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A Seminar Report On


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Of Master of Human Resource Management (MHRM) As a part of the curriculum of semester-1

Supervised by: Ms. Ankita Gangwal Sr. Asstt. Prof & Head of Deptt.( PG Studies in Commerce & Management) ICG

Submitted by: Divya Pareek Semseter-1 ICG

Department of PG Studies in Commerce & Management International College for Girls

Jaipur 2009-10


I wish to express my indebtedness and gratitude to the management of international college for girls for providing me a wonderful opportunity to gain knowledge by including this project as a part of the MHRM degree. I wish to serve a warm and special note of thanks to my guide and head of PG department Ms. Ankita Gangwal for the precious time sacrificed in guiding and helping me to complete this project successfully.

Divya Pareek Semester-I ICG


S.NO 1 2.

TOPICS Introduction Grievance Redressal System Introduction to Grievance Forms of Grievance Methods of Identifying Grievance Causes of Grievance Effects of Grievance Presentation of Grievance Role of Human Resource Department Principles of Handling Grievance Machinery for Handling Grievance Benefits of Grievance Handling System Essential of Grievance Procedure

P. No. 1-2 3 4-5 6-7 8-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-22 23-26 27-29 30-31

3 4 5

Objective of Study Research Methodology Few examples from Different Industries Infosys Hotel Marriott

32 33-35 36 36-37 38 39-40 41

6 7

Conclusion Bibliography

Organizations are made up of people and function through people . Without people and organizations cannot exist. The resources of men, money, materials & machinery are collected , coordinated and utilized through people, that is why people are the most significant resource of any organization. This resource is called HUMAN RESOURCE. Human resources represent the people at work. They are the sum total of the inherent abilites, acquired knowledge and skills .They need to be united into a team because without united human efforts, no organization can achieve its goals. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT is that part of management concerned with people at work & with their relationships within the organization. It seeks to bring together men and women who make up an enterprise, enabling each to make his own best contribution to its success both as an individual and as a member of working group. Human resource management is known by different names e.g. personnel management, manpower management. Significance of human resource management: Attracting and retaining the required talent through effective human resource planning, selection, placement, orientation, compensation and promotion policies. Developing the necessary skills and the right attitudes among the employees through training , development, performance appraisal etc

Seeking willing cooperation of employees through motivation, participation, grievance handling etc. Utilizing the available human resources available.

Scope of human resource management is very wide. Efficient management of the grievances of the employees is one of the integral part of it. A grievance is a sign of employees discontent with job and its nature. The employee has got certain aspirations and expectations which he thinks must be fulfilled by the organization. When the organization fails to satisfy the employee needs, he develops a feeling of discontent or dissatisfaction. All organizations have grievances therefore they need a sound grievance redressal system to tackle the employee grievances, which could otherwise hamper the growth of employee and the organization.


The term "grievance" means "any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels, is unfair, unjust or inequitable." Said by Michael J. Jucius, This definition is very broad and covers dissatisfactions which have the following characteristics: 1. The discontent must arise out of something connected with the company. Workers may be dissatisfied because of several reasons, e.g., illness in the family, quarrel with a neighbour, disliking for the political party in power, and so on. Such outside sources are beyond the control of the company and, therefore, do not constitute a grievance. 2. The discontent may be expressed or implied. Expressed grievances are comparatively easy to recognize and are manifested in several ways, eg., gossiping, jealously, active criticism, argumentation, increased labour turnover, carelessness in the use of tools and materials, untidy housekeeping, poor workmanship, etc. Unexpressed grievances are indicated by indifference to work, day dreaming, absenteeism, tardiness, etc. It is not wise to recognize only expressed grievances and overlook the unexpressed ones. In fact, unexpressed or implied grievances are more dangerous than the expressed ones because it is not known when they may explode. Hence, the executive should

develop a seventh sense for anticipating grievances. He should be sensitive to even the weak and 'implied' signals from the employee. An employee may causally remarks that it is too hot in the room or that he has been assigned a job that he does not like. All such casual remarks and grumblings are grievances by implication. Only for a painstaking and observant supervisor it is possible to discover what is bothering the employees before they themselves are aware of grievances. The personnel department can be helpful by training supervisor to become proficient in observing employees. The techniques of attitude surveys and statistical interpretations of trends of turnover, complaints, transfers, suggestions, etc., are also helpful in this connection. 3. The discontent may be valid, legitimate and rational or untrue and irrational or completely ludicrous. The point is that when a grievance held by an employee comes to the notice of the management it cannot usually dismiss it as irrational or untrue. Such grievances also have to be attended to by the management in the same way as rational grievances. We should know that a large part of our behaviour is irrational. This may be largely due to our distorted perception. Emotional grievances which are based upon sentiments (like love, hatred, resentment, anger, envy, fear, etc.), misconceptions and lack of thinking are examples of our irrational behaviour. These grievances are the most difficult to handle.

Forms of Grievances





Factual : When an employee is dissatisfied with his job, for genuine or factual reasons like a breach of terms of employment or any other reasons that are clearly attributed to the management, he is said to have a factual grievance. Thus, factual grievances arise when the legitimate needs are unfulfilled. The problem that he has is real and not virtual.


Imaginary : When an employee's grievance or dissatisfaction is not because of any factual or valid reason but because of any factual or valid reason but because of wrong perception, wrong attitude or wrong information he has. Such a grievance is called an imaginary grievance. Though it is not the fault of management, the responsibility of dealing with it still rests with the management. So the problem is not real. It is in the mind or just a feeling towards someone of something. So be careful your grievances could be very much imaginary!


Disguised : An employee may have dissatisfaction for reasons that are unknown to him. This may be because of pressures and frustrations that an employee is feeling from other sources like is personal life. I am sure you will agree that if you have fought at home and come to the institute, you cannot concentrate in the class. Similarly if you have had a bad day in the institute, that will reflect in the mood at home. We are all humans and are sensitive to the environment that we operate in! The managers have to detect the disguised grievances and attend to them by counseling the concerned employees. They have to find out the root cause of the problem rather than find quick fix solution to them.


Method of Identifying Grievances


Gripe Boxes

Grievance Procedure

Open Door Policy

Opinion Survey

Exit Interview

Work Environment

A rational HR manager always anticipate employee grievances in advances and take step to tackle them before they become damaging and dangerous to the organization. An average manager redresses grievances as and when they crop up. An HR manager should make effort to know about the latent grievances before they turn into actual serious disputes. There are various means and methods of knowing about employee grievances. They are as follows: 1. Observations : A supervisor or a manager can usually anticipate the behaviour of people working under him. Employee's grievances can be anticipated by their carelessness, absenteeism, wastage of materials, or damaging tools. Supervisors work very close to the scene of actual operations. Hence, they can easily find out the unusual behaviour of workers and can take action promptly.


Opinion Surveys : Surveys can be conducted to know the opinions of employees about the working environment, behaviour of the supervisors, managers policies and personnel matters.


Gripe Boxes: These are boxes in which the employees can drop their anonymous complaints. They are different from the suggestion boxes in which employees drop their named suggestions with an intention to receive rewards, these boxes do not reveal the identity of employees. An employee can express his feelings, complaints, discontent or injustice very freely without any fear of punishment.


Exit Interviews: Many employees leave their present organizations due to some discontent. By conducting 'Exit interviews' managers can find out the real reasons due to which the employees is leaving the organization. Employees can be encouraged to give a correct picture about the firm so that lackings can be removed. Employee can give the fearless answers to the questions asked. He may also be given a questionnaire to fill up and answer the important questions. Thus, exit interview can provide valuable information about poor side of the firm.


Grievance Procedure: A systematic grievance procedure is the best means to highlight employee dissatisfaction at various levels. In the absence of such a procedure, grievances pile up and burst up in violent forms at a future date.


Work Environment: The best way to know about grievances is to know your work environment in which grievances occur in the first place. Hone your ability to recognize, diagnose, and correct the

causes of potential employee dissatisfaction (such as unfair appraisals, inequitable wages, or poor communications) before they become grievances. 7. Open Door Policy: Some organizations extend a general invitation to their employees to informally drop in the manager's room any time and talk over their grievances. At first glance, this policy appear both suitable and workable. Experience has shown that, except in very small firms, it is rarely workable. In large concerns, however, where there are several levels of management, it is organizationally unsound to invite employees to take complaints directly to a member of top management. Bypassing a lower supervisor in this way has at least two undesirable consequences : a. It prevents supervisor from getting first-hand information that is stated or implied in the complaint. b. When the complaint is not presented to the supervisor, members of higher management lose a valuable opportunity to assess a supervisor's skill. They do not k now what action, if any, the supervisor would have taken to correct a ground for dissatisfaction. Beside above this policy may appear unattractive due to the following limitations : (1) Top management does not have the time to attend to innumerable routine grievances.

(2) Top management remains unfamiliar with the actual work situation in which the grievances developed. (3) Some employees hesitate to be signed out as having a grievance. Others are afraid they will incur their supervisor's disfavour. (4) This policy may also hide the top management's own hesitation to make contacts with the workers. (5) Open door policy inevitably weakens line authority of people at organizational levels below and above the supervisor who was originally bypassed. All in all, then, there are such serious objections to the open-door policy that a formal complaint and grievance procedure seems preferable. 8. Other Means : Group meetings, periodical interviews with

employees, collective bargaining sessions are some other means through which one can get information's about employee's dissatisfaction.

Causes of Grievances

Working Conditions Management Policy

Alleged Violation Personal Maladjustment

Grievances may arise due to the following reasons : 1. Grievances arising out of Working Conditions : (i) Poor physical conditions of work place. (ii)Very tight production standards. (iii) (iv) Non-availability of proper tools and machines. Unplanned changes in schedules and procedures.

(v) Failure to maintain proper discipline. (vi) Mismatch of the worker with the job.

(vii) Poor relationship with the supervisor. 2. Grievances arising from Management Policy : (i) Wage rates and method of wage payment. (ii)Overtime and incentive schemes. (iii) Seniority.

(iv) Transfers. (v) Promotion, demotion and discharge. (vi) Lack of opportunities for career growth. (vii) Penalties imposed for misconduct. (viii) Hostility towards trade union. (ix) 3. Leave.

Grievances arising from Alleged Violation of : (i) The collective bargaining agreement. (ii) (iii) (iv) Company rules and regulations. Central or State laws. Responsibilities of management.


Grievances arising out of Personal Maladjustment : (i) Over-ambition. (ii) (iii) Excessive self-esteem. Impractical attitude to life.

Effects of Grievance

On the Production

On the Employees

On the Managers

Grievances, if they are not identified and redressed, may affect adversely the workers, managers and the organization. The effects are : On the Production : Low quality of production and productivity. Increase in the wastage of material, spoilage/ leakage of machinery. Increase in the cost of production per unit. On the Employees : Increases the rate of absenteeism and turnover. Reduces the level of commitment, sincerity and punctuality. Increase the incidence of accident. Reduces the level of employee morale.

On the Managers : Strains the superior-subordinate relations. Increases the degree of supervision, control and follow up. Increase in employee unrest and conflicts.

Informal and formal presentation of grievances have their advantages and disadvantages. Informal treatment of grievances avoids the fear of bringing in writing and perpetuating the record of an employee being a chronic grievance against the management. But informal and oral handling tends to promote a feeling of inadequacy, less attention, and even inconsistent treatment. The recent trend in grievance handling has been towards Formal procedures. It is the most common conflict management tool available to the employers. In practice, formal grievances get more serious attention than do informal complaints. The formal step provides for the grievances to be presented in a written form. The reason for writing is not to generate a bureaucratic culture but to inject a sense of responsibility. Most enterprises have written grievance procedures patterned after the Indian Labour Conference model. In exercising the right to present a grievance, the employee needs to be free from restraint or coercion. An aggrieved worker is likely to be emotionally upset and does not always feel capable of putting his problem before co-employee of his choice. The presentation of grievance to the first-line supervisor and its settlement at that level is very important. First-line management is more familiar with the workplace problem areas and so better capable of handling them.

A measure of success of the grievance redressal process is the extent to which grievances are settled with skill, fairness, understanding and good judgment. Emphasis is, therefore, placed for grievances being settled at the first stage. Workplace grievances help the managers in learning the values of persuasion, compromise and hard realities of gaining co-operation from men of diverse interests. Front-line managers need to be trained to be factual and analytical in grievance handling and to investigate and not to evaluate any grievance.


Grievance handling is not the monopoly of a specialist or of a functional department. The role of personnel department in this regard should be : (a) To devise a sound grievance procedure which could serve as an effective upward communication in the organization; (b) To advise the line people about the importance of a sound grievance handling system and its implementation; (c) To train the staff people, especially the front-line supervisors, in effective grievance handling and in counseling skills; (d) To implement promptly the decisions taken by the grievance committee, and for that matter to maintain effective and close liaison with all concerned; (e) To maintain records of the activities of the grievance committee such as details of meetings held, actions taken and implemented; (f) To take necessary follow-up action, review that procedure, and if necessary, modify the existing procedure to suit the changing circumstances; and (g) To follow up individual cases of grievances settled and identify its effect on the concerned individual worker and its impact on other employees of the organization.


Handling grievances must be based upon well-considered principles but such principles are not absolute insurance of success in dealing with grievances because laws of human behaviour are nonexistent. However, principles do work most of the time; hence, it is desirable to search them out and rely on them as guides. In the field of handling grievances, a number of principles have been distilled from the experience of many companies. Some of these are discussed below. 1. Have Interview : In handling grievances, a considerable amount of time must be spend talking to employees, gathering data from them, and passing on various types of information. Such talks, to be most effective, should follow definite patterns, and adhere to some welltested rules 2. Constructive Attitude : Wise managers seek to develop an attitude towards employees that will result in gaining their confidence. Also, avoid giving the impression the subordinates are ignorant. Managers should not underestimate the intelligence of employees. The management should give the impression that the viewpoints of employees are considered to be fair unless proved otherwise. Management should also display a sincere interest, in the problems of employees and constructive willingness to be of help. 3. The Provisions should be Clear-Cut : No grievance procedure can be expected to work satisfactorily unless there are definite provisions, consistently adhered to, determining what is to be done, when, and by

whom, it is observed. "Unless these provisions are set up, made known, and consistently adhered to, it is unrealistic to expect that employees will cooperate by expressing their dissatisfactions to the appropriate authority, in the correct form, and at a suitable time." 4. It should be Simple : The complaint and grievance procedure should be sufficiently simple so that it can easily and quickly be explained to each new employee before he begins working for the company, and so that it can be readily understood even by a person who has had relatively little formal education. 5. It should function Promptly : "Prompt action is not only desirable from the complainant's point of view; it is also in management's interest. Undue delay can be costly in the growth and spread of employee dissatisfaction. While an employee is waiting to see what, if anything, management will do about his complaint, his dissatisfaction is apt to loom large in his mind. It is more realistic to recognize the psychological fact that anything that annoys a person is important to him. He will brood over it and magnify its significance. Furthermore, any unnecessary delay constitutes another grievance." 6. Other Principles : a) A grievance should be dealt with in the first instance at the lowest level: that is, an employee should raise his grievance with his immediate superior. It may be simple to settle it on the spot and that will be the end of it. Even if it cannot be settled at that level, the man's superior will know what is happening. This is necessary not only to maintain his authority, but also to prevent

him from being aggrieved, as he will certainly be, if he is by passed and hears of the complaint from his own superior. b) It must be made clear to the employee what line of appeal is available. If he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate superior, he should known the next higher authority to which he can go. c) Since delay causes frustration and tempers may rise and rumors spread around the work, it is essential that grievances should be dealt with speedily. As it is said that a stitch in time saves nine. Similarly the problems of the employees should be taken care of by the management least it should become a major for the management. d) The grievance procedure should be set up with the participation of the employees and it should be applicable to all in the organization. The policies and rules regarding grievances should be laid down after taking inputs from the employees and it should be uniformly applicable to all in the organization. It should be agreed that there would be recourse to the official machinery of conciliation unless the procedure has been carried out and there is still dissatisfaction, and moreover, there must be no direct action on either side, which might prejudice the case or raise tempers while the grievance is being investigated.


To prompt organizational health, a systematic grievance procedure must be established in the organization. Setting up and maintaining the procedure is responsibility of top management, whether employees are unionized or not. Every organization needs a permanent procedure for handling grievances. This procedure usually consists of a number of steps arranged in a hierarchy. The number of these steps varies with the size of the organization. The objectives of a grievance procedure are : (a) to. (b) (c) (d) (e) authority. (f) The minimize discontent of employees that may have adverse effects on morale and willingness to work. (g) employees. To promote cooperation and productivity on the part of To have check on arbitrary management decisions. To promote fair and equitable treatment of employees. To protect the right of employees. To control the arbitrary use of managerial power and To let aggrieved employees know what to do if they are dissatisfied with their job or concern and where to look for or appeal

The details of a grievance procedure or machinery may vary from organization to organization. A standard procedure which is mostly followed

Conciliation, Arbitration Adjudication

Unsettled Grievance Top Management Unsettled Grievance Top Union Leader

Middle Management

Middle Level Union Leader

Complaint or Grievance 1 Supervisor Union Representative

Aggrievd Employee A Four-steps Grievance Procedure First we should consider the levels at which grievance occurs. The best way to redress a grievance is to resolve it at the level at which it occurs.

A worker's grievance should be resolved by his immediate boss, the first line supervisor. The higher the discontent rises through the hierarchy, the more difficult it is to resolve. 1. Immediate Boss Stage : In a unionized firm, the first stage of the procedure usually involves three people: the aggrieved employee, his immediate boss and the union representative. At this stage a dissatisfied employee present a complaint to his immediate supervisor. Mostly this interview ma be informal. Often the supervisor can say or do whatever is necessary to satisfy the complaint. If the complainant remains dissatisfied, e.g., because his supervisor cannot take action on the complaint or dismisses it out of hand as being without merit, the second step is in order. 2. Intermediate State : If the grievance is not redressed at the supervisor's level, it will usually be referred to the head of the concerned department. It is important that line management assume prime responsibility for the settlement of a grievance. Any direct involvement by personnel department may upset balance in line-staff relations. At this stage, the complaint becomes an official grievance. In organized concerns the written grievance not only states the original complaint but also constitutes and appeal to higher management against the action (or inaction) of a first-line supervisor. The management representative concerned at this stage is the next higher supervisor, usually the general foreman or the division superintendent.

At the intermediate level, grievance can be settled with or without union involvement. Excessive reliance on supervisor at this stage can jeopardize the interests of the employee and effect the credibility of the procedure. 3. Organisational Level : If a grievance is not settled at the intermediate level also, is referred to the top management. By now, the grievance may acquire some political importance. At this stage the tip leadership of the union may also step in formally if the procedure provides for it and informally if the procedure prohibits it. 4. Third Party Involvement : If the grievance has not been settled bilaterally within the organization, it goes to a third party. It could be conciliation, arbitration or adjudication or the matter may even be referred to a labour court. In the great majority of grievance procedures (about 95 percent), the terminal step is voluntary arbitration, i.e., appeal to an impartial arbitrator or umpire whose decision the parties agree in advance to accept as final and binding. Arbitration usually is limited to grievances involving disputes over the interpretation or application of the labour agreement and not to grievances or proposals the might involve a change in the agreement.


Effective grievance system is an important and integral part of human resource management. Grievances are natural in any organization. These should be solved as early as possible, otherwise they can create serious problems for the organization, the industry and society. If an individual's grievances remain unattended and unresolved, these may damage the morale, productivity and efficiency of employees. These may take the form of collective disputes. These may become the cause of industrial unrest or labour agitation. A systematic procedure should, therefore, be developed to settle all grievances. Such a procedure provides the following benefits : 1. Provides Useful Data : Grievances provide useful data on the basis of which the management can diagnose the problem and can initiate corrective action. 2. Expression of Dissatisfaction : There are several ways in which employees express their dissatisfaction ranging from apathy to a more aggressive reaction of hostility or even violence. In fact, grievances provide a channel to 'release the employees' discontent. Without the system of grievances, unexpressed dissatisfaction may lead to harmful effects and destructive activities. Due to grievance system, managers can take corrective action before discontent get expressed in undesirable behaviour. 3. Improves Mutual Understanding : A complaint and grievance procedure, may provides an opportunity for mutual understanding and solution of genuine complaints, or it may worsen existing

relationships. The way in which it is used is often a reflection of the philosophies of management and union representatives. Managements and unions can derive lasting benefit from procedures for handling complaints and grievances. 4. Affects Morale : A suppressed grievance may be more damaging to morale and productivity than one which has been aired through and orderly procedure. The purpose of both a line manger and a personnel administrator in analyzing complaints and grievances is to help raise employee morale and to increases operating efficiency. Grievances represent situations in which employees feel that they have not been treated fairly. They are, therefore, rather direct indicators of individual morale. 5. Other Benefits : a. It brings grievances into the open so that management can learn about them and try corrective action. b. It helps in preventing grievances from assuming big proportions. The management catches and solves a grievance before it becomes a dispute. c. It helps in establishing and maintaining a work culture or way of life. d. It serves as an outlet for employee gripes, discontent and frustrations. e. It helps in preventing grievances from assuming dangerous proportions. Management came solve a grievance before it

become a dispute. It is an orderly and expeditious means for redressal of grievances. f. It enables the management to know the attitudes and feelings of employees concerning the policies, rules and practices of the organization. With such knowledge necessary improvements in policies and rules can be made. g. It provides the workers a formal opportunity for expressing their fears, anxiety and dissatisfaction. Such release of emotions helps to improve the morale and productivity of employees. h. It helps to maintain cordial relations in the industry. It brings uniformity in the handling of grievances. It also stimulates confidence in employees and builds a sense of security among them. It enables both the parties to settle the grievances to their mutual satisfaction. i. It serves as a check upon arbitrary and biased action on the part of management. Managers know that their actions can be reviewed and challenged and, therefore, become more careful. Overall a well-designed and properly structured grievance redressal procedure provides: (a) channel of avenue by which any aggrieved employee may present his grievance; (b) a procedure which ensures that there will be a systematic handling of every grievance; (c) a method by which an aggrieved employee can relieve his feelings of dissatisfaction with his job, working conditions, or with the management; and (d) a means of

ensuring that there is some measure of promptness in the handling of the grievance.


A grievance procedure should incorporate the following features : 1. Conformity with existing legislation : The procedure should be designed in conformity with the existing statutory provisions. Where practicable, the procedure can make use of such machinery as the law might have already provided for. 2. Acceptability : Everybody must accept the grievance procedure. In order to be generally acceptable, it must ensure the following : 3. A sense of fair-play and justice to the worker. Reasonable exercise of authority to the manager, and Adequate participation of the union.

Simplicity : The following points should be noted in this regard: The procedure should be simple enough to be understood by ever employee. The steps should be as few as possible. Channels for handling grievances should be carefully developed. Employees must know the authorities to be contacted at various levels.

Information about the procedure should be thoroughly among all employees through pictures, charts, diagrams etc.


Promptness : Speedy settlement of a grievance is the cornerstone of a sound hr policy. It should be remembered that justice delayed is justice denied. The procedure should aim at a rapid disposal of the grievance. This can be achieved by incorporating the following feature in the procedure: (a) As far as possible, grievances should be settled at the lowest level. (b) No matter should ordinarily be taken up at more than two level, i.e. normally there should be only one appeal.

(c) Time limit should be placed at each step and it should be rigidly followed at each level. 5. Training : In order to ensure effective working of the grievance procedure, the supervisors and the union representatives should be given training in working of the grievance procedure. All the policies should be conveyed to the concerned parties. 6. Follow-up : The hr department should review the working of the grievance procedure periodically and necessary changes should be introduced to make it more effective. A regular follow up of the system increases the faith of the people in the system. Therefore it the grievance procedure should be reviewed whenever it is so required.


To gain insight on the grievances faced by the employees in their work environment. To learn its negative effects on the work of the employees as well as the organization. Grievance Redressal System which need to be followed in every organization. Essential and benefits of the grievance redressal system for the employees and the organization.

Research is a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. According to Redman & Mory research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.

DESCRIPTIVE Vs ANALYTICAL Descriptive research includes surveys and facts finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of the descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables, he can only report what has happened or what is happening eg frequency of shopping, ANALYTICAL RESEARCH has to use facts or information already available & analyse to make a critical evaluation of the material.

Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or business organizations. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH is mainly concerned with generalizations & with the formulation of a theory. Fundamental or Basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications.

QUANTITATIVE Vs OUALITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH It is concerned with qualitative phenomenon that is phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. Motivation research Is a type of qualitative research. CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH Vs EMPRICAL RESEARCH Conceptual research is related to some abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used by philosophers & thinkers to develop new concepts or reinterpret the existing one. EMPRICAL RESEARCH It is data based research, coming up with conclusions which are Capable of being verified by observation or experiment.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem.

Primary data Secondary data

Primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. In this report, case study secondary data has been used.




Infosys Technologies Limited, is a multinational information technology services company headquartered in Banguluru. It is one of the Indias largest IT company. In 2001-03 it was surrounded with the charges of sexual harassment & unlawful termination made by an employee. Phaneesh Murthy, a top level executive & a director on the company board , was accused of sexually harassing and unlawfully terminating his subordinate, Reka Maximovitch. All this happened in and around the US offices of Infosys. While sexual harassement of female employees was prevalent in the country, it was not reported or ignored. Either the victim kept quite out of fear or the matter was some how hushed by the management. The case attracted a lot of media coverage. Phaneesh was an integral part of Infosys s success story. He was liked and respected by all. He successfully set up the companys overseas business. He was often called the other Murthy of Infosys. He was the highest paid executive in the company. But he had to resign as a lawsuit was filed by Reka against him. Initially the stance adopted by Infosys in this case seemed to go against its image (model of good corporate governance).

But later Infosys issued a press release that categorically stated that Phaneesh would not be taken back after the case was settled.

Learning Lesson For Infosys

Infosys had taken several measures to strengthen its grievance redressal procedures & had designed & implemented an effective sexual harassement policy. Narayan Murthy said the litigation is behind us. We have taken further steps to strengthen our internal processes & improve the checks and balances to handle similar situations. Infosys conducted a course for all its officers & members (in India as well as abroad) on sexual harassment and the importance of being sensitized about the issue.


MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, Inc is a worldwide operator & franchisor of a broad portfolio of hotels & related lodging facilities. It was founded by J.W MARRIOTT. GREIVANCE REDRESSAL SYSTEM AT MARRIOTT: By the mid 1990s, Marriott had a comprehensive complaint Resolution system also known as the Guarantee of Fair Treatment, To ensure that employees grievances are properly addressed. Under guarantee of fair treatment, complaints passed through successive stages in Marriotts hierarchy, starting with the immediate superior, depending on whether or not the said employee was happy with the redress response given at each stage. However given the decentralized nature of Marriotts operations& with managers handling several tasks, resolution of the complaints resolution while continuing with guarantee of fair treatment. These methods included mediation, a toll-free hotline & peer-review. BENEFITS Marriotts efforts over the decades to develop an eco-friendly `work place earned it widespread recognition in the hospitality industry. It reaped benefits like higher employee satisfaction, less turnover, motivated workforce.

1)A Grievance refers to any form of discontent or dissatisfaction with his job or its nature. 2)Every grievance must be considered important no matter how irrelevant or insignificant it may seem. 3)Working conditions, management policy, personal maladjustment are its main causes. 4)If not redressed properly grievances may have an adverse effect on the workers, managers and the organization. 5)While dealing with the grievances of the subordinates Following points should be kept in the mind of the subordinates: A grievance may or may not be real. Grievance may arise out of not cuase but multifarious causes. Every individual does not give expression to his grievance.

6)Effective grievance procedure for every organization is the need of the hour because: It provides useful data. Expression of dissatisfaction. Effect morale and productivity. 7)Legal sanctity, acceptability, promptness, simplicity, training and follow-up are the essentials of a sound grievance procedure. 8)Some feedback method must be used by the organization like:

To ask whether or not the employee is satisfied with the decision. To have a general discussion with the employee about the decision. To ask others about a given employees reaction


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