Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

,.„.,
f
*
I
11
WOODWORK
IX
THECOMMON SCHOOL.
A MANUAL
FOR PRIMARY AXD GRAMMAR GRADES.
BY/
FREDERIC
A.
HINCKLEY.
MILTOX BRADLEY
Springfield, Mass.
CO.X>^.,
W<>
COIYRIGHTED, 1895,
BY
MILTON BRADLEY
CO.
CONTEXTS.
Introduction
Suggestive Programme Tools Line Work Vertical and Horizontal Lines Oblique Lines Combinations of Straight Lines Circular Lines Combinations of all Lines Surface Cutting Cutting Out Forms Cutting Out Openings Specimens of Original Work Elementary Construction Work Problems with Hammer Problems with Screwdriv Problems with Gimlet Getting out Stock
. .
.... ..... ....
Page.
I
3
/
12
23
28 34
4i
47
49
5i
58
61
64
11 93
95 101
I2 5
Jointing and Fitting
Cutting of Solids Geometrical Forms Crystal Models Explanation of Some Terms in Crystallography Crystal Specimens
126
INTRODUCTION.
The purpose
of this little
book
is
to
furnish a working
for
basis for a system of
manual training
Primary and
Grammar
if
grades, which can be taught in the schoolroom,
necessary by the regular teacher.
The
cil,
tools
used therefore are small,
at first
simply Pen
Rule and small Pocketknife; afterward Compasses,
Jackknife,
Hammer,
With
Screwdriver,
Gimlet,
is
Gauge and
done on the
Trysquare.
school
desk.
In the beginning the work
the introduction of the
of
hammer,
a
plain, portable
desk cover
white wood
is
provided, which
transforms the desk to a simple work bench.
The
course
is
designed to cover the eight years
of school
work preceding the High School, and
between the manual work
the higher grade
of the
to bridge the
chasm
of
Kindergarten and that
School.
Manual Training
Boys and
girls
should take
it
together, as thev take other school studies.
Two
periods of about thirty or forty minutes each, per
week, are recommended for the younger children;
period of twice the length for the older ones.
one
gramme on page
in the
3 subject to
modification
The proand amendment
is
hands
of a
wise school supervison
offered sug
gestively.
So
is
far as the use of the knife is concerned, the course
of
lines,
divided into three parts, cutting
cutting of
surfaces,
and cutting
is
of solids.
dic
This manual
tations
designed for the teacher; the sample
and suggestions here ^iven are
for the teacher.
2
INTRODUCTION.
are not intended to be followed
to the instructor,
They
will
word
for word,
but to
it
convey the idea
who
after assimilating
use such details of language as occasion
is
may
require.
Attention
i
called to these
is
fundamental points:
st.
Work
to be dictated not copied, part of the
of
aim
being to develop accuracy
hearing and obeying, as well
as accuracy of observation and of execution.
2nd.
Drawing
It is
is
made fundamental and
is
intended to
precede cutting.
3rd.
If
not intended to limit work to problems given.
time permits any amount can be added, care being taken
serve the general principles laid
down and the
divi
sion into parts
and
sections.
In any case original work
should occupy a large place at every stage.
4th.
its
Experience shows that this kind
to the pupil.
of
work
it
carries
own commendation
5th.
In pursuing
he will
need to be restrained rather than pushed.
Teachers are especially urged
to
it
study the system
is
here offered and the plans by which
developed, not
with reference to
for its efficacy in
its
power
to
produce things, but rather
helping to evolve capacities.
6th.
One
rooms
It
set of tools
can be passed through the
dif
ferent
in
one building, thus saving a large percentage
of outlay.
should be the duty of the janitors to see that
the tools for their respective buildings are kept in order.
The author
B.
gladly acknowledges his indebtedness to Geo.
Kilbon
for the idea of
using the jackknife in the school
room; to Miss E. C. Elder for aid in harmonizing the work
with the Kindergarten; to Mrs. E.
models; and to Miss Katherine D.
in design
C.
Hinckley
for
co
operation especially in developing the work in the crystal
Whitman
for assistance
and
dictation.
He
is
also indebted to the school
INTRODUCTION.
authorities of Northampton, Mass., the first city
to
3
adopt
the system, and to Superintendent Pease and the teachers
of that city,
whose more than
first trial
cordial cooperation did
much
to
make
the
a success.
PROGRAMME OFFERED SUGGESTIVELY.
i st.
Year.
Line Cutting.
Vertical and Horizontal lines.
Diagonal
2nd. Year.
lines.
Line Cutting.
Diagonal lines continued.
Combinations Vertical, Horizontal, and
Diagonal
lines.
Curved
3rd. Year.
lines.
Line Cutting.
Curved
lines continued.
Combinations Vertical, Horizontal,
Diagonal and Curved
4th. Year.
lines.
Surface Cutting.
Geometrical Forms.
Cross and Vase Forms
=
Openings.
Small Frame Fronts.
Large Frame Fronts.
5th. Year.
Problems with
" "
Hammer and Wire
Screwdriver.
Brads.
Gimlet.
6th. Year.
Getting out Stock.
Gauge and Trysquare Problems. Plain and Ornamental Frame, Box and
work.
other
4
7th. Year.
INTRODUCTION.
Jointing and Fitting Problems.
Plain and Ornamental
etc.,
Box and Framework,
continued.
8th. Year.
Solid Cutting.
Geometrical Forms.
Crystal Models.
General Review according to time.
ESTIMATED EXPENSE OF ONE FULL SET OF TOOLS.
Pencil
.02
.
.
Rule
Knife
.02
•
3
;
Compasses
.08
Hammer
Screwdriver
.10
.08
Gimlet
.
.06
.12 •17
Gauge
.
Trysquare
Si. 00
GENERAL NOTE.
All drawings in this book are on a scale of
the inch.
plates,
it
12
inch to
To
get correct measurements, therefore, from
will be necessary to multiply
by
2.
PART
I.
LINE WORK.
TOOLS.
PENCIL, RULE. KNIFE. COMPASSES.
MATERIAL.
BASSWOOD TABLETS. iS INCH THICK: SQUARES 3 12 INCHES, OBLOXGS Sx 2
.
FIRST POSITION FOR KNIFE.
GENERAL NOTES.
i.
It is
assumed that the pupils can
If
find the inch
and
to
onehalf inch on the rule.
not they
must be taught
do so before beginning work on the wood.
Whenever a new measurement as 14, iS, etc., is introduced, care must As be taken to teacli that first on the rule if necessary.
cheap rules are likely
it
to be
shortened at the end by wear,
to
is
better in
measuring
begin at the one inch
mark
rather than at the end.
Teach the pupil to observe the grain and always 2. when drawing in using square tablets to have the grain
run from back
to
front,
and
in
using oblong tablets to
have the grain run from
poses the pupil
naturally.
3.
left to right.
For cutting pur
may
turn the tablet so as to work most
In measuring along edges of tablet, unless otherwise
directed,
always begin on back edge
at
left
back corner back
and move toward the right; on front edge
ner and move toward the right; on
left
at left front corat
left
edge
corner and move toward the front; on right edge at back
right corner and
unless otherwise directed, also
move toward the front. In drawing lines, move from back to front and
work drawn on paper and
it is
from
4.
left to right.
Have
all
original
cor
rected with reference to good design, before
drawn on
the wood.
SECTION VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINES. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
i.
Problem
off
i.
Alongf the back edsre of the tablet measure
every
12 inch,
marking with very
light
clots.
Do
left
the
dot
same along the
the front
front edge.
left
With
the rule connect
on back edge and
12 inch,
dot on front edge.
inch,
Measure toward
inch,
draw
skip
12
draw
inch.
Move
fore.
the rule
12
inch to the right and draw lines as bevertical inch
So continue across the tablet until twelve
have been drawn.
lines
Xow, holding the knife with the
forefinger, slightly tipped to
blade between the
thumb and
left
the right from the vertical, as the right edge of the
shown
same
in first position, cut
back
line.
Turn
line.
the tablet round
(
and cut the opposite edge
shaving).
of the
If
properly
done this operation takes out a very narrow
with the front row
the same manner.
V
shaped
Proceed with the lines to the right and then
of lines in
Problem
2.
This problem involves working from
from back
to front,
left
to right, instead of
and cutting against
instead of with the grain.
Problems
3,
4,
5,
6 and 7 will be easily understood
1
by
are
the teacher without special directions after
done.
and
2
Problem
urement.
S.
This problem introduces the
it,
14
inch meas
Preceding
therefore, that
measurement must
be taught on the rule.
8
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Problems
9,
10 and 11 follow naturally and require no
special dictations here.
Problem
12.
This problem
is
to be
an original design
lines, the
by the pupil, using only vertical and horizontal
elements already furnished.
torily
cial
It
should be drawn satisfactablet,
on paper before being put upon the
and espe
attention
should be given to the requisites of good
design.
Problem
12
13.
Measure
off
on back edge
of tablet
every
inch.
Same on
left
front edge.
On
left
and right edges
left
12
inch from back and front edges.
Connect
dot on
back edge and
dot on front edge with the rule.
12
From
the back edge skip
12
inch,
draw
inch.
Move
the rule
inch to the right and draw as before.
So on across
Connect
the tablet until
you have
fifteen vertical lines.
clot
back dot on
rule.
12
left
edge and back
on right edge with the
From
left
edge skip
12
inch,
draw
12
inch,
skip
inch and so on across the tablet until you have drawn
eight horizontal lines.
front dot on right
12
Connect front dot on
rule.
left
edge and
left
edge with the
inch,
From
the
draw
inch,
skip
12
and so on until you have drawn
cut with knife as before.
16 will be clear
eight horizontal lines.
Then
Problems
directions.
14,
15
and
without special
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
[n]
1
IO
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
T
u
IO
E
_:r
ill
1
i
12
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
FLTliU
13
14
15]
L^
L51
LSI
15
L51
LSI
5>«\.«_c.\fca
«>
&v\3\tvo.V
!Ne°>\%<\
bij
>u.V'V
10
SECTION
2.
OBLIQUE LINES. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
on right edge.
Mark off every 12 inch on left edge; same With rule connect back left dot and back and mark off even 12 inch until five dots are dot, right Move rule forward 12 inch, from left edge place made.
Problem
17.
12
dot
inch to right, and from right edge place dot
left.
12
inch to
Move
rule forward 12 inch and from left edge
dot,
measure one inch and make a
til
then every
12
inch unfirst
five
dots are
made
in this row.
Find second row,
dot;
and third row,
first
first dot;
connect with rule and draw.
clot;
Find
draw.
row,
first dot;
third row, second
connect and
Find
first
row,
second dot; third row, third dot;
first
connect and draw.
Find
row, third dot; third row,
fourth dot; connect and draw.
third row, fifth dot;
fifth dot;
Find
first
row, fourth dot;
connect and draw.
Find
first
row,
second row, last dot; connect and draw.
for front half of tablet.
Repeat
same dictation
Problem
problem
17.
18.
This problem simply reverses the lines in
20 and 21 are combinations of 17 and
Problems
19,
18.
Problem 22
calls for original design.
Problem 23 is made up of diagonals of the oblong. Problems 24 and 25. Draw the diagonals of the tablet
lightly for construction lines.
Problems 26 and
27.
Draw both
diagonals and diameters
of the tablet for construction lines.
3
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
1
Problem 28 Problem
12 inch.
calls for original design.
29.
Measure
off
on
dot
left
and right edges
ever}'

Connect back
left
left
and back right dot with
dot;
rule.
Measure from Measure
edge one inch and make
then
every inch until there are seven dots.
forward.
off
Move
rule 12 inch
every
12
inch until you have a line
of fifteen dots.
Move
rule forward 12 inch.
Measure
a dot,
12
inch and
make
a dot, skip one inch,
and make
3011
and
proceed with inch measurements until
have eight dots.
Connect back dot on
of dots
left
edge and
first
dot on middle
line.
row
with
with rule and draw connecting
Connect midof dots
dle dot
on
left
edge and
before.
first
dot in front
row
rule and
draw as
at a
Moving the
rule to the right
one inch
tablet.
time draw similar oblique lines across the
the opposite oblique lines necessarv to
Then draw
connect those alreadv drawn.
Problems 30 and
principles.
3.1
are border patterns involving
same
Problem 32
calls for selected or original design.
14
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
18
21
22
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
15
23
24
25
26
Qr'ij'xTkCk.'V.
Sei'^rN
\l s
"V>u.p\\..
28
6
1
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
52
SECTION 3.
COMBINATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
first,
33.
Draw
all
the vertical and horizontal lines
then the oblique
34.
lines.
Problem
Bisect the edges.
Place rule so as to con
nect bisecting dots on back and front edges.
Measure
toward the center one inch from each
other dots.
dot,
and make two
Repeat from dots on
left
and right edges.
Connect these four dots with
lines,
thus constructing a
square with the corner toward the front.
Measure on
left
12
and right edges
inch,
dots.
of tablet
from back corners forward
12 inch,
and from front corners backward
Connect back
12 inch, left left
and make Repeat
of
left
dot and back right dot with rule,
12 inch,
skip
draw inch, skip
and right
left
draw
inch.
with front
dots.
Connect
left
end
back
skip
line
and
end
of left front line
with the
rule.
Be
ginning
12
at left
end
of left
back line draw forward one inch,
inch, draw one inch.
Repeat
at right
ends of
of left
right back, and front lines.
Connect right end
back
line
and
left
end
of right front line
with the rule and
square.
of
draw from these points inward
left
to
the
Connect
left
end
of
right back line and right end
to
front
line
and draw from these points inward
similar lines at
left
the square.
Draw
fieure.
and right thus completing the
8
1
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
all
Problem
first,
35.
Draw Draw
the vertical and horizontal lines
then the oblique
36.
lines.
Problem
inch each
lightly for construction lines the
diagonals of the tablet.
Make
dot on edges of tablet
12
way from each
left
corner.
rule, skip
Connect back
left
1
dot
12
and back right dot with
inches.
one inch, draw
Connect front
dot and front right dot with
1
rule, skip
one inch, draw
left
12
inches.
Connect
left
dot
on back edge and
inch,
dot on front edge with rule, skip one
draw
1
12
inches.
Repeat from right dots on back
center of tablet measure on diag
and front edges.
onals each
left
From
38 inch
way
making thus four
left
dots.
Find
end
of
back horizontal and dot on
back diagonal,
connect and draw.
Find right end
of
back horizontal and
dot on right back diagonal, connect and draw.
Draw
similar lines from front horizontal and from left and right
verticals thus completing the figure.
Problem
37.
Draw
the square, then the diagonals of
the square, then the other oblique lines.
Problem 38 calls for an original design. Problem 39. Bisect edges of tablet. Connect back dot
and front dot with
38
dot.
rule, skip 38 inch
3S
and make a
inch and
dot, skip
inch,
draw two inches, skip
left to
make
a
Repeat from
right dot.
Place rule diagonally
across the tablet,
make
dot one inch each
dots.
way from
center
and draw between the
From ends
of this line place
dots 38 inch toward corners of the tablet.
posite diagonal.
Repeat on op
Find back end
of vertical line
and back
dot,
right dot, connect and draw.
Find back dot and right
Repeat
connect and draw from back dot to line last drawn, skip to
end
of
diagonal
line,
draw
to dot.
last
two opera
tions
around the
tablet.
9
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
1
Problem Problem
40.
This problem will be simplified by drawfirst.
ing unbroken lines
41.
First
draw the squares lightly and then
erase the lines where necessary to
make
interlacing.
first,
Problems 42 and
vertical
43.
Draw
lines,
the squares
then
all
and horizontal
then oblique
lines.
Problem 44 calls for an original design. Problem 45. Draw long horizontal lines
vertical
first,
then
all
and horizontal
46.
lines,
then oblique
lines.
first,
Problem
Problem
Draw long
lines,
horizontal lines
then
all
remaining horizontal
47.
then oblique
lines.
Draw
the unbroken before the broken
oblique lines.
Problem 48
calls for
an original design.
20
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
\
/
33
34
35
36
Qr'. 5\rvo.V
Sei.jn
tl^
"Pi
17
38
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
P
40
4^
42
43
44
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
45
/L
r~J/rzo nu /
46
V
^^
V
V
tV—A^^\
Y
V
x
SECTION 4.
CIRCULAR LINES. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
49.
Find center by drawing diagonals
lightly.
Set compasses at 34 incli and from this center describe a
circle.
Set compasses at
1
14
inches and from same cen
ter describe another circle.
Problem
lines
50.
Draw
diagonals lightly for construction
at the diagonals.
first.
and have the arcs end
51.
Problem
Describe circle
The
centers for the
arcs are on the diagonals.
Problem
52.
The
centers for the eight circles are on the
diameters and diagonals 34 inch from the center of the
tablet.
Problem
inch.
circles
53.
The
radius for these nine circles
first.
is
58
Describe center circle
Find centers
of tablet y8
for other
on diameters and diagonals
inch from
the center of the tablet.
Problem 54 calls for an original design. Problem 55. Draw diameters of the tablet lightly
construction lines.
for
Problems 56 and
57.
Draw
diameters and diagonals of
the tablet lightly for construction lines.
Problem
first.
58.
Describe circles with centers on diagonals
arcs with centers on diameters.
Then broken
Then
Then erase wherever make interlacing. Problem 59. Draw diameters and diagonals lightly for construction lines. Make dots on diameters 14 inch from edges and on diagonals one inch from corners. With left
four
short arcs at ends of these.
necessary to
24
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
dot as center and radius sufficient to reach back dot, describe an arc from
back dot
to the
back right diagonal.
With
dot on left back diagonal as center describe arc from
right back diagonal to right diameter.
With
dot on back
diameter as center, describe arc from right diameter to
front right diagonal.
Repeat with remaining dots as
are
all
centers until
eight unbroken outside lines
drawn.
round.
Shortening the radius 14 inch repeat the same
In a similar
manner
describe the broken arcs necessary to
complete the figure.
Problem 60 Problem
every
61.
calls for
an original design.
Bisect left and right edges of tablet and
line.
connect by light construction
12
On
12
this line
mark
off
inch.
at
Set compasses at
inch for radius.
to the left,
Be
ginning
dots
line
right edge, and
moving
with the
made
as centers, describe arcs from the construction
toward the back until they meet arcs previously drawn.
at
Beginning
the
left
edge and moving to the right
describe arcs in a similar
manner toward the
front,
until
thev meet arcs previously drawn.
Problem
tion line.
62.
Bisect the tablet lengthwise for construcfor arcs
left
Find centers
63.
on this
line.
18, 38,
Problem
12,
Measure on
and right edges
12, 3S.
Connect back and front dots on left and right
light horizontal
left
edges in pairs with
construction lines.
in pairs
Connect middle three dots on
with rule and
and right edges
12
make
dots every
inch until
3011
have
three rows of dots, for points terminating arcs.
ters for arcs
left
Find cen
on back and front lines by measuring from
inch, then even14
edge
18
is
inch across the tablet.
The
radius
H
inch.
Problem 64
calls for
an original design.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
25
49
5i
,u\
"S.i^
b.
>* ?
,
53
54
26
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
55
57
&r\fc\«a\.
U*t>%«
\j\j
"Vu.>\Y.
59
6o
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
27
62
63
64
SECTION
5.
COMBINATIONS OF ALL LINES.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
65.
Describe
circle,
then draw
all vertical
and
horizontal lines, then all obliqne lines, then describe arcs.
Problem Problem
66.
Draw
diameters and diagonals lightly for
construction lines.
67.
Describe circles
first.
Find points on
middle circle for termination of arcs.
lines.
Draw
all
straight
Describe connecting arcs.
68.
Problem
12
Describe center and outer circles.
Draw
inch lines from center circle on diameters and diag
onals and
make
dots on outer circle where rule crc
Bisect outer circle between dots already
center circle draw
12
inch lines toward these dots.
made and from With
dot on outer circle at left end of horizontal diameter as
center and radius to third dot on outer circle, draw to back
end
of vertical line, skip to front
end
of vertical line,
draw
Con
to dot
on outer
circle.
Repeat
at right
end
of horizontal
diameter, also on vertical diameter and diagonals. tinue the same
cle
process until all the dots in the outer cirall
have been used as centers and
69.
the arcs drawn.
Problem
First describe circles at center.
Then
describe
draw straight
lines radiating
from center.
Then
arcs at corners.
Then broken
arcs on diameters.
Problem 70 calls for an original design. Problem 71. Draw the square. Then
all
vertical
and
A
horizontal lines.
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Then
29
describe arcs with radius 516 inch.
Then draw
Problem
cles
all
oblique lines.
72.
Draw
the square.
Describe complete
cir
and semicircles.
Then
short arcs.
Lastly draw ob
lique lines.
Problem
on
ures and
73.
Draw
the square.
Mark off every
12
inch
fig
sides of square.
Find points
for center
and corner
describe arcs in pairs from these points as centers,
38,
drawing
skipping 38 and drawing
38.
Then draw
all
oblique lines.
Then from
nearest points of figures already
made
as centers, describe the sets of four semicircles
of the
which
touch each other at the centers
small broken squares.
Problem
lines.
74.
Describe circles
first.
Draw
all
straight
Describe connecting arcs.
75.
Problem
circle.
First describe center circles and outside
Make
dots on the outside circle where the diameit.
ters
and diagonals would intersect
By
properly conof
necting these points with the rule, the eight points
large figure can be drawn, the lines being
length.
12
the
inch in
Again by connecting the ends
of these lines
with
the rule in pairs, the lines extending to the third circle
from the center can be drawn.
Then
describe short con
necting arcs from center in outer
the remaining three broken circles.
circle.
Then
describe
Problem 76 calls for an original design. Problem jj. Draw all straight lines first, then describe
broken
arcs.
78.
Problem
Draw back and
front lines
and
a horizon
tal bisecting construction line.
Describe circles and use
points on back and front lines as centers for arcs.
Problem
edge
79.
Measure on
left
and right edges from back
left
14 inch, 34 inch.
Connect back
and back right
A
dots with rule.
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
14
Measure
inch in and
make
a dot, then
every
34
12
inch across the tablet.
Move
the rule forward
inch,
draw
light construction line
and repeat same
measurements.
From
of
these last dots as centers, with
radius 316 inch, describe semicircles toward the front.
Connect ends
circles already
semicircles
with
point directly back.
Describe semicircles to the front from point on small semi
drawn.
Centers for back arcs are
14
inch
back
of centers for
small semicircles.
Problem So
calls for
an original desien.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
31
6s
66
68
69
32
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
71
72



.

~*>\J "VXA^'.
75
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
33
V
immj,
<j
h\
w
77
78
3KS5 AAA/
79
s»v^ua
c^
i
6c\a\*^
ats'Kv.
bv,
~Pin,\
SO
PART
PENCIL,
II.
SURFACE CUTTING.
TOOLS. RULE, KNIFE AND COMPASSES.
MATERIAL.
OBLONG TABLETS
SQUARES
3 12
8*2,
18
INCH THICK.
INCH THICK.
316
INCHES,
5
18
SMALL FRAME FRONTS,
OR
x
4
14,
INCH THICK.
7
CABINET FRAME FRONTS,
14
12x6,
316
INCH THICK.
SECOND POSITION FOR KNIFE.
GENERAL NOTES.
i.
For geometrical forms use 8x2
of crosses
tablets. tablets.
For forms
2.
and vases use square
a straight edge to
Always begin with
measure from.
it.
3.
Always cut with the grain and not against
4.
In cutting with knife in second position, always draw
the blade down, as well as toward you, so as to
move
toward the point
is
of
the blade.
case,
When more
may
of
convenient, as
sometimes the
the process
be reversed by
it
pushing the knife from, instead
cutter.
drawing
toward the
SECTION
i.
CUTTING OUT FORMS.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
Si.
Square.
Measure
off
from
left
end,
on
back and front edges
necting
lines
line.
of tablet
two inches, and draw conside.
Repeat on opposite
Connect these
line
across edges, thus
making one continuous
around
the tablet.
Cut
just outside this line,
around the
tablet lightly, holding the knife in first position.
Cut the
piece,
same
line a second time heavily.
left
Break
off
two inch
hold in
hand and with knife
82.
in second position trim to
the line.
Problem
tablet
ters
Triangle.
Measure
dots.
off
on front edge
of
two inches and make
of
From
these dots as cen
with radius
two inches, describe arcs near back
edge which shall intersect each other.
of intersection
Connect this point
Re
with
left
and right dots on front edge.
peat on other side of tablet, being careful to have the lines
exactlv opposite to those already drawn.
Cut
off
the piece
with knife in
lines,
first
position; then cut to just outside the
then trim to the lines with knife in second position.
S3.
Problem
tablet
Pentagon.
off
From From
left
end
of
back edge
edge
of
measure
1
one inch; from
left
end
of front
38
inch,
14 inches, 38 inch.
dot on back edge, and
1
from left dot on front edge with radius of
describe to the
left
14
inches
intersecting arcs.
From
dot on back
edge and middle dot on front edge describe
to the right in
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
tersecting arcs.
tion in snch
37
of intersec
Connect the dots and points
as to complete the fignre.
manner
Repeat on
other side of tablet exactly opposite, and cnt as before.
Problem
one inch.
ends
arcs,
84.
Hexagon.
Describe circle with radins of
Draw
horizontal diameter of circle.
From
of in
of diameter,
with same radius, describe four short
intersecting the circle.
Connect these points
of
tersection with each other
and with ends
diameter in
such manner as to complete the figure.
side of tablet
Repeat on other
and cut as
before.
Problem
85.
Octagon.
Measure on back and
front
edges of tablet two inches, connect the dots and draw.
Draw
light diagonal lines of the square.
left
With
point of
compasses in front
corner and radius to center,
make
a
dot on front and left edges; repeat at each corner giving
eight dots.
Connect these eight dots in such manner as
to
give the octagon. cut as before.
Repeat on opposite side
of tablet
and
Problem
86.
Circle.
Find center
of
two inch square.
With
radius of one inch from this center describe circle.
before.
at left
Repeat on opposite side and cut as
Problem
87.
Ellipse.
Beginning
line
end
in
of tablet
draw horizontal bisecting
three
inches
length.
Draw
vertical line
from back
to front of tablet bisecting
12
this horizontal line.
With
radius equal to
the long
diameter, from end of short diameter describe arcs each way,
intersecting long diameter.
are the foci of the ellipse.
These points
of intersection
Place a pin firmly leaning out
ward, at each of these points, also at one end of the short
diameter.
Tie a piece
of linen
thread around these three
pin from end of short
pins, resting
on the
tablet.
Remove
diameter.
Place pencil in the loop of thread, being care
38
ful to
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
keep the pencil in vertical position and the thread
tablet.
on the
With
the pencil thus controlled by the loop
describe the ellipse.
Repeat on opposite side
of tablet
and
cut as before.
Problem
from
SS.
Oval.
Draw
a bisecting horizontal line
three inches in length.
left
On
this line
measure
off
one inch
end
to the right
and draw a vertical two inch
line intersecting at this point;
14
measure
off
from, right end
inch to the
left
and draw a
vertical line about
left
one inch,
intersecting at this point.
From
point of intersection
as center with radius of one inch describe a semicircle to the
left,
terminating
at
ends of
left vertical line.
12
From
point
on horizontal bisecting line
radius of
12
inch from right end with
inch describe arcs terminating at points of
intersection with right vertical line.
free
Connect ends
of arcs
hand
in
such manner as to complete the oval.
Repeat
on opposite side and cut as before.
Problems 89 and 90
forms.
call
for other selected geometrical
Problems
crosses.
91, 92
and
93.
Latin,
Greek and
pieces.
St.
Andrew's
pay
In cutting these problems, cut both ways toward
the angles, taking out small
to
Y
shaped
It will
make
haste slowlv.
calls for
Problem 94
by pupil. Problems
some other form
of
cross selected
95,
96 and 97.
Yase Forms.
all
The curved
lines in these
problems are
arcs and can be described
with compasses
when proper
centers are found.
Problem
98.
In this problem the pupil
may
if
he choses
I
use his knowledge of line cutting received in Part
for
purposes of ornamentation.
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
39
Si
S2
S3
S4
85
86
87
88
90.
Problems 89 and
lected
Other geometric forms
to be se
by
pupil.
TV
92
93
40
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
of cross selected
Problem
94.
Other form
by
pupil.
95
96
98.
97
Problem
Other form
of
vase selected by pupil.
SECTION
2.
CUTTING OUT OPENINGS.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
99.
Square Opening.
Draw two
side.
inch square
at center of tablet.
Repeat on opposite
With
knife
in first position cut just inside the lines
sides the tablet until
drawn on both
you can take out the square.
of
Then
with knife in second position trim the edges
the lines.
opening to
Problems
100, 101, 102, 103
and
104, are to be treated iu
similar manner.
Problems 105, 106 and
to be cut as in
107.
Small Frame Fronts.
The
center lines represent the openings.
The
other lines are
Part
I for
ornamentation.
call for original designs.
Problems
108, 109
and no,
Problem in.
Cabinet Frame Front.
first,
In drawing the
Greek border make corner squares
cal edges of the squares at
18 inch.
On
inside vertioff ever}'
back
of tablet
mark
Connect back
18,
left
dot and back right dot with across the tablet until
18
14,
rule.
Measure
five 12
draw
12
you
38.
have
inch lines, then measure
and draw
Move Move Move
rule forward 18 inch.
38
Measure Measure
draw
draw
14,
then
measure
measure
and draw and draw
14 until
you reach the squares.
18,
14,
rule forward 18 inch.
38
then
14 until
you have
14,
six lines drawn.
38,
rule forward 18 inch.
lines
Draw
measure
until
vou have six
drawn
in this row.
Move
the rule for
42
A
18 inch.
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
38,
ward
Draw
measure
right.
18,
then draw
12
and
measure
lar
18 until
you reach the square.
and
Proceed in simi18
manner
at front, left
Erase
inch on the
inside edges of square as
shown
in the plate.
Problem
112.
Cabinet Frame Front. Cabinet Frame Front.
1
The
large dia
mond
represents the opening to be cut out.
113.
Problem
back edge
edge.
1
Measure
off
on
of tablet 34,
off
12,
1
12,
1
12,
same on
1
front
1
Measure
1
on
left
edge
of tablet
34,
12,
12,
12,
12;
same
011
right edge.
Connect back dot on
left
edge with
left
dot on back edge and draw.
Move rule
1
12
inches to the right and draw.
let.
So continue across the
rule
12
tab
Connect right dot on back edge with back dot on
right edge and draw.
Move
1
inches to the
left
and draw.
front edges.
1
So continue across the
Connect with
12
tablet.
Bisect back and
rule.
Measure from back edge
el
12
inches and draw 4
inches for long diameter of
lipse.
left
Bisect left and right edges, connect with rule, from
1
edge measure to the right
12
inches and draw three
Bisect sides of all
inches for short diameter of ellipse.
the squares to find points for termination of semicircles.
Describe semicircles so that they will touch at centers of
squares and terminate at these points.
circles at corners of squares.
Describe
small
Erase
all
straight lines.
Problem 114
calls for
an original design.
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
4.5
ioo
IOI
I02
IO
44
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
I05
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
45
107
Problems 108, 109 and 1 10, are to be original designs with same material and elements as Problems 105, 106 and 107.
46
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
•
^J^ KJ
o.
w
W
\°
^o
o
W >0 o ^K C
°^
\°
KOM
1 1
A^^\^
f
°!^
^H
^f^ M~^
o"
W o
r^i
,1 ^
Id (7$
^
buG
o! "i^ TX/^ r^ vV^
^7
,
w ^i
O
r>
°^
x
(U
T3
':/.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
47
ORIGINAL WORK.
The
following designs by pupils are added to this secparts of the required course, but as hints of
of original
tion, not as
what may be done under the head
in mechanical
work, both
and freehand drawing.
48
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
g 3
2 o
;
III
1 1 .
ij

u
III
1
1
f
 

IHI
1 1
1
1 1
1
1
IHI
J
>
T INN
"J
Hill
Mil
1
III III

1
III
PART
III.
ELEMENTARY CONSTRUCTION WORK.
TOOLS.
PENCIL, RULE, KNIFE, COMPASSES,
HAMMER,
SCREWDRIVER AND GIMLET.
MATERIALS.
TABLETS, 3x2,
18
INCH STOCK.
4x34, 18
1
34x34,
18
18
4x2,
3x34,
1
14 14
12x34,
4x2,
12x34,
14
14 12
4x2,
4x2,
34
34
CUBE
1
INCHES.
WIRE BEADS
No. 20, 38
INCH AND
12
INCH.
BRASS HINGES,
12x14 INCH.
0, 14
SCREWS
No.
INCH.
GENERAL NOTES.
i.
A
desk cover
is
necessary for
of
all
work which
follows.
It
may
be
made
of
one piece
whitewood, the size of the
desk
top, 12 inch thick,
r
and
a piece of the
same kind and
thickness
12
inches wide, nailed on the front edge of the
larger piece, even at the top and projecting one inch at the
bottom.
of the
2.
This projection
is to
be placed against the front
desk to hold the cover in place.
Measure
for places for brads
and screws and mark
with pencil.
3.
Also for points
for gimlet holes.
of
Hold hammer by end
handle farthest from the
head.
4.
Points of brads
must not be allowed
to
show where
they do not belong.
5.
Call for original designs at end of each section.
SECTION
i.
PROBLEMS WITH HAMMER. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
inch each
115.
Find points
for
two
12
inch brads, 18
way from
corners on broad side of one end of
tablet 3x34 inches.
Drive brads enough to start them
to
1
straight but not
enough
have the points come through.
Now
hold a short tablet
12
x 34
so that one
end
of
it
will
come against the long
of
tablet
where the brads
to
will
come
through when driven home, being careful
have the end
the long tablet exactly even with the outer surface of
the short tablet, and finish driving the brads.
Problems
116,
117,
118 and 119, are done in similar
for points to drive the brads.
manner, always measuring
Problem 120
of 18
is
the same as 119 with addition of bottom
inch stock, thus
is
making
a box.
di
Problem 121
the same as 120 with addition of a
vision in the middle.
Problem 122
This cover
side
is
is
the same as 120 with addition of cover.
of
made
two pieces
14
of 18
inch stock, the outall
being 3x2, the inside cut
it fit
inch smaller
round
to
make
into the box.
The two
are nailed together as
marked
der side.
in the plate, the brads being clinched
on the un
Problem 123
go,
is
a
box
like 120 without ends
and with a
piece of 18 inch stock 3x2 nailed on
where
a cover
would
and a box
like 120
made
sufficiently small to slide into
52
it
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
like a drawer.
To make
The
this latter the pupil
must cut
down the stock
Problem
124.
to the proper dimensions.
down over the
cutting
box.
inch beyond sides
cover is made first like 120, and sets The bottom of the box extends 14 and ends as shown in the figure. Some
down
of stock will
be necessary here.
nailing prob
Problems 125
lems
little
is
—
134.
like the first
The second series of only made with all 18
inch stock, a
larger and with 38 inch brads.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
53
116
fl
117
118
119
^r—
120
121
122
54
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
rzn
i
;.;
\.A
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
55
125
126
:27
128
56
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
130
131
132
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
57
i33
i34
SECTION
2.
PROBLEMS WITH SCREWDRIVER.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
With
the exception of problems 141, 146 and 147,
in this series
all
the
problems
when completed
If
fit
together in pairs
as follows:
135 with 136, 137 with 138, 139 with 140, 142
with 143, and 144 with 145.
the dictation has been
fol
lowed accurately, the fitting will be such as to allow one
to
move smoothly within the
models in
pairs.
other.
Refer to plates for
illustrations of
Problem
depth,
first
146.
Set the hinges into the Avood their
own
drawing, then cutting the places to receive
them.
Problem
cut
off
147.
First
draw the
lines
showing where
properly
to
the corners diagonally for the mitre joint.
set
After
the
cutting,
hinge as in 146.
When
set,
hinge will open to a right angle.
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
59
135
137
137 and 13S
e
1
6
e e
:
:
e
e
e
I
•
e
138
i39
1
•
1
1
I
1
1
I
139 and 140
i
1
e
! I
:
&
1
1
1
©
CD
;
;
•
e
:
i
©
e
140
e e
!
e
!
;
9
;
\
9
:
e
141
1
6o
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
'
^~TT^,
142 and 143
i
142
e
6
g
e
_
o e
e o
i43
8:
:©j
;©•
:©:
j©
8:
!©:
:©;
©!
i©
144
145
144 and 145
©e
e e
_
146
147
SECTION
3.
PROBLEMS WITH GIMLET. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problems
148,
149 and 150 are alike except that
trie
thickness of the stock increases with each change of tablet 14 inch.
Measure and bore from both
sides.
Problem
151.
Measure the opposite edges
for holes,
and
draw around the
boring.
tablet at right angles with the grain,
three lines with which to keep the gimlet straight while
Bore from both edges, meeting in the middle.
Problem 152 is like 151 only working lengthwise of the When done tablet and boring from both ends as before.
it
must be possible
Problem Problem
153.
to see light
through the
holes.
Bore toward the center
its faces.
of the
cube from
the center of each of
154.
Care must be taken
of the
to bore slowly
and
from both sides
long tablets.
The rounds may be
made from the
short 14 inch tablets.
62
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
149
I50
.(*>
9
^p.
151
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
63
~e
e
&.
\j
PART IV. GETTING OUT STOCK.
TOOLS.
PENCIL. RULE, KNIFE, COMPASSES,
HAMMER,
SCREWDRIVER, GIMLET. GAUGE AND
TRYSQUARE.
MATERIAL.
TABLETS, 8x2 INCHES,
516
18
INCH THICK.
ABOUT
2ft.
x 4 12
«
ANY KIND OF STOCK PREVIOUSLY FURNISHED.
BRADS, SCREWS
AND HINGES SUCH AS ALREADY
USED.
GENERAL NOTE.
AYe have now
to
introduce two new, and perhaps untr}T square.
familiar tools, the
to be
gauge and
The
first
thing
done
is to
teach
how
to hold
and
to
use them.
Show
the pupil that the gauge consists of two parts, the stick
with the inches marked and a cutting point or blade at
Fig.
1.
Fig. 2.
one end, and the block which slides up and down the stick
with a thumbscrew to keep
hold the stick in
as
left
it
in place.
To
set the
gauge,
hand, and thumbscrew in right hand,
i,
shown
in
Figure
moving the block up
or
down by
Fig.
3.
Fig.
4.
movements
of the left
screw with the ri^ht
thumb and hand, and tightening the hand. To use the s^au^e after it has
2,
been properly
set,
hold as in Figure
and hold the
tablet
66
with the
left
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
to be
hand firmly so that the part
of the bench.
gauged
will
extend over the right edge
Do
not hold the
blade of the gauge in a position vertical to the tablet but
tip
it
a little
from you.
Be sure before using, that the
blade has been properly sharpened.
The
in
trysquare consists of the blade and
3.
beam
as
shown
Figure
Its
use
is
is to
measure across the grain, as the
use of the gauge
grain.
in
generally to measure and cut with the
Place the blade where you wish to
make
the line,
such a way that the beam will set against the back or
front edge of the tablet,
and draw or cut as shown
in
Figure
4.
If
the teacher does not understand
how
to use
the gauge and trysquare, he should consult the nearest
carpenter,
who can
easily give
him
all
needed information.
SECTION
i.
PRELIMINARY PRACTICE. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
155.
Gauge
the horizontal lines.
With
off
the
rule and knife, the latter being held with the edge of the
blade turned from you, practice measuring
different
lengths as shown in the plate.
Problem
both edges
156.
Set the gauge at
12 inch.
Gauge from
side.
of the tablet.
Repeat on opposite
from the edges.
Set
the gauge at 716 inch and repeat.
last lines shall be 116 inch
So continue until the
This work
lines
should be repeated until the pupil learns to
with an even cut and perfectly straight.
make the
of
Problem
tablet,
157.
To gauge on
the edges and ends
left
the
hold the same firmly in the
hand, or on the
bench, as seems most convenient.
Be sure that when done
for
the lines are continuous around the tablet.
Problem
158.
Use the trysquare
lines
this
problem.
Draw
tablet.
the
first line,
cut the second, and repeat across the
These
tablet.
when done should
be continuous
around
Problem
18
159.
Using the trysquare cut
front
vertical
lines
inch in from each end of tablet; then with gauge set at
18 inch,
gauge the back and
all
horizontal
lines.
So
continue until
the plate.
the lines have been cut and gauged as in
68
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
00
SECTION
2.
CONSTRUCTION. SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
inch stock.
160.
Plain box.
Get out two ends
sides
3
34
x
2
inches in 14 inch stock.
Two
5x2
inches
in
iS
Nail together with sides overlapping ends.
18
Get out two pieces 5x4 inches in
inch stock for bottom
for cleats
and
cover.
Nail bottom on.
Get out two pieces
inch stock.
to cover, 3 34
14
x
34 inches
in 18
18
Place these
inch in from ends and
inch in from sides of cover.
cover,
Nail together with brads from outside
clinching
same on under
Problem
161.
side of cleats.
Steps.
Get out
first
the end pieces which
are called stringers of 14
inch stock.
of
Then
the pieces
which extend across the front
risers.
each step which are called
Then
162.
the top pieces which are called treads.
In
nailing treads begin at bottom.
Problem
this
Jewel Box.
The
is
cover
and bottom
of
box are
I,
3 12
inch square tablets such as are used in
Part
and the ornamentation
163.
taken from Part
I.
Problem
cutting.
stock.
at sides
front,
Small Frame.
3 12
Finish front as in surface
square in
18
Get out back
inches
iS
inch
Raise with pieces
38
inch wide in
38
inch stock
to
and bottom and fasten with
inch brads
the
thus leaving place for picture and glass.
3
Get out
In
the
piece
12x34 inches in 18 inch stock for standard.
fastening to back with hinge by use of brad drive out
pin holding the two parts of the hinge together, in
order
yo
to
ACTUAL OF
WOODWORK,
of
put in the screws.
After the two parts
the
hinge
have been screwed on where they belong, as shown in the
plate, replace the pin.
2
The standard should open about
Proceed as
in
12
inches.
164.
Problem
Cabinet Frame.
in
previous
are
in
problem with such changes
measurement
as
dicated on the plate, and allow the standard to open about
3 12 inches.
Problem
165.
Wall Pocket.
The
small upper circle
is
to be bored out to
the initial letter
hang the pocket by. Let the pupil cut of his own name on the front. As the
little
fits
it
beveling of the front piece, top and bottom, will be a
difficult,
be sure that the pupil
accurately to
the
sides before nailing.
Problem
lem
is 14
166.
Desk.
All the wood used in
7
is
this
prob
inch stock.
167.
The bottom measures
This
article
12x6 inches.
Problem
inch stock.
Inkstand.
made
of 14
The two
circles are cut out for bottles.
is
The
as
oblong with circular ends
cut out, the edges beveled
of 14
shown
in the plate,
and a piece
inch stock nailed on
from underneath
for a bottom.
This makes a receptacle
piece should be placed 14
for pen, pencil, etc.
The under
it,
inch in from the front edge of the top, so that the front of
the stand can be nailed to
as
shown
in the
14
plate.
The
of
bottom
of the
stand measures
14
712x4
inches and ex
tends at the back
inch beyond the top.
The back
the
the stand measures vertically 4 inches at
rises
center and
when
in place 3 inches above the top.
Original Work.
A
large variety of original work
can
be done here to great advantage.
ever} pupil
At
least
one piece from
origi
should be required.
Encourage making
nal work as large as stock will allow.
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
1 60
j.
J
i I
1
!
!
;
1
4
1
1
[.j
_
p^v;:^;:::;::::^::::;:::;— :::::{:::;.
i
j
161
72
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
162
ms
: :
•:
!
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
73
I
Trr
1
Z1Z

!
H
: 1
Ope utwj
3
!
X\f%
1
!
1 
1
;
;
1
r
!
!
L___L__J

1

1
.
1
164
74
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
bo
w/////////////////^^^^^
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
75
1 66
— Fig.
2.
"rr~
i
?.—
'
!
t
166— Fig.
3.
76
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
L
167
3>
— Fig.
1.
167
—Fig.
2.
~
^
167— Fig.
3.
PART
JOINTING
Y.
AND
FITTING
TOOLS.
SAME AS
IN
PART
IV.
MATERIAL.
SAME AS
TABLETS.
KNOBS.
IN
PART
IV.
1 12x2. 38
TNXH STOCK.
34
WIRE BEADS.
INCH.
GENERAL NOTES.
i.
The
elementar} practice problems are simple ones,
but depend for their success upon very accurate measure
ment, and very nice cutting.
2.
In
all
use of brads place them with regularity and
do not use too many.
SECTION
i.
ELEMENTARY PRACTICE.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
168.
Halfjoint.
Take two
at
pieces of 14 inch
of
stock 3 x 34 inches.
Cnt out
one end
each 34 inch
in length, 18 inch deep. If accurately
will
fit
done the two pieces
together,
169.
Problem
joint is
pieces.
making Same
a halfjoint as
as
shown
at the
in the plate.
Problem 168 except that the
end
of
made
170.
at the center, instead of
the
Problem
Mitrejoint.
Using same
off
size stock
as in
the preceding problems, cut
the ends
diagonally as
the}^
shown
should
in the plate.
When
as
done and put together
make
a right angle.
Problem
Problem
171.
Same
Problem
170,
except that the
mitre runs the narrow
172.
way
of the tablets.
Lockjoint.
Same
stock
14
as
before.
Dividing one end of each tablet into three
inch squares,
cut from one the middle square and from the other the two
outside squares.
at right angles.
When
done the two should
fit
accurately
Problem
173.
Dovetailjoint.
Same
stock
as
before.
Mark
draw
off 14
inch on both sides of tablet at one end and
lines.
Divide lines into
off
14
inches.
same end mark
in the plate.
316 inch from corners.
On edges at On both sides
as
off
connect the four dots in pairs by oblique
lines,
shown
at
Cut out corners
to lines.
Mark
end
So
of
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
inch on both sides as before.
another tablet
14
On
one
side divide section into 14 inches;
lines 316 inch
on the other side draw
to
from edges and parallel
across the
them.
of
Connect
tablet
ends
of these lines in pairs
end
by
oblique lines.
Cut out middle section
fit
to these lines.
When
probin
done the pieces should
accurately.
Problems
lems
in
14
174, 175, 176, 177
and
178,
are fitting
inch stock, with measurements as
shown
plates.
Problem
as
179.
This problem consists and put together
oblong
of four pieces
cut
shown
in the plate
in
pairs
at
right
angles.
Problem
1
180.
Get out
inch
of
18
inch
stock,
34
x
1
12
inches.
Cut opening
at center 12
3
x
14 inch.
Make long
piece should
piece of 14
fit
stock
x
12.
This
long
opening so as
to slide easily
and smoothly.
1
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
8
T=q
r
h
i
i
168
170
Did
171
[
172
82
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
I
1
174
173
]
1 I
1
T
75
I
176
1
ZZH
[
^1
I
177
U
179
i
LT
So
SECTION
2.
CONSTRUCTION WORK.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Problem
3 12
1S1.
i
Post.
The
foundation for the post
is
x
i
x
inches.
On
opposite sides of this foundation,
nail pieces of i8 inch stock 3 12
x
3
1
inches.
On
remain
ing
sides, pieces
from same stock
12x1
14 inches.
For
cap take a two inch square tablet 516 inch thick.
Draw a
one inch square
lines
at
center of top face.
18
Draw
horizontal
on the narrow faces
in the plate
inch above the bottom face.
of
Bevel from these lines to the sides
as
the one inch square,
of
shown
and nail to top
18
the foundation.
Nail to the top
square.
to be
of this a piece of
inch stock, one inch
The
pieces around the sides at top
and bottom are
mitred at the corners and nailed on.
182.
Problem
Spool box.
First put sides and ends to
gether with the lockjoint.
pins, then nail
Then
bore holes in bottom for
requisite size
bottom on.
Cut the pins the
when driven in, and put on cover with hinges. Box with tray. This is also a lockjoint box made in a similar manner to the preceding box except
to
fit
firmly
Problem
183.
that the joints are smaller, the cover like an inverted box,
and the hinges put on outside as shown in the
of
plate. Posts
are placed in the corners of the box for the tray to rest on,
such height as
to
come within
716 inch of the top.
The
made
tray, as will be seen, is divided into three sections, is
58 inch deep,
and the outside
of
the top edges beveled.
The
cover
of
the box should close nicelv over the tray.
84
A
MANUAL
Tray.
Ol
WOODWORK.
316 inch stock
7 12
is
Problem
184.
Only
used in
this problem.
Get out two sides
x
3.
Cut openings
for the
for dovetail joints,
and curve the edges designed
top as
shown
in the plate.
Get out two ends 5x3.
for top as
dovetail at ends
and curve edges designed
58.
Cut shown
in the plate.
Cut bottom 718x4
Fit sides
and ends
together and nail to bottom.
Cut center
for top as
piece 7 18
x4
58,
and curve the edge designed
shown
in the plate.
Nail this in place through the ends.
This tray should be
inch stock two
ornamented with
line cutting to suit the taste of the pupil.
Problem
185.
Frame.
Get out in
14
pieces 8 14x1
joints
and two pieces 7x1.
Put together with half
in the plate.
and bore with gimlet as shown
and
When
placed together draw along the inside edges on the under
side 14 inch wide
18
inch deep, a groove to receive
the pieces apart and cut this
glass and picture.
groove.
Take
Then put
together again, and drive wooden pins
to hold in place as also
of 14 or 316
shown
in the plate.
Get out back
inch stock 5 38x3 34. in previous problems. (See part 4).
Put on standard as
Bevel the edges on
the same side with the standard.
Put on three pieces as
shown
in plate with
edges beveled toward the inside and
front of the frame for the
back
to slide in.
if
This frame
may
be ornamented with line cutting
desired.
38
Problem
186.
Office Table.
Get out in
inch stock
two base pieces 4 12x2, in 316 inch stock two end pieces
3 58
x4
14
and two pieces
3 58
for the other side of cases to
contain drawers
x4
116.
These
last
two are made narshall be put on12
rower than the end pieces in order to allow the end pieces
to overlap the
back
of the table
when
of
it
Also get out six pieces same thickness 4 116x1
divisions between drawers.
for
Put one
the end pieces and
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
one
of the pieces 316
85
inch narrower together by means of
three of these division pieces and one of the base pieces as
shown
in the plate, being careful to
have the end piece
inch
project at the back 316 inch beyond the inside piece and
division
pieces.
The
base piece should project
piece.
18
front
and back beyond the end
to the
Nail the base piece
from the bottom
brads.
ner.
upright pieces with 34 inch wire
Make
Put
case for other set of drawers in same man
cleats of 18 inch stock 3 34x14 inch along the
inside of these cases of drawers for the middle drawer to
run
on.
They must
Cut out piece
and nail
be set back 14 inch from the front
for
edges.
back in 316 inch stock as shown back
of
in the plate,
to
two cases
of
drawers, two
nails to each division, as also
shown
14.
in the plate.
Get out
top in 316 inch stock 7 12x5
a radius of 12 inch.
Round
the corners with
Place the top over the cases and back
so that
pieces.
it
will project 12 inch all round,
and
nail to
end
One middle drawer and
as
eight side drawers are
now
to be
made
shown
in the plates.
If
Each must be
is
so fitted
as to
run easily and smoothly.
If
a very small brass
knob
can be obtained, use that.
a round
nothing better
screw will
to be had,
headed brass 38 inch
answer the
purpose.
86
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
\\p—
/.
~
/
/
....%
a
;
"a
/
\
\
.
,
1
/
Si
181
1
C
;
J 1

!
C ^
j
i !
:
;
fj
U U
L_
n n n r
182
I 1
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
87
Zl Zl
•
1—
—
q
]
Z
zf
~1
r
H
i
i
UUUUUUM
CO 00
n n h n
hn
r
7
88
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
1
84— Fig.
1.
i
184.
— Fig.
2.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
89
9o
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Q
O
u
:"'0'
1S5— Fig.
1.
>?
I
V
\
\
185— Fig.
2.
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
91
186
— Fig.
1.
186
— Fig.
2.
92
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
186— Fig.
3.
PART
VI.
CUTTING OF SOLIDS.
TOOLS.
PENCIL, RULE, KNIFE
AND COMPASSES.
MATERIAL.
SOFT PINE CUBES, 1 14 INCHES. SOFT PINE PRISMS, 1 78x1 14x1 14 INCHES.
"
2
12x2 12x12
3x1x1
3x1 38x1
GENERAL NOTES.
i.
The
first
form
it
in
each series
is
furnished,
is
it
being
too hard
to get
out with the tools used. It
in each case
the fundamental form from which the others are evolved.
2.
The sawed ends
of the solid figures are
always to be
regarded as their heads.
3.
In order to designate which of the problems in this
part belong in the
same
series, the} are lettered as well as
numbered.
the series.
4.
The numbers
indicate the problem, the letters
In the geometrical forms and the hexagonal system
of crystal models,
two views are given
of
each problem.
On
the other plates of crystal models three views are given
of
each problem.
5.
When
his
work
is
done the pupil should have each
he
form
in the series, in order that
may keep
constantly in
mind the
6.
steps in the process
by which he passes from the
cases of pasteboard to hold
fundamental
to the final form.
The
pupil should
make
his crystal models, the better to see
them
in their relation
to each other.
7.
Stud} of crystals illustrating both law and beauty
ma}* accompany this cutting of models of some of the lead
ing crystal forms.
cost,
Specimens can be obtained
at
moderate
but should not be shown the pupil until after he has
cut the form.
SECTION
i.
GEOMETRICAL FORMS.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Froblem 187 Problem 188
of the cube.
a. a.
Cube furnished.
Draw
trie
octagon
of
on opposite heads
Connect angles
octagons thus drawn by
vertical lines
on the sides
of
the cube.
Cut
off vertical
edges to these lines thus making octagonal prism.
Problem 189 a. Repeat octagonal prism. Then draw and cut doubling the number of sides, thus obtaining sixteen sided prism.
Problem 190
Problem 191 Problem 192
a.
Repeat sixteen sided prism.
its
Inscribe
the largest possible circle on
b. b.
heads, and cut the cylinder.
Cube
furnished.
triangles on opposite vertiof these triangles
Draw two
cal faces of the cube.
Connect the apexes
of the cube.
with line bisecting the top
Cut
to
the lines
drawn, thus producing a wedge.
Problem 193
b.
Repeat wedge.
Bisect the upper edge
faces
of the
and draw triangles on the slanting
wedge.
Cut to lines thus producing pj^rarnid. Problem 194 b. Repeat pyramid.
base of pjramid.
the apex
of the
Draw octagon on
of the
Connect the angles
octagon with
pyramid.
Cut
to
lines thus
producing an
eight sided pyramid.
Problem 195
b.
Repeat eight sided pyramid.
Inscribe
the largest possible circle on base,
and cut the cone.
Problem 196
c.
Cube
furnished.
96
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Octagonal prism as before.
Problem 197
Problem
of the
c. c.
19S
Repeat octagonal
prism.
With one
draw on the
left to
original faces of the cnbe toward you,
heads, two lines from back to front and two from
right, in
such a way as
the centers of octagons.
make 12 inch squares Also make 12 inch squares
to
at at
centers of the other original "faces of the cube.
Cut
inter
vening edges to these lines thus producing the required
figure.
Problem 199
c.
Repeat 198
c.
Connect adjacent
cor
ners of the three squares around the projecting points,
drawing thus eight triangles.
Cut
to the lines
thus
re
moving the pyramidal
quired figure.
projections and producing the re
Problem 200
Problem 201 Problem 202
Problem 203
c.
Repeat 199
c.
Draw and
cut so as to
double the number of edges horizontallv.
c.
Repeat 200
Repeat 201
c.
Draw and
cut so as to
doable the number of edges vertically.
c.
c.
Cut the sphere.
d.
d.
Right prism furnished.
Problem 204
Draw
largest possible ellipse on two
opposite sides of right prism.
Bisect the heads
by
line
which shall connect these
ducing the required
figure.
ellipses.
Cut
to line
thus pro.
Problem 205
d.
Repeat 204
d.
Draw
ellipse
on circular
sides already cut.
The
lines will cross each other at the
centers of the original heads.
Cut
to line
thus producing
the required figure.
Problem 206
sides.
d.
Repeat 205
Repeat 206
d.
Double the number Double the number
of
Problem 207
sides.
d.
d.
of
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
97
ellipsoid.
Problem 208
d.
Repeat 207
d.
Cut the
Problem 209 e. Right prism furnished. Problem 210 e. Inscribe largest possible
site faces of right
circle
on oppo
prism.
Cut
circle
to the line.
Problem 211
34 inch
e.
Repeat
circle.
Inscribe with radius of
circle.
on both sides a
within this
Cut out
this inner circle,
producing thus a ring with sharp edges.
Problem 212
e.
Repeat ring. Using the compasses draw
each side of the edges and cut to lines in such a way as to
double the number of sides and produce an octagonal ring.
Problem 213
e.
Repeat octagonal ring.
is
Cut
off
the
edges until the perfect ring
produced.
98
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
„
187 a
188 a
190 a
191 b
192 b
193 b
194 b
i95b
i
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
to
99
oj
O
i—
P*
vC On
n
r /
(
\
"^
\

_
~W
^o f
IOO
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
3
209 e
210 e
Will Hill
211 e
wan
212 e
213 e
SECTION
2.
CRYSTAL MODELS.
SAMPLE DICTATIONS AXD SUGGESTIONS.
ISOMETRIC SYSTEM.
Problem 214
Problem 215
f.
Cube furnished.
Cut
off
f.
corners
of
cube
14
inch as
shown
in the plate.
f.
Problem 216
in pairs
Bisect
the four edges of
each
of
the
six faces of the cube.
Connect these points
of bisection
by oblique lines. Cut off corners to the lines. Problem 217 f. Repeat 216 f. Find a triangle adjacent
one
of the heads.
to
Bisect the three squares surrounding
of the triangle.
this triangle
by
lines parallel to the sides
Connect these bisecting lines in such a way as
continuous line around the triangle.
posite side of the head
to
make
a
Find triangle
at op
and
repeat.
Cut
off
each of these
triangles
down
to
the line, thus leaving in place of the
square at the head a wedge.
the other head to a wedge.
In similar manner convert
Bisect edges of these two
wedges and draw oblique
ends
of parallel
lines
from points
of bisection to
edges midwav between them.
Cut
to the
lines thus
producing the octahedron.
g.
g. g.
g.
Problem 21S
Problem 219 Problem 220
Cube furnished. Cut off edges of cube Cut off edges of cube
Repeat 220
g.
14 inch.
38 inch.
Problem 221
Bisect head
and two
opposite vertical squares with parallel lines. Connect lines
bisecting vertical squares with line bisecting head in such
102
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
manner
that cutting to the continuous lines will take of
pieces of uniform thickness.
Repeat with opposite head.
Repeat with two remaining squares. Bisect remaining four
horizontal edges and connect points of bisection around the four diamonds in such a
of
way
as to cut the diamonds
off
uniform thickness thus producing rhombic dodecahedron.
Problem 222 Problem 223
h.
h.
Cube furnished. Cut 14 inch from edges
thus made.
of cube.
12
Bi
sect lengthwise surfaces
Draw
inch square
in each of the 34 inch squares.
line
Cut from each bisecting
producing
to nearest
parallel line of small square,
in plate.
h.
figure as
shown
Problem 224
Cut
off 38
inch from edges of cube.
Bisect lengthwise surfaces thus made.
of bisection as bases
With
these lines
of
and the apexes in the center
each
square cut six
tetrahexahedron.
flattened
pyramids, thus producing the
Problem 225
of
h.
Repeat tetrahexahedron. Find centers
at head.
two opposite triangles
Cut down apex
of py
ramid to these centers.
points obtaining thus a
Draw line connecting these two common base line for two pentawhole
in
gons whose apexes
triangles.
will be at the centers of the first
Cut from
this base line to the
r
apex points
uniform thickness until you get tw o plain surfaces. Repeat with opposite head having another common base line for a
pair of pentagons
pair.
running the same way as that
for first
The
four ends of base lines already found are points
of
for
apexes
base will be
two new pairs of pentagons, whose common midway between each pair of ends and in the
centers of two triangles as before.
Again the four ends
of
these last two base lines
mark
the points for apexes of two
will be mid
new
pairs of pentagons
whose common bases
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
IO3
way between each
Problem 226
i.
pair of ends.
When
these are cut the
result should be the pentagonal dodecahedron.
Cube furnished.
Problem 227
heads
cal faces.
i.
Draw
the opposite diagonals on the two
of verti
of the cube.
Connect these with diagonals
Cut
off
corners to the diagonals thus producing
is
tetrahedron, which
a solid figure of four triangular faces.
off 38
Problem 228
i.
Repeat tetrahedron. Measure
Connect dots with
inch
on edges from each point.
tetrahedron.
lines
around
the point and cut to lines thus producing the truncated
edges.
lines,
Problem 229 i. Repeat tetrahedron. Bisect Connect points of bisection with lines.
thus producing again the octahedron.
all
the
to
Cut
io4
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
bO
be CO
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
!05
o\
TETRAGONAL SYSTEM.
Problem 230
j.
Right Prism furnished.
Problem 231
on heads and
j.
Cut
off
corners of right prism 14 inch
34
j.
inch on vertical faces.
Bisect
Problem 232
to lines.
edges
of
right
prism, connect
off
points of bisection as
shown
in plate
and cut
corners
Problem 233
faces.
j.
Repeat 232
at
j.
Draw
horizontal
lines
around the block
the middle of the vertical diamond
Draw on
head, diagonal of the square.
lines to the diagonal
Cut both
a wedge.
ways from horizontal
making
Repeat from other head.
Bisect edges of wedges, connect
points of bisection with ends of remaining horizontal lines,
and cut
to the lines,
thus completing the tetragonal octa
hedron or pyramid.
Problem 234 Problem 235
k.
k.
Right prism furnished.
Make
p} ramid 78 inch in altitude at
T
ends of right prism.
Problem 236
to
depth
of
Repeat 235 k. Cut off vertical edges 316 inch on each vertical face.
k.
k.
Problem 237
to depth of 38 inch
Repeat 235 k. Cut off vertical edges on each vertical face.
Problem 238
1.
Right prism furnished.
A MANUAL OK WOODWORK.
Problem 239
1.
IOJ
Draw
opposite diagonals on heads.
Con
nect with diagonals across vertical faces, and cnt to lines
thus producing tetragonal tetrahedron.
Problem 240
1.
Repeat tetrahedron. Bisect edges.
Con
nect points of bisection and cut to lines, thus producing
again tetragonal octahedron or pjnramid.
Problem 241
the
1.
Repeat tetragonal pyramid.
Double
number
of sides
thus producing ditetragonal pjramid.
ioS
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
23O
J
231
J
232
J
233
)
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
IO9
234 k
235 k
237
no
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
238
1
239
1
240
1
241
1
ORTHORHOMBIC SYSTEM.
Problem 242
in.
Right prism furnished.
Bisect edges of heads of right prism.
Problem 243 m.
Connect points
head.
of bisection,
thus making a rhomb on each
Connect corresponding angles of rhombs by lines drawn on vertical faces. Cut off edges to lines thus mak
ing rhombic prism.
of
Problem 244 m. Repeat rhombic prism. Bisect edges heads. Connect points of bisection in such a way as to
a parallelogram as
make
shown
in the plate.
of bisection
Bisect ver
tical edges.
Connect these points
with corto
ners of parallelograms as shown in the plate.
lines.
Cut
the
Problem 245 m.
Repeat 244 m.
Draw
of
horizontal lines
around the block through the middle
diagonals of the heads.
posite
rhombs.
lines
Draw
on opBisect
Cut from horizontal
rhombs
of
to
diagonals thus
making wedges.
of bisection
edges
wedges and connect points
with the
the lines
remaining horizontal lines on rhombs.
Cut
to
thus producing orthorhombic octahedron or pyramid.
Problem 246
of
11.
Right prism furnished.
Problem 247 n. Bisect heads and narrow vertical faces right prism by continuous line around the block. At
centers of broad faces
draw parallelogram
1
y8
x
14
inches
Cut from edges
of this
parallelogram to bisecting lines as
shown
in the plate.
112
A
11.
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Repeat 247 n. Cut off edges around in, on each surface. Bisect parlengthwise.
Problem 248
the entire block 316 inch,
allelograms, at centers of broad faces
Cut
from these lines
ing figure.
to
new edges already made, thus completRight prism furnished.
Problem 249
o.
Problem 250 o. Draw opposite diagonals on heads of right prism. Connect by diagonals on vertical faces. Cut
to lines
thus producing orthorhombic tetrahedron.
o.
Problem 251
nect
Repeat tetrahedron. Bisect edges. Con
points of bisection and cut to lines, thus producing
again orthorhombic octahedron or pyramid.
Problem 252
12
o.
Repeat orthorhombic pyramid.
Cutoff
inch at ends thus producing truncated orthorhombic
octahedron or pyramid.
A MANUAL OF AVOODWORK.
113
242
m
243
m
244
m
245
m
ii4
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
115
249 °
250 a
251 o
252 o
MONOCLINIC SYSTEMProblem 253 Problem 254
tal line.
p. p.
Right prism furnished.
On
one
of the
narrow
vertical faces of
the right prism, measure
down
34 inch,
faces,
and draw horizon
On
two broad vertical
of
draw oblique
lines
connecting ends
opposite corners.
this
horizontal
line
with the upper
Repeat on other narrow vertical face
to lines
from bottom.
Cut
p.
producing figure as in
plate.
Problem 255 Connect points
Problem 256
block
of
p.
Repeat 254 p. Bisect all the edges. bisection and cut off corners to lines.
Repeat 255 p. Draw a line around the midway between the smaller rhombs. Draw the long diagonal of these rhombs. Cut from midway line to diagonals, thus making wedges. Bisect edges of the wedges. Cut from remaining midway lines to these points
of bisection,
thus producing the monoclinic octahedron or
pyramid.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
II 7
253 P
254 P
//
\
\
255 P
256 p
TRICLINIC SYSTEM.
Problem 257
q.
Right prism furnished.
Problem 258
inch.
q.
On
left
edge
of
broad face of right prism
measure down one inch.
On
right edge measure
down
12
Connect these two points with oblique
line.
On
opposite broad face measure
down on
right edge 12 inch
left
and draw oblique
Connect ends
line
from this point to upper
corner.
of these
two lines across narrow
faces.
Draw
a corresponding continuous line around bottom of the block
two inches below that already drawn.
Cut
to lines.
Problem 259
Problem 260
block
q.
points of bisection.
q.
Repeat 258 q. Bisect edges. Cut off corners to lines.
Repeat 259
q.
Connect
Draw
a line around the
midway between the
shortest parallelograms.
Draw
Cut
Bilines
the long diagonal of these shortest parallelograms.
from midway lines
sect edges of
to diagonals,
thus making wedges.
wedges and cut from remaining midway
thus producing the
to points of bisection,
triclinic octahe
dron or pyramid.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
II 9
u
257 q
258 q
259 q
260 q
HEXAGONAL SYSTEMProblem 261 Problem 262
r.
Right prism furnished.
r.
Draw on
opposite heads of right prism
largest possible hexagon.
Connect angles
of
hexagons
along vertical faces and cut to lines thus producing hexagonal prism.
Problem 263
r.
Repeat hexagonal prism.
prism
in
Draw hexaits
gon on heads
allel to
of this
such a way that
of the
sides
shall be 316 inch in
from the edges
prism and par
them.
Draw continuous
lines
around the prism
lines to the
516
inch from top and bottom.
Cut from these
sides of the small hexagons.
Problem 264
r.
Repeat hexagonal prism.
Draw
the
three diagonals at each head.
Draw
continuous lines
around
the prism 34 inch from top and bottom.
lines to the diagonals.
Cut from these
prism.
Problem 265
three diagonals
r.
Repeat hexagonal
at
Draw
the
each head.
Draw
a continuous line
around the prism midway between top and bottom.
hexagonal pyramid.
Cut
from this midway line to the diagonals, thus producing
Problem 266
s.
Right prism furnished.
.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Problem 267
s.
121
as before.
Hexagonal prism evolved
Repeat hexagonal prism.
before, only
plate.
Problem 268
s.
hexagons on the heads as
bottom
inch on
Draw small now alternating sides
and angles, as shown in the
38
all
Measure from top and
the vertical edges of the prism. Cut
from these points
to
edges of small hexagons.
Problem 269
inch on
all
s.
Repeat hexagonal prism.
Draw
three
diameters on each head.
3.4
Measure from top and bottom
Cut from these points
the vertical edges.
to the diameters.
Problem 270
s.
Repeat hexagonal prism.
.
Draw
three
diameters on each head.
Measure two inches from top
to the diame
along vertical edges.
ters at the top.
Cut from these points
line
Draw continuous
around the figure
midway between
original heads of prism.
Cut edges from
producing
this line to diameters
on remaining head, thus
again the hexagonal pyramid.
Problem 271 Problem 272
Problem 273
ters of
t. t. t.
Right prism furnished. Hexagonal prism evolved
Repeat hexagonal prism.
as before.
Draw diame
hexagons.
Measure two inches from top on every
alternating
points
other vertical edge, and two inches from bottom on alternat
ing edges.
lique lines.
Connect these
with ob
Cut
off
alternating edges from these points to
the
diameters at the farther head,
thus
producing the
rhombohedron
Problem 274 t. Repeat rhombohedron. Draw a line from the end of each rhomb, at the apex of the rhombohedron
1
12
inches toward the opposite end.
of
Cut
off
interven
ing edges
rhombs
to inner
ends
of
these lines.
On
now
planes
ob
thus made connect inner ends
lique lines.
of these lines
by short
From
inner ends of original lines
cut to
122
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
for
the points.
shall be a
In each plane thus made draw a line which
common hypothennse
t.
two scalene triangles.
Then
cut to lines, thus completing the scalenohedron.
Problem 275
Repeat scalenohedron.
Bisect bases of
the scalene triangles.
Cut
off
intervening edges between
each pair of these points of bisection.
In planes thus made
connect these points by short horizontal lines; also connect
them with apexes
of the figure.
Cut
to lines
thus produc
ing again the hexagonal pyramid.
A MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
123
'A
261 r
262 r
263 r
264 r
265 r
y^y
266
s
v
269
s
267
s
268
s
270
s
1
1
1
1
1
124
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
A
271
272
273
274
275
EXPLANATION OF SOME TERMS CRYTALLOGRAPHY.
IN
SCIENTISTS DIVIDE CRYSTALS INTO SIX SYSTEMS REFERENCE TO THEIR AXES.
WITH
NAMES OF THE SYSTEMS.
Isometric.
— Such as ha\
T
e
three axes of equal length,
in
tersecting at right angles.
Tetragonal.
— Such as have two lateral axes
and a vertical axis
right angles.
of
equal length,
all at
of different length,
Orthorhombic.
— Such as have three axes
at right angles.
of different length,
all
Monoclinic.
— Such
no two
as have three axes of different length
at right angles.
of different
and only two
Triclinic.
— Such as have three axes
at right angles.
length and
Hexagonal.
— Such as
have three lateral axes,
all at
right
angles with a fourth vertical axis.
NAMES OF SOME INDIVIDUAL CRYSTALS.
Octahedron.
—A Dodecahedron. — A
faces. faces.
solid figure
bounded by eight triangular bounded by twelve equal bounded by twelve bounded by
triangles..
solid
figure
Rhombic Dodecahedron.
—A
solid figure
equal rhombs.
Pentagonal Dodecahedron.
Tetrahedron.
—A
solid figure
twelve equal pentagons.
—A
solid figure
bounded by four
—
I2D
A
MANUAL OF WOODWORK.
Tetrahexahedron.
—A
solid figure
bounded by twentyfour
bounded by
six equal
isosceles triangles.
Rhombohedron.
Scalenohedron.
—A
solid
figure
rhombuses.
—A
solid figure
bounded b} twelve scalene
r
triangles.
CRYSTAL vSPECIMENS.
The author has used
a little collection of Crystals as
fol
lows, purchased for the
most part
of Dr. A. E. Foote, of
Philadelphia, at a cost of about six dollars:
Isometric.
— Iron Pyrites, Magnetites, Garnet, Fool's Gold,
Copper Pyrites.
— Apophvllite, Zircon. Orthorhombic. — Staurolite, Barite, and Sulphur. Monoclinic. — Amazon Stone, Muscovite. Triclinic. — Axinite, Albite. Hexagonal. — Beryl, Quartz,
Tetragonal.
Calcite,
Calcite.
STUDIES IN NATIVE WOODS.
BY MILTON BRADLEY.
While much attention is given to nature study iu our schools today, the study of "Woods" as related to industrial pursuits has received little attention, although it is very closely related to manual training. Because of this state of affairs has originated the project of putting into some form, convenient for educational purposes, samples of our native woods in connection with good illustration of the leaves, flowers and forms of the trees from which the woods are derived. •'Studies in Native Woods" cs now prepared comprises sixteen sub
Rock Maple. White Maple. Ehu. White Oak. Red Oak, Black Walnut, Hickory, Whitewood. Basswood, Poplar. Southern or Pitch Pine, White Butternut, Chestnut, Pine, Spruce and Hemlock.
jects
:
Each of these studies consists of a lithographed card representing in natural colors the leaf , flowers, fruit ancl full tree, framed in the wood under consideration, and having mounted on it two tablets of the same wood showing side and end of grain. The frame is 12x15 inches on the outside. and is polished in the natural color of the wood. The two tablets showing side and end of the grain have no finish. For convenience and protection these sixteen studies are put up in two strong cases cover<d with binder's cloth and lettered in gilt Vol. I and When standing on a shelf the lettering Vol. II, with title and contents. are protected from is in view on the front of the case, and the contents the light and dust. Although the preparation of these studies has consumed much time, on the part of the author and of the artists and the mechanical work has required intelligent workmen, the publishers offer them to Kindergartens, Schools, Colleges and Libraries at a very modest figure. descriptive pamphlet of thirtysix pages explaining the methods of sawing, finishing and polishing the woods, and giving a description of each of the sixteen trees, accompanies each set of studies. Price, each set of two volumes, $15.00
A
CLAY MODELING IN THE SCHOOLROOM.
BY ELLEX 5TEPIIEXS HILDKETH.
This book is an illustrated manual of instruction in Clay Modeling for the kindergarten and school, based on the curved solids. There has long been a demand among kindergartners and primary schoolteachers for just such a book, and the directions are so plain and minute that they can be followed with little difficulty. Mrs. Hildreth was associated with Miss Blow in the St. Louis kindergartens. Clay Modeling has 75 pages. Price, paper covers. SO. 25
PAPER AND SCISSORS IN THE SCH< )OLR< >OM.
BY EMILY This book
is
A.
WEAVER.
planned to give a practical and systematic course in paper folding and cutting for all grades in the public and private schools. The work begins with the simple foldings adapted to the first year in school and enlarges its scope to give cutting suited to higher grade work. With over 200 illustrations. Price, paper covers, 80.25
KNIFE WORK IN THE .SCHOOLROOM.
PROBLEMS FOR PUPILS UNDER FOURTEEN J5Y GEORGE V.. KILBON. This book aims to furnish the average teacher with a course in Elemenschoolroom tary Manual Training that can be carried on in any ordinary The problems can with the least possible expense lor tools and material. gauge and trynil be worked out with the pocket knife, compass, pencil, square and they are arranged in logical sequence. In the preface the writer shows wherein the American system of Manual Mr. Kilbon is principal of Training is better than the Swedish Sloyd. practical methe city Manual Training School, Springfield Mass., and a Price, cloth, and gdt Si. 00 chanical engineer by profession.
—
THE MANUAL
'J
RAINING OUTFIT.
Since we began to publish "Knife Work in the Schoolroom" we have the kept in st,,ek the following list of tools which are recommended for use. of those win. adopt this book as a guide:—
Price, each.
Postage.
Price per doz.
Gauge,
Trysquare,
Rule, L2 inches
Pencil,
' • •
? 01 •"
"'
$0.05
.06
.01
*$1.40 *2.40
.72 .30
medium,
Divider. Knife.
.....
,
....
•
. .
06 .03
25
.01
Small pene hammer, A 10inch hack saw, Handle of brad awls,
Fair of pliars,

,40 35
.75 .30 .35
.02 .09 .15
.Of,
*2.25 *4.60
,
....
. . • •
.
.03
Mounted
Oil can,
oilstone,
'5
30 those teachers who want prepared material for working out the various problems given in the book we will send on application a price list of the sizes and quantities recommended, for a class of twentyfour pupils.
•
,10 .04
To
ELEM KXTARY WOODWORK.
BY GEORGE B. KILBON.
This book is a series of sixteen lessons taught in the senior grammar grade at Springfield, Mass., which are designed to give fundamental instruction in the" use of all the principal tools needed in carpentry and Price, cloth, 80.75 The illustrations are numerous. joinery.
THE ARCHITECT'S TRIANGULAR SCALE.
This scale is not only good enough for all educational purposes, but is a practical article for the" regular use of architects and draftsmen. All the scales are carefully inspected and selected at each stage of manufacture, being finelyfinished with a good handrubbed shellac polish and provided with a manilla case, to serve as a permanent protection for the edges. When ordered by the dozen the postage will be twentythree cents. "Price, each, 80.50; postage, 80.03
THE SPRINGFIELD SCHOOL COMPASSES.
The above illustration represents a practical instrument designed for pupils in the higher grades. The construction of the joint is peculiar, having two annular wearing surfaces milled from solid metal and so accurately adjusted to each other that a perfectly smooth and uniform movement of the legs is insured for a long time without perceptible wear. The instrument is five and onehalf inches long, thereby covering a range of work sufficient for all demands without an inconvenient spread of the legs, and is without question the best on the market for secondary and Price, each, $0.35 postage, 80.03 manual training schools.
;
THE PROVIDENCE DRAWING COMPASSES.
This wellknown instrument is peculiar in its slotted cross bar with clamping screw and the selfpropelling pencil lead which features specially
recommend
it
to its
many
friends.
Price, each, 80.25
;
postage, 80.0*2
THE DAISY PENCIL COMPASSES.
These wellknown compasses are without doubt the best article yet offered for the price. Cheap and simple they have proved to be the popular
instrument for the lower grade schools ever since their introduction. Price, each, $0.15; postage, $0.02
THE PERFECTION CARDBOARD PROTRACTOR.
The above engraving
grades, which
is is
in use in
many
a facsimile of a cardboard protractor for primary public schools with great satisfaction.
This instrument is four inches in diameter and is made from cardboard prepared expressly for this purpose and graduated with a very accurately engraved die. Price, per dozen, by mail, 80.30
THE BENNETT DESK COVER,
This device, is patented by Prof. Charles A. Bennett, of the Teachers The desk cover consists of a tool tray A, a cutCollege, New York City. ting board B, and a drawing board C, fastened to the desk by means of a In the tray A, which is to contain cleat G, a slotted cleat F and a key II. the tools when they are not in use, is the sheath E, which holds tin knife. The cutting board B has a projecting arm I, upon which the wood is placed while sawing, the blade of the saw running up and down iu the The cutting board is fastened to the other parts of the cover by slot K.
screws, so that if it becomes badly cut it may easily be taken out and planed or may be replaced by a new one. The drawing board C consists of a board the top of which is oneeighth By means of two wedges a of an inch lower than the top of the side D. pad of drawing paper or a thin board may be held in place for drawing. When in use the head of the T square is against the side D. The cleat ('< is adjustable, so that the cover may be made to fit any desk twentytwo inches or less in length. The key II passes between the desk and the cleat F at the point L, thus holding the cover firmly in place. The cover may be used on the end of a double desk by fastening a hook to the cover at the point j\I and a screw eye into lie back or top of the desk, the hooks and screw eye thus taking the place of the cleat G. An outfit for children in their fifth and sixth years in school consists or desk cover No. 1 as described above, a nickleplated bracket sawframe, a knife of special design, a T square, 45° triangle, 30°G0° triangle, rules *Price. $4.00 compasses and pencil.
t
THE PRIMARY SCHOOL RULE.
for use in the lowest grades and is graduated in quarter inches, so that the little folks who handle it need not be taxed with finer It has been prepared at the request of prominent school ofdivisions.
This rule
is
ficers
and teachers.
Price, each, $0.03; postage, $0.01
THE MANUAL TRAINING RULE.
This is a handpolished rule, about three quarters of an inch wide, with one edge beveled, graduated by steel dies accurately engraved by maThis rule is divided into sixteenths of an inch, the graduations chinery. Price, each, $0.0(1 postage, 80.01 being plainly. marked. When ordered by the dozen the postage on the Grammar School Rule or the Manual Training Rule will be ten cents.
;
THE INDUSTRIAL DRAWING RULE.
a thin rule, an inch wide, with one edge beveled and graduated In addition to its use for making measurementto inches and sixteenths. this wide, thin rule is designed to go with draftsmen's triangles in elePrice, Su.lO; postage, $0.02 mentary industrial drawing.
This
is
MILTON BRADLEY
CO.,
Springfield, Mass.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
013 971 840 9
III
Mr
ui
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.