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In this lesson we will learn the following: What laboratory procedures need to be done in the water plant.
Along with the online lesson, read Chapter 11: Laboratory Procedures, in your textbook Operation of Water Treatment Plants Volume I .
A laboratory is a place for precise work to determine appropriate treatment of raw water and the quality of the finished water. It must be kept organized, well maintained, and clean. All instruments must be kept clean and routinely calibrated with proper records. A number of lab tests are needed daily, quarterly, semiannually, annually, and at other specified intervals to monitor the water quality before, during, and after the treatment. A test is not better than the sample, and the sample is not better than the manner in which it is collected.
Valid testing starts with an adequate and representative sampling. A sample is either a grab or a composite. A grab sample , as the name indicates, is a specific volume collected at one site at one time. These samples indicate the quality of water at that time and at that site. Grab samples are taken for bacteriological and disinfection residual tests. A composite sample is a mixture of a number of portions taken at the specific intervals. This reduces the number of tests. Each portion can be proportionate to the flow or volume. For each test operators should follow the prescribed sampling size, collecting, and preserving procedure given in the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. Testing must be done as soon as possible and not later than the specified holding time.
and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The majority of water quality complaints are of this type. industrial wastes. planktons. manganese. pH. and municipal sewage discharges. such as clay. jar test. The odors are common in spring and fall due to the turn over of the lakes and reservoirs.Tests Various regularly performed common tests by the operating staff are for tastes and odor. particularly actinomycetes. turbidity. coliform bacteria. disinfection residual. sand. Turbidity Turbidity is the murkiness in the water caused by colloidal (1 to 100 nanometer particles) and other suspended particles. Tastes and Odors Testing for taste and odor is important because of aesthetic value. alkalinity. the tastes and odors can be due to iron. silt. In the groundwater. and the heterotrophic plate count. Most of the organic and some inorganic chemicals cause tastes and odors. while decomposing dead organic matter at the bottom of the water bodies. runoffs. organic matter of plant and animal origin. hardness. they are produced by bacteria. . Geosmin and methyl-isobarneol (MIB) are the serious odor-causing chemicals. All other tests are run either by highly trained chemists and microbiologists of the lab or by certified contract laboratories. These chemicals come from the decaying organic matter. These are general classes of odors: Aromatic (spicy) Balsamic (flowery) Chemical Disagreeable Earthy Musty Grassy Vegetable These are called the reference odor in the water samples. Even a very low concentration of these chemicals can cause earthy-musty odors.
It uses a range of increasing dose of a particular chemical in a series of six jars with a stirring and illumination mechanism. or runoffs from farm land. unexpected discharge of raw sewage. Most of the problems in the source water. and for tastes and odor control. particulary in the surface water. turbidity is one of the primary standards for the drinking water. quality are due to seasonal variations or other unusual circumstances. such as drought. softening. sedimentation. and the water is safer. heavy rains. easy. Turbidity is measured as the amount of scattered light by the suspended particles in the sample. Turbidity of the finished water should be equal to or less than 0. the less is the amount of the particulate matter.3 nephalometric turbidity unit (NTU) in 95 percent of the samples/month. and economical. It means there is less probability of the presence of waterborne pathogens. Jar Testing Jar testing is a useful tool to determine the practical optimum dose of a chemical under the simulated plant conditions. . The lower the turbidity. These problems can be solved by this test. The finished water turbidity is tested at least every four hours.and other microscopic organisms. Therefore. Turbidity particles can be waterborne pathogens or particles harboring them. removal of synthetic organics. It makes the water treatment more effective. which is important for coagulation.
and carbonates and hydroxides are present between pH 9. Disinfection Residual Chlorine is one of the most effective disinfectants and is quite commonly used for water disinfection. Bacteria. Alkalinity does not exist below pH 4. and hydroxides are the most common forms of alkalinity in natural waters. Industrial discharges can also cause alkalinity. is the measurement of acidity (H+).pH pH. therefore. softening. each medium will allow certain types of bacteria to grow.3.3 and 8. being small. chlorine. such as in air. are present almost everywhere. Coliform Bacteria Tests Bacteriological quality of water is important to determine the degree of disinfection and possible presence of waterborne pathogens. and stabilization. Carbonates.4. which are called combined residual chlorine.4 and 14. Total residual chlorine is the sum of the free residual chlorine and combined residual chlorine. such as alum.3. hydronium ion index. Alkalinity test is important to determine proper coagulation and the stability of water. and on lab equipment. These chemicals are mostly compounds of calcium and magnesium coming from mineral deposits such as limestone and dolomite. and heavy metal salts.3 and 9. It is used to determine the condition of water for proper coagulation. forms chloramines. . Media are the food for the bacteria to culture them in the laboratory. Carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity is present between pH 8. mineral acids. Acidity in water is usually due to carbon dioxide (CO2) from rain water. water. Therefore. Bicarbonate alkalinity is present between pH 4. bicarbonates. combined with ammonia. pH is an important parameter in the water utility. Chlorine. all equipment and handling is done in a sterile environment to ensure the accuracty of data. Different bacteria have different food requirements. Alkalinity Alkalinity of water is its capacity to neutralize acidity.
To ensure the absence of waterborne pathogens. pH. A composite sample is a mixture of a number of portions taken at the specific intervals. Both fecal and nonfecal coliforms are called the total coliform group. Those in the soil are called nonfecal coliforms . quarterly. All other tests are run either by highly trained chemists and microbiologists of the lab or by certified contract laboratories. and after the treatment. annually. These bacteria in human wastes are known as fecal coliform bacteria. as the name indicates. This reduces the number of tests. Grab samples are taken for bacteriological and disinfection residual tests. . The two most common techniques for testing coliform bacteria are the membrane filter technique and the multiple tube fermentation/most probable number technique.Media are either liquid. and vice versa. and the heterotrophic plate count. Each portion can be proportionate to the flow or volume. Furthermore. alkalinity. known as broths. hardness. Various regularly performed common tests by the operating staff are for tastes and odor. the water is tested for coliform bacteria. A count less than 500 colonies/mL of the sample means that the water is properly disinfected. or semisolid (gelatinous). and at other specified intervals to monitor the water quality before. during. These samples indicate the quality of water at that time and at that site. a count of higher than 500 colonies/mL interferes with the growth of total coliform bacteria. jar test. disinfection residual. which are called agars. A sample is either a grab or a composite. semiannually. Review A number of lab tests are needed daily. Coliform bacteria are present in human wastes and in soil contaminated with human wastes. turbidity. is a specific volume collected at one site at one time. coliform bacteria. A grab sample . Heterotrophic or Standard Plate Count (HPC) This test gives the total count of almost all types of bacteria in the water sample that can grow on a general medium called the standard plate count agar or nutrient agar. This group is used as an indicator of the presence of human wastes in water and the possible presence of waterborne pathogens.
complete it and mail or fax back to the instructor or you may send an email with the correct answers numbered accordingly Quiz Answer the questions in the Lesson 11 quiz . When you have gotten all the answers correct. .Assignment Work the following crossword puzzle that comes from definitions in your textbook. You may either print the puzzle out. print the page and either mail or fax it to the instructor.
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