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ANATOMY - Is the study of body structure, which includes size, shape, composition, and perhaps even coloration PHYSIOLOGY - Is the study of how the body functions - The physiology of red blood cells, for example, includes what these cells do, how they do it, and how this is related to the functioning of the rest of the body - Physiology is directly related to anatomy o For example, red blood cells contain the mineral iorn in molecules of the protein called hemoglobin; this is an aspect of their anatomy o The presence of iron enables red blood cells to carry oxygen, which is their function o All cells in the body must receive oxygen in order to function properly, so the physiology of red blood cells is essential to the physiology of the body as a whole PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - Is the study of disorders of functioning, and a knowledge of normal physiology makes such disorders easier to understand o For example, you are probably familiar with the anemia called iron-deficiency anemia o With insufficient iron in the diet, there will not be enough iron in the hemoglogin of red blood cells, and hence less oxygen will be transported throughout the body, resulting in the symptoms of the iron-deficiency disorder o This example shows the relatinship between anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology

- The human body is organized into structural and functional levels of increasing complexity - Each higher level incorporates the structures and functions of the previous level, as you will see - We will begin with the simplest level, which is the chemical level, and proceed to cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems

- The chemicals that make up the body may be divided into two major categories: o Inorganic o Organic INORGANIC CHEMICALS - are usually simple molecules made of one or two elements other than carbon (with a few exceptions) - examples of inorganic chemicals are water (H 2O); oxygen (O2) - one of the exceptions, carbon dioxide (CO2); and minerals such as iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), and sodium (Na) ORGANIC CHEMICALS - are often very complex and always contain the elements carbon and hydrogen - in this category of organic chemicals are carbohydrates, fats, protein, and nucleic acids

- the smallest living units of structure and function are cells - there are many different types of human cells, though they all have certain similarities - each type of cell is made up chemicals and carries out specific chemical reactions

- a tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function - there are four groups of tissues: o EPITHELIAL TISSUES Cover or line body surfaces; some are capable of producing secretions with specific functions The outer layer of the skin and sweat glands are examples of epithelial tissues Internal epithelial tissues include the walls of capillaries (squamous epithelium) and the kidney tubules (cuboidal epithelium) Epithelial tissue is classified by the number of cell layers and the shape of surface cells. Number of cell layers Simple: One layer Stratified: Multilayered

Pseudostratified: One layer but appearing to be multilayered

Shape of surface cells Squamous: Containing flat surface cells Columnar: Containing tall, cylindrical surface cells

Cuboidal: Containing cube-shaped surface cells

Types of epithelial tissue

Simple squamous Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei Lines blood vessels, lymph nodes, and the alveoli of the lungs

Simple cuboidal epithelium Single layer of cubelike cells Found on the surface of the ovary and the thyroid Simple columnar epithelium Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei Lines the intestines Stratified columnar epithelium Superficial cells that are elongated and columnar Found in the ducts Stratified squamous epithelium Basal cells that are cuboidal or columnar Makes up the epidermis of the skin Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Cells of different heights with nuclei at different levels Form the lining of the respiratory tract (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells) Glandular epithelium Organs that produce secretions consist of a special type of epithelium called glandular epithelium. Glands are classified as exocrine or endocrine according to how they secrete their products. Endocrine glands release their secretions into the blood or lymph. (For instance, the medulla of the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream.)

Exocrine glands discharge their secretions onto external or internal surfaces. (For example, sweat glands secrete sweat onto the surface of the skin.

o CONNECTIVE TISSUES Connect and support parts of the body; some transport or store materials Blood, bone cartilage, and adipose tissue are examples of this group

Loose connective tissue - Contains large spaces that separate the fibers and cells - Contains a lot of intercellular fluid (adipose tissue) Dense connective tissue Provides structural support Has greater fiber concentration Is subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissue

Dense regular Consists of tightly packed fibers arranged in a consistent pattern Includes tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses (flat fibrous sheets that attach muscles to bones or other tissues) Dense irregular Has tightly packed fibers arranged in an inconsistent pattern Found in the dermis, submucosa of the GI tract, fibrous capsules, and fasciae Adipose tissue Commonly called fat, adipose tissue is a specialized type of loose connective tissue. Widely distributed subcutaneously, adipose tissue acts as insulation to conserve body heat, as a cushion for internal organs, and as a storage depot for excess food and reserve supplies of energy.

o MUSCLE TISSUE Specialized for contraction, which brings about movement Our skeletal muscles and the heart are examples of muscle tissue You see smooth muscle tissue, which is found in organs such as the urinary bladder and stomach

Striated muscle Has striped appearance Contracts voluntarily Found in all muscles that move or stabilize the skeleton: muscles that guard entrances and exits of digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts Cardiac muscle Sometimes classified as striated tissue because of its striped appearance but differs from striated tissue o Has fibers that are separate cellular units without many nuclei
o o

Contracts involuntarily Found in the heart

Smooth muscle

Consists of long, spindle-shaped cells; lacks the striped pattern of striated tissue Stimulated by the autonomic nervous system

Isn't under voluntary control Lines the walls of many internal organs and other structures, including respiratory passages, urinary and genital ducts, arteries and veins, larger lymphatic trunks, arrectores pilorum (tiny muscles that act as the hair erector muscles), and the iris and ciliary body of the eyes o NERVE TISSUE Specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses that regulate body functions The brain and optic nerves are examples of nerve tissue

- Neurons are highly specialized cells composed of nerve tissue that generates and conducts nerve impulses. Its primary properties are: - Irritability, the capacity to react to various physical and chemical agents, and - Conductivity, ability to transmit the resulting reaction from one point to another. The neuron - A typical neuron consists of a cell body with cytoplasmic extensions numerous dendrites on one pole and a single axon on the opposite pole. These extensions allow the neuron to conduct impulses over long distances.

- An organ is a group of tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplish specific functions - Examples of organs are the kidneys, individual bones, the liver, lungs, and stomach o The kidneys contain several kinds of epithelial, or surface tissues, for their work of absorption o The stomach is lined with epithelial tissue that secretes gastric juice for digestion o Smooth muscle tissue in the wall of the stomach contracts to mix food with gastric juice and propel it to the small intestine o Nerve tissue carries impulses that increase or decrease the contractions of the stomach

- An organ system is a group of organs that all contribute to a particular function - Examples are the urinary system, digestive system, and respiratory system - Some organs are part of two organ systems; the pancreas, for example, is both a digestive and an endocrine organ, and the diaphragm is part of both the muscular and respiratory systems - All of the organ systems make up an individual person
SYSTEM Integument ary Skeletal FUNCTIONS
Is a barrier to pathogens and chemicals Prevents excessive water loss

Supports the body Protects internal organ and red bone marrow Provideds a framework to be moved by muscles
Moves the skeleton Produces heat

ORGANS Skin, subcutaneous tissue Bones, ligaments

Muscular Nervous

Muscles, tendons


Interprets sensory information Brain, nerves, eyes, Regulates body functions such as ears movement by means of electrochemical impulses Regulates body functions such as Thyroid gland,

Circulatory Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary

Reproducti ve

growth and reproduction be means of hormones Regulates day to day metabolism by means of hormones Transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes waste products Returns tissue fluid to the blood Destroys pathogens that enter the body and provides immunity Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood Changes food to simple chemicals that can be absorbed and used by the body Removes waste products from the blood Regulates volume and pH of blood and tissue fluid Produces eggs or sperm In women, provides a site for the developing embryo-fetus

pituitary gland, pancreas Heart, blood, arteries Spleen, lymph nodes Lungs, trachea, larynx, diaphragm Stomach, colon, liver, pancreas
Kidneys, urinary bladeer, urethra

Female: ovaries, uterus Male: testes, prostate gland

METABOLISM - Metabolism is a collective noun; it is all of the chemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body - Metabolism includes growing, repairing, reacting, and reproducing all the characteristics of life - The pumping of the heart, the digestion of food in the stomach, the diffusion of gases in the lungs and tissues, and the production of energy in each cell of the body are just a few of the thousands of aspects of metabolism - Metabolism comes from a Greek word meaning change, and the body is always changing in visible ways (walking down the street), microscopic ways (cells dividing in the skiin to produce new epidermis), and submicroscopic or molecular ways (RNA and enzymes constructing new proteins)


- A related concept, METABOLIC RATE, is most often used to mean the speed at which the body produces energy and heat, or, put another way, energy production per unit of time, such as 24 hours o Metabolic rate, therefore is one aspect of metabolism - A person who is in good health may be said to be in a state of HOMEOSTASIS - Homeostasis reflects the ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable metabolism and to function normally despite many constant changes - The changes that are part of normal metabolism may be internal or external, and the body must respond appropriately - Eating breakfast, for example, brings about an internal change o Suddenly there is food in the stomach, and something must be done with it o What happens? The food is digested or broken down into simple chemicals that the body can use o The protein in a hard-boiled egg is digested into amino acids, its basic chemical buiding blocks; these amino acids can ghen be used by the cells of the body to produce their own specialized proteins - An example of an external change is a rise in environmental temperature o On a hot day, the body temperature would also tend to rise o However, body temperature must be kept within its normal range of about 97 to 99F (36 to 38C) in order to support normal functioning o What happens? One of the bodys responses to the external temperature rise is to increase sweating so that excess body heat can be lost by the evaporation of sweat on the surface of the skin o This response, however, may bring about an undesirable internal change, dehydration


o What happens? As body water decreases, we feel the sensation of thirst and drink fluids to replace the water lost in sweating o Notice that when certain body responses occur, they reverse the event that triggered them o In the preceding example a rising body temperature stimulates increased sweating, which lowers body temperature, which in turn decreases sweating o Unnecessary sweating that would be wasteful of water is prevented o This is an example of a NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM, in which the bodys response reverses the stimulus (in effect, turning it off for a while) and keeps some aspect of the body metabolism within its normal range - For another feedback mechanism, one in which the hormone thyroxine regulates the metabolic rate of the body o As metabolic rate decreases, the hypothalamus (part of the brain) and pituitary gland detect this decrease and secrete hormones to stimulate the thyroid gland (on the front of the neck just below the larynx) to secrete the hormone thyroxine o Thyroxine stimulates the cellular enzyme systems that produce energy from food, which increases the metabolic rate o The rise in energy and heat production is detected by the brain and pituitary gland o They then decrease secretion of their hormones, which in turn inhibits any further secretion of thyroxine until the metabolic rate decreases again o Metabolic rate does rise and fall, but is kept within normal limits - You may be wondering if there is such a thing as a POSITIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM - There is, but they are rare in the body and quite different from a negative feedback mechanism


- In a positive feedback mechanism, the response to the stimulus does not stop or reverse the stimulus, but instead keeps the sequence of events going - A good example is childbirth, in which the sequenc of events, simply stated, is as follows: o Stretching of the uterine cervix stimulates secretion of the hormone oxytocin by the posterior pituitary gland o Oxytocin stimulates contraction of the uterine muscle, which causes more stretching, which stimulates more oxytocin and, hence more contractions o The mechanism stops with the delivery of the baby and the placenta o This is the brake, the interrupting event - Any positive feedback mechanism requires an external brake, something to interrupt it - Blood clotting is such a mechanism, and without external controls, clotting may become a vicious cycle of clotting and more clotting, doing far more harm than good - Inflammation following an injury is beneficial and necessary for repair to begin, but the process may evolve into a cycle of damage and more damage - The rise of a fever may also trigger a positive feedback mechanism - Notice that bacteria have affected the bodys thermostat in the hypothalamus and caused a fever - The rising body temperature increases the metabolic rate, which increases body temperature even more, becoming a cycle - Where is the inhibition, the brake? For this infection, the brake is white blood cells destroying the bacteria that caused the fever - It is for this reason, because positive feedback mechanisms have the potential to be self-perpetuating and cause harm, that they are rare in the body


- Negative feedback mechanisms, however, contain their own brakes in that inhibition is a natural part of the cycle, and the body has many of them - The secretion of most hormones is regulated by negative feedback mechanisms - The regulation of heart rate and blood pressure involves several negative feedback mechanisms - The result of all of these mechanisms working togther is that all aspects of body functioning, that is, of metabolism, are kept within normal limits, a steady state or equilibrium - This is homeostasis - Keep in mind that the proper functioning of each organ and organ system contributes to homeostasis - Keep in mind as well that what we call the normal values of metabolism are often ranges, not single numbers - Recall that normal body temperature is a range: 97 to 99F (36 to 37.5C) - Normal pulse rate, another example, is 60 to 100 beats per minute; a normal respiratory rates is 12 to 20 breaths per minute - Variations within the normal range are part of normal metabolism

- Mastering the terminology of your profession is essential to enable you to communicate effectively with your coworkers and your future patient - Although the number of new terms may seem a bit overwhelming at first, you will find that their use soon becomes nature to you

- Each of the terms listed in the table below refers to a specific part or area of the body - For example, the term FEMORAL always refers to the thigh


- The femoral artery is a blood vessel that passes through the thigh, and the quadriceps femoris is a large muscle group of the thigh - Another example is PULMONARY, which always refers to the lungs, as in pulmonary artery, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary embolism - Although you may not know the exact meaning of each of these terms now, you do not know that each has something to do with the lungs

- When describing relative locations, the body is always assumed to be in anatomic position: o Standing upright facing forward o Arms at the sides with palms forward and the feet slightly apart - Notice also that these are pairs of terms and that each pair is a set of opposites - This will help you recall the terms and their meanings

TERM Antebrachial Antecubital Axillary Brachial Buccal (oral) Cardiac Cervical Cranial Cutaneous Deltoid Femoral Frontal Gastric Gluteal


Front of elbow

Armpit Upper arm Mouth Heart


Head Skin Shoulder Thigh Forehead Stomach Buttocks


Hepatic Iliac Inguinal Lumbar Mammary Nasal Occipital Orbital Parietal Patellar Pectoral Pedal Perineal Plantar Popliteal Pulmonary Renal Sacral Scapular Sternal

Liver Hip Groin Small of back Breast Nose

Back of head

Eye Crown of head Kneecap Chest Foot Pelvic floor Sole of foot Back of knee Lungs Kidneys
Base of spine

Shoulder blade Breastbone

Side of head

Volar (palmar)

Navel Palm

TERM DEFINITION Superior Above, or higher Inferior Below, or lower Anterior Toward the front Posterio r Ventral Dorsal Medial Lateral Internal External Superfic ial
Toward the back


Toward the front Toward the back Toward the midline Away from the midline Within, or interior to Outside, or exterior to Toward the surface

The heart is superior to the liver The liver is inferior to the lungs The chest is on the anterior side of the body The lumbar area is posterior to the umbilical area The mammary area is on the ventral side of the body The buttocks are on the dorsal side of the body The heart is medial to the lungs The shoulders are lateral to the neck The brain is internal to the skull The ribs are external to the lungs The skin is the most superficial organ


Deep Central Peripher al Proxima l Distal Parietal Visceral

Within, or interior to The main part Extending from the main part Closer to the origin Farther from the origin Pertaining to the wall of a cavity Pertaining to the organs within a cavity

The deep veins of the legs are surrounded by muscles The brain is part of the central nervous system Nerves in the arm are part of the peripheral nervous sytem The knee is proximal to the foot The palm is distal to the elbow The parietal pleura lines the chest cavity The visceral pleura covers the lungs


Directional terms Generally, directional terms can be grouped into pairs of opposites. - Superior (cephalic) = above - Inferior (caudal) = below - Posterior (dorsal) = toward the back of the body - Anterior (ventral) = toward the front of the body - Distal = farthest from the point of origin (trunk) - Closest = to the point of origin (trunk) - Medial = towards the bodys midline - Lateral = away from the bodys midline - Superficial = means at the body surface - Deep = means farthest from the body surface


Body cavities are spaces within the body that contain internal organs. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two major closed cavitiescavities without direct openings to the outside of the body. o Dorsal cavity (posterior) o Ventral cavity (anterior) - Each of these cavities has further subdivisions

DORSAL CAVITY - The dorsal cavity contains the central nervous system, and consists of the cranial cavity and the vertebral or spinal cavity - The dorsal cavity is a continuous one; that is, no wall or boundary separates its subdivisions - The cranial cavity is formed by the skull and contains the brain - The spinal cavity is formed by the backbone (spine) and contains the spinal cord - The membranes that line these cavities and cover the brain and spinal cord are called the MENINGES Dorsal Cavity:


- Subdivided into the cranial cavity and vertebral cavity o Cranial Cavity Also called the calvaria Encases the brain o Vertebral Canal Also called the spinal cavity or vertebral canal Formed by the vertebrae Encloses the spinal cord VENTRAL CAVITY - The ventral cavity consists of two compartments: o Thoracic cavity o Abdominal cavity These two cavities are separated by the diaphragm - The diaphragm is a large, dome-shaped respiratory muscle - It has openings for the esophagus and for large blood vessels, but otherwise is a wall between the thoracic and abdominal cavities - The pelvic cavity may be considered a subdivision of the abdominal cavity (there is no wall between them) or as a separate cavity Thoracic Cavity: o Surrounded by the ribs and chest muscles o Subdivided into the pleural cavities and the mediastinum Two pleural cavities each contain a lung Mediastinum contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes and other blood vessels and nerves Abdominopelvic cavity : Subdivided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity - Abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs - Pelvic cavity, inferior to the abdominal cavity, contains the bladder, some of the reproductive organs, and the rectum


The body also contains all of these cavities: - Middle ear cavities (which contain the small bones of the middle ear) - Orbital cavities (which house the eyes) - Nasal cavity (located in the nose) - Synovial cavities (enclosed within the capsules surrounding freely moveable joints) - Oral cavity (mouth

Reference planes Reference planes are imaginary lines used to section the body and its organs. These lines run longitudinally, horizontally, and on an angle.


Medial Sagittal = the median sagittal plane passes through the center of the body, dividing it into two equal right and left halves Frontal Plane = also called the Coronal Plane, passes at a right angle to the median plane, dividing the body into front and back portions Transverse or Horizontal Plane = is at a right angle to both the median and frontal planes; it divides the body into upper and lower sections Anatomical planes that arent parallel to sagittal, frontal, or transverse planes are termed OBLIQUE PLANES

Body regions


Right and left hypochondriac - Contain the diaphragm, portions of the kidneys, the right side of the liver, the spleen, and part of the pancreas Epigastric - Contains most of the pancreas and portions of the stomach, liver, inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta, and duodenum Right and left lumbar (lateral) - Include portions of the small and large intestines and portions of the kidneys Umbilical - Includes sections of the small and large intestines, inferior vena cava, and abdominal aorta Right and left iliac (inguinal) - Include portions of the small and large intestines Hypogastric (pubic) - Contains a portion of the sigmoid colon, urinary bladder and ureters, and portions of the small intestine


Body regions identify areas that have a special nerve or vascular supply or those that perform a special function

Cells are the body's basic building blocks. They're the smallest living components of an organism. The human body consists of millions of cells grouped into highly specialized units that function together throughout the organism's life. Large groups of individual cells form tissues, such as muscle and blood. In turn, tissues form the organs (such as the brain and heart) that are integrated into body systems (such as the central nervous system [CNS] and cardiovascular system).


Cytoplasm protects the nucleus Cell membrane boundary system for the cell, and makes sure nothing escapes the cell Mitochondrion gives energy to the cell/powerhouse Nucleus the brain, or the control center of the cell - Carry most of the genetic material Ribosome combine protein and other material the cell needs Golgi apparatus hold enzyme systems; assist in cells metabolism Lysosome cells digestive system DNA and RNA Protein synthesis is essential for the growth of new cells and the repair of damaged cells. That's where deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) come into play.


DNA carry the genetic information that provides the blueprint for protein synthesis DNA chains exist in pairs held together by weak chemical attractions between the nitrogen bases on adjacent chains. Because of the chemical shape of the bases, adenine bonds only with thymine and guanine bonds only with cytosine.

Bases that can link with each other are called complementary.

RNA transfer genetic information to the ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs

RNA consists of nucleotide chains that differ slightly from the nucleotide chains found in DNA. Several types of RNA are involved in the transfer (to the ribosomes) of genetic information essential to protein synthesis.


Types of RNA: Ribosomal RNA Used to make ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cytoplasm, where the cell produces proteins Messenger RNA Directs the arrangement of amino acids to make proteins at the ribosomes Contains a single strand of nucleotides that's complementary to a segment of the DNA chain that contains instructions for protein synthesis

Contains chains that pass from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where they attach to ribosomes

Transfer RNA Consists of short nucleotide chains, each of which is specific for an individual amino acid Transfers the genetic code from messenger RNA for the production of a specific amino acid Cell reproduction


Cells reproduce through the cell division processes of mitosis and meiosis. Before a cell divides, however, its chromosomes are duplicated. During this process, DNAs double helix separates into two chains. - Imagine linked DNA chains as a spiral staircase. The deoxyribose and phosphate groups form the railings; the nitrogen base pairs (adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine) form the steps

- Before the cell divides, its chromosomes are duplicated. During this process, the double helix separates into two DNA chains


- Each chain serves as a template for constructing a new chain. Individual DNA nucleotides are linked into new strands with bases complementary to those in the original - And we now have double helices: each containing one of the original strands and a newly and a newly formed complementary strand Mitosis Mitosis is the equal division of material in the nucleus, followed by division of the cell body. Before division, a cell must double its mass and content. This occurs during the growth phase, called interphase (not illustrated). During this phase, chromatin (the small, slender rods of the nucleus that produce its granular appearance) begins to form.


The four phases of mitosis:

Prophase The chromosomes coil and shorten, and the nuclear membrane dissolves. Each chromosome consists of a pair of strands called chromatids, which are connected by a spindle of fibers called a centromere. Metaphase The centromeres divide, pulling the chromosomes apart. The centromeres then align themselves in the middle of the spindle. Anaphase At the onset of anaphase, the centromeres begin to separate and pull the newly replicated chromosomes toward opposite sides of the cell. By the end of anaphase, 46 chromosomes are present on each side of the cell. Telophase A new membrane forms around each set of 46 chromosomes. The spindle fibers disappear, cytokinesis occurs, and the cytoplasm divides, producing two new identical daughter cells.


Meiosis Reserved for gametes (ova and spermatozoa), the process of meiosis intermixes genetic material between homologous chromosomes, producing four daughter cells, each with the haploid number of chromosomes (23, or half of the 46). Meiosis has two divisions separated by a resting phase.

First division The first division has six phases. Here's what happens during each. Interphase Chromosomes replicate, forming a double strand attached at the center by a centromere. Chromosomes appear as an indistinguishable matrix within the nucleus.

Centrioles appear outside the nucleus.


Prophase I The nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear. Chromosomes are distinct, with chromatids attached by the centromere.

Homologous chromosomes move close together and inter-twine; exchange of genetic information (genetic recombination) may occur. Centrioles separate, and spindle fibers appear.

Metaphase I Pairs of synaptic chromosomes line up randomly along the metaphase plate. Spindle fibers attach to each chromosome pair. Anaphase I Synaptic pairs separate. Spindle fibers pull homologous, double-stranded chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell.

Chromatids remain attached.

Telophase I The nuclear membrane forms. Spindle fibers and chromosomes disappear.

Cytoplasm compresses and divides the cell in half. Each new cell contains the haploid (23) number of chromosomes.

Interkinesis The nucleus and nuclear membrane are well defined. The nucleolus is prominent, and each chromosome has two chromatids that don't replicate. Second division The second division closely resembles mitosis and is characterized by these four phases.

Prophase II


The nuclear membrane disappears. Spindle fibers form. Double-stranded chromosomes appear as thin threads.

Metaphase II Chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate. Centromeres replicate. Anaphase II Chromatids separate (now a single-stranded chromosome). Chromosomes move away from each other to the opposite ends of the cell. Telophase II The nuclear membrane forms. Chromosomes and spindle fibers disappear.

Cytoplasm compresses, dividing the cell in half. Four daughter cells are created, each of which contains the haploid (23) number of chromosomes. Movement within cells Passive transport Diffusion In diffusion, solutes move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Eventually, an equal distribution of solutes between the two areas occurs.

Osmosis In osmosis, fluid moves across a membrane from an area of lower solute concentration (comparatively more fluid) to an area of higher solute concentration


(comparatively less fluid). Osmosis stops when enough fluid has moved through the membrane to equalize the solute concentration on both sides of the membrane.

In diffusion, the solutes move. In osmosis, the fluid moves Active transport Sodium-potassium pump The sodium-potassium pump moves sodium from inside the cell to outside, where the sodium concentration is greater; potassium moves from outside the cell to inside, where the potassium concentration is greater. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides the energy required for this movement.


Pinocytosis In pinocytosis, tiny vacuoles take droplets of fluid containing dissolved substances into the cell. The engulfed fluid is used in the cell.

Filtration - The rate of filtration or how quickly substances pass through the membrane depends on the amount of pressure