Some terms in ethology (behaviour

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1. alelochemicals = substances that affect individuals or populations of a species different from their source. Allelochemic interactions may involve chemical messengers affecting the growth, health, behavior, or population biology of other species. Two categories of allelochemics have been recognized: allomones and kairomones. 2. allomon = are chemical agents of adaptive advantage to the organism sending them 3. Allogrooming = Tending the body surface of a conspecific. 4. Altruism = unselfish devotion to welfare of others. (15.3.3; 18.2.3) 5. Anemotaxis = Taxis influenced by air movement. Usually results in a movement upwind (2.3.3). Chemotaxis = Taxis that depends on stimulation by a substance or mixture of substances. 6. Anthropomorphism = Description or explanation of animal behaviour as if the animals were human. 7. Apotreptic behaviour = Conduct that tends to cause withdrawal by a conspecific. This term has the same meaning as threat, as threat is often used in ethology. 8. Types of insect association: aggregation (feeding aggr’n); simple groups (migration of locusts & butterflies; primitive societies (cases of parental care of offspring); advanced societies ( all so-called “truly social”). 9. Associative learning = learning to associate two or more stimuli with a particular reward or punishment. 10. Aversive stimulus = Stimulus that causes withdrawal or avoidance. 11. Circadian = a rhythmic process within an organism occurring independently of external synchronizing signals, following roughly a 24-hour schedule. 12. Classical conditioning = Formation of a conditional reflex. 13. Cognition = Internal processes, involving information stored on two or more occasions, which regulate behaviour (8.2.4; 19.1.4) 14. Conditional reflex (CR) = A response, elicited by a previously indifferent stimulus (CS), as a result of repeated application of the CS at about the time of application of an existing (unconditional) stimulus for a similar act. The latter is the unconditional response (reflex). In a mammal the response is usually mediated by the autonomic nervous system, but may be a tendon reflex. The CS is “indifferent” only with respect to the activity to be studied: it must arouse attention from the first. See orienting response. (5.5) 15. Conditional stimulus  see conditional reflex. 16. Conditioning = See Pavlov’s experiment. 17. Cooperation = behavioural interaction of two or more conspecifics that tends to increase the fitness of the actors or of the conspecifics (10.1) 18. Deimatic effect = Changes of appearance, usually sudden, which deter predators (3.6) 19. Deme = Small population partly or completely isolated from others of the same species 20. Deutero-learning = Development of ability to solve problems as a result of divers experience, especially in early life (8.1.4.2) 21. Displacement behaviour = irrelevant actions produced by the balancing of conflicting drives. Not to be confused with redirected behavior, in which the object of the behavior itself is essentially unchanged (17.1.2.4;18.5.2) 22. Epigamic selection = selection for features that increase the chances of mating by attracting members of the opposite sex (18.4.4) 23. Exploratory behaviour = an imprecise term referring to apparently unrewarded movements about an animal’s living space (8.1) 24. Exploratory learning = inferred storage of information in the brain leading to superior habit formation after apparently unrewarded experience of a situation (8.1.4.1) 25. Fixed action pattern = instinctive or inherited behaviour; stereotyped, highly predictable, taxon-typical behaviour sequence (17.2.4.1) 26. Habit = pattern of response individually developed as a result of reward or punishment.

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27. Habituation = a primitive form of learning, based on repetition of the same stimulus; decline in performance of an act as a result of changes in the nervous system due to repetition of a stimulus which evoke the act (5.2-4) 28. Homeotherm = Animal of which the deep body temperature is kept steady despite a varying external temperature. 29. Imitation = the performance of a novel action as a result of observing the action performed by another (8.4.2) 30. Imprinting = a special form of learning that occur soon after hatching in many social vertebrates; involves recognition and identification of, and fixation on, traits of the parent organisms (experimental surrogates); the precises? by which certain stimuli very rapidly produce persistent behavioural change during a critical period in an animal’s life. Imprinting establishes the bond between mother and offspring (12.3) 31. Instinct = a rather inexact term for innate, pre-programmed behavioural capacity that is largely hereditary but which may, in some cases, be subject to some degree of modification by learning. 32. Kairomones = are of adaptive value to the organism receiving them 33. Kinesis = undirected movement of which the velocity or rate ( or degree) of turning varies with the intensity of a particular type of stimulation (2.2.4) 34. Klinokinesis = kinesis in which the rate or degree of turning depend on the intensity of stimulation (2.2.4.2) 35. Klinotaxis = Taxis dependent on lateral deviation of body or part of body and comparison and equalization of stimulation on the two sides (2.2.2.1) 36. Lek = communal mating ground; this is a region in which males group together, each in his own small territory, and display to visiting females.1 37. Mimicry = the superficial resemblance of certain animals, particularly insects, to other more powerful or more protected ones, or to leaves and other plant parts. 38. Motivation = the fluctuating internal states that determine what kind of behaviour and what intensity of activity can be evoked (cf drive) ( 17.1.2) 39. Neophilia = approaching unfamiliar, in preference to familiar, objects or places (8.1.3). 40. Neophobia = the avoidance of unfamiliar objects in a familiar environment. Not to be confused with bait-shyness (1.1.3) 41. Operant = action that leads to reinforcement, positive or negative.(6.1.2) 42. Operant conditioning = Trial-and-error behaviour.(Chapter 6 and 7) 43. Orientation = Position or direction of movement in relation to a source of stimulation or to a destination. 44. Orienting response (OR) = movement evoked by a novel stimulus. The classical example is the pricking of the ears and turning of the head of a dog exposed to a sudden noise (5.2.2.2;5.5.1) 45. Orthokinesis = kinesis in which the velocity of movement depends on the intensity of stimulation (2.2.4.1) 46. Pair bond = refers to a prolonged association between a male and a female (9.3.7.1) 47. Pheromones = a social hormone or chemical signal which is secreted to the body exterior and which produces temporary changes in the behaviour of other members of a species or society (e.g., “queen substance” of bees) (13.2.3.1) 48. Piloerection = raising or bristling of the hair. 49. Polyandry = mating by a female with more than one male during the same breeding season. The males usually take part in the rearing of the young. 50. Polybrachygamy = promiscuity, or mating with two or more others during the same breading season. 51. Polyethism = division of labor among eusosial insects.(9.1.2) 52. Pineal = a structure in the brain of vertebrates, functions as a median dorsal eye in lampreys and tuataras. 53. Reductionism = presumption that a complex system can be fully understood by analysing it in terms of simpler constituents or concepts (19.1.3) 54. Reinforcement = the operation of a reward, or of removal of a punishment; a standard external stimulus which evokes a standard response. 55. Reward = a stimulus which strengthens the response that evokes (6.2.1)

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56. Releaser = A specific stimulus that triggers a complex pattern of innate behaviour. 57. Semiochemicals = all chemicals produced by one organism that incite responses in another organism 58. Sociobiology = The interpretation of social interactions in terms of presumptions about the action of natural selection. Sometimes used in a wider sense that almost coincides with the whole of social ethnology. 59. Teleology = Explanation of an event by its outcome. The most usual kind of such explanation is where an action undertaken on the basis of prediction of its result. Such actions are performed only by human beings. Contrast to teleonomy.(19.1.2) 60. Territory = a region occupied by an individual, pair, or larger group to the exclusion of other conspesifics. The term is restricted by many authors to defended regions (10.4;11.4.1) 61. Trial-and-error behaviour = gradually acquiring a habit, partly as a result of elemination of unnecessary movements (chapter 6, 7). 62. Taxis = a simple, innate neuromuscular orientational response to stimuli, generally in animals; Movement directly to or from a single source of stimulation (2.2.2) 63. Tropotaxis = taxis dependent on simultaneous comparison of stimulation intensity on the two sides (2.2.2) 64. Tropism = an automatic growth response to simple stimuli; the term is mainly used in referring to plant responses.

Note:

We, too, salivate along with Pavlov’s dogs when confronted with the stimulus of the dinner bell, or the sight, smell, or even mental image of food – at least when we are hungry. Please direct your attention to two features of Pavlov’s classical conditioning: (1). The conditioning stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, and (2) the organism is a passive participant. Its behaviour is elicited; it does not arise spontaneously. Another form of conditioning is also known which has neither of these characteristics. It is known as operant conditioning. In operant conditioning, the animal responds not to some external cue such as a bell, but to its own internal needs and drives, and its own spontaneous behaviour produces the conditioning stimulus, better known as a reinforcement. 4 types of signals: Acoustic signals: vocally, vibrate various part of body, drum on hollow objects, ultrasonic signals---Visual signals: body form, posture, and movement, colour pattern. Chemical signals: pheromones, allomones, kairomones Tactile signals: touch receptors form part of the basic anatomy of all animals, functioning in such diverse activities as avoiding obstacles, fighting, and copulating. Combination of signals: most animals. Birds utilize acoustic signals (songs), visual signals (certain postures), tactile signals ( touching the female during courtship in his repertoire of communicating devices; honey bees.

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INTERNATIONAL BIOLOGY OLYMPIADE
Soal-soal Ethology 1. Lebah madu dapat menentukan secara tepat lokasi makanannya karena individu lain dalam koloninya dapat melakukan suatu tarian, contoh tingkah laku tersebut digambarkan sepertui di bawah ini. matahari

sumber pakan

sarang

2. Geotaxis ( orientasi perilaku dipengaruhi oleh gravitas bumi), phototaxis (dipengaruhi oleh cahaya), dan chemotaxis (orientasi perilaku dipengaruhi oleh zat kimia), adalah berbagai tipe perilaku taxis yang terdapat pada (a) bacteria, (b) serangga, (c) cacing pita, (d) ikan, (e) manusia.

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