DESCRIPTION: REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING, CURING, DRY-OUT, LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE CUSTOMER CLIENT : M/s.

LARSEN & TOURBO., : M/s. CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL.,

EQUIPMENT : INCINERATOR & FLUE GAS TRANSFER DUCT.

REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING, CURING, DRY-OUT, LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. Ltd. 387, SIDCO Industrial Estate, Ambattur, Chennai - 600 098. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO., CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL.,

Doc. No.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01

Ver. 5.0
Sheet 1 of 10

8 13. No. 5. REPAIR OF VIBRACAST REFRACTORY LININGS -----------------------.0 Sheet 2 of 10 . INSTALLATION ---------------------------------------------------------------------. SIDCO Industrial Estate. Ambattur.7 10.5 5. TRIMMING ----------------------------------------------------------------------------.6 8.10 REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING.5 7. DRYING -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Ltd.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver.3 2. 387. AFTER DRYING OF THE LINING --------------------------------------------. SCOPE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7 11. GENERAL -----------------------------------------------------------------------------.. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. 1. Chennai .CONTENT: Page No. PREPARATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------.5 6.6 9. DRY-OUT.. DRYOUT CURVE -------------------------------------------------------------------. INSPECTION -------------------------------------------------------------------------.600 098.8 14. CURING OF HYDRAULICALLY BONDING ------------------------------. FIRING OF HYDRAULICALLY BONDING REFRACTORY -----------.4 3. JOINTS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. CURING.7 CASTABLE REFRACTORY 12.4 4. Doc. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. STARTUP AND OPERATION ---------------------------------------------------.

CURING. 387. 2) Welding of Anchors. No. 5. Ambattur.0 Sheet 3 of 10 . Chennai .1. SIDCO Industrial Estate. Doc. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt... DRY-OUT.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. Ltd.600 098. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. 3) Installation of Refractory as per drawing and Details 4) Dry Out of refractory REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING.SCOPE: Scope of work includes 1) Preparation of Application Procedure and Field Quality Plan.

SIDCO Industrial Estate. condensation or extreme heat until commissioning of the lining. 4. such lumps may be broken and used. An APQ is required for each crew and type of installation. it is recommended to perform the test procedure. safety regulations shall be strictly adhered to. DRY-OUT.GENERAL 1. Because refractory materials may contain aggressive chemical substances. No. 3. Chennai .600 098. It is recommended that during refractory installation all nozzles or small openings protruding through the refractory lining be closed by means of plugs (of polystyrene. Thereafter.2.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. 387.etc. 7. frost.). Castable refractories are supplied in bags and are mixed with potable water onsite and poured in place. Doc. wood. For much larger and continuous mixes. personnel shall wear masks. 3. The Applicator shall have successfully passed the Applicator's Procedure Qualification (APQ) as specified. Depending on the abrasive nature of the refractory material. The amount of potable water to be added depends on the type of the castable and the consistency required during installation. CURING. REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING. 3. During mixing. 5. Ambattur. When working with the materials. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL.. The castable material may have compacted somewhat during transport and storage. Provisions shall be made to maintain the refractory materials and equipment to be lined at a moderate temperature (10 °C to 25 °C) until curing is complete. Ltd. The minimum amount of castable to be mixed shall be one bag and/or the minimum capacity of the mixer. 2. rubber industrial gloves and eye protection.PREPARATION: 1.0 Sheet 4 of 10 . INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. for the installation of the actual lining.. the lining shall be protected from exposure to water. The refractory and steel temperatures shall be continuously monitored and recorded until curing is complete. 6. Requirements for anchor installation are specified. The materials shall be mixed in suitable mixers. The Applicator shall verify that the anchorage and cleanliness of the surface to be lined are adequate before starting the lining activity. the consistency shall be checked by the "ball-in-hand" method in accordance with BS 1902-703 or ASTM C 860. 2. slightly tapered for easy removal afterwards. mixers of treble paddle (preferred) or the rotary bowl type may be employed. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. in order to ensure the proper working/mixing of the refractory material components. preferably fed through a 10 mm meshscreen to separate any unwanted matter. 5.

Poker vibrators shall not be used with castables having a bulk density less than 1750 kg/m3. 387.600 098. All material ahead of the cut shall be discarded. Once application has started it shall proceed without intervals until the entire scheduled lining has been completed. with a maximum of 1000 mm. 5. wetted woollen threads (forming drains) may be used to enhance evaporation of excess water from the refractory.JOINTS: 1.0 Sheet 5 of 10 . Special attention shall be paid to dense. No. 5.). Each batch of the mixer shall be cast over the full thickness and distributed level. Form work shall be stable and rigid and shall be constructed from wood or metal.INSTALLATION: 1.4. Horizontal linings shall be cast continuously without layering. etc. Castable refractory materials shall be installed behind form work (e. Compacting may be done using rods or vibrating pokers of suitable size and capacity. permanent flanged joints excluded). When casting multiple or thick layers. if so. changes of material quality and. Ltd. The Contractor shall demonstrate the proper handling during the AQP procedure.TRIMMING: When casting horizontal areas (without form work). CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. for example. edges. unless specifically designed and detailed for greater height and approved by the Principal.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. They normally require small amounts of mixing water. slurry shall not be visible after finishing the surface. 7.g. the finished surface shall be levelled off with a scraper or screed only. SIDCO Industrial Estate. if joints are unavoidable they shall be made at calculated and practical locations. REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING. In general these locations are at corners. In refractory applications the use of joints shall be minimised.e. where a mechanical joint is designed (i. Chennai . 4. Partitioning into suitable parts may be necessary. Ambattur. high quality and low-cement castables.. 6. 3. the wet ending of the lining shall be cut back at right angles to the surface. 5. 2. Doc. 6. CURING.forms. If an unavoidable interruption occurs. Practical locations are entailed by the application procedures. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. the layout shall be agreed by the Contractor. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. such as scaffold platforms and changeovers of application equipment. are sensitive to temperature conditions and shall be treated as specified by the Manufacturer. DRY-OUT. Form work height should not exceed ten times the lining thickness. shutter boards. They shall be treated to avoid water absorption.. embedded.

e. The inspection may be restricted to the reporting of visual observations.INSPECTION The Principal shall have final responsibility for the acceptance of newly installed linings and repaired linings. 4. Distinction shall be made between expansion joints and butt-joints.STARTUP AND OPERATION 1.2. CURING. Refractory lined equipment shall not be operated until the lining has completely cured and has been formally accepted by the Contractor and Principal. design of equipment and/or lining. 3. 387. However. SIDCO Industrial Estate. Detailed specifications for curing. To avoid damage to the lining. 7. consideration shall be given to joints which compensate for constructional/material movements. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. Refractory lined equipment shall be inspected by experienced personnel approved by the Principal. 4. Ltd. specifications. Expansion joints are not usually required in monolithic refractory linings due to the shrinkage of the refractory being greater than its expansion. shape and type of filling and made at the appropriate locations.. it shall be determined whether damage or irregularities are the result of material selection. Based on visual inspection. Expansion joints shall normally be straight-through.not interfering with attachments in the lining or openings in the equipment. They shall bedesigned for the width. The equipment shall also be taken out of operation in a controlled manner. protection of materials during storage and installation. especially where moisture can accumulate in the lining. 5. 3.600 098. Refractory lined equipment standing idle should be protected against frost and water ingress.50 mm. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. 2. Chennai ..: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. the equipment shall be brought into service in accordance with an approved drying and firing procedure. In multi-layer linings labyrinths shall be formed by shifting joints approx. Only precompressed ceramic fibre blankets or semi-rigid ceramic fibre board shall be used as joint material.0 Sheet 6 of 10 . Critical limitation of temperatures during startup and/or operations shall be submitted to operator personnel in order to avoid possible refractory damage in the start-up process. materials supplied. REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. No. Ambattur. 35 . curing and heating or operation. 5. DRY-OUT. 8. Doc. or at least twice the joint thickness. Reports on completion of dry-out/heat-up schedules shall be prepared. hammer testing and further examination. drying and firing. Butt-joints are used when joining materials in the process of application. including laboratory analysis. They are treated with the ordinary surface finish and may be filled with a 1 mm layer of ceramic fibre paper. i. Inspection reports shall indicate areas which need immediate or postponed (to scheduled shutdown) repairs.

Chennai . 3. cool water shall be applied to the surface. The surface to be cast shall be made as rough as possible and free of adhering and loose remnants. The inspection may be combined with the supervision of the final preparations for the firing/start-up operations.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. Such areas shall be brought to the Inspector's attention for further investigation of the quality of lining installation. areas of the total lining shall be tested by striking with a ball-peen hammer (approx.5 m. The minimum required thickness of the new top layer shall be 25 mm. Where required the existing refractory shall be cut back to the minimum thickness as well. 2..9. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. This inspection offers the opportunity to establish the condition of the newly installed lining and to specify necessary repairs. The curing shall be started as soon as the exposed refractory surface appears dry to the touch (which is normally one to eight hours after application. After thoroughly placing and securing the form work. 1. 500 g) at approximately 30 cm intervals. Boundaries shall be cut back to form a rectangular recess. 6. 11.REPAIR OF VIBRACAST REFRACTORY LININGS No 'cosmetic' repair of lightly damaged linings shall be allowed.. In larger diameter pipes or on flat surfaces the minimum thickness shall be 25 to 50 mm with preferably a number of anchors pulling through. Heating/ dryout is not required after repair. Ltd. a self-flowing castable of equivalent quality to the existing refractory lining shall be cast. 3. DRY-OUT.AFTER DRYING OF THE LINING 1. 2. depending upon atmospheric conditions). Repair of deeper and localised damage shall be avoided. 5. Doc.CURING OF HYDRAULICALLY BONDING CASTABLE REFRACTORY: 1.600 098. 5. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. The installed lining shall be inspected immediately after drying. At this time a fine spray mist of clean. Preferably the surface shall be (grit-) blasted. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. the following repair procedure may be executed: 1. No additional wetting or reactivating of the surface shall be allowed. REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING. No. In the event of more serious damage. CURING. Hydraulically bonding refractory lining and gunned refractory lining shall be cured. Ambattur.0 Sheet 7 of 10 . because they will adhere poorly to the existing refractory and may obstruct expansion during subsequent operation. 10. SIDCO Industrial Estate. Any voids or dry filled areas will produce a dull sound. If so desired the refractory material may be mixed with 2 %wt stainless steel needles 15 mm in length. in order to form a complete cast 'cylinder'. 387. At random (as agreed by the Inspector). 4. when in pipes with an internal diameter up to approx.

INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. 13.. If approved by the Principal. It shall be non-flammable and its colour shall contrast with the colour of the refractory. Chennai . 3. Adequate drainage shall be provided to allow excess water to run off without forming puddles. 6. 387. one coat is sufficient. The more stringent requirements shall prevail. After the curing period all refractory shall be air-dried for at least 24 hours by natural or forced ambient (minimum temperature 10 °C) air circulation before heat is applied.0 Sheet 8 of 10 . 12. An impermeable membrane shall not be applied to any surface on which refractory will be applied later.2. sufficient temperature measuring devices shall be installed to monitor gas temperature throughout the lined area to be dried. 4. an impermeable organic resin type membrane curing compound (Appendix 8) may be applied to the refractory surface. The shell temperature shall be measured and recorded during the curing period. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. Before the dry-out operation begins. SIDCO Industrial Estate.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. The water spray shall be applied at sufficiently frequent intervals to preclude drying of the lining and shall continue for at least twenty four hours after the last portion of the lining has been applied. Adequate ventilation shall be provided to eliminate fumes. For a period of at least 36 hours after refractory application. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. After air drying the linings shall be heat treated. During the drying period. Direct sunlight is not allowed on any fresh refractory within 36 hours of installation. adequate venting shall be provided for escape of moisture from the freshly installed material. the shell and internal temperatures in the areas of the newly applied refractory (resulting from ambient conditions and/or from heat of hydration) shall be maintained between 10°C and 30°C. 2. Ltd. The film thickness shall be 150-200 mm. 5. 3. 5. DRY-OUT. as an alternative to the water cure method.600 098. No..DRYING 1. Doc. Ambattur. 1. During and immediately after the drying out period is the appropriate moment for inspection of the completed refractory lining. CURING. The membrane curing compound shall be applied after the casting has achieved its initial set. REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING. If necessary this shall be achieved by either cooling the shell with a water spray (and forced air circulation if ambient conditions permit) or raising the temperature by applying an insulating membrane and circulating warm air.FIRING OF HYDRAULICALLY BONDING REFRACTORY The Contractor shall establish the dry-out requirements in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations and the requirements of this specification.

7. Live steam is not permitted as it produces a much too high humidity in the hot air.. A gas fired burner or steam coils may be used as heat source. DRY-OUT. A minimum blower capacity of 30 m3/hour at ambient temperature is required for each square metre refractory surface to be dried.2. Ambattur. To ensure that any equipment failure causes no more than a very short disruption in the dry-out schedule. 5.. The heating is gradually reduced to ambient temperature. Chennai . If dry-out is interrupted for more than 15 minutes. SIDCO Industrial Estate. near or at the point of exit of the gases and at a sufficient number of intermediate points. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. Heat shall be applied to increase the temperature in the following major steps (Figure 2): Dry Out at Frabication Shop (ME ENERGY-Pune): Step 1: The air temperature shall be raised gradually at a rate approx. 15°C (+/-5°C) per hour until all temperature monitoring points in the flue gas and at the refractory hot face are between 100°C and 120°C. CURING. No. temperature measurements at approximately mid-way inside the insulating refractory are required. In addition. Heat dry-out shall be achieved by circulating hot air over the surface of the refractory. It is essential that these be located near or at the point of entry of hot gases. the drying schedule shall be restarted at the temperature level of the point at the hot face of the lining with the lowest temperature and shall not be continued from the point of interruption.600 098. Step 2: The flue gas temperature shall be increased smoothly at a rate approx. 6. 30°C (+/-5°C) per hour until all the gas temperature monitoring points in the flue gas and at the refractory hot face are within 15°C(+/-5°C) of each other and are at a temperature between 300°C and 400°C. The gas temperature shall be hold/ soaking at 400°C for 8 hrs maximum. the Contractor shall ensure there are sufficient spare heaters and other items of equipment critical to the dry-out available at the job site. The controlling temperature in any drying activity shall be the temperature at the refractory hot face. This temperature range shall be held for at least 12 hours. 5. Items shall not be dried in a furnace.0 Sheet 9 of 10 . The circulating hot air temperature shall be maintained at such levels that the metal shell temperature always remains at least 50°C below the metal design temperature at any metal temperature monitoring point. Ltd. 3. INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING. 4. 387.: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver. Doc.

Step 4: For systems which have previously gone through steps 1-3 (and for systems which are being restarted after a shutdown in which only minor refractory repairs have been effected) the system may be brought quicker to operating temperature (at a rate of 60°C per hour maximum). SIDCO Industrial Estate.0 Sheet 10 of 10 . This temperature shall be maintained for 1. Ltd. Chennai . INDIA CUSTOMER: M/s LARSEN & TOURBO. with a minimum of 4 hours. CLIENT: M/s CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGY BY HONEYWELL. LINING INSPECTION & REPAIR PROCEDURE Sharadaa Ceramics Pvt. 387.DRYOUT CURVE REFRACTORY CASTABLE MIXING..: SCPL/CTHW/L&T-PDO/01 Ver.600 098. 5. No. a gas cooling rate of 60°C per hour should not be exceeded. An example of a typical drying and firing curve for an FCC unit is given.Dry Out at Site ( Customer): Step 3: The flue gas temperature shall be increased to operating temperature level at a rate not exceeding 30°C per hour until all the temperature monitoring points in the flue gas and at the refractory hot face show the same value (within 15°C). External insulation may be used to promote dry-out. Doc..5 hours per 25 mm of lining thickness. In cooling after initial dry-out. CURING. DRY-OUT. 14. Other dry-out rates may be acceptable subject to approval by the Principal. Ambattur.

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