

is

broader and more
said in praise
its

symmetrical.
of this tree.

Too much cannot be
Its
is

dense and
yields
it

autumn
its

colouring süperb.
sugar,

The sap
after
its

maple syrup and

and,

finally,

has done
yields

work
of the

and

is

cut down,

wood

lumber

highest value, while the limbs

make

excellent fire-

wood.

546

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
process of

making maple sugar was learned, historians teil us, from the Indians. This is probably why the process was for two or three Centimes
very crude.

The

Holes are bored in the tree in the late
is

by the sun. usually in March, but the time depends upon the weather. Spigots are placed in the holes and pails hung under them to catch the sap. Whenfull,
winter, as soon as the sap

brought to

life

they are emptied into large kettles or boilers bver a
fire,

and the sap simply boiled down to the proper

consistency.

As the lumberman is making heavy inroads into the maple groves or forests, the price of maple
sugar
is

likely
will

to

continue going up, until real

maple sugar
real facts
Silver

be only a memory, unless we wake
of unlimited resources to the

up from our dream

and do something.

Maple, White Maple, Soft Maple.
shade tree in our towns and
is

— A very
Its
it
;

common

cities.

natural section

along the Mississippi, where

becomes a great
it is

tree, of ten a

hundred f eet high

but

so easily adaptable to

new

conditions, grows

so quickly

from seed, and
it

will

stand so

much hard
There are
build very

usage that

has been very populär.
is

many
ing,

better trees, but this
in

cheap and quick growlife

and

our hurried American

we

BROAD-LEAVED TREES
gener ation.
Its foliage,

547

often for the immediate future and forget the next

when not blackened and
is

spoiled

by

the smoke of the city,

a beautif ul dark green above,

and
and

light

silvery green below.

The winged

seeds
Ist,

ripen in June,
will

may

be planted before July

produce young trees nearly a foot high

before frost of the

same

season.

Wood

not as hard

as rock maple, but strong, close-grained

and
life

brittle.

Used to some extent
first

in cabinet work.

The winter
at the

buds are very precocious and start into
sign of spring.
or

Red
tree in

Swamp
it

Maple,

— Found
The
leaf

in

wet places
some-

naturally, but

makes a large and
soil.

satisfactory shade

heavy upland

form

is

what

like that of

the silver maple, but smaller.

Seeds ripen before summer.

The

flowers are red,
is

the leaf stems are red, and the foliage

not only the
it is

most
the

brilliant red of all

our autumn colours, but
its

first

to give notiee
It
is

by

change of the approach
it

of winter.

easy to see where

got

its

name.

Wood
silver

is

light in colour, similar to that of the
brittle.

maple, hard, strong, and

Sycamore Maple.

— Although

frequently planted
like the

in this country as a shade tree

it is,

Norway,

imported from Europe.

.

548

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

Moosewood, Mountain Maple, and Box Eider are
three small American maples which can hardly be

placed

among timber trees, except possibly the Box eider or ash-leaved maple has the dislast. tinction of having a Compound leaf Its wood is soft and of more value to the pulp It is very hardy and maker than the lumberman.
has been used on the Western prairies, where more
particular trees do not thrive.

THE OAKS more uniformly valuable than any other found in North
Perhaps as a f amily
this

group of trees

is

America.

They
being
timber.

represent

all

that

is

the best

among

trees,

strong,

hardy, long-lived, and valuable as

There are oaks
but of
It

Europe a thousand years old, course we have no records that go back so far.
in

is

a difficult tree to

kill,

because,

when

cut

down

or burned, a large

number
roots,

of healthy shoots

grow from the stump or
second
growth.

and make a rapid
all

The bark

of

oaks contains

tannin, and in the past our principal supply

from these

trees.

came The old-fashioned method was

BROAD-LEAVED TREES
to
feil

549

the tree, strip

off

the bark and leave the

on the ground to decay.
White Oak Group,

Oak lumber
oaks
all

is

wood now so

valuable that this waste has been largely stopped.

— The

bear simple

leaves which vary greatly.
into

They may be divided
all

two groups.

The white oak group

bear

leaves with rounded lobes, no bristles,

and ripen

their acorns the first fall after blossoming.

They

rarely bear acorns before the age of twenty years.

The second group has pointed
the end of the second season.

lobes, each lobe end-

ing in a bristle and do not ripen their acorns until

Among

the

first

group are the white oak proper,

post or iron oak, mossy cup, chestnut oak, and

swamp

white oak.
scarlet

In the second group are the red, pin,
jack, shingle, willow,

and black oak, black

and Spanish oaks.
White Oak.

—One
six

of the

most common and best

known members
others.

of the family, slow growing, sturdy,

hardy,and beautiful.
Leaves

Acorns sweet compared with
to eight inches long, turning
fall,

to beautiful shades of red in the

finally to a
all

brown,and alarge proportion remaining on
This tree
changes.
is little

winter.

affected

In the latitude of

by temporary weather New York spring may
in füll leaf,

have come and the maples be

but the

550

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
about June
days.
Ist,

white oak shows no sign.
finally,

Lawns are mowed, and out come the oak leaves,

steadily growing without regard to late cold snaps

or

hot

During the summer a prolonged

drought occurs.
yellow and
fall.

The Not
of

leaves

of

the
it

maple

turn

so the oak;

goes right on

about

its

business

growing green leaves and
fall.

acorns, until the appointed time in the

The maple
The oak
doing
its

leaves have

all

fallen

and the

trees

are ready for winter.

goes right on, as steadily as a

clock,

work, apparently oblivious to such insig-

nificant things as

weather changes.

This

is

the character of the tree throughout

steady, reliable, and strong.

The wood trades. The made of it.

is

hard, durable, and valued in

many

best barreis for tight cooperage are

Floors and interior trim, furniture,

cabinet work, ship building, and the making of f arming implements and wagons are
all

more or
so
is

less

dependent on
is

it.

The mission
is

style of furniture
it;

made almost

exclusively from

office

furniture.

Quartered oak

a form of lumber ob-

by a special method of cutting. In most trees when cut into lumber may be seen a series of lines radiating from the centre, and runtained

BROAD-LEAVED TREES
ning in almost straight lines to the outside.
are called medullary rays,

551

They

evidence in
particularly

and are much more in some woods than others. They are
noticeable
in

oak.

These rays are

plates of flattened cells,

and are usually much harder
is

than the rest of the wood.

The

object of quartering oak

to bring these

rays to the surface of the board at as small an angle
as possible, so that they will spread over the surface

and give an added beauty to the
accomplished
in

grain.

This

is

one way by

cutting the boards radially as

shown
is

in Fig.

243

(a).

There
method,

much waste

in this

and other methods

less wasteful,

but not as satisfactory, from
the beauty standpoint, are shown
at
b, c

and

d.

Fig. 243. Four methods of quartering

— So called from the form a heavy ringe the cup of the acorns. It ends which nearly Covers the acorn proper — hence the
Mossy Cup
or

Bur Oak.

of

in

f

name mossy cup. The leaf somewhat

resembles

the

white oak,

having rounded lobes but a different outline.

Wood

is

hard, heavy, and strong, and

is

used for

the same purposes as white oak.

Found throughout

552

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Rocky Mountains, but
from Maine to Alabama
its

the country east of the
reaches

greatest development in the Ohio Valley.

Chestnut

Oak.

— Found
contact
acid.

and west to Kentucky and Tennessee.

Wood

heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained
in

and durable
strong with

with the

tannic

Bark is Acorn, long and oval,
soil.

sweet and a favourite with the squirrels.

Two

or three varieties of this tree are recognized.

Post or Iron Oak.

— Along with the black and black

jack oaks found on bleak and sandy plains, especially in

Texas, but extends as far north as Massa-

chusetts.

Leaves thick, leathery, and much darker
than the white oak.

in colour

Wood

used for

ties,

fencing

and

fuel.

Swamp White
Favours wet

Oak.

— Eastern

United

States.

localities

and swamps, and reaches a

height of a hundred feet.

Wood
to

about as heavy as white oak, but inclined
in

check

seasoning.

purposes as white oak.

same general Acorns sweet and white,
Used
for

about an inch long.
The Red Oak Group: Red Oak.

— Tree

reaches

a

height of a hundred and forty feet.

Maine

to Georgia

and as

far west as

Found from Kansas. Grows

BROAD-LEAVED TREES

553

more rapidly than white oak and has smoother bark. Acorns large with a shallow cup and very bitter. Wood darker than white oak, of a reddish brown
colour, heavy, hard,

and strong.
and
interior finish.

Used

for furniture

Has a

tendency to check in drying.
Scarlet Oak.

— Leaf more deeply indented than red
tall

oak.

A

very

and beautiful

tree with

wood

slightly heavier

than red oak, strong and hard.
of this group,

Acorns, like
the
first

all

remain on the tree
fall.

winter, ripening the second

They
is

are

smaller than those of the red oak and the cup
as shallow.
It encloses a third or
is

not

more
is

of the nut,

whose kernel

white.

The name

taken from the

brilliant colouring of the fall foliage.

Pin Oak.

—Leaf

form similar to
it

scarlet
is

oak and
smaller,
it.

often mistaken for

by the beginner, but

and other features
broad
flat

of the tree distinguish

The The The

acorns are small, about half an inch long, with a
base,
light

brown and
it

striped.

branching habit of the tree gives
great
in

the name.

number
is

of small slender branches, especially

winter,

very noticeable.
of

Sometimes called
its

swamp Spanish oak because
wet places.

fondness for

Wood

brown, hard, strong, and heavier

than red and scarlet oaks.

551
It
is

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
being planted largely

now

as a

permanent
its

shade tree and grows rapidly during
years.

earlier

Black Oak,

Yellow OaJc.
is

— Name
Yellow

derived from
is

the bark, which

very dark.

the colour
Foliage

of the inner bark,
varies,
is

hence the second name.

thick, leathery

and shiny,

of a

dark green

colour.

Acorn

is

smaller than the red oak and often striped.
bitter kernel.

Has yellow and

heavy as pin oak, forty-four pounds to the cubic foot, strong and hard.
as

Wood

Used

for fuel

and

for a yellow

dye made from the

inner bark.

Black Jack or

Barren Oak.

— Often

found

in

Company with the black oak on wind-swept, barren
plains.

Leaf very coarse and crude in both form

and texture, having three lobes and a tapering base.
These two
trees frequently

mix or hybridize, and,

while not always things of beauty, they grow where other trees cannot live and should be
for their hardiness.

recommended
as the tree

Wood even heavier than black oak, but,
is

small,

it

is

used chiefly for firewood and the

making

of charcoal.

Willow Oak.

— Foliage resembles the weeping

wil-

BROAD-LEAVED TREES
low.
as

555

A

southern

tree,

but

will

grow

as far north

New York.

Acorns ripen at end of second season,
flat,

are small, with

wide base and shallow cup.
bitter.

Kernel yellow and

Wood
Tree
shade

reddish brown, heavy, and strong.
is

populär in the South as an interesting

tree.

Laurel Oak.

— Name derived from the leaves, which
but

are in shape similar to the mountain laurel,

lack

its

shiny lustre.

A

tree of the

Middle West or

Ohio Valley.

Acorns, small and half enclosed by

the cup; ripen second season.

Wood heavy and

hard, checks in drying.

Used for shingles and rough construction. Sometimes called shingle oak.

LVII
TREES WITH SIMPLE LEAVES

BEECH
bark,

is

a beautiful tree with light gray
foliage

handsome

and valuable hard

wood.

The seed is buckwheat-shaped, small and sweet. One of our most handsome shade trees, and although
only one species
is

native to the United States,

nurserymen have developed special
as

weeping beech and purple or
is

known copper beech. The
varieties

European beech
and
in

also frequently planted
is

on lawns

parks.

Its foliage

darker and has in-

dentations so shallow that the leaf apparently has

only a

wavy
is

outline.

Wood
f arming

hard, tough, fine-grained and takes a

high polish.

Used
tree

for the Stocks of planes, handles,

implements, and for some kinds of furniture.
is

The beech
lightning,

supposed to be impervious to
it

and recent experiments show that
an

offers considerable resistance to

electric current.

Birch.

— The

indentations of the beech are shalleaf is

low and concave, while the birch
556

known

as

TREES WITH SIMPLE LEAVES
themselves toothed.

557

double serrate, or double toothed, the teeth being

Five varieties are

known

in

the Eastern states, black, red, yellow, white, and
gray.

Black Birch, Sweet Birch.

— The

tree familiär to

boys because of
salicylic acid

its

aromatic bark, which contains

used in treating cases of rheumatism.

A

large forest tree with

handsome

foliage,

a very

fine-winged seed and valuable wood.
fine-grained,

Heavy, hard,

and takes a high

polish.

Used

for

wheel hubs, and the manufacture of furniture.

Red

Birch.

—Found

in

swamps and along
in weight,

rivers,

especially in the South.

Leaves smaller than black
but closefurniture

wood much lighter grained and strong. Used for
birch and

and wooden

wäre.

Yellow Birch.

—A

northern tree, growing a hun-

dred feet high in northern

New York
its

and Canada.
bark
is

Leaves similar to black birch, but
different.

is

very

The bark

of the black birch
is

very dark,

while that of yellow birch

of a silvery, yellowish

gray, characteristic birch bark.

Wood
Used

heavy, hard, and similar to black birch.

same general purposes. White Birch, Canoe Birch, or Paper Birch. Noted for its remarkable bark. White on the young
for the

558
trees,

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
darker on old ones.

distinct paper-like layers.

Comes off Well known
for paper.
its

in

several

to ancient
It contains

writers

and used by them
oil

a resinous
qualities

which accounts for

water-resisting

so well

known
is

in the

Indian birch-bark

canoe.

The

inner bark contains starch and in the
it

extreme north
foods.

sometimes mixed with

other
sugar.

The sap may be used for making Wood is light brown and light weight but
and close-grained.
spools.

hard,

strong,
fuel,

Used

for

shoe-lasts,

and

Gray Birch, Aspen-Leaved Birck.
white birch.

— Sometimes called

The bark is white but patched with black and does not come off in layers as readily nor separate so easily from the wood as white birch.

A

smaller tree with foliage that

moves

as freely

in the

wind as the aspen.
outline, double serrate.

Leaf form verypeculiar; a long thin stem,broad flat
base,

and long tapering
light

A

persistent little tree, very hardy

and

difficult to kill.

Wood
Used

is

and

soft, close-grained

but weak.
with

for pulp, fuel, spools,

and hoops.

Hop Hornbeam,
The name hop
is

Ironwood.

—A

little

tree

delicate birch-like foliage

and wood of great hardness.

derived from the fruit Cluster

bearing the seeds, which resembles the hop.

The

TREES WITH SIMPLE LEAVES
bark
is

559

in

remarkable contrast to the
if

foliage,

being

deeply furrowed and smooth, as

a smooth skin

were drawn over powerful muscles.

The wood weighs over
foot,
is

fifty

pounds to the cubic

tough, close-grained, hard and will take a

high polish.
levers.

Used

for mallets, tool handles,

and

Hornbeam

or Blue Birch.

— A small tree with dark

gray or bluish bark.

Leaves similar to ironwood,
weighs forty-five pounds to

but narrower.

Wood

the cubic foot, hard and strong, similar to ironwood

and used

for the

same purposes.

Elm, White or American.
tree of the North.

— The well-known shade
lop-sided, one side being

Leaf

is

considerably larger than the other, double serrate.

Aside from being a beautiful shade tree, the
is

wood
and
is

very valuable in several trades, being heavy, hard,

strong,

and tough.

It does not split easily

valued for such
saddles.

critical places as

wheel hubs and
supply
nearly

Used

in

cooperage, and

exhausted.

Red Elm,

Slippery Elm.
of its

— Red

from the dark

wood and slippery from the character of the inner bark. The slippery elm of commerce is made from this, which sufficiently
brown colour
explains
its

character.

560

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
larger, coarser,
is

Leaves are

elm and wood

and rougher than white heavy, hard, close-grained and tough.
and agricultural implefrom the
nature
cliffs

Used

for ties, fence posts,

ments.

Rock Elm, Cork Elm.
of the soil
it is

— Rock

particularly fond of

— rocky

or hüls

— cork from the corky ridges which appear
A
valuable timber tree but found

on the branches.

in limited quantities.

The wood

is

unlike the red

and white elms

in that it will take a high polish.

Hard and tough, close-grained but easily worked. Used for cabinet work, farming implements, ties, and to some extent for bridge timbers.
Basswood
9

Linden.

—A

large

timber tree of the
Its flowers are very

Northern states and Canada.

sweet and attract the bees to such an extent that
it is

sometimes called the "bee tree."

It has several

varieties, as the small-leaved linden of

the South,

the silver linden, weeping silver linden, etc.

Leaves are heart-shaped,

serrate,

and

lop-sided.

A

valuable shade tree.

Wood
its

is soft,

weak, even-

grained, does not split easily.
for

The

favourite

wood

pyrography because of
etc.

white colour, f reedom

from pitch,
Holly.

Used

for boxes of wagons,

wooden

wäre, and to some extent for furniture making.

—A

broad-leaved evergreen.

Leaves and

TREES WITH SIMPLE LEAVES
berries used as Christmas decorations.
tree

561

A

southern

found as far north as Long Island.

Wood

very

light in colour,

but hard and close-grained.

Takes a

Used in cabinet work and engraving. Cherry, Wild or Black. The cabinet wood in common use is from this tree, although several
high polish.

varieties are

known

to botanists.

The

wild cherry

of the roadside in the East,

but a large forest tree

west of the Mississippi, especially from Kansas to
Texas.

Wood

a beautiful reddish brown, close-

grained, strong,
in

and

will

take a high polish.

Used

cabinet work, interior of houses, and for car

finish.

Tulip, White Wood, Yellow Poplar.
is

— The last name
White

incorrect, as the tree is
is

not a poplar.

wood
that

also inaccurate, as the only part of the
is

wood

is

white

the sap wood.

A member

of the

magnolia family found throughout the East but
rare in

New England.

Has a
and

peculiar leaf with four

points, smooth, shiny,
size

distinctive.

Flowers the

and colour

of a yellow or orange-coloured tulip.

Wood
for

greenish yellow, light, soft, brittle, free from

knots, and inclined to

warp more than white
cabinet

pine,
for

which

it

is

now

being substituted.

Used

many

purposes, including

work,

interior

finish, panels, etc.

562

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
Gurrt,

Sweet

Red

Gurrt,

Liquid Amber,
tree

—Like

the

tulip, a large,

handsome

found throughout the
resembling a star-

East.
fish,

Leaves have

five fingers

seeds produced in seed balls about an inch in

diameter.

The

seed

itself is

very small.

Wood
grain,

a beautiful reddish brown with handsome
soft, brittle,

heavy but
to

weak, warps and winds

badly.

Used
turning.

some extent

in interior finish

and

in

wood
East.

Chestnut.

—The
Has

well-known

tree
soft,

of

the

Wood

light

and open-grained,

but very durable

in contact with the soil, hence its use for ties

and

fence posts.
polish.

beautiful grain

and takes a good

Used

for furniture.
is

A

fungous disease

rapidly destroying this tree

in the East.

Sycamore, Buttonball, Buttonwood.
incorrect.

— Sycamore

is

This

is

the

American plane, a near
tree.

relative of the
is

European plane

Buttonball

derived from the shape of the seed pods, which are

round, an inch or more in diameter, and stay on the
tree during the winter.

This

is

the tree which sheds part of

its

bark each

year, giving the trunk a mottled appearance.

Wood

is

hard and heavy, has an interesting grain

TREES WITH SIMPLE LEAVES
and takes a good
of houses.
polish.

563

Used

for interior finish

Poplar.

—A
and

large family of trees of

which nine
All

members
have
light

are recognized in
soft

North America.
and wood pulp.

woods

of little value except for

making boxes, packing
Their value
lies in

cases

hardiness, quick growth

and

ability to cover

burned areas so as to give a forest

cover in localities where other trees will not grow.

The baisam
into Alaska,

poplar, or

balm

of Gilead, formerly

planted extensively as a shade tree, reaches well up

height of a

Yukon territory reaches a hundred feet. Immense forests cover
and
in the
it

hundreds of square miles. As a shade tree
one or two good
indifference to the
qualities,

possesses

quick growth and
of cities.

an

smoke and grime

It is

otherwise not very desirable.

Dogwood.

— A small

tree with brilliant flowers in
fall.

the spring and bright red berries in the

Wood
for

heavy, hard, tough, and close-grained.

Used

hubs of wheels, tool handles, and mallets.

BROAD-LEAVED TREES WITH COMPOUND LEAVES
Black Walnut.

— Found throughout theEast, most
the
Mississippi
Valley.
leaflets.

abundantly

in

Leaves

bear from fifteen to twenty-three

Nut

is

564

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

enclosed in a green husk rieh in tannic aeid.

Wood
Heavy,

a beautiful dark brown, sapwood
hard, strong.

light.

Takes a high

polish.

Used

in cabinet

work, for furniture, inside
Getting very scarce.

finish,

and

for gunstocks.

White Walnut or Butternut.

— A smaller tree than

the black walnut, the nuts being more elongated and
pointed.

Both nuts and leaves have an odour distinetive and different from the black walnut.

Wood
polish.

also lighter in colour, softer but takes a

good

Used
is

for interior finish

and

furniture.

Hickory.

— Nine species found in the United States.
a hickory, also the pignut, shellbark,
for its elasticity, toughIt
is

The pecan
etc.

All

have wood noted

ness and strength.
grained.
carriages,

heavy, hard and close-

Used

for agricultural implements, wagons,

axe handles, cooperage, and automobile

spokes.

The nuts
Ash.

of the various species

vary greatly, from
bearing

the bitter pignut to the populär pecan.

— Several American species,
is

all

wood

which

hard, strong, and elastic.

Coarser in grain

and

lighter in

weight than hickory, hence more
clean-cut tree with beautiful
seed.

valuable for oars and baskets.

The ash
foliage

is

a

tall,

and bears a winged

The wood

is

>

TREES WITH SIMPLE LEAVES
furniture

565

valuable for carriage work, farming implements,

and

is

used for interior

finish.

Buckeye.

— The
is

American

relative

of

the horse

chestnut, which

a European tree.

Native to the
or seven leaf-

Mississippi Valley.
lets radiating

Leaf has

five

from the end

of the stem.

Nuts are
and weight,

similar to the horse chestnut in colour, but not so

regulär in form.

Wood

is

light in colour

used in making wooden wäre, pulp, wooden limbs,

and occasionally
Locust.

for buildings.

—A

tree belonging to the

same botanical
is

family as the bean and pea.
flowers,

This

seen in

its

which resemble the sweet pea and are
delicate light

fra-

grant.
size

Seeds are beans borne in pods, varying in

and shape from the

brown

little

seed of the honey locust, to the coal-black, stonelike seed of the

Kentucky

coffee tree.

Black Locust, Yellow Locust.

— Found from

New
Wood
soil,

York south
kansas.

to

northern Georgia and west to Ar-

Seed pods three or four inches long.

yellow, heavy, hard

and close-grained.

The most

durable

wood we have
Locust.

in contact with the

used extensively for posts.

Honey

— Native to the Mississippi Valley
Doubly Compound
Tree has

but hardy when transplanted.
leaves of great delicacy.

many

thorns

566

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
in great Clusters

growing often
inches long.
often twisted.

and sometimes

six

Seeds borne in long, dark brown pods

Wood

reddish brown, hard, strong, coarse-grained

and durable.
the pioneers
beans.

Used

for wheel hubs.

Kentucky Coffee Tree.

— Named from the fact that
its

made

a coffee Substitute from

black

A

southern tree, occasionally found as far

north as

New

York.

Leaves doubly Compound.

Seeds borne in large pods shaped like a lima bean

about ten inches long.

Wood
grained.
ble

light

brown, heavy, strong and coarsein drying,

Checks considerably
polish.

but dura-

and takes a good

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