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Q.1 ) What is attitude.

Why you need to study attitude as a subject and discuss attitude problem with reference to employees in an organization. Definition A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways Attitudes can be defined as an individuals feelings about or inclinations towards other persons, objects, events, or activities. Attitudes encompass such affective feelings as likes and dislikes, and satisfactions and dissatisfactions. Our needs, past experiences, self concept, and personality shape the beliefs, feelings, and opinion we hold towards the perceived world. Once we have formed our likes and dislikes, we generally cling on to them and find it difficult to change our attitudes, unless we make a conscious and determined effort to do so. In other words our values shape our attitudes.

The three basic components of attitude are cognitive, Affective and Behavioral part. Cognitive Component of Attitude refers to opinion or belief part of attitude. When you form your opinion or judgment on the basis of available information and decide whether you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion on that, it the cognitive part of attitude we are talking about. Affective Component of Attitude refers to the emotional aspect of attitude. This is perhaps the most often referred part of attitude and decides mostly the desirable or undesirable aspect attitude. Behavioral Component of Attitude refers to the behavioral part of attitude. If we have a positive attitude for a particular object, it is likely to be translated into a particular type of behavior, such as buying or procuring that object.

attitudes serve four important functions from the viewpoint of organizational behaviour. These are as follows. The Adjustment Function. Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. Well-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job, management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. In other words, attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and form a basis for future behaviour. Ego-Defensive Function. Attitudes help people to retain their dignity and self- image. When a young faculty member who is full of fresh ideas and enthusiasm, joins the organization, the older members might feel somewhat threatened by him. But they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as crazy and impractical and dismiss him altogether. The Value-Expressive Function. Attitudes provide individuals with a basis for expressing their values. For example, a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work. The Knowledge Function. Attitudes provide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand,and perceive the world around him. If one has a strong negative attitude towards the management, whatever the management does, even employee welfare programmes can be perceived as something bad and as actually against them.

Reasons for studying Attitude: Attitudes help predict work behavior The following example might help to illustrate it. After introducing a particular policy, it is found from an attitude survey, that the workers are not too happy about it. During the subsequent week it is found that the attendance of the employees drops sharply from the previous standard. Here management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism. Attitudes help people to adapt to their work environment An understanding of attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. If the management can successfully develop a- positive attitude among the employees, they will be better adjusted to their work. Attitude problem with reference to employees in an organization: Attitude problems of employees in an organization revolve around three types of attitude areas such as job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment i) Job Satisfaction:

The term job satisfaction refers to an individuals general attitudes towards their job. The likingness or dislikingness differ from individual to individual with respect to job contextual factors or job content factors. Some people give much importance to job contextual factors like salary, security, supervision, supportive colleagues, company policy, working conditions, perquisites, promotions, equitable rewards etc. Whereas others may show much interest in job content factors such as advancement, challenging assignments, career progress, appreciation and recognition, work itself.

Job satisfaction has a tremendous impact on the employees. They express their job dissatisfaction through so many ways such as leaving the organization, raising their voice to demand to improve the working conditions, be patient by passively waiting for the conditions to improve and neglecting everything in work. A person with a positive attitude is likely to have more job satisfaction, while a person with negative attitude is likely to have job dissatisfaction towards his or her job. ii) Job Involvement: Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with her or his job and considers her or his perceived performance level important to her or his self-worth. Employees with low level of job involvement express their grievance by means of absentees, resignation, not producing effective work, etc. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do in their job. iii) Organizational Commitment: Two other important work-related attitudes arc organizational commitment and involvement. Organizational commitment is the individual's feeling of identification with and attachment to an organization. Involvement refers to a person's willingness to be a team member and work beyond the usual standards of the job. An employee with little involvement is motivated by extrinsic motivational factor and an employee with strong involvement is motivated by intrinsic motivational factors. There are a number of factors that lead to commitment and involvement. Both may increase with an employee's age and years with the organization, with his sense of job security and participation in decision-making. If the organization treats its employees fairly and provides reasonable rewards and job security, employees are more likely to be satisfied and committed. Involving employees in decision-making can also help to increase commitment. In particular, designing jobs, which are interesting and stimulating, can enhance job involvement.

Q.3) Discuss learning theories (Conditional learning, experiential learning, behavioral modification)
Definition Introduction Theories/Principles Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experience. Learning has a significant impact on individual behavior as it influences abilities, role perceptions and motivation. Along with its role in individual behavior, learning is essential for knowledge management. Knowledge management enhances an organizations capacity to acquire, share and utilize knowledge in ways that improve its survival and success. Learning is understood as the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience. This is supplemented with the important components of learning: 1. Learning involves change: a change may be for good or bad. Change may not be evident until a situation arises in which the new behavior can occur. Learning is not always reflected in performance 2. Not all changes reflect learning: to constitute learning, change should be relatively permanent. Temporary changes may be only reflective and fail to represent any learning. This requirement, therefore, rules out behavioral changes caused by fatigue or drugs. 3. Learning is reflected in behavior: a change in an individuals thought process or attitude, not accompanied by behavior, is no learning. It should be further clarified that learning needs to result in behavior potentiality and not necessarily in the behavior itself. The reason for this distinction lies in the fact that an individual may learn but owing to lack of motivation, may not exhibit any changed behavior. 4. The change in behavior should occur as a result of experience, practice or training: this implies that behavior caused from maturity, disease, or physical damages does not constitute learning 5. The practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur: if reinforcement does not accompany the practice or experience, the behavior will eventually disappear. 6. Though not implied in any standard definition of learning: contrary to popular belief, learning is not confined to ones schooling. Learning occurs throughout ones life. THEORIES OF LEARNING Conditioning Behavior can be best explained in terms of stimulusResponse. That is, a particular stimulus will lead to a particular response. However, responses can be conditioned or trained by presenting conditioned stimulus/consequences. Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov and John Watson developed this theory. According to this theory, learning/conditioning takes place when Stimulus-Response connection is established. Classical conditioning may be defined as a process in which a neutral stimulus, when repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. This may be explained as under: Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response Conditioned stimulusConditioned Response. Ivan Pavlov developed the theory of classical conditioning on the basis of his famous experiment with dog. Whenever he presented meat powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) to the dog, it salivated (Unconditioned Response).

The dog did not salivate when a bell rung (Neutral Stimulus/Conditioned Stimulus). Later, Pavlov rang the bell (Conditioned Stimulus) whenever he presented meat powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) to the dog. He repeated the exercise several times. Afterwards, Pavlov rang the bell (Conditioned Stimulus) without presenting the meat powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) and found that the dog actually salivated (Conditioned Response). Critics of Classical Conditioning theory say that this theory at best explains reflexive (involuntary/automatic/impulsive) behaviour. Operant Conditioning: B F Skinner developed Operant Conditioning theory in order to overcome the weaknesses of Classical Conditioning. In Operant Conditioning, responses to a particular stimulus occur on the basis on consequences of that response. Thus there is strong association between consequence and response to a particular stimulus. This may be explained as under: StimulusResponseConsequencesFuture Response on the basis of consequence Consequences can be any of the following: Something good can begin or be presented Something good can end or be taken away Something bad can begin or be presented Something bad can end or be taken away Consequences have to be immediate and clearly linked to the responses. Behavioural framework debunked the Freudian proposition that behaviour came from unconscious. Experiential learning Experiential Learning Theory emphasizes the role that true experiences play in the learning process. It is this emphasis that distinguishes itself from other learning theories. Cognitive learning theories emphasize cognition over affect and behavioral learning theories deny any role for subjective experience in the learning process. Scholars in the field of education have two contrasting views when it comes to the concept of experiential learning. The first view defines experiential learning as a sort of learning which enables students to apply newly acquired knowledge in a relevant setting. The relevant setting can be a sponsored institution of learning with trainers, instructors, teachers, or professors to guide the lesson. The other school of thought defines experiential learning as "education that occurs as a direct participation in the events of life". Thus, learning is not achieved in a formal setting, but in the practice of reflection of daily experiences. Kolb furthers the second definition of experiential learning by developing a model which details learning process through experiences. Kolb and Fry's experiential learning model is a continuous spiral process which consists of four basic elements: 1. Concrete experience 2. Observation and reflection 3. Forming abstract concepts 4. Testing in new situations Immediate or concrete experiences are the basis for observation and reflections. These reflections are assimilated and distilled into abstract concepts from which new implications for action can be drawn.

Behavioral modification Behaviourism has led to the development of the technique of behaviour modification. Behaviour modification is a technique for encouraging desired behaviours and discouraging unwanted behaviours using operant conditioning. This technique was first used for the treatment of mental disorders, learning disorders and phobias, and for accident and trauma recovery. Applications of this technique have been extended to organisational settings also. Fred Luthans developed organistional behaviour modification or 'O.B. Mod.', which consists of five main steps: 1) Identify the critical, observable and measurable work performance-related behaviours to be encouraged. 2) Measure the current frequency of those behaviours to provide a baseline against which to measure improvement. 3) Establish the triggers or antecedents for those behaviours and also establish the consequences positive, neutral and negative-that follow from these behaviours. 4) Develop an intervention strategy to strengthen desired behaviours and weaken dysfunctional behaviours through the use of positive reinforcement (e.g. money, recognition) and corrective feedback. Punishment may be necessary in some instances to inhibit unsafe behaviour. 5) Evaluate systematically the effectiveness of the approach in changing and improving performance compared with the original baseline measurement. Behaviour modification, as a means of changing employee behaviour, can appear particularly attractive to managers who are in a position to manipulate the reinforcement of different employee behaviours. This approach argues that what has to be changed is behaviour and to achieve this one needs to know very little about the complex internal workings of the people concerned. For example, desirable workplace behaviours could include working weekends to meet deadlines, attending training to develop new skills and being helpful to colleagues. Undesirable behaviours could include lateness, the production of poor quality items and being rude to customers. Behaviour modification uses the principles of reinforcement to eliminate undesirable behaviour and to increase the frequency of desired work behaviour. Suppose a manager wants more work assignment completed on time and fewer submitted beyond deadline. Table below summarizes the behaviour modification options available with the manager: Table Behaviour Modification Options Procedure Positive Reinforcement Operationlisation Behavioral Effect manager compliments employee increases desired each time work is completed on Behaviour schedule unpaid overtime continues to be increases desired mandatory until work is behaviour completed on schedule, . then overtime is rewarded manager asks -employee to stay eliminates or decreases late when work is not handed in undesired behaviour on schedule manager ignores the employee eliminates or decreases when work is handed in late undesired behaviour

Negative Reinforcement



Fred Luthans and colleagues describe the application of 'O.B. Mod.' in a Russian textile mill. To improve worker productivity, two interventions were used. First, workers were offered extrinsic rewards for performance improvement, including jeans, T-shirts with popular logos, music tapes, food, etc. Second, workers were given `social rewards' for performing specific actions such monitoring fabric quality and helping others. These social awards involved attention, recognition and feedback from trained supervisors. The researchers noted that this approach had a very positive impact leading to highly significant increases in performance. The typical features of organisational applications of `O.B. Mod.' are: It applies to clearly identifiable and observable behaviours such as time-keeping, carrying out checks and repairs and the use of particular work methods. Rewards are clearly and unambiguously contingent on the performance of the desirable behaviour. Positive reinforcement can take a number of forms, from the praise of a superior to cash prizes, to food, to clothing. Behaviour change and performance improvements can be dramatic. The desired modification in behaviour may be sustained only if positive reinforcement is continued.

Q.4) Decision making. Why decision making is important in organization (all descriptive, with examples from the industry, based on own opinion. What factors will you take? Individuals in organizations make decisions, choices from among two or more alternatives. Individual decision making is thus an important part of organizational behavior. But the way individuals make decisions and the quality of their choices are largely influenced by their perceptions. In organizations moods and emotions have important effects on decision making. Positive moods and emotions seem to help. People in good moods or experiencing positive emotions are more likely than others to use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to help make good decisions quickly. Positive emotions also enhance problem-solving skills, so positive people find better solutions to problems. OB researchers continue to debate the role of negative emotions and moods in decision making. Although one oftencited study suggested depressed people reach more accurate judgments, more recent evidence hints they make poorer decisions. Why? Because depressed people are slower at processing information and tend to weigh all possible options rather than the most likely ones. They search for the perfect solution, when there rarely is one. Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem. That is, a discrepancy exists between the current state of affairs and some desired state, requiring us to consider alternative courses of action. Every decision requires us to interpret and evaluate information. We typically receive data from multiple sources and need to screen, process, and interpret them. Which data are relevant to the decision, and which are not? Our perceptions will answer that question. We also need to develop alternatives and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. Again, our perceptual process will affect the final outcome. Finally, throughout the entire decision making process, perceptual distortions often surface that can bias analysis and conclusions. Decision-making involves a number of steps which need to be taken in a logical manner. This is treated as a rational or scientific 'decision-making process' which is lengthy and time consuming. Such lengthy process needs to be followed in order to take rational/scientific/result oriented decisions. Decisionmaking process prescribes some rules and guidelines as to how a decision should be taken / made. This involves many steps logically arranged. It was Peter Drucker who first strongly advocated the scientific method of decision-making in his world famous book 'The Practice of Management' published in 1955. Drucker recommended the scientific method of decision-making which, according to him, involves the following six steps:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Defining / Identifying the managerial problem, Analyzing the problem, Developing alternative solutions, Selecting the best solution out of the available alternatives, Converting the decision into action, and Ensuring feedback for follow-up.

1. Identifying the Problem: Identification of the real problem before a business enterprise is the first step in the process of decision-making. It is rightly said that a problem well-defined is a problem halfsolved. Information relevant to the problem should be gathered so that critical analysis of the problem is possible. This is how the problem can be diagnosed. Clear distinction should be made between the problem and the symptoms which may cloud the real issue. In brief, the manager should search the

'critical factor' at work. It is the point at which the choice applies. Similarly, while diagnosing the real problem the manager should consider causes and find out whether they are controllable or uncontrollable. 2. Analyzing the Problem: After defining the problem, the next step in the decision-making process is to analyze the problem in depth. This is necessary to classify the problem in order to know who must take the decision and who must be informed about the decision taken. Here, the following four factors should be kept in mind: 1. Futurity of the decision, 2. The scope of its impact, 3. Number of qualitative considerations involved, and 4. Uniqueness of the decision. 3. Collecting Relevant Data: After defining the problem and analyzing its nature, the next step is to obtain the relevant information/ data about it. There is information flood in the business world due to new developments in the field of information technology. All available information should be utilised fully for analysis of the problem. This brings clarity to all aspects of the problem. 4. Developing Alternative Solutions: After the problem has been defined, diagnosed on the basis of relevant information, the manager has to determine available alternative courses of action that could be used to solve the problem at hand. Only realistic alternatives should be considered. It is equally important to take into account time and cost constraints and psychological barriers that will restrict that number of alternatives. If necessary, group participation techniques may be used while developing alternative solutions as depending on one solution is undesirable. 5. Selecting the Best Solution: After preparing alternative solutions, the next step in the decision-making process is to select an alternative that seems to be most rational for solving the problem. The alternative thus selected must be communicated to those who are likely to be affected by it. Acceptance of the decision by group members is always desirable and useful for its effective implementation. 6. Converting Decision into Action: After the selection of the best decision, the next step is to convert the selected decision into an effective action. Without such action, the decision will remain merely a declaration of good intentions. Here, the manager has to convert 'his decision into 'their decision' through his leadership. For this, the subordinates should be taken in confidence and they should be convinced about the correctness of the decision. Thereafter, the manager has to take follow-up steps for the execution of decision taken. 7. Ensuring Feedback: Feedback is the last step in the decision-making process. Here, the manager has to make built-in arrangements to ensure feedback for continuously testing actual developments against the expectations. It is like checking the effectiveness of follow-up measures. Feedback is possible in the form of organized information, reports and personal observations. Feed back is necessary to decide whether the decision already taken should be continued or be modified in the light of changed conditions. Importance of Decision Making 1. Better Utilization of Resources Decision making helps to utilize the available resources for achieving the objectives of the organization. The available resources are the 6 Ms, i.e. Men, Money, Materials, Machines, Methods and Markets. The manager has to make correct decisions for all the 6 Ms. This will result in better utilization of these resources.

2. Facing Problems and Challenges Decision making helps the organization to face and tackle new problems and challenges. Quick and correct decisions help to solve problems and to accept new challenges. 3. Business Growth Quick and correct decision making results in better utilization of the resources. It helps the organization to face new problems and challenges. It also helps to achieve its objectives. All this results in quick business growth. However, wrong, slow or no decisions can result in losses and industrial sickness. 4. Achieving Objectives Rational decisions help the organization to achieve all its objectives quickly. This is because rational decisions are made after analyzing and evaluating all the alternatives. 5. Increases Efficiency Rational decisions help to increase efficiency. Efficiency is the relation between returns and cost. If the returns are high and the cost is low, then there is efficiency and vice versa. Rational decisions result in higher returns at low cost. 6. Facilitate Innovation Rational decisions facilitate innovation. This is because it helps to develop new ideas, new products, new process, etc. This results in innovation. Innovation gives a competitive advantage to the organization. 7. Motivates Employees Rational decision results in motivation for the employees. This is because the employees are motivated to implement rational decisions. When the rational decisions are implemented the organization makes high profits. Therefore, it can give financial and non-financial benefits to the employees.

Q.2) What is group dynamics (G.D.) How GD play an important role in building positive organization and if you dont handle this dynamics well, what problem does organization faces. Group Dynamics Group dynamics, which involves the influence of social behavior, is the primary determining factor in the success of group outcomes. Decisions made in groups differ substantially from those made by individuals, and this is why organizations put groups to use. The presence of a well developed group synergy, often achieved through healthy levels of dissent, typically results in preferable outcomes, while groupthink can lead to harmonizing and premature consensus. Delegating key decision making to groups, teams, or committees occurs often within organizations. Decisions made in groups will differ substantively, often dramatically, then decisions rendered by individuals. But this is about the extent to which researchers agree on comparative decision outcomes between individuals and groups. Group dynamics play a large role in determining the overall effectiveness of group decision making. However there are opportunities for group dynamics to both positively and/or negatively influence group decision outcomes. The social nature of groups and the process of sharing information lead to synergies, such that group performance exceeds the potential performance of its most able member. Synergy prompts groups to quickly identify areas of disagreement among group members and encourages dissent. Encouraging dissent might seem like a negative consequence of the group process, however it is can be constructive and tends to create conditions where more robust and complex decisions are made. Dissent is also a major preventative measure in combating groupthink, certainly one of the largest threats posed by group dynamics. Unlike dissent, groupthink is borne out of group's desire to harmonize. Harmony leads to premature consensus within the group and normally forces decision making without a thorough and logical examination of alternatives that might otherwise be raised in an environment of controlled dissent. Considerable research has been done regarding the influence of group dynamic. Harvard professor and researcher Richard Hackman proposed five conditions that increase the probability of success for groups involved in decision making: 1. Being a real team: embracing a shared task, identifying clear boundaries as to group membership, and the believability or acceptance as to individual membership. 2. Compelling direction: identifying a clear and worthwhile goal. 3. Enabling structure: maintaining a diversity of interesting and challenging tasks, suitable group size (the larger the group, the harder it usually is to manage group dynamics), the presence of sufficient talent amongst group members, and authentic norms governing group behavior. 4. Supportive context: occurs when groups are "nested" within larger groups, such as corporations. Within these organizations supportive contexts involve reward systems that reward performance and cooperation (e.g. group-based rewards linked to group performance), a development framework that enhances group member skills, and adequate resources in terms of data and information.

5. Expert coaching: presence of transformational leadership within the group that neither dominates group processes nor remains silent on key issues. Significance of Group Dynamics in Building Positive Organisations: The term group can be defined in a number of different ways, depending on the perspective that is taken. A comprehensive definition would say that if a group exists in an organization, its members: 1. Are motivated to join 2. Perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people 3. Contribute in various amounts to the group processes (that is, some people contribute more time or energy to the group than do others) 4. Reach agreements and have disagreements through various forms of interaction Another important aspects of a group that works well together, is how individuals interact with each other and how individuals react with the group. Positive relationships are important in a group, and understanding them is equally important. In order to develop good group dynamics, you must first develop good relationships. According to LaFasto and Larson in When Teams Work Best, there are four aspects of a good relationship: constructive, productive, mutual understanding and self-corrective. These four aspects are the basis for LaFasto and Larsons Connect model, which can be used to develop good relationships. The Connect Model (Summarized) 1993 Frank M. J. LaFasto, Ph.D. and Carl E. Larson, Ph.D. 1. Comment to a Relationship 2. Optimize Safety 3. Narrow to One Issue 4. Neutralize Defensiveness 5. Explain and Echo 6. Change one Behavior Each 7. Track It! A constructive relationship can also be between a person and the team. Good relationships are constructive for both people. In order to have a constructive relationship, there must be trust and mutual understanding between both parties. Constructive relationships do not happen overnight, it takes time to develop trust and to be open with others. Productive relationships are important because if the relationship between two individuals on a team is not productive, the team may not be productive. Productive relationships also, allow us to focus on real issues the ones that matter and to do so in a way that makes a difference. Mutual understanding is critical because, they encourage us to focus on and understand the other persons perspective, and they offer us the satisfaction of being understood. Not only is it important to validate other persons point of view, it is important for us to be validated. It goes back to trust and building a constructive relationship, in order to be understood, you have to be able to understand others. Good relationships are self-corrective. It is like a marriage, each part is committed to improving the relationship. By continuing to work on improving a relationship you are developing trust and mutual understanding between the parties. As you are working on developing good relationships another way to foster good group dynamics is to identify strengths and weaknesses and assign group roles. For a new team that has not worked together,

assigning roles can also help surface individual strengths and weaknesses. By simply assigning roles at the beginning of the project a team can quickly focus on the tasks. Everyone should be responsible for brain storming, problem solving and providing their experience and knowledge, but some roles are more generic and may or may not vary by task

Problems that hinder good group dynamics

There are many problems that hinder good group dynamics. We dont usually have the luxury of picking who we are going to work with on a team; dealing with different personalities and personal agendas are common challenges in working within a team. Other commons challenges like, poor leadership, bad communications, and lack of focus can be helped or eliminated by establishing team roles. Few of the challenges that hinder good group dynamics are poor leadership, bad communications a way for a team to be unproductive and ineffective, lack of focus which can make a team just a group of individuals, Groupthink - is simply going along with the team on a decision because that seems to be the consensus and they want to avoid conflict and Social loafing i.e. someone that is putting forth less effort as a member of a group than they would as and individual.