Attempt all the questions 1.(a) Define a company. Explain its characteristic.

Solution: The term 'company' implies an association of a number of persons for some
common object or objects. In fact, the purposes for which people may wish to associate are multifarious but the term 'company' is normally reserved for those associated for economic purpose i.e., to carry on a business or gain. Partnerships often describe. themselves as 'A, B. C and Company'. However, this does not make the firm a company in the legal sense of the word, they at only indicating that there are other persons in the association, A company is called a 'body corporate' because, as a consequence of incorporation, the large number of members who constitute the company are legally merged into (me body which has a distinct identity of its own. In its legal form, a company is an artificial person created by law. It has a separate identity independent of its members. This artificial legal person is entitled to many rights and incurs many liabilities like any other ordinary human being.

The main characteristics of a company are as follows. 1 Creation of law:A company is an association of pers ons who have agreed to form
the company and become its members or shareholders with the object of carrying on a lawful business for profit. It comes into existence when it is registered under the Companies Act.

2 Separate legal entity: In the eyes of law, a company form led and registered under
the Companies Act has a distinct legal entity. A lter registration, the company is treated as an artificial person because in reality no such, natural person exists. It is invisible, intangible and without any physical or natural existence. Although a company is a legal person having a nationality/ and domi cile, it is not a citizen.

3 Limited Liability: A major advantage enjoyed by a company is that the liability of
its members is limited. You will later on study that on the basis of Liability, companies may be classified as (i) Companies limited by shares; and (ii) Companies limited by guarantee. In the case of former the liability of every member of the company is limited to the amount of shares subscribed by him. If the member has paid full amount of the face value of the shares subscribed by him, his liability shall be nil and he cannot be asked to-contribute anything more. Similarly, in the case of a company limited by guarantee, the liability of the members is limited upto the amount guaranteed by a member.

4 Perpetual Succession: The term perpetual succession means the continued
existence. The existence of the company is not affected by reasons such as the I insolvency, death, unsoundness of mind of its members. The company has a perpetual succession. Members may come and members may go but the company goes on. Even if all the members of a company die, the legal existence of the company will not come to an end. gower puts it very interestingly when he says that

A metallic seal should be used. A company may enter into contracts and can enforce the contractual rights against others and it can be sued by others if it commits a breach of contract. a private limited company is required to put certain restrictions on transferability of its shares. A shareholder of a public limited company possessing fully paid up shares is at liberty to transfer his shares to anyone he likes in accordance with the manner provided for in the articles of association of the company. However. 7 May sue or be sued: As juristic person. A shareholder can transfer his shares to any person without the consent of other members. The seal acts as a substitute for the signature of the company. the character of private remains unchanged. Be that as it may. . Ws is so because a company has a separate legal existence. The business conduct of such companies are regulated in certain respects and the effect of such regulations will result in treating another company as a Subsidiary of the Holding company. This is a special provision extending the provisions of the Act to intra-company relationships. the provisions of the Act applicable to a public company will also apply to the subsidiary private company. This may happen by direct control of the Board or through one or more Subsidiaries. every company is required to have its own seal. 1956 (the Act) prescribes dual test and conceptually defines the Holding-Subsidiary company relationship. Two significant factors which determine the relationships are control and ownership. Introduction: The Companies Act. company can sue and be sued in its own name.even a hydrogen bomb cannot destroy a company. the Act rightly recognizes the structure of the Board as a manifestation of its inherent strength and standing in the corporate structure. However. Under the articles of association. It acts as the official signature of the company. Solution: 1. The common seal of the company is of great importance. It is not merely an economic unit but a power house. Considering these and other factors. Board Control: The most common form of control in the case of bodies corporate is controlling the composition of the Board without being a member of the company. Every company must have a common seal with its name engraved on the same. 2. 5 Transferability of shares: The shares of a public limited company are freely transferable. ===================================================================== (b) What is a holding and subsidiary company? Illustrate your answer. With the result. the Board occupies a pre-eminent position in the corporate hierarchy from the point of the view of enormous power it exercises and control it secures over the management of another company. 6 Common seal: In view of the fact that a company is an artificial person and cannot sign its natne on a contract. even a public limited company can put certain restrictions on the transfer of shares but it cannot altogether stop it. Any document which does not bear the common seal of the company is not binding on the company. Rut this does not mean that a company can never come to an end.

This is the sum and substance of sub-section (2) of section 4 of the Act. then the first mentioned company is deemed to be Subsidiary of the other company by virtue of Board control. section 255(1)(a) provides that not less that two-thirds of total number of directors shall be persons whose period of office are liable to retire by rotation. This is possibly one of the reasons why section 4 provides for Board control as a means of creating Holding & Subsidiary company relationship. Case law on the subject: There is an interesting case on the above subject. 6. Section 4 of the Act: The composition of Board of a company is deemed to have been controlled. This is a mandatory provision. by another company if. the effect of section 4 in relation to sections 255. this is possible if the Articles of Subsidiary company specifically provide for a power to the other company to nominate all or majority of directors on the board of first mentioned company. 5. prima facie. Section 255(1)(b) saves the arrangement in section 4 of the Act. Further. can appoint or remove the holders of all or majority of the directors by virtue of exercise of some power exercisable by it. that the director-ship is held by an individual nominated by that other company or a Subsidiary thereof. Poonam also amended its Articles suitably and Oriental appointed . With the result. The moot question is. However. can the Articles provide for such a provision if the other company does not hold all or majority of shares. at its discretion. The facts of the case is that by an agreement dated August 19. but only if. Oriental was given full and absolute power to appoint five directors on the board of directors of Poonam Hotels. that a person's appointment thereto follow necessarily from his appointment as director or manager or to any other office or employment in that other company or c. Holding & Subsidiary Company Relationship: The manner of securing Board control is not envisaged as it is a matter relating to business practice. more so in the case a public company or Private Subsidiary Company? While sub-section 255(1) (b) saves the arrangement envisaged in section 4 by using the words "save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act". 1975 between Oriental Limited and Poonam Hotels. there is no conflict between section 4 and section 255 of the Act. there can be an arrangement between the lender and borrower companies as part of financing under which the lender may nominate all or majority of directors with or without a specific provision in the Articles for the purpose of ensuring proper utilization of funds. However. Does this mean that the directors appointed by virtue of section 4 are not liable to retire by rotation. In the case of Oriental Industrial Investment Corporation of India vs Union of India (1981)51 Com Cases 487(Del). the other company shall be deemed to have such a power of appointment a. This gave power to Oriental to appoint majority of directors on the board of Poonam Hotels with power to remove such directors and to appoint another in his place. 4. At least two-thirds of the total number of directors of a Public Company or a Subsidiary Private Company should be persons whose period of office is liable to retire by rotation. if the person thereto cannot be appointed without the exercise of the said power in his favor by the other company b. without the consent or concurrence of any other person. that other company. The immediate effect of such an arrangement is that lending company becomes a Holding company by virtue of section 4 of the Act. Examination of Section 4 in relation to Section 255: Another dimension relates to the validity of section 4 vis-a-vis section 255 of the Act which deals with appointment and retirement of directors by rotation. However.3.256 and 257 came up for consideration. If the conditions specified in the said sub-section are satisfied.

Section 257 only deals with the right of a person other than a retiring director to stand for election at the annual general meeting. The appointments made pursuant to an arrangement whether by the Articles or by an agreement is not invalid merely because any shareholder may seek election at an annual general meeting. Shareholding Control. 7. Request of Oriental for reconsideration did not evoke positive response and the Department reiterated its stand whereupon Oriental filed a writ in the High Court of Delhi. But this restriction inheres in the definition of the Holding Company. Thereafter Oriental acquired 88% percent shares of Poonam Hotels in two tranches. On a combined reading of the provisions of sections 255. It is firmly embedded in section 4 of the Act. 256 and 257 and because section 257 is a mandatory provision. This is possible if one company holds more than half in nominal value of equity capital of another company as per section 4(1)(b)(ii) of the Act. The agreement or Article of a company. The ability to control the conduct of the Subsidiary is the hall-mark of the Holding Company.The Department has issued a circular 14\74 dated 28-8-1974 to the effect that the Articles of a company which confer upon another company the right to make provisions for appointment of director upon another company with a view to make the company a subsidiary is invalid under section 9 of the Companies Act. This provision is not hit by Section 255 because it is expressly excluded." The High Court also observed that "there is no denying the fact that the right of the members of a public company to appoint directors of their choice at a general meeting is greatly abridged when there comes into being a relationship of a Holding and Subsidiary Company. Revised clarification by DCA: Following the Judgment of the Delhi High Court. the Department of Company Affairs (DCA) issued a clarification modifying their earlier views on the above matter which is reproduced below. Oriental made an application to the DCA for extending the financial year of its Subsidiary to bring it in line with its accounting year for complying with section 212 of the Act.256 and 257of the Act and treated it as void as per section 9 of the Act and consequently Poonam cannot be treated as Subsidiary company. ." 8.. 9. 1975 is in contravention of the provisions of Sections 255. that the contention of the counsel for the Union of India that "the control of Oriental over the composition of the Board of Poonam Hotels which they exercise by virtue of their agreement dated August. This is a case of direct investment and indicates the financial interest and stake of the Holding Company in its Subsidiary.Direct: This is the second method by which Holding & Subsidiary company relationship can be established. inter alia. Section 4(2) is an express provision for the appointment of the directors on the Board of Subsidiary. The controlled company is called a Subsidiary. in so far as it or they invest a company with the status of holding company in relation to the company of which the board is controlled cannot be said to be inconsistent with section 257 which comes into operation only when elections are to be held at the annual general meeting. The words "save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act" used in section 255(1)(b) are of commanding significance. Decision of Delhi High Court: The High Court observed. This brought about holding and subsidiary relationship in terms of section 4 of the Act. The Holding Company is the controlling company.five of its directors on the board of Poonam Hotels. This is however subject to sub-section 4 (3) of the Act which seeks to exclude certain shareholdings for the purpose of reckoning half the nominal value of equity shares aforesaid. The Department rejected the application on the ground that Article included by Poonam conferring authority on Oriental to appoint majority of directors is violative of sections 255..256 and 257 of the Act overlooks the important fact that section 255 excludes from its purview cases which have been otherwise expressly provided in the Act."Department views". this view does not seem to be well founded.

except as a fiduciary is considered as having been held by that company. ======================================================================== 2. If the company does something beyond the objects as given in the Memorandum. "body corporate or corporation" includes a company incorporated outside India as defined in section 2(7) of the Act. The Memorandum of Association is a public document open for inspection by any member of the public. say. Also anyone dealing with the company.a. creditors and all those who deal with the company to know what its powers are and what is the range of its activities.if such holding or power is by way of security only for the transaction of lending in the ordinary course of business. The objects clause is an important clause in the Memorandum.They are. any shares held by a nominee for a Subsidiary of that company. therefore. The main purpose of the Memorandum of Association is to enable its shareholders. d. any shares held or power exercisable by any person as security for the debentures of the first mentioned company or of a trust deed for securing any issue of debentures is to be disregarded. The company's actions cannot go beyond this clause. Thus the intending shareholder can find out the field in. b. What is Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association? What is the difference between them? Are they necessary for every company? Solution: The Memorandum of Association of a company is its charter. Indirect Control: This is envisaged in section 4(1)(c) of the Act as third type of relationship applicable mainly in the case of group companies. not being a Subsidiary connected as a fiduciary is considered as having been held by that company. . Another distinctive feature can be seen in sub-section (5) of the Act. It contains the fundamental conditions upon which alone the company can be brought into existence. A Subsidiary of a Subsidiary becomes a Subsidiary o f the ultimate Holding Company. e. This may be second or third generation Subsidiary by virtue of management or shareholding control and the linkage is endless. Thus. whereas for other provisions of the Act. or the purpose for which his money is going to be used by the company and what risk he is taking in making the investment. it defines as well as confines the sphere of activities of the company. trust and confidence. every person who deals with the company is presumed to have the knowledge of its contents. that will be ultra vires (beyond powers) of the company and is declared by law to be void. the expression "company" is defined to include any body corporate. any shares held by a nominee of that company. any shares held or power exercisable by or by a nominee for that other or its Subsidiary shall be treated as not being held or exercisable by that other . It is a company to company relationship. c. any shares held or power exercisable by that other company in fiduciary capacity is considered as having not been held or exercisable by it. 10. It tells us what the company can do as specified in its objects clause. as it tells us the scope of activities of the company. For the purpose of section 4. What is referred to is the equity shares carrying voting rights. Fiduciary capacity creates a relationship under which one owes to another the duties of good faith.

the mode and the form in which the business of the company is to be carried out and the mode and the form in which the changes in the internal regulations can be made. Thus. For example. ii) to tell those who deal with the company as to what the objects of the company are so as to enable them to enter into only those contracts with the company which are not ultra vires. but the future members of the company also. Articles of Association are subordinate. 4) Articles of Association is the basis of a contracts between the company and its members. Inside that area the shareholders may make such regulations for the governance of the company as they think fit. the Articles bind the company and the members as if they had been signed by each one of them. for his own interest. duties and powers of the company vis-a-vis the members are included in the Articles of Associations.supplier of goods or a lender of money. but it is bound to a member by whatever is contained in its Articles of Association. In case. Also members have certain duties towards the company. officers and of the shareholders as to voting etc. memrandum of Association generally defines the relation between the company and outsiders. a company is not bound to an outsider. The articles of association: The Articles embody the powers of directors. he finds that the contract. 3) The purpose of Memorandum is two fold: ij to tell the intending purchaser of shares the scope of the activities of the company and the. objects on which his money will be. Even the successors. will know whether the transaction he intends to make with the company is within the objects of the company or not. These rights and duties of members are given in the Articles. a member has a number of rights. which he intends to enter into with the company does not fall within the purview of objects as stated in the Memorandum. It lays down the scope and powers of the company. he would. a member is under an obligation to pay call money on his shares as and when the directors of the company decide to make the calls in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Articles of Association. If the member fails to make the payment. The purpose of the Articles of Association is to provide rules and regulations for the internal management of the company. 2) Memorandum of Associatiorn is a fundamental document. DISTINCTION BETWEEN MEMOIKANDUIM AND ARTICLES The following are the main points cf distinction between the Memorandum and Articles: 1) Memorandum of Association is the charter of the company. Articles of Association is the basis of contract between the company arid the members. . In fact. The rights. memorandum defines the area beyond which the actions of the company cannot go. On the other hand. In fact. to and are controlled by the Memorandum of Association. refrain from entering into the intended contract. legal representatives or heirs of members are bound by whatever is contained in the Articles. For example.. The Articles bind not only the existing members. invested. his shares may be forfeited by the company in accordance with the procedure prescribed. Members have certain rights against the company. he has a right to attend the meeting of the Company and vote.

A company is not bound by the preliminary contracts even if the company has taken the benefit of the work on its behalf under the contract. without. But every company. the company is not bound to pay. Solution: The position of these contracts can be explained as follows. 1963. The promoters later on formed a company called M. '7) Any act which is beyond the powers give in the memorandum is ultra vires and void and it cannot be ratified even by [lie whole body of shareholders. (a) Discuss the position of pre-incorporation contracts by the promoter.Ltd. According to Section 15 and 19 of the Specific Relief Act "where the promoters of the Company have. it was discovered that there was a definite possibility of striking oil in that land. the company is not bound by the preliminary contracts . These provisions provide an important exception to the above principles. before its incorporation. it also cannot enforce such contracts made before incorporation. These promoters later became the directors of the company. The solicitor also paid the necessary registration fee of the company. Whereas. 'The company has to follow the strict procedure for the alteration of its clauses. For example. This means that on account of a preliminary contract the company does not get a right to sue the third party for fulfillment of the contract. 'X' the owner of a piece of land in Assam agreed to lease it to a company to be formed by promoters A. ii) . ======================================================================== 3. For example. Articles can be altered easily by passing a special resolution. It may adopt Table A as its Articles. exception. 6 ) The clauses of the Memorandum cannot be easily altered. a solicitor was appointed by the promoters of the company and was instructed by them to prepare the articles and the memorandum of the company. But any act which is ultra vim the Articles may be ratified by shareholders by passing a special resolution.Pvt. In some cases alreration requires the approval of the Company Law Board or the Court. 1. It was held that since the company was not in existence when these expenses were incurred. B and C. entered into contracts for the purpose of the company and such contracts are warranted by terms of incorporation. Ltd. by the promoters. The company cannot enforce preliminary contracts .5) A public company limited by shares need not frame its own Articles of Association. It was held that the company cannot sue 'X' and cannot claim specific performance as it was not even in existence when the lease was signed. On some prospecting of the land.Pvt.You must note that just as the company cannot be held liable for the preliminary contracts. specific performance may be obtained by or . must prepare its own Memorandum of Association. Subsequently 'X' refused to grant the lease to the company M. important provisions have been made in our country in the Specific Relief Act. The solicitor sued for his expenses and the fees paid by him.On registration. In relation to the above two principles.

The contract. Therefore. It should be clear to you now that in order to be enforceable. You will recall from your study of the Unit on agency that for valid ratification of a contract.After incorporation the Company cannot ratify the contracts formed before its existence. it could not be bound by any purported ratification. iii) The company cannot ratify the preliminary contracts . What the company can'do is to enter into a new contract with the vendors after incorporatior) to give effect to the terms of the contract ma& before incorporation. And as the company does not exist on the date of contract. iv) Liability of the promoter for preliminary contracts -The promoters are personally liable for contracts made for a company which is not yet in existence. it cannot ratify a preliminary contract on being incorporated. and have very wide powers relating to the formation of the company. In the above paragraph the term "contracts for the purposes of the company" means contracts which are necessary for the incorporation and working of the company. therefore. The preliminary contracts made by the promoters generally contain a provision that if the company adopts the agreements on incorporation. as known to both the contracting parties. it is the promoters alone who remain personally liable for the preliminary contracts. is as yet non-existent. be interesting to note that there are no specific statutory provisions in this regard. he promoters legal position is that he is neither an agent nor a trustee of the company he promotes. the liability OF the promoters shall come to an end and if the company does not adopt the preliminary contract within a specified period either party may rescind the contract. It will. The legal position of a promotes is somewhat peculiar. contracts for the preparation and printing of the memorandum and articles or contracts for the supply of necessary raw material for the production work in the company are contracts for the purposes of the company. they occupy important position. The reason for this is that the preliminary contract is made for a company which. in such a case liability of the promoter will cease on the specified period. it is essential that the principal must exist of the date when the contract is originally entered into.against the company. For example. is deemed to be personally entered into by the promoters and they will be held personally liable for the performance of these contracts. As such. it was held as the company was not in existence when the preliminary contracts were made.Baxter. You have already learnt that the company is neither bound nor entitled on account of a preliminary contract. it is necessary that the company after its incorporation accepts the contract and communicates its acceptance to the other contracting party. In the case of Kelner v. however. if the company has accepted the contract after the incorporation and has communicated such acceptance to the other party". ======================================================================== (b) Explain the legal position of a promoter of a company. Solution: You learnt that promoters are responsible for the formation of a company. He is not an agent because there is .

any profits at the expense of the company that he promotes. They have in their hands the creation and moulding of the company. ana algo the original allottees whom they induces to buy shares of the company. without the knowledge and consent of the company. the promoters occupy a fiduciary position in regard to. . the company they promote. "The promoters of a company stand undoubtedly in a fiduciary X position. 2) Meetings of Directors: The directors are to act collectively in the form of a board. You would recall from what you have studied in the contract of agency and partnership that a fiduciary relationship means a relationship of utmost trust and confidence and implies disclosure of all material facts. You will recall from youi exposure to the contract of agency that in order to be a valid contract of agency bothsthe principal and the agent must be in existence. Lord Cairns has rightly stated the position of promoter in Erlanger V. It shall came into existents and begin to act as a trading corporation. For the same reason. and under whose supervision. and b) Meetings of the committee of directors. Being in a fiduciary position. and d) Class Meeting. either directly or indirectly. However. it does not mean that the promoters do not have any legal relationship with the proposed company. b) Annual General Meeting. b) Meetings of creditors. The legal position of a promoter can be correctly described by saying that he stands in a fiduciary position (relationship of trust and confidence) in relation to the company he promotes. These meetings may again be of two types: a) Meetingosf the Board of directors. New Sambrero phosphate Co. he also cannot bs called the trustee of the company. ======================================================================== 4. the promoter must not make. The meetings of the shareholders may again be of the following four types: a) Statutory Meeting. 3) Other Meetings: These meetings may be either of the following: a) Meetings of debenture-holders. c) Extraordinary General Meeting. They have the power of defining bow and when and in what shape. (a) What are the various types of meetings that are held in a company? Solution: Company 'meetings can broadly be classified as follows: 1) Meetings of Shareholders: Such meetings are also known as general meeting of the members which are held to exercise their collective rights." In fact. and the decisions are taken at the meetings of the Board of directors.no principal in existence.

e. This meeting is called as the 'statutory meeting' and it must be specially stated so in the notice calling it. public or private. b) the Board of directors on the requisition af members. EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL MEETING . alteration in the memorandum or articles of association. All business transacted at such meeting is deemed to be special business. A private company is not required to hold a statutory meeting. All general meetings of a company other than the statutory and annual general meeting are called 'extraordinary meetings'. the first issue cannot be at a discount. or c) the requisitionists themselves. Thus. hold in addition to any other meeting a general meeting as its annual general meeting and the notice must specify that it is the annual general meeting. you note that an annual general meeting is very important. every company limited by shares or limited by guarantee and having a share capital must hold a general meeting of members of the company within a period of not less than one month and not more than six months from the date on which the company becomes entitled to commence business. if the following conditions are satisfied: 1) The shares offered at a discount must be of a class already issued i.. These meetings are called in emergencies or on special occasions: This meeting is called to discuss some urgent special business which cannot . Unlike the statutory meeting which is held only once in the life-time of the company. ======================================================================== (b) When can a company issue shares at discount? Solution: A company may issue shares at a discount. It is at this meeting that the director's retire and seek re-election. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING The annual general meeting of the company is an important means through which the shareholders get the opportunity to exercise their power of control. The shareholders get an opportunity of reviewing and evaluating the overall performance of the company during a year. or d) the Company Law Board. thc annual general meeting is held every year Every company. According to Section 165 of the Companies Act. An extraordinary general meeting may be called by a) Board of directors on its own motion. issueof debentures etc. must in each calendar year.be postponed till the next annual general meeting. The shareholders can place their views before the management and can seek clarifications on matters about which they arenat satisfied.c) Meetings of creditors and contributories on the winding up of the Company STATUTORY MEETING This is the first meeting of the shareholders of a public company aria is held once in the lifetime of any public company. reduction of capital. for example. . Extraordinary general meeting is a meeting which is held between two annual general meetings.

(a) What are the circumstances when the director of company can be removed before the expiry of the term? Solution: A director can be removed from office before the expiry of his term by (a)shareholders. However. On receipt of such a notice. 6) Every prospectus shall contain particulars of the discount allowed on the issue of shares or so much of that discount as has not been written off on the date of issue of the prospectus. a higher rate of discount may be allowed if the Company Law Board agrees to a higher rate. 4) The resolution must specify the maximum rate of discount which in no case shall exceed 10%. Special notice of fourteen days must be given for the resolution to remove a director at any meeting. Let us now discuss them in detail. It means that in the first year of its working. and (iv) a director elected by proportional representation. a) Removal of Shareholders: A company may remove a director by giving a special notice and passing an ordinary resolution. shares cannot be issued at a discount. 3) The issue must be authorized by an ordinary resolution passed in the general meeting of the company and this must be confirmed by the Company Law Board. or (c) Company Law Board. . (iii) a director representing special interests e.g. it may be read at the meeting. Where the shares are issued at a discount in contravention of the above provisions. Further. If the director concerned has sent a written representation to the company. ======================================================================= 5. However. creditors or debenture holders. (ii) a life time director in a private company. shall be required to pay the full value of their shares. the allottees of such shares who allow themselves to be registered as members. the company and every officer of the company responsible for the contravention are liable to a fine up to Rs. the company may send a copy of the same to all the members. 5) The shares must be issued within two months after receiving the sanction of the Company Law Board or within such extended time as the Company Law Board may allow. 50. the company must forth with send a copy thereof to the director concerned. If the representation could not be send because of the shortage of time.2) At least one year must have elapsed since the company became entitled to commence issue. (b) Central Government.. who has a right to be heard on the resolution at the meeting. they cannot remove (i) director appointed by the Central Government.

it shall recommend the removal ofsuch director. Such a person cannot be appointed in any managerial capacity in the company for a period of five years. A removed director cannot be reappointed. Such a vacancy can also be filled up a casual vacancy. However. (b) Removal by Central Government. c) Removal by Company Law Board. The director so removed shall not hold the office of a director or any other office connected with the conduct and management of the affairs of the company for a period of five years. with the previous concurrence of the Company Law Board remit or reduce this period. If the Company Law Board is satisfied. vi) A person holding post-graduate degree or diploma in Management science I granted by any University or the Institutes of Management Ahmedabad. ======================================================================== (b) What are the qualifications of a company secretary? Solution: Any person possessing one or more of the following qualification can be appointed as a secretary for small sized companies. A director who isso removed is not entitled to any compensation for loss of office.A vacancy created by the removal of a director may be filled up by the appointment of another director in this place provided special notice of such appointment has been given to members. The Central Government may remove a director on the recommendation of the Company Law Board. iii) Post-graduate degree in Commerce or Corporate Secretaryship granted by any University in India. v) A member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. iv) Law graduate from any University. The Central Government may refer the matter to the Company Law Board if it feels that the person has been guilty of fraud. or that the business of the company has not been conducted according to prudent commercial principles or the company is managed by such a person in such a manner as to cause or likely to cause serious injury to trade. negligence or breach of trust. but he can claim compensation for loss of office. the Central Government may. ii) Any person who has passed the Intermediate examination conducted by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India. A director so appointed shall hold office only for the remaining period of the director removed. The Company Law Board is also empowered to remove the director on an application made to it for prevention of oppression or mismanagement. . misfeasance. i)A member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India. industry or business. Also he cannot sue the company for compensation for loss of office.

or Lucknow. Me must have general knowledge including the knowledge of the industry and trade. He must have a sound knowledge of different laws affecting the business. viii) Post-graduate diploma in company secretaryship granted by the Institute elf Commercial Practice. In addition to the statutory qualifications laid down above. New Delhi . Delhi. vii) A member of the Institute of Co\t and Works Accountants of India. banking and finance. He should have a good personality because he has to get on well with everybody and to get full co-operation from the staff. under Delhi Administration or diploma in corporate laws and management granted by the Indian Law Institute. Calcutta. Bangalore. ix) Post-graduate diploma in Company Law and Secretarial Practice granted by the University of Udaipur. or x) A member of the Association of Secretaries and Managers. He should also have knowledge of economics. then only he can render useful advice to directors. You should note that non-profit companies registered under Section 25 are exempted from these rules regarding the qualification of secretary.Calcutta. ======================================================================== ======================================================================== . a company secretary should also possess some other qualifications.

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