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ProMAX Reference

True Amplitude Recovery applies a time and possibly space variant gain function to traces to compensate for loss of amplitude due to wavefront spreading and attenuation. In ProMAX VSP, the process is called VSP True Amplitude Recovery and the behavior is slightly different.

Theory

The process offers a number of true amplitude recovery schemes which can be used separately or in combination. Options include correction for spherical divergence and inelastic attenuation, a dB/sec correction and a power-oftime correction. At least one option must be selected. Spherical divergence correction This correction compensates for loss of amplitudes due to spherical wavefront spreading. If 1/dist for Basis for spherical spreading, the gain correction is g(t) = t v(t) If 1/(time*vel**2) for Basis for spherical spreading, the gain correction is g(t) = t v (t) t is time and v(t) is an RMS (stacking) velocity function. Inelastic attenuation correction This correction compensates for loss of amplitudes due to inelastic attenuation. The gain correction is g(t) = e

t v(t) 2

is the Inelastic attenuation correction constant, t is time and v(t) is an RMS (stacking) velocity function.

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ProMAX Reference

dB/sec correction This correction is a simple decibels per second amplitude adjustment. If Time zero for dB/sec correction start time, the gain correction is g(t) = 10

t C 20

If Water bottom for dB/sec correction start time, the gain correction is g(t) = 1.0 for t t wb and g(t) = 10

( t t wb ) C 20

for t > t wb

C is the dB/sec correction constant, t is time and twb is the water-bottom time (WB_TIME from the trace header). Time raised to a power correction This correction is a simple amplitude adjustment. The gain correction is g(t) = t

POWER

POWER is the Time-Power constant and t is time. Normalization The computed gain curve is multiplied by a normalization constant so that trace amplitudes are relatively unchanged. There are three options for the source of the normalization constant: Calculate, Menu and Header. Calculate The normalization constant is calculated during the Initialization phase from the menu parameters. If Yes to Are velocities spatially variant, the gain curve is calculated using a velocity function interpolated for CDP 1. If Water bottom for dB/sec correction start time, the gain curve is calculated using WB_TIME = 0. Then, the normalization constant is the inverse of the value of the gain curve at Normalization reference TIME.

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ProMAX Reference

The calculated normalization constant is independent of the data. The same value is used for all traces, even when gain curves vary because velocities are spatially variant or the dB/sec correction starts at the water bottom. Menu The source of the normalization constant is parameter Normalization constant. If removing TAR, the reciprocal of the menu value is used. The same value is used for all traces. Header The source of the normalization constant is trace header entry TAR_NORM. If removing TAR, the reciprocal of the header value is used. Unlike the Calculate and Menu options, the same value is not used for all traces. Instead, the value of TAR_NORM in each trace header is used for that trace. The job aborts if TAR_NORM is NULL or less than or equal to zero. Seeing normalization constant values The Calculate option prints the normalization constant in the STDERR section of job.output. When applying TAR, the Calculate and Menu options put the normalization constant in new trace header entry TAR_NORM. If TAR_NORM already exists, it is overwritten with the new normalization constant. When removing TAR, all options set trace header entry TAR_NORM to 1.0. VSP True Amplitude Recovery differences For each trace, the two-way time RMS velocity function is converted to one-way VSP time using the rst break pick time (FB_PICK from the trace header). There must be a FB_PICK time for each trace. Any null value will cause the job to abort. Parameter Are velocities spatially variant is hidden. Velocities cannot be spatially variant. Parameter dB/sec correction start time is hidden. The dB/sec correction always starts from time 0.

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ProMAX Reference

If Calculate to Normalization source, the normalization constant is calculated using the FB_PICK time for the rst live input trace. The calculated normalization constant is NOT independent of the data.

Usage

You can use the following ow to input traces that are all ones to True Amplitude Recovery and see the gains.

Disk Data Input Trace Math MODE of operation TYPE of trace/scalar operation SCALAR value Trace Math MODE of operation TYPE of trace/scalar operation SCALAR value True Amplitude Recovery Trace Display Trace/Scalar Add Scalar 1. Trace/Scalar Multiply by Scalar 0.

Parameters

Apply spherical divergence corrections? Select Yes to compute corrections to compensate for loss of amplitudes based on spherical wavefront spreading. Basis for spherical spreading This appears if Yes to Apply spherical divergence corrections. Select spherical divergence corrections from: 1/dist bases spherical spreading on the reciprocal of the distance the wavefront has travelled. 1/(time*vel**2) bases spherical spreading on a function of travel time and velocity.

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ProMAX Reference

Apply inelastic attenuation corrections? Select Yes to compute corrections to compensate for loss of amplitudes due to inelastic attenuation. Inelastic attenuation correction constant This appears if Yes to Apply inelastic attenuation corrections. Enter the constant inelastic attenuation value used to compute amplitude attenuation corrections. The default value is 0.0002. You must enter a value between 0.000001 and 0.01. Get TAR velocity function from database? This appears if Yes to Apply spherical divergence corrections or Yes to Apply inelastic attenuation corrections. Select Yes to retrieve the velocity function used for spherical spreading and inelastic attenuation corrections from the database. Are velocities spatially variant? This appears if Yes to Apply spherical divergence corrections or Yes to Apply inelastic attenuation corrections. Select Yes to input velocities as spatially variant by CDP. This will cause a longer run time. In ProMAX VSP this parameter is hidden and velocities cannot be spatially variant. Select velocity parameter le This appears if Yes to Get TAR velocity function from database. Select an RMS (stacking) velocity table from the list dened for the line. If No to Are velocities spatially variant, the table must contain a single velocity function for one location. If Yes to Are velocities spatially variant, the table must contain velocity functions for more than one location. Specify TAR velocity function This appears if No to Get TAR velocity function from database.

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If No to Are velocities spatially variant, you must specify a TAR velocity function as T1-V1, T2-V2, T3-V3,...Tn-Vn. Enter a single average velocity function. If Yes to Are velocities spatially variant, you must specify the TAR velocity functions as CDP1:T1-V1,...,TnVn/CDP2:T1-V1,...,Tn-Vn/.../. Enter multiple velocity functions. Apply dB/sec corrections? Select Yes to compute corrections by a simple dB/sec amplitude adjustment function. dB/sec correction start time This appears if Yes to Apply dB/sec corrections. Select the start time for the correction from: Time 0 starts at time zero. Water bottom starts at the water-bottom time. In ProMAX VSP this parameter is hidden and the dB/sec correction always starts at time zero. dB/sec correction constant This appears if Yes to Apply dB/sec corrections. Enter the constant dB/sec value used to compute amplitude corrections. The default value is 6.0 dB. You must enter a value greater than or equal to -120 dB. Apply time raised to a power corrections? Select Yes to compute corrections by raising the time to a power and then multiplying the sample by this value. Time-Power constant This appears if Yes to Apply time-raised-to-a-power corrections. Enter the constant power to raise before multiplying the trace samples by this computed value. The default value is 2.0. Enter a value greater than or equal to -10.0. APPLY or REMOVE amplitude corrections? Select from: Other Docs Search Page Known Problems

ProMAX Reference

Apply multiplies the data by the specied correction factors. Gain corrections increase with time. This is the normal mode and corrects the data for loss of signal strength. Remove divides the data by the specied correction factors. Gain corrections decrease with time. This mode can be used to remove the effects of a previous application of True Amplitude Recovery or it can be used to introduce earth amplitude effects into synthetic data. Maximum application TIME Enter the maximum time in milliseconds for computing TAR corrections. Below this time the gain curve is held constant at the value for the maximum application time. The default, 0.0, means continue computing the gain curve to trace end. Normalization source The computed gain curve is multiplied by a normalization constant so that trace amplitudes are relatively unchanged. Select the source of the normalization constant from: Calculate the normalization constant from menu parameters. The normalization constant is calculated during the Initialization phase and is independent of the data. Menu to use the value of parameter Normalization constant. Header to use the value of trace header entry TAR_NORM. The Menu option is useful if you are applying a spherical divergence or inelastic attenuation correction, which depends upon velocity, to several lines with much different velocities at CDP 1. An example is a 2-D marine survey in which half the dip lines have CDP 1 near shore and the other half have CDP 1 in deep water. With the Calculate option, the normalization constant is different for each line and could introduce noticeable amplitude mismatches among the lines. Instead, rst apply TAR using the Calculate option to 1 trace from each of a representative sample of lines. Look at the calculated normalization constants printed in job.output. Then use the Menu option to apply TAR to all lines using a single average value for Normalization constant.

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ProMAX Reference

Note: The Menu option is not needed for different data sets in the same line. Given the same menu parameters, the Calculate option always calculates the same normalization constant. The Header option can be useful when removing a previously applied TAR. When applying TAR, True Amplitude Recovery writes the normalization constant to trace header entry TAR_NORM so that it is available during removal. Normalization reference TIME This appears if Calculate to Normalization source. Enter the reference time in milliseconds for normalizing TAR corrections. The computed gain curve is normalized by dividing by the gain at the normalization reference time. The default, 0.0, means use the middle of the trace as the reference time. This parameter is useful if you want to remove a previously applied TAR and the trace length has changed or if you want to apply the same TAR, with the same normalization constant, to data sets with different trace lengths. Normalization constant This appears if Menu to Normalization source. Enter the normalization constant, which must be greater than zero. The computed gain curve is normalized by multiplying by this value.

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