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Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems: Based on the 2006 IBC

ISBN 978-1-58001-762-6

Copyright by MBMA 1300 Sumner Ave. Cleveland, OH 44115-2851

COPYRIGHT 2008 Published by the International Code Council®

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This publication is a copyrighted work owned by the Metal Building Manufacturers Association. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical, or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an information storage and retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact MBMA at 1300 Sumner Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115-2851. Phone: (216) 241-7333.

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate; however, it is being provided for informational purposes only and is intended for use only as a guide. Publication of this document by the International Code Council should not be construed as the ICC or MBMA engaging in or rendering engineering, legal, or other professional services. Use of the information contained in this workbook should not be considered by the user as a substitute for the advice of a registered professional engineer, attorney, or other professional. If such advice is required, you should seek the services of a registered professional engineer, licensed attorney, or other professional. Cover photographs provided by MBMA. Publication date: November, 2008 First printing Printed in the United States of America

Seismic Design Guide For Metal Building Systems

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

I. BACKGROUND ...............................................................................................................1 A. PURPOSE................................................................................................................1 B. STYLE AND ORGANIZATION ..................................................................................1 C. MBMA SEISMIC GUIDE STEERING COMMITTEE....................................................2 D. AUTHORS ..............................................................................................................2 II. TECHNICAL BASIS..........................................................................................................3 A. CODES AND STANDARDS USED AS THE DESIGN GUIDE BASIS ...............................3 B. BASIC CONCEPT OF SEISMIC CODE REDUCED FORCES ...........................................4 C. METAL BUILDING STANDARD DESIGN AND ANALYSIS PRACTICE/ECONOMY .......5 D. APPROACH TO METAL BUILDING ROOF DIAPHRAGM RIGIDITY (FLEXIBLE VS. RIGID) AND ACCIDENTAL TORSION .......................................................................6 E. LOWER SEISMIC AREA DESIGN ALTERNATIVE ......................................................9 F. STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN .......................................................................9 III. OTHER SIGNIFICANT ISSUES ........................................................................................11 A. ADVANTAGES IN PERFORMING A GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION .....................11 B. RELATIONSHIP AND ISSUES BETWEEN THE METAL BUILDING SUPPLIER AND THE BUILDING SPECIFYING ENGINEER .......................................................................11 C. RELATIONSHIP AND ISSUES BETWEEN THE METAL BUILDING SUPPLIER AND FOUNDATION/HARDWALL ENGINEER ..................................................................12 D. HARDWALL DETAILING AND ACTUAL BEHAVIOR ...............................................13

**Design Example 1 Determination of Seismic Design Forces
**

PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................................ 1-2 DESIGN EXAMPLE OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................... 1-3 1. DETERMINE EARTHQUAKE DESIGN FORCES ............................................................... 1-4 1.1. COMPUTE SITE GROUND MOTION DESIGN VALUES .......................................... 1-4 1.2. DETERMINE THE OCCUPANCY CATEGORY, IMPORTANCE FACTOR, AND SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY FOR EACH SITE BUILDING .................................................. 1-7 1.3. DETERMINE THE SEISMIC BASE SHEAR, V, FOR EACH BUILDING ....................... 1-8 1.4. DETERMINE THE SEISMIC LOAD EFFECTS E AND EM FOR EACH BUILDING IN EACH DIRECTION ...................................................................................................... 1-24

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Seismic Design Guide For Metal Building Systems

Design Example 2 Design of Frames, Columns, Bracing and Other Elements of the Lateral-Force-Resisting System

PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................................ 2-3 DESIGN EXAMPLE OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................... 2-4 2. DESIGN OF TYPICAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS .................................................. 2-5 2.1. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDANCE – TYPICAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS .......... 2-5 2.2. DESIGN BUILDING A (R > 3)............................................................................ 2-13 2.3. DESIGN BUILDING A – ALTERNATE DESIGN (R = 3)........................................ 2-42 2.4. DESIGN BUILDING B........................................................................................ 2-69 2.5. BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION DESIGN ...................................................... 2-99 2.6. COLUMN BASE AND ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN ................................................. 2-108 2.7. FUNDAMENTAL FORCES FOR FOUNDATION DESIGN ...................................... 2-110 2.8. WELDING ISSUES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS...................... 2-115 2.9. APPROVED STEEL AND WELDING MATERIAL ................................................ 2-118

**Design Example 3 Evaluation of Design Options for a Metal Building System with a Concrete Deck Mezzanine
**

3. BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................. 3-2 3.1. CASE 1 – SMALL INTERIOR MEZZANINE ............................................................ 3-4 3.2. CASE 2 – SMALL MEZZANINE FULL LENGTH OF BUILDING ............................... 3-8 3.3. CASE 3 – LARGE MEZZANINE AS SEPARATE STORY ........................................ 3-12

Design Example 4 Determination of Seismic Design Forces and Detailing Requirements for a Metal Building with Concrete or Masonry Walls

PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................................ 4-2 DESIGN EXAMPLE OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................... 4-2 4. DISTRIBUTION OF SEISMIC DESIGN LOADS ................................................................. 4-3 4.1. DETERMINE EARTHQUAKE DESIGN FORCES ...................................................... 4-3 4.2. WALL DESIGN AND WALL TO METAL CONNECTION ....................................... 4-12 4.3. SIDE WALL GIRTS ........................................................................................... 4-23

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building officials and plan checkers. Throughout the design examples. It should be noted that the design procedures provided in this Guide are not the only way to achieve compliance with the code. The Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA) intends for this to be a useful tool for engineers. the background and organization of the Guide are described. commentary is provided as italicized notes. Style and Organization There are two primary parts to this Guide. This publication is an update of an earlier edition of this Guide that was based on the 2000 IBC. In the second part. which results in designs that are compliant with the seismic requirements of the 2006 International Building Code£ (2006 IBC£). four design examples are provided. as shown in this paragraph. B. along with the technical basis and the approach used to establish a consensus on judgment issues. Purpose The purpose of this publication is to provide a comprehensive guide. In the first part. Background A. referred to herein as the Guide. 1 . The examples are in narrative form and are intended to illustrate acceptable approaches to deal with the most common seismic design issues encountered in the design of metal building systems. The examples represent realistic design situations for metal building systems. for the practical seismic design of metal building systems.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2006 IBC Edition INTRODUCTION I. they merely represent one way that has been deemed to be the most appropriate by the authors.

R. P. S. The four design examples that are provided are: • • • Design Example 1 . Division Engineer Andy Jaworski. Miller & Associates W.Determination of Seismic Design Forces and Detailing Requirements for a Metal Building with Concrete or Masonry Walls (Hardwalls) • C..E. director of research and engineering for MBMA. The original authors then worked with the steering committee to develop the final updated Guide. Robert Bachman. This updated edition of the Guide (IBC 2006 version) was carried out by a steering committee under the direction of the lead author. Lee Shoemaker.E. P. Senior Research Engineer Jim Miller. Columns.Determination of Seismic Design Forces Design Example 2 . P.E. S. Manager of Engineering Igor Marinovic. Bracing and other Elements of the Lateral Force-Resisting System Design Example 3 – Evaluation of Design Options for a Metal Building System with a Concrete Deck Mezzanine (Rigid Diaphragm) Design Example 4 . acted as the facilitator for the Guide D. Authors The following individuals authored and assisted with the IBC 2006 design guide updates: 2 .. Ph. The steering committee consisted of the following individuals: Mike Pacey. S.E.E. and to point out the impact of more recent code revisions on specific seismic requirements. Senior Research and Design Engineer Allen Hurtz.D. MBMA Seismic Design Guide Steering Committee The Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA) commissioned the authors to develop the first Guide (IBC 2000 version) to achieve the abovestated purpose. as appropriate in the design example.E.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems The comments are intended to provide the reader with insights and background. CEO Butler Manufacturing Company Nucor Building Systems Star Building Systems VP Buildings J.Design of Frames.

P. 2005. March 9. March 9. Bachman Consulting Structural Engineer Fluor Corporation ABS Consulting Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Each of these individuals provided special expertise to the Guide. 2005 (note that this was referred to in the previous Guide as the AISC Seismic Provisions.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Robert E. 2005. Structural steel design is based on AISC 360-05 American Institute of Steel Construction Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Part I is Structural Steel Buildings and Part II is Composite Structural Steel and Reinforced Concrete Buildings.D. and standard industry practice. Drake. unless otherwise noted. Johnson provided expertise on seismic design issues associated with metal buildings. Bachman. November 16. 3 . but is now referred to as AISC 341-05).E. 1 (referred herein as ASCE 7-05). AISC 341-05 is composed of two parts. Drake provided expertise on the AISC Seismic Provisions (AISC 341) and served as the publication consultant. Principal Richard M. all references are to Part I. • Bachman provided expertise in IBC and ASCE 7-05 Seismic Requirements and served as the lead Guide author for coordinating its development. • • • II.E. including Supplement No. 1. Project Manager Thomas M. S.E. Design Engineering Martin W. S. Montague Betts Professor of Structural Steel Design R. Murray provided expertise on the seismic design of beam-tocolumn moment connections. Murray. Johnson.. and AISC 341-05 American Institute of Steel Construction Seismic Provisions for Steel Buildings. Codes and Standards Used as the Design Guide Basis The design recommendations in this Guide are based on the 2006 International Building Code£ (2006 IBC£) and the American Society of Civil Engineers’ Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE/SEI Standard 7-05 including Supplement No.E.E. S. Technical Basis A. Director. In this Guide. Ph.

Note that in the previous edition of this Guide the strength design load factors were used because the previous version of AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) did not allow choice between design methods for steel structures assigned to high SDC. ASCE 7-05 and AISC 341-05 are fully compatible through a significant coordination that took place between the various code and standard writing committees. To reconcile with the allowance of damage from inelastic response. in most parts of the United States. for this example ASD design is utilized. earthquake engineering has evolved to allow for inelastic yielding to accommodate seismic loadings as long as such yielding does not impair the vertical load capacity of the structure. Part III was eliminated since the allowable strength capacities have been calibrated to the basic allowable stress combinations of the 2006 IBC and ASCE 7-05. LRFD was the only method permitted. The 2006 IBC. 4 .4 and 2. B. Basic Concept of Seismic Code Reduced Forces The 2006 IBC requires that all structures. Therefore.1. In regions of high seismicity in the United States it would be economically prohibitive to design structures to remain elastic for these motions (as is done for wind loads). AISC provided the conversion factors in Part III of the Seismic Provisions. the seismic design for resisting earthquake motions is based on the concept of inelastic design. these design earthquake motions have average return periods of between 300 and 800 years and are quite severe.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems AISC 341-05 is written in a unified format that addresses both Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Allowable Strength Design (ASD). Over the past 60 years. which is no longer supported or permitted by AISC 360-05. Therefore. forces determined by linear analysis are reduced to a design earthquake force level through the introduction of the seismic force reduction factor. the 2006 IBC Allowable Stress Design load combinations are presented instead of LRFD load combinations that were presented in the previous Guide and are further discussed in Sections 2. In AISC 341-05. so the allowable stress capacities in the AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) would be calibrated to strength load combinations. While either LRFD or Allowable Strength Design (ASD) is permitted. This Guide focuses on Allowable Strength Design (ASD) but points out differences and/or advantages of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) when appropriate. As currently defined.1. R. be designed to resist design earthquake ground motions. It should be noted that the 2006 IBC references ASCE 7 for its seismic criteria requirements and AISC 341-05 for its steel seismic detailing requirements. For users of the Allowable Stress Design format.8.

including roof purlins and wall girts. economical structures that could be easily transported and quickly assembled using unskilled labor. Because reduced forces are used. C. metal buildings remain the most practical. the seismic force reduction factors that are used are consistent with the structural systems found in metal buildings. Larger R-values also result in more restrictions regarding the proportioning of members and their connections. the metal building industry has developed computer software that performs structural analyses. Although today’s modern systems bear little resemblance to the Quonset huts of those days. 5 . the lower the design earthquake force. The economies associated with metal building systems come from a variety of factors. determines member and connection sizes. through years of improvements and innovations.S. Another economical aspect of metal building systems is the combination of mass-produced components with custom-designed and fabricated structural members. The larger the value of R. the metal building industry has consistently produced lighter structures than typically found in conventional construction. selects mass-produced components when appropriate. This is achieved through the use of built-up web-tapered “primary” framing members and cold-formed “secondary” structural members. economical solution for many low-rise structures. there are limitations on the types of structural systems that can utilize a high R-value.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Various magnitudes of R. special design and detailing is required for some members and connections. In addition. based on the inelastic absorption of structure types. The design examples clearly illustrate where these special connection forces are required and how they should be applied. To achieve this efficiency. military’s needs for light. Metal Building Standard Design and Analysis Practice/Economy The metal building systems concept rose to significance during World War II in response to the U. have been defined. First. and produces shop and erection drawings. and more detailing requirements are imposed to assure that the structure will perform inelastically as intended. The user is cautioned that application of reduced seismic forces in design without the corresponding application of seismic detailing will likely result in a design that does not comply with the 2006 IBC. Metal buildings are typically analyzed based on the assumption that the roof acts as a flexible diaphragm and distributes loads to each line of resistance based on the tributary area. Seismic design presents a challenge for metal building systems due to the many special seismic detailing requirements that are not otherwise required. In this Guide. Frames and longitudinal bracing are then designed using two-dimensional models.

D. Diaphragm deflection varies. Rigid Diaphragm: The rigidity of the horizontal diaphragm is very large compared to the rigidity of the vertical systems. A significant factor is the rigidity of structural elements that transfer forces horizontally. more accurate analysis can only be done by using complex finite-element models that are generally not practical to use for ordinary building designs. This definition requires calculation of diaphragm deflection. Analysis using either of these bounding assumptions produces results that vary in accuracy depending upon how closely the actual structure matches the simplifying assumptions. relative to elements that transfer force vertically.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems In some cases. this requires the manufacturer to prepare extensive calculations and details in addition to the calculations and details typically produced by its proprietary software. This is further discussed in Section III. Although many (perhaps most) structures fall somewhere between these extremes. the depth of the diaphragm in 6 . Footnote c) provided they meet the requirements so noted. engineers have developed simplified design approaches to determine force distributions.C. which is complex and imprecise for many types of diaphragm construction. Therefore.1 defines a flexible diaphragm as having a lateral deflection of more than two times the average story drift of the vertical elements supporting the diaphragm. For either extreme of this relative rigidity between horizontal and vertical elements. the type and spacing of fasteners used in the construction. including foundations and concrete or masonry walls. Rigid) and Accidental Torsion Diaphragm Flexibility Applied forces are distributed within any building in a direct relationship to the rigidity of the structural elements of that building. Typically.12-1. and a rigid diaphragm as everything else. Another engineer normally performs the design of the remainder of the structure. Approach to Metal Building Roof Diaphragm Rigidity (Flexible vs. they are exempted from drift criteria (ASCE 7 Table 12. Because metal building structures are typically single story. the engineer for the metal building manufacturer designs only the steel building structure. The two extremes are defined as follows: • • Flexible Diaphragm: The rigidity of the horizontal diaphragm is very small relative to the rigidity of the vertical systems. depending upon the materials used. it is important to be able to select and use appropriate simplified assumptions to obtain rapid structural design solutions. 2006 IBC Section 1602.

• In standing seam roof (SSR) systems. is presumed to be flexible for all types of construction. The panel clips allow for relative movement between the panels and their supporting structure to accommodate thermal expansion. For the most part. but is usually ignored in the design. This roofing type. Some systems use screws that fasten through only one sheet of adjoining roof panels.e. with either an SSR or TFR roof system. regardless of the size or shape of the building or the type and relative rigidity of the vertical structural elements. Through-fastened roof (TFR) systems come in many types. Friction caused by sliding of panels at the attachments along seams probably provides energy dissipation (damping) to the structure that is beneficial to earthquake response. while an overlapping rib holds down the adjacent sheet. Therefore. and the overall depth and width of the diaphragm. may be sufficient to act as subdiaphragms for the distribution of portions of the lateral forces to the main diaphragm cross-ties. cables.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems the direction of deformation. The resulting roof systems vary in the strength and stiffness required to transfer horizontal forces. A typical metal building that is relatively square in plan view. this assumption is reasonably correct and appropriate. strut purlins. and in general they are considered to be flexible for any type of construction. Standing seam roof systems. a series of moment frames in the transverse 7 . angles. or other structural members and are often tension-only bracing. Other TFR systems use concealed or exposed screws that fasten through both metal sheets along an overlapping edge. and the width or span of the diaphragm transverse to the direction of deformation. like a standing seam roof. the formed roof sheets are restrained against uplift but are free to slide against each other (float) along the length of the joining seams. Horizontal diaphragm systems in metal buildings might consist of either the metal cladding of the roof itself or horizontal bracing systems installed beneath the roof alone. with documented diaphragm strength and stiffness values. There are exceptions to this typical presumed behavior. • It has been a traditional metal building design practice to assume that diaphragms of all types are flexible. separate horizontal bracing systems that are designed to resist the full wind and earthquake demands usually need to be provided. Metal Roof Systems Metal roof cladding typically consists of either standing seam metal panels or through-fastened roof panels. the profile and thickness of the joining metal roofing sheets. Examples of horizontal bracing systems used include rods. i. The rigidity of these systems varies depending upon the type and spacing of fasteners. Side seam resistance to slip varies.

in order to provide a continuous line of loading docks along the walls of the building. the design of the overall building would need to include the forces generated by the weight of the floor system.2 requires. rigid or envelope would 8 .4.1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems directions. and several bays of tension-rod bracing in the longitudinal direction.1 of ASCE 7-05 which states that untopped steel decking is permitted to be considered as a flexible diaphragm in structures in which the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system are structural steel braced frames or concrete. ASCE 7-05 Section 12. A common instance is for buildings that contain partial mezzanine floor levels. would be expected to meet the deflection check as a flexible diaphragm system. not flexible). The relatively flexible moment frames are likely to experience deflections equal to or greater than the TFR system. In addition. such as when consisting of concrete-topped metal decking supported by steel beams. such as when plywood floor sheathing is used.1.e.4. ASCE 7-05 has adopted a new provision found in Section 12.4. However.8. steel or composite shear frames. that the distribution of base shear forces should consider the inherent torsional moment caused by difference in location between the center of mass and center of stiffness of the structure. ASCE 705 Section 12. masonry.8.8.1 requires. • In a recent development. Unique Structure Geometries Many buildings have geometries that complicate the picture when considering horizontal force distribution. In either instance.8. that an additional “accidental” torsional moment be added to the inherent torsion defined by ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3.3 requires that in some instances the combined inherent and accidental torsional moment must be multiplied by a dynamic amplification factor. The method used to distribute these forces to the building system. Structures using relatively flexible cable bracing systems as vertical bracing. Inherent and Accidental Torsion ASCE 7-05 Section 12. whether flexible. or they might be of more questionable rigidity. and appropriate structural elements would need to be provided to resist these forces. the design engineer should be aware that some structural geometries might be better classified as having rigid diaphragms: • As an example.4. in conjunction with relatively more rigid tensionrod horizontal bracing or a TFR roof system might be considered as having rigid diaphragms. These floors might be clearly rigid by inspection. Note that an SSR roof system would still be considered flexible for this building. a warehouse building with a TFR roof system that has a series of moment (portal) frames instead of bracing along the walls of the longitudinal axis. for rigid diaphragms. Further. for diaphragms which are rigid (i.

The advantage of the R = 3 option might be that other loads (such as wind) may govern the design. 2006 IBC Section 2205. The option of using intermediate moment frames instead of ordinary moment frames is also discussed further in Design Example 3. One option. Any method of analysis and design that considers the following effects is permissible: • P-ǻ effects (frame deformations) 9 . In this edition. There are several special requirements embedded in the 2006 IBC. or F be designed and detailed in accordance with AISC 341-05. E. The R = 3 option may perhaps result in a much simpler design and analysis for such cases without any reduction in economy. Example 3 has provides guidance on when torsional rigidity analysis should be performed to distribute lateral forces but details of the torsional rigidity analysis procedure are not provided. is to design the building and mezzanine as structurally independent structures. Therefore Example 3 has been completely reworked from that presented in the previous and focuses primarily under what conditions mezzanines of various sizes are permitted with ordinary steel systems. This means that specific and somewhat stringent detailing requirements of AISC 341-05 are imposed. Because of new limitations placed on ordinary steel systems found in ASCE 7-05 for structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D. but ignoring the special detailing requirements. the steel building design engineer has the option to design for somewhat higher seismic forces assuming an R = 3 .Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems be determined based on comparison of the relative rigidity of the horizontal floor system versus the rigidity of the resisting vertical elements. E. that is not discussed in Example 3 but which is also permitted. E and F.2.2 requires that all structural steel structures assigned to SDC D. there are significant changes on what is permitted for metal buildings with more than one floor or with mezzanines. F. These are discussed in Section 1.4 of Design Example 1. STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN AISC 360 Chapter C addresses general requirements for the stability analysis and design of members and frames.4. In the lower areas of seismicity for structures that are classified as Seismic Design Category B or C. Lower Seismic Area Design Alternative The approach provided in this Guide assumes that the design will utilize the largest R value that is permitted for the structural system being utilized. an R =3 option is provided as one of the approaches described in Design Example 2 which is identified as Design Building A Alternate. resulting in the lowest seismic design forces.

Design By Second-Order Analysis. with an additional requirement for a minimum lateral load. the effective length factor (K) may be taken as 1. Otherwise.0. All frame designs in this document meet the requirements of AISC 360 Section C2. • • • Frame analysis meeting the requirements of AISC 360 Appendix 7.5. Columns and beam-columns in moment frames shall be design using an effective length factor (K) greater than 1. shear. If ǻ2nd-order / ǻ1sr-order is less than or equal to 1. These requirements should be familiar as the traditional effective length factor (K) approach. would also be acceptable.0.2a – Second-Order Analysis Section C2. and other elements: • • • Section C2. connections.2a.1a.2% of the gravity loads are added to all gravity-only load combinations to account for the initial structure outof-plumbness and to insure that there is some amplification of moments in symmetrical systems.1. General Second-Order Elastic Method.0.2b – First-Order Analysis Appendix 7 – Direct Analysis All frame analyses in this document meet the requirements of AISC 360 Section C2. 10 . This method may be used as long as ǻ2nd-order / ǻ1sr-order is less than or equal to 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems • • • • • P-į effects (member deformations) Member flexural. Direct Analysis Method. They are characterized by the following features: • Notional loads equal to 0. and axial deformations Geometric imperfections due to initial frame out-of-plumbness (ǻo) Geometric imperfections due to initial member out-of-straightness (įo) Member stiffness reduction from residual stresses Three approaches are presented for the determination of required strength of member. the Direct Analysis Method of AISC 360 Appendix 7 must be used. Columns in braced frames shall be designed for an effective length factor (K) less than or equal to 1.

then typically sold through franchised builders (or dealers) who also provide erection services. who has a direct relationship with the end customer and the other project designers. A lower site class may also result in a reduction in a seismic design category for a particular structure. These problems could include subsurface areas of weakness. Determination of site-specific soil bearing values. IBC permits the “soil properties to be estimated by the registered design professional preparing the soils report based on known geologic conditions. B. the default value of Site Class D is generally assumed per code. Advantages in Performing a Geotechnical Investigation For many constructed metal buildings. it is important to request that borings be taken to the necessary depth to comply with this requirement. However. Other Significant Issues A. corrosive soils and water table issues. In most cases it is the builder. geotechnical investigations are not performed. and not the manufacturer’s engineer. Without this determination. would likely result in a building that performs better over its life. Detection of soil or foundation problems. and the minimum soil allowables are used for foundation design. This determination would usually result in higher allowable bearing pressures than the default values provided in the code. expansive soils. However.1).5 (ASCE 7-05 Section 20. This creates a line of communication that often includes 11 . which could adversely affect the construction or structural performance of the metal building.” Therefore. resulting in more economical foundation designs.5. Relationship and Issues between the Metal Building Supplier and the Building Specifying Engineer Metal building systems are designed and fabricated by manufacturers. which in turn may mean less restrictive detailing requirements and height limitations.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems III. including: • Determination of the site class of the soil profile of the site. This would result in a lower cost structure and foundation. the site classification is ideally based on site specific soil data to a depth of 100 feet. • • Note that according to 2006 IBC Section 1613. which could result in earthquake design forces being over two times greater than that required if the site class was actually Site Class B. if present. Mitigating these problems. there may be advantages of performing a geotechnical investigation for a project site. in lieu of data available to that depth.

the project architect. It is equally important that all of the metal building design engineer’s assumptions and output data are communicated to the end customer. including design specifications. In general. size. It is also very important that the hardwall design engineer clearly communicate all applicable design criteria to the metal building engineer. This would mean different seismic design assumptions and building/wall interface details. are clearly communicated to the metal building design engineer. Additionally the design professional of record has the responsibility to coordinate dimensions and the layout of grid lines. and the foundation engineer. Relationship and Issues between the Metal Building Supplier and Foundation/Hardwall Engineer As previously stated. if hardwalls are being used. a situation that can lead to designs that do not fully satisfy project needs. This function must be served by a registered design professional who prepares the design for the foundation and any other structural components or systems and who has a direct relationship with the lead designer or end customer. Also. Furthermore. including earthquake design data. The choice of R affects the seismic 12 . For example if the wall engineer’s design assumes that hardwalls do not behave as shear walls. and building lines. special loading and applicable code provisions. walls and foundation (bolt type. It is also important that consistent R values are used between the metal building designer and hardwall engineer. it is typical practice to have the foundation and concrete or masonry walls of metal buildings designed by a separate registered design professional.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems nontechnical personnel. It is very important that the loads imposed by the metal building to a foundation or hardwall are clearly identified to the engineer responsible for their design. frame lines. spacing and connection details) need to be clearly identified. it is vitally important that all project requirements. the shear wall loads imposed by the building need to be communicated to the hardwall engineer so he or she can engineer the hardwall and its foundation for these loads. 2006 IBC Section 1603 requires that the construction documents clearly indicate pertinent structural design information. the interface details between the building. To avoid such problems. Conversely. the metal building manufacturer’s engineer is not in a position to serve as the design professional of record for a project. C. then special connections need to be provided between the hardwall and the building to accommodate the building lateral in-plane displacement. Typically. location. due to lack of direct contact with the end user. they will usually have more than adequate strength to act as shear walls if designed to do so. if the wall engineer’s design assumes a hardwall is a shear wall.

A common hardwall application in metal buildings is to use a partial height hardwall. This subject is covered in more detail in Design Example 4. This is the reason that there needs to be one engineer who takes overall responsibility for such a building so that assumptions at interfaces are aligned. This is not an acceptable situation. The engineer’s seal on the metal building drawings normally only applies to the products furnished or specified by the metal building manufacturer. if a building is located in an area with a relatively high level of seismicity and the hardwalls are not designed as shear walls.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems force levels in the overall structure and detailing requirements for the hardwall engineer. building-to-wall connection details must be designed to accommodate the relative displacement between the building and hardwall. This provides a more durable wall where it might be subject to impacts from vehicles or machinery. If an earthquake occurs and the connections between the building and hardwall cannot accommodate the relative displacement and do not have the necessary strength and displacement compatibility. It is recommended that this person be the wall design engineer. creating a falling hazard from the walls and perhaps causing severe torsional problems in the metal building’s lateral load path. If the wall is less than approximately 8 feet in height. it must be understood who is taking overall responsibility for the building design for purposes of sealing of drawings and submission to the authority having jurisdiction. This can usually be done 13 . In general. the wall and foundation engineer acts as the design professional of record and accepts responsibility for the overall work product which includes approval of all building/wall interface details. For example. D. Additionally. Taller walls are tied structurally to the frames. The building will resist seismic loads along the stiffest lines of resistance regardless of inconsistent assumptions that may be made by the building and hardwall design engineers. Failure to coordinate this issue will almost certainly result in “accidental” loading of building components that were not designed for the resulting level of force. Hardwall Detailing and Actual Behavior Clear and complete communication between the wall design engineer and the metal building system design engineer are imperative in order to ensure building/wall compatibility and achieve the desired building performance. since he or she is the most familiar with the wall design criteria and limitations and is responsible for the wall and foundation design. This type of hardwall also needs to be properly detailed with regard to seismic loads. but care must be taken to ensure that the wall doesn’t unintentionally brace the building. the connections will likely fail. it is normally designed as a cantilevered element and is only tied to the wall panel. sometimes called a wainscot wall.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems with simple span girts and oversize holes for the bolts that tie the girt to the wall. 14 .

... ............................. ...................................... for each Building Site and each Direction ................................. 1-4 1...................... 1-8 1........ for Two-Dimensional Model at each Site..4....................1...............3.............................. V.................. for each Building Site and Direction ..................2 Determine the Initial Effective Seismic Weight... 1-7 1..........................4 Determine the Site Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters.......................................................2 Determine the Seismic Load Effect........1 Determine the Building Occupancy Category and Importance Factor..... 1-3 1 Determine Earthquake Design Forces...3........ 1-7 1.. 1-8 1...... 1-9 1.... 1-4 1............. V.................................... 1-4 1............1. 1-26 1.. W................. E and Em..............................1 Determine the Approximate Fundamental Period.................... Section 1613..4 Determine the Seismic Base Shear.............................1.. 1-7 1..2 Determine the Site Class for each Site ...........3 Select Design Coefficients and Factors and System Limitations for Basic Seismic-ForceResisting Systems.......... of the Building.............. 1-6 1.......... for each Building .................3 Determine the Seismic Base Shear. Em..................1 Determine the Latitude and Longitude Coordinates for each Site Address.........................1 Compute Site Ground Motion Design Values ....................3 Determine the Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Values for each Site............................4.... E............. Chapters 11 and 12 for seismic load provisions.... 1-11 1.......................... 1-2 Design Example Objective:................. for each Building in each Direction................................ at each Site....2........................ and ASCE/SEI 7-05 including Supplement No...... ȡ..........2.... for the Example Building ............. 1............... and Seismic Design Category for each Site Building .............. 1-5 1... 1-24 1....................................2 Determine the Seismic Design Category (SDC) for each Building.......................... Ta.................. 1-16 1. Problem Statement: ..........3 Determine the Maximum Seismic Load Effect..........................3........2 Determine the Occupancy Category......................................4 Determine the Seismic Load Effects..........3............. Importance Factor......Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems DESIGN EXAMPLE 1 Determination of Seismic Design Forces Refer to 2006 IBC....................1. 1-5 1.. for each Direction.............4... The following example looks at a building located in three different geographic sites.............1 Determine the Redundancy Coefficient.......... 1-29 1-1 . 1-24 1.............

= 200 FT. normal occupancy Collateral load = 1.0 psf = 3.5 psf Roof purlin Wall (including girts) Frame = 1.0 psf 1-2 . 65 F T. 0F 8@ 25 F T. FT = 25 T. 70 F T.0 psf = 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Problem Statement: Warehouse building. Metal Building Framing – Design Example 1 Weights for Initial Seismic Loads Roof panel and insulation = 1. RO OF BRA CIN G TH I SB AY (NO ROOF SLOPE 1/2 : 12 ROO TS HO FB R AC WN ) ING TH I SB AY (N OT S HO WN ) 20 FT.5 psf Ordinary steel concentrically braced frame end walls − w/ tension-only brace rods Ordinary steel concentrically braced frame side walls − w/ tension-only brace rods Ordinary steel moment frame interior frames − w/interior columns No rigid interior partitions or ceilings 65 F T. RO OF BRA CIN GT HIS BAY (NO TS HO WN ) 10 @ 25 .

CA 92410 Soils Properties Site 1: Unknown. no geotechnical report available Site 2: Unknown.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Locations Site 1: 67 Winthrop Drive. San Bernardino. 1-3 . TN 38118 Site 3: 1500 W. Chester. CT 06412 Site 2: 2630 East Holmes Road. no geotechnical report available Site 3: Geotechnical report is available Design Example Objective: Determine earthquake design forces for the given building.. Memphis. Rialto Ave.

319 degrees 1-4 .1 Determine the Latitude and Longitude Coordinates for each Site Address The latitude and longitude used in this example were obtained using a website that provides this data for a given address in the United States. CA 92410 Latitude = 34.1.1.1 DETERMINE EARTHQUAKE DESIGN FORCES COMPUTE SITE GROUND MOTION DESIGN VALUES On most projects. Rialto Ave.2 Site 2 2630 East Holmes Road.1. Chester. 1. San Bernardino.1.387 degrees Longitude = −72.1. the end customer or his or her design professional has the responsibility to provide the site ground motion design values. TN 38118 Latitude = 35. 1. CT 06412 Latitude = 41. The procedure provided in this section may be used to determine the site ground motion design values by those responsible for making that determination.3 Site 3 1500 W.508 degrees 1.976 degrees 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1 1. Memphis.101 degrees Longitude = −117.1. It is recommended that the latitude and longitude be determined to at least three digits beyond the decimal point (which is accurate to a few hundred feet).1.007 degrees Longitude = −89.. A search for current websites that provide this data is recommended because availability and features of these sites change periodically.1 Site 1 67 Winthrop Drive.

1. and then select the 2006 International Building Code as the Data Edition.1.2.5(1) through 1613. provides a Java Ground Motion Parameter Calculator.2 Site 2 Soil properties not known Therefore use default – Site Class D as required per IBC Section 1613. the procedure for calculating SDS and SD1 is shown below for completeness. and ASCE 7 site class use the same soil profile classification system.gov/research/hazmaps/design/. The website location. Also.3 Site 3 A soils report was prepared in accordance with the 1997 UBC and the soil profile was determined to be SD.1. it is recommended that the maximum value be used.2.2 (also in ASCE 7 Section 11. Alternately. When selecting the parameters to be calculated.5(14). the user is cautioned against using the centroid values which may be unconservative. It should be noted that even though one may obtain the calculated values of SDS and SD1 directly from the website in lieu of calculating these values from SS and S1.5.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1.3 Determine the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Values for each Site Values of the mapped spectral accelerations for short periods and a 1-second period. the IBC site class. the user should select International Building Code as the Analysis Option. See Section IIIA in the Introduction for more information regarding the potential advantages for performing a geotechnical investigation.5. if the zip code is used in lieu of more specific latitude and longitude location. Note that the 1997 UBC soil profile. SS and S1.2 (also in ASCE 7 Section 11.2). 1. http://earthquake. which is referred to as Site Class D in the IBC and ASCE 7. can be obtained from either the maps in IBC Figures 1613.1.1.1 Site 1 Soil properties not known Therefore use default – Site Class D as required per IBC Section 1613. 1.2 Determine the Site Class for each Site 1.4.2).2. or more accurately from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) website. 1-5 . The values of SDS and SD1 may be obtained directly from this website.usgs.4. This tool utilizes the Java Application language and computes mapped spectral acceleration values for user entered latitude and longitude coordinates. 1.

2 Site 2 coordinates and Site Class D SS = 104.1 Site 1 coordinates and Site Class D SS = 22. needs to be converted to a fraction of g at this step by dividing by 100.4 Determine the Site Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters From IBC Equations 16-39 and 16-40 in Section 1613.1.3 as follows: SMS = FaSS SM1 = FvS1 Where. The value of the ground motion.0% Fa = 1.9% S1 = 29.3% TL= 12 seconds 1.4-4) determine SDS and SD1.5.1.1 Site 1 Fa = 1.81 SMS = 113. the adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration parameters for short periods.0% TL= 6 seconds 1.3(1) Fv is the site coefficient defined in IBC Table 1613.3 Site 3 coordinates and Site Class D SS = 183.3.8% TL= 8 seconds 1.1. are defined in IBC Section 1613. 1. TL.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Also note that a pulldown menu for Geographic Region lets the user select either one of the “48 conterminous states”. Fa is the site coefficient defined in IBC Table 1613.3.4% SM1 = 97.40 SMS = 36. Based on the site class. is obtained from ASCE 7 Figures 22-15 through 22-20.00 Fv = 1.4.5. Alaska.60 Fv = 2.240 3 3 © 100 ¹ 1-6 .3.3(2) The long-period transition period. 1.3% SM1 = 53.4-3 and 11. Hawaii.5.5% S1 = 6. or other U.4 (also in ASCE 7 Equations 11.4% (IBC Equation 16-37) (IBC Equation 16-38) S DS = 2 2 § 36.0% SM1 = 14. expressed as a percentage of g.50 SMS = 183. Territories.5.1. and at 1-second period. SMS. SM1.08 Fv = 1.2% Fa = 1.0 · S MS = ¨ ¸ = 0.S.4% S1 = 64.1.

0 · SM1 = ¨ ¸ = 0.755 3 3 © 100 ¹ 2 2 § 53.4 · SM1 = ¨ ¸ = 0. Based on the problem description. The SDC in both tables needs to be determined and the highest SDC is required to be taken as the SDC for the building.5.4. Although the importance factors are different.3 · S MS = ¨ ¸ = 0.2.2 · SM1 = ¨ ¸ = 0.6(1) and 1613. IMPORTANCE FACTOR.5. with occupancy category = II (also in ASCE 7 Tables 11.1.5.3 Site 3 2 2 § 113.0. I.2.1 2 2 § 183.2.2 1.6(1): SDC = B From IBC Table 1613.096 3 3 © 100 ¹ S DS = S D1 = 1. 1.648 3 3 © 100 ¹ DETERMINE THE OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. for earthquake. I.5 and the importance factor is based on ASCE 7 Section 11.6(2): SDC = B Therefore the SDC is B 1-7 .4 · S MS = ¨ ¸ = 1. AND SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY FOR EACH SITE BUILDING Determine the Building Occupancy Category and Importance Factor The building occupancy category is determined per IBC 2006 Table 1604.353 3 3 © 100 ¹ S DS = S D1 = 1.1 Site 1 From IBC Table 1613.5.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems S D1 = 1.5.223 3 3 © 100 ¹ 2 2 § 97. ASCE 7-05 and 2006 IBC use the same notation for the importance factor. 1.2.2 Site 2 2 2 § 14. wind and other loads. and the SDS and SD1 site values.6-1 and 11. is 1.6-2). subscripts are not used to distinguish them as has been done in the past.6(2). Therefore at all sites the building occupancy category is “II” and the seismic importance factor.1. the buildings at all three sites are warehouses with normal occupancy.4.2 Determine the Seismic Design Category (SDC) for each Building The seismic design category (SDC) is based on IBC Tables 1613.

5. They are therefore classified as “other.2.2 Site 2 From IBC Table 1613. the interior bays are laterally supported in the transverse direction by moment frames and the end walls in the transverse direction are either braced frames or moment frames.8-7 is based on the height of the building. for the Example Building The approximate fundamental period.” hn = 20 feet.75 in the longitudinal direction and the transverse end walls because the structural systems are ordinary steel concentrically braced frames and not ordinary moment frames or ordinary steel eccentrically braced frames.020 and x = 0.3 1. For purposes of this equation. for a building with a sloping roof.5. In cases where a flexible diaphragm exists between the end walls and the first interior moment frame. 12. Ta = CT hnx (ASCE 7 Eq. resulting in a conservative base shear.8-2 CT = 0. is determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12.6(2): SDC = D Therefore the SDC is D 1.3.6(1): SDC = D From IBC Table 1613.1 DETERMINE THE SEISMIC BASE SHEAR.028 and x = 0.2.6(1): SDC = D From IBC Table 1613.8 in the transverse direction where the structural system is steel moment frame. FOR EACH BUILDING Determine the Approximate Fundamental Period.3 Site 3 From IBC Table 1613. 1-8 . V. Ta. Since the same building configuration is used at all three sites.6(2): SDC = D Therefore the SDC is D 1. Typically in metal buildings.1.2. eave height for all frames. the height at the eave of the building should be used.8.2. the approximate fundamental periods are the same at the three sites. CT = 0. separate end wall moment frame periods may be computed. Ta.8-7) Where: CT and x are determined from Table 12.2. The ASCE 7 empirical equation below was developed to provide a lower bound on the structure fundamental period. The approximate formula given in ASCE 7 Equation 12.5.5.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1.

the value of CT and x should be selected based on the hardwall system.020(20 feet )0. in certain instances.8. The same limitation on T. However. would apply when computing seismic design shear base forces.1) times the approximate period Ta.7.028(20 feet ) 0.3.75 = 0. shear walls).4-6). W. treating the moment frame or braced frame as a single degree of freedom system. the effective seismic weights will be determined with the collateral load included. is determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12. but not drift.189 seconds Longitudinal direction: Ta = 0. designed to be the primary lateral force resisting system (i. Therefore.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems In situations where the exterior walls are hardwalls. For an initial estimate of the effective seismic weight. W. might be considered to determine the fundamental period: T = 2ʌ m k where.308 seconds Transverse direction end walls: Ta = 0.020(20 feet )0.2. Transverse direction moment frames: Ta = 0. either: (1) assume weights per square foot based on historical data or (2) perform an initial trial design where other loads such as wind or snow have been considered and 1-9 .8 = 0. 1. it is common practice to use the above code equations rather than performing a dynamic analysis to determine the building fundamental periods. This limitation on dynamic analysis period does not apply when one is determining drift. the resulting period used for determining seismic design base shear forces is limited and cannot be taken as greater than the factor Cu (obtained from ASCE 7 Table 12. of the Building The initial effective seismic weight. As recommended practice for metal buildings. An approximate dynamic method.2 Determine the Initial Effective Seismic Weight. it is also permissible to determine the fundamental periods by dynamic methods or the Rayleigh Method (ASCE 7 Equation 15. discussed above. m is the building mass associated with that frame (expressed as W/g) and k is the lateral stiffness of the frame. calculated by applying a unit load at the eave. When dynamic analysis methods or Rayleigh methods are used. there may be advantages in obtaining the building fundamental periods using dynamic analysis methods.189 seconds In metal building design.e.75 = 0.

To accommodate these separate base shears. It is usual design practice to proceed with design based on these preliminary weights and to check during the final calculations whether the member weights have changed enough to require a redesign. the flat roof snow load determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 7. steel studs. Assumed Weights for Initial Seismic Loads Roof panel and insulation = 1. provided the wall is concrete or masonry and is designed to resist in-plane loads.000 ft 2 1-10 . end walls.0 psf = 1. At all sites.3. effective weights have been determined for each frame and wall type. the snow may be neglected when determining the effective seismic weight of the structure. and side walls. metal panel side walls and end walls are used. In this example. Therefore. Where the flat roof snow load is greater than 30 psf. EIFS.7. It is also common practice to assume that half of the wall weight acts at the roof level and half at the ground level. On the other hand. For this example it is assumed that the initial assumed weights are the same for all three sites. In other words. Therefore. or other flexible wall systems that are attached to the building frame at several points along the height of the framing system.000 ft 2 Wall Area = 2(20 ft ) (25 ft ) = 1.3 was less than or equal to 30 psf.5 psf Roof purlin Wall (including girts) Frame Collateral load = 1.0 psf = 2. the effective seismic weight shall include 20 percent (or as specified by the local building official) of the flat roof snow load added to the weight per square foot of the roof.0 psf = 3. wood. provided that details permit unrestrained longitudinal movement of the longitudinal bracing relative to the wall.5 psf It is common practice in metal building design to model the structural system as a series of two-dimensional models. separate twodimensional base shears are determined for the typical transverse frame.1 Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Roof Area = (200 ft ) (25 ft ) = 5. the assumed weights per square foot are based on the following provided data.2. It should be noted that wall weight in the direction parallel to the lateral load system being evaluated can be excluded. this exclusion does not apply to metal panel walls. the weight of a concrete or masonry side wall can be excluded from the seismic load calculations for longitudinal bracing. 1. per subparagraph 4 of ASCE 7 Section 12.2. In this example.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems members sized on a preliminary basis.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

**Roof Weight = (5,000 ft 2 ) (1.5 + 1.0 + 2.0 + 1.5 psf )
**

= 30,000 lbs = 30.0 kips Wall Weight =

**(1,000 ft ) (3.0 psf ) = 1,500 lbs = 1.5 kips
**

2

2

**Total Effective Seismic Weight = 30.0 + 1.5 = 31.5 kips
**

1.3.2.2 Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall)

**§ 25 ft · 2 Roof Area = (200 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 2,500 ft © 2 ¹ § 20 + 24.17 ft · § 25 ft · 2 Wall Area = (200 ft ) ¨ ¸ + 2(20 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 4,917 ft 2 © ¹ © 2 ¹
**

Roof Weight = (2,500 ft 2 ) (1.5 + 1.0 + 2.0 + 1.5 psf ) = 15,000 lbs = 15.0 kips

2

**(4,917 ft ) (3.0 psf ) = 7,376 lbs = 7.4 kips Wall Weight =
**

2 Total Effective Seismic Weight = 15.0 + 7.4 = 22.4 kips

1.3.2.3 Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall)

The longitudinal side wall effective seismic weight is the total of all the transverse frame weights divided by two. Total Effective Seismic Weight =

1.3.3

9(31.5 kips ) + 2(22.4 kips ) = 164.2 kips 2

Select Design Coefficients and Factors and System Limitations for Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems

The design coefficients and factors and system limitations for the basic seismicforce-resisting systems are selected from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1. In metal buildings, transverse moment frames are typically designed and detailed as ordinary steel moment frames where the basic seismic-forceresisting system is primarily moment frames. Transverse end walls are typically designed as either moment frames or ordinary steel concentrically braced frames. Longitudinal side walls are typically designed as ordinary steel concentrically braced frames, where the basic seismic-force-resisting system is composed of brace rods, cables or braces. Other structural systems could be utilized if conditions warrant. It should be noted that unless the bracing carries gravity loads other than its own weight, a building frame-type system and not a bearing wall-type system should be selected. Minor eccentricities of connections of the type

1-11

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

typically found in metal buildings are typically considered as acceptable as ordinary steel concentrically braced frame systems. Some structural systems, particularly cable bracing systems, are quite flexible and may result in drifts that exceed the limits of ASCE 7 Table 12.12-1. Under certain conditions drift limits may be exceeded; see Note “c” of Table 12.12-1. When drift limits are exceeded, seismic detailing of architectural components is required to demonstrate that the anticipated seismic drift can be accommodated. A significant alternative structural system may be considered for buildings assigned to SDC A, B or C, which will be examined for comparison as Site 1 Alternate. These buildings can be designed as “Structural Systems not specifically detailed for seismic resistance” which are identified in ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1, Line H. This option requires using a value of R = 3. While the design seismic forces are higher, the advantage of this alternative is to be able to ignore the AISC 341 seismic design and detailing provisions and to have the option to use the same AISC 360 design provisions that are used for wind load. Note that this option is not permitted for SDC D, E, or F. For this example, the same structural systems are used at all three sites, except for the site 1 alternate values. In previous editions of ASCE 7 and the IBC, for structures assigned to SDC D, E or F restrictions were provided on the values one could use if there were different system on different lines of resistance or in different directions. Section 12.2.3.2 of ASCE 7 now permits separate values to be used on each line of all resistance provided the structure meets the following requirements: 1) Occupancy Category I or II, 2) Two stories or less in height, 3) Utilizes a flexible diaphragm Since the example satisfies all conditions, separate values may be used for the transverse ordinary moment frames and the ordinary concentrically braced frames used for the endwalls.

1.3.3.1 Transverse Direction (Moment Frames)

For ordinary steel moment frames, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following: R = 3.5

Ωo = 3

Cd = 3

Because the metal building diaphragms are typically flexible, Note g of Table 12.2-1 allows for a reduction of Ωo for moment frames. Note g of Table 12.2-1 states that the tabulated value of the overstrength factor, Ωo, may be reduced by subtracting ½ for structures with flexible diaphragms, but shall not be taken as less than 2.0 for any structure. Using this note, one obtains:

1-12

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

R = 3.5 Ωo = 2.5 Cd = 3 The beam-to-column connections in ordinary steel moment frames are required to be designed for the lesser of either the flexural strength of the beam or girder (1.1 RyMp) or the “maximum moment that can be delivered by the system.” Alternatively, the connections may meet the requirements for intermediate or special steel moment frames. Since the AISC introduction of the above requirement in 1997 there was no guidance in the AISC or FEMA resources on how to apply it to moment frames with web tapered members. Several rational, yet simple approaches were developed over the years, either to define the maximum moment by using the maximum design earthquake force, Em, provided that the overstrength factor Ωo is taken as 3.0, or by establishing an upper limit on the moment that can be delivered by the system. The 2005 edition of the AISC Seismic Provisions (AISC 341-05) represents a step forward from the previous editions: the User Note clarifies some limits of applicability of the OMF provisions (but not all) while the Commentary provides additional guidance. Of three factors that may limit the maximum moment that can be developed in the beam (Commentary C11.2a.), the third listed option (R = 1) has the most practical value. The approach where the required moment is calculated from seismic forces using the system modification factor R=1 has the same meaning as using the amplified force Em, although the solution with R=1 will produce slightly larger moment (ER=1 / ΩoER=3.5 =1.0 E / (3.0 E/3.5) = 1.167). In either case, the overstrength would be accounted for and the desired frame behavior achieved (primarily elastic, with only minimum inelastic deformations expected). Due to simplicity, this approach with R=1 will be used throughout this manual. Another practical alternative, such as determining the maximum moment from the known strength of the column, or foundation to resist uplift, may be more feasible in other cases. Hence, for optimum design all three options listed in the Commentary could be investigated. MBMA is currently sponsoring research on the seismic behavior of moment frames utilized in metal buildings that is expected to provide additional data that will lead to development of better and more realistic provisions for moment frames that use web-tapered members.

1.3.3.2 Transverse Direction End Walls (Brace Rods)

For ordinary steel concentrically braced frames, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following: R = 3.25

Ωo = 2

Cd = 3.25

1-13

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Note that AISC 341-05, Section 14.2, does not allow tension-only bracing in K, V, or inverted V configurations in ordinary steel concentrically braced frames.

1.3.3.3 Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods)

For ordinary steel concentrically braced frames, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following: R = 3.25

Ωo = 2

Cd = 3.25

Note that AISC 341-05, Section 14.2, does not allow tension-only bracing in K, V, or inverted V configurations in ordinary steel concentrically braced frames

1.3.3.4 Determine Design Coefficients, Factors and System Limitations (height limits) for each Building at each Site Transverse Direction (Moment Frames)

Site 1 Max. Height SDC R No Limit B 3.5 2.5 3

Site 1 Alternate** No Limit B 3 2.5 3

Site 2 65 ft. D 3.5 2.5 3

*

Site 3 65 ft.* D 3.5 2.5 3

Ωo

Cd

*

ASCE 7 Section 12.2.5.6 states: Ordinary steel moment frames assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E are permitted in single story buildings to a height of 65 feet where the dead load of the roof does not exceed 20 psf. In addition, the dead weight portion of walls more than 35 feet above the base shall not exceed 20 psf. If these conditions do not exist, such as discussed in Example 3 with a large mezzanine, the structure is not permitted if assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E unless designed as a seismically separate structure or as an intermediate steel moment frame.

The Guide authors interpret the 20 psf roof criteria as the total roof weight divided by the surface area of the roof and the 20 psf wall criteria as the total wall weight above 35 feet divided by the surface area of walls above 35 feet. Also, it is the opinion of the authors that the 20 psf roof criteria is only intended to be compared to dead loads, and not roof load combinations that may include snow loads or live loads. ** ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 and Section 14.1.2 allows an alternative set of design coefficients and factors for buildings assigned to SDC A, B or C. The last entry in Table 12.2-1, structural steel systems not specifically detailed for seismic resistance excluding cantilever column systems, permits a value of 3

1-14

3. Using this option. means that AISC 341-05 is not required.1. structural steel systems not specifically detailed for seismic resistance. Site 1 of this example will compare both options. similar to what is done for determining pressure coefficients for wind load design.5 3 Site 2 65 ft.25 Site 3 65 ft.5 since metal building systems are assumed to have flexible diaphragms as noted in Section 1. Ωo.25 2 3. D 3. Transverse Direction End Walls (Brace Rods) Site 1 Max.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems to be used for R.25 2 3. This has the significant trade-off benefit of reducing connection seismic design forces while only slightly increasing member seismic design forces. Height SDC R No Limit B 3. it was suggested that if the roof slope is less than or equal to 10 degrees.25 Site 1 Alternate** No Limit B 3 2.25 2 3. The eave height is most representative of the point of rigidity in the moment frame.25 Ωo Cd Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods) Site 1 Max.5 3 Site 2 65 ft. and Cd. a judgment is required as to what building height should be used when comparing to the prescribed height limits.25 Site 1 Alternate** No Limit B 3 2.25 2 3. This is also consistent with the assumption made in Section 1.* D 3.25 2 3. it would be permissible to use the eave height.3.25 * Site 3 65 ft.1 for determining the fundamental period of the building. It should also be noted that building height is defined in Chapter 5 of IBC for fire classification as “the vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. For roof slopes greater than 10 degrees. 1-15 . Height SDC R No Limit B 3. In the previous edition of this Guide. The value of ȍo may be taken as 2. a mean roof height would be more appropriate.” regardless of roof slope.3.* D 3.25 2 3.* D 3.25 Ωo Cd For gable roofs.

5S1 §R· ¨ ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. Supplement 2 revises ASCE 7-05 Eq. since the eave height. 12.3.8-1) (ASCE 7 Eq. for Two-Dimensional Model at each Site V = C sW Where: Cs = S DS §R· ¨ ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ S D1 §R· T¨ ¸ ©I¹ S D1TL §R· T 2¨ ¸ ©I¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.01 (ASCE 7 Eq.096 I = 1.1 Site 1 Summarize Design Parameters SDS = 0.8-4) and Cs shall not be taken less than: C s = 0. 20 ft. 12. 12-8-5 to now be Cs = 0.8-5) The 2007 Supplement to the 2006 IBC adopted Supplement 2 to ASCE 7-05.240 SD1 = 0. 12.3.8-6) 1. 12. 12.8-2) Except Cs need not exceed: for T ≤ TL C s = (ASCE 7 Eq.6.4. is less than the height limits. and in addition. 12.4 Determine the Seismic Base Shear. 1. the basic force resisting systems selected are allowed for all buildings at all sites. if S1 ≥ 0.0 TL = 6 seconds 1-16 .Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems In this example. then Cs shall not be taken as less than: Cs = 0.8-3) for T > TL Cs = (ASCE 7 Eq.44SDSI . V.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Transverse Direction (Moment Frame)

**T = Ta = 0.308 seconds W = 31.5 kips R = 3.5 Cs = S DS 0.240 = = 0.069 § R · § 3.5 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¨I ¸ © 1 ¹ © ¹
**

S D1 0.096 = = 0.089 §R· § 3.5 · T ¨ ¸ (0.308 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Since T ≤ TL,

C s (max ) =

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.069 V = C sW = (0.069) (31.5 kips ) = 2.17 kips
**

Transverse Direction End Walls (Brace Rods)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 1 because S1 < 0.6. (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

**T = Ta = 0.189 seconds W = 22.4 kips R = 3.25 Cs = S DS 0.240 = = 0.074 § R · § 3.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¨I ¸ © 1 ¹ © ¹
**

0.096 S D1 = = 0.156 § 3.25 · §R· T ¨ ¸ (0.189 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Since T ≤ TL,

C s (max ) =

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.074 V = C sW = (0.074) (22.4 kips ) = 1.66 kips
**

1-17

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 1 because S1 < 0.6. (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods)

**T = Ta = 0.189 seconds W = 164.2 kips R = 3.25 Cs = S DS 0.240 = = 0.074 § R · § 3.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ©I¹ © 1 ¹
**

S D1 0.096 = = 0.156 §R· § 3.25 · T ¨ ¸ (0.189 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Since T ≤ TL,

C s (max ) =

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.074 V = C sW = (0.074) (164.2 kips ) = 12.15 kips

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 1 because S1 < 0.6. (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

1.3.4.2 Site 1 Alternate (Steel Systems Not Specifically Detailed For Seismic Resistance) Summarize Design Parameters

**SDS = 0.240 SD1 = 0.096 I = 1.0 TL = 6 seconds
**

Transverse Direction (Moment Frame)

T = Ta = 0.308 seconds W = 31.5 kips R=3 Cs = S DS 0.240 = = 0.080 § 3· §R· ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨I ¸ ©1¹ © ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Since T ≤ TL,

1-18

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

C s (max ) =

0.096 S D1 = = 0.104 § 3· §R· T ¨ ¸ (0.308 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.080 V = C sW = (0.080) (31.5 kips ) = 2.52 kips
**

Transverse Direction End Walls (Brace Rods)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 1 because S1 < 0.6. (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

**T = Ta = 0.189 seconds W = 22.4 kips R=3 Cs = S DS 0.240 = = 0.080 § 3· §R· ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨I ¸ ©1¹ © ¹
**

0.096 S D1 = = 0.169 § 3· §R· T ¨ ¸ (0.189 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

C s (max ) =

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.080 V = C sW = (0.080) (22.4 kips ) = 1.79 kips
**

Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 1 because S1 < 0.6. (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

T = Ta = 0.189 seconds W = 164.2 kips R=3 Cs = S DS 0.240 = = 0.080 §R· § 3· ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ ©1¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Since T ≤ TL,

1-19

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

C s (max ) =

0.096 S D1 = = 0.169 § 3· §R· T ¨ ¸ (0.189 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.080 V = C sW = (0.080) (164.2 kips ) = 13.14 kips
**

1.3.4.3 Site 2 Summarize Design Parameters

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 1 because S1 < 0.6. (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

**SDS = 0.755 SD1 = 0.353 I = 1.0 TL = 12 seconds
**

Transverse Direction (Moment Frame)

T = Ta = 0.308 seconds W = 31.5 kips R = 3.5 Cs = S DS 0.755 = = 0.216 § R · § 3.5 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¨I ¸ © 1 ¹ © ¹ S D1 0.353 = = 0.328 §R· § 3.5 · T ¨ ¸ (0.308 sec ) ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Since T ≤ TL, C s (max ) =

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**C s (min ) = 0.01 Cs = 0.216 V = C sW = (0.216) (31.5 kips ) = 6.80 kips
**

Transverse Direction End Walls (Brace-Rods)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

**Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for Site 2 because S1 < 0.6.
**

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

**T = Ta = 0.189 seconds W = 22.4 kips
**

1-20

3.8-1) T = Ta = 0.353 S D1 = = 0. C s (max ) = (ASCE 7 Eq.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¨I ¸ © 1 ¹ © ¹ 0.20 kips Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods) (ASCE 7 Eq. C s (max ) = (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.232) (164.353 = = 0.01 Cs = 0.575 §R· § 3.25 · T ¨ ¸ (0.648 1-21 .8-6 is not applicable for Site 2 because S1 < 0.2 kips R = 3.232 § R · § 3.189 seconds W = 164. 12.01 Cs = 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems R = 3. (ASCE 7 Eq.755 = = 0.8-6 is not applicable for Site 2 because S1 < 0.8-2) Since T ≤ TL.4.755 = = 0.2 kips ) = 38.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ S D1 0.8-5) Equation 12.232 V = C sW = (0.8-1) SDS = 1.8-3) C s (min ) = 0.6.4 kips ) = 5.232 V = C sW = (0.25 Cs = S DS 0.189 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.232 § R · § 3. 12.25 Cs = S DS 0.232) (22. 12. (ASCE 7 Eq.8-3) C s (min ) = 0.4 Site 3 Summarize Design Parameters (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.6. 12.8-5) Equation 12.09 kips 1.223 SD1 = 0. 12.189 sec ) ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.8-2) Since T ≤ TL.25 · §R· T ¨ ¸ (0.575 § 3.

8-2) Since T ≤ TL.00 ≤ SDS = 1.8.5 .8-3) C s (min ) = 0.5S1 0.8-1) T = Ta = 0. Note that these limits should be routinely checked.286 § R · § 3.223 It should also be noted that these permitted upper limits for S1 and SDS only apply when determining the base shear and not when determining the seismic design category. C s (min ) = (ASCE 7 Eq.5 kips R = 3.3. but that it was noted by inspection that they did not govern for Sites 1 or 2.6. 12. Transverse Direction (Moment Frame) T = Ta = 0. S S = 1. T 0.286 ) (31.648) = = 0. C s (max ) = (ASCE 7 Eq.8-5) Equation 12.01 kips Transverse Direction End Walls (Brace-Rods) (ASCE 7 Eq.01 0.5 · T ¨ ¸ (0.5 seconds Regular structure less than 5 stories Therefore.5 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¨I ¸ © 1 ¹ © ¹ S D1 0.5 Cs = S DS 1.0 TL = 8 seconds Check for limits on Ss from ASCE 7 Section 12.189 seconds 1-22 . 12.00 = = 0.602 §R· § 3. 12.286 V = C sW = (0.5 .5(0.1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems I = 1.308 seconds W = 31. 12.308 sec ) ¨ 1 ¸ ¨I ¸ © ¹ © ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. S DS = 1.5 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.5 kips ) = 9.093 §R· § 3.8-6 is applicable for Site 3 because S1 ≥ 0.648 = = 0. S MS = 1.8-6) C s = 0. 12.

057 §R· § 3.308) (22.8-2) Since T ≤ TL.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems W = 22. 12.308 § R · § 3.00 = = 0.100 = § 3. C s (min ) = (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-6 is applicable for Site 3 because S1 ≥ 0.8-3) C s (min ) = 0.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ 0.8-5) Equation 12.648 S D1 = = 1.8-3) C s (min ) = 0.189 seconds W = 164.4 kips R = 3.6.25 Cs = S DS 1. 12.25 · §R· ¸ ¨ ¨ ¸ © 1 ¹ ©I¹ 1-23 (ASCE 7 Eq.25 Cs = S DS 1.5(0.25 · T ¨ ¸ (0.2 kips R = 3.100 §R· § 3.648 S D1 = = 1.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ 0.648) = = 0. 12. 12. 12. 12.308 V = C sW = (0.8-6 is applicable for Site 3 because S1 ≥ 0.8-2) Since T ≤ TL.8-1) T = Ta = 0.8-6) . C s (max ) = (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.00 = = 0.5S1 0.90 kips Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods) (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-6) C s = 0.057 §R· § 3.4 kips ) = 6.189 sec ) ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.308 § R · § 3.5S1 0.648) = 0.5(0.189 sec ) ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.8-5) Equation 12.01 0. C s (min ) = (ASCE 7 Eq. C s (max ) = (ASCE 7 Eq.25 · ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.25 · T ¨ ¸ (0.01 0.6.

at each site.1 (ASCE 7 Eq. since the flexible diaphragm assumption assumes that each line of resistance is independent of the others. ȡ will be calculated in the longitudinal and transverse directions.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems C s = 0.4. ȡ. Therefore.308 V = C sW = (0. E AND EM.308) (164. is 1. In ASCE 7-05.3.1 Site 1 SDC B.4.1. for each Direction. For this guideline document. Since metal buildings are deemed to have flexible diaphragms. the redundancy coefficient.57 kips 1. This would more likely result in a lower redundancy factor in some situations but it will mean that all rigid diaphragm analysis considerations would need to be made including torsional analysis.3. It should be noted that if the roof were designed as a rigid or semi-rigid diaphragm. it is the interpretation of the guide authors that the redundancy coefficient needs to be determined for each line of resistance.1. all seismic force resisting members in all lines of resistance could be considered in the redundancy evaluation. 1-24 . at each Site The redundancy coefficient.4. for each direction. it is also a function of whether the loss of a single member would result in an extreme torsional irregularity. B or C. is based on ASCE 7 Section 12. However.8-1) DETERMINE THE SEISMIC LOAD EFFECTS.4. Section 12. therefore it is no longer a function of transverse frame column fixity conditions except for the situation when there are only one or two bays in the transverse direction.4.4 1.2 kips ) = 50. and therefore ρ is taken as 1. ȡ. 12. the redundancy coefficient is a function of the percentage loss of lateral story strength assuming a single member or connection loses its lateral seismic force carrying capacity as compared to story strength with all members retaining their capacity. Per ASCE 7-05 Section 12. 1. as if that line of resistance was a story.1.3.0 as noted in ASCE 7. The redundancy coefficient determination is no longer a function of the maximum force in any one member. FOR EACH BUILDING IN EACH DIRECTION Determine the Redundancy Coefficient. ȡ. For buildings that have rigid and semi-rigid diaphragms.0 in both directions. Also note that the redundancy coefficient determination is not required if the SDC assigned to the building is A. the diaphragms have been assumed to be flexible. a determination of torsional irregularity if a member or connection loses its lateral load carrying capacity is not required.

there are only 2 bays of cross bracing.3. In the longitudinal direction. therefore the redundancy coefficient. ȡ. the redundancy coefficient. non-tapered columns will be used.0 if making one moment connection pinned does not reduce the strength of the moment frame line by more than 33%. is 1. ȡ.3. 1-25 .0 if the removal of one diagonal member does not reduce the strength of a side wall line of resistance by more than 33%. and therefore the rule of thumb above is applicable. ȡ. is 1. In the transverse direction. the redundancy coefficient.3. can be taken as 1.1. the situation where ȡ is 1. Transverse Direction – Moment Frames SDC D. For the case where the columns are fixed at the base and assuming one of the beam column joints is pinned. is 1. with braced side walls. For a metal building system with braced end walls. For a metal building system. Otherwise the redundancy coefficient. For metal building systems with moment frame lines of resistance. is 1. there are only two moment connections in the line of resistance so the redundancy coefficient. Otherwise the redundancy coefficient.3. Therefore. is 1. ȡ. otherwise it is 1. For the example building.3. ȡ.0. Therefore.3. the redundancy coefficient. Longitudinal Direction – Side Wall SDC D. a good rule of thumb is if there are four or more moment connections in the line of resistance. Otherwise the redundancy coefficient. is 1. In the transverse direction. is 1.0 would arise if there were four or more bays of tension-only cross bracing on the line of resistance.0 if the removal of one diagonal member does not reduce the strength of an end wall line of resistance by more than 33%. the situation where ȡ is 1.4. the redundancy coefficient.2 Site 2 Transverse Direction – End Walls SDC D.0 would arise if there were four or more moment connections in the line of resistance including column fixity at the base of the columns. is 1. For the example building. ȡ. The above rule of thumb is based on the assumption that all moment connections in a line of resistance contribute approximately the same to the story strength. the expected reduction in story strength would be less than 33%. ȡ. the situation where ȡ is 1. ȡ. For the example there are only three bays of tensiononly cross bracing. ȡ. the redundancy coefficient.0 would arise if there were four or more bays of tension-only cross bracing on the line of resistance. is 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1. It is generally assumed that for columns fixed at the top and bottom.3. ȡ.

Strictly speaking. E. the combined effect can be treated as either a load or load combination because by elastic superposition the results will be the same.2S DS D 4) Stated in more commonly used terms: E = Eh + Ev 1) E = E h − Ev 2) Where: Eh = the effect of horizontal seismic forces Ev = the effect of vertical seismic forces (ASCE 7 Eq.125 per ASCE 7 Section 12.1 Site 1 Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line Seismic Design Category = B (ρ = 1.4. 12. ȡ. 12. This combination of earthquake load effects is to be combined with the effects from other loads.4.4. etc. This is the approach the authors have adopted in this Guide. since we typically do elastic static analysis for all loads.3 Site 3 SDC D.2.240 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 2. 12.2 Determine the Seismic Load Effect.0) SDS = 0. in accordance with the load combinations of Chapter 2 of ASCE 7-05. such as dead and live loads. 1. Determination of the redundancy coefficient. but the resultant effect of combined earthquake loads (an effect is an internal member force.4- QE = V or Fp as defined in Chapter 12 of ASCE 7.1. from a user standpoint.4(ASCE 7 Eq.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1. 12. for each Building Site and each Direction E h = ρQE 3) E v = 0. E (and for that matter Em) is not actually a load which is applied to a structure like V. (Note in the sections that follow. stress.4(ASCE 7 Eq. 1. is the same as for Site 2.17 kips 1-26 .4- (ASCE 7 Eq. V is substituted for QE) Note that Ev is permitted to be taken as zero when SDS ≤ 0.4. unity ratio.2.).2. However.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 1.66 kips) = 1.048D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.0) (12.2(0.2(0.0 ) (2.17 kips E v = ±0.2(0.2.52 kips E v = ±0.0 ρ transverse moment frame = 1.2 Site 1 Alternate (Steel Systems Not Specifically Detailed For Seismic Resistance) Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line Seismic Design Category = B (ρ = 1.0 Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.240)D = ±0.15 kips E v = ±0.0 Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.048D 1-27 .2S DS D = ±0.0 ρ longitudinal = 1.0) (2.2S DS D = ±0.15 kips ρ transverse end wall = 1.0) (1.66 kips E v = ±0.66 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 12.240)D = ±0.0) SDS = 0.4.52 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 1.2S DS D = ±0.52 kips ) = 2.2(0.2S DS D = ±0.15 kips) = 12.240 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 2.79 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 13.0 ρ longitudinal = 1.14 kips ρ transverse end wall = 1.0 ρ transverse moment frame = 1.048D Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.17 kips ) = 2.240)D = ±0.048D 1.240)D = ±0.

2S DS D = ±0.4 Site 3 E h = ρV = (1.151D Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line Seismic Design Category = D 1-28 .2(0.0) (1.2S DS D = ±0.30) (5.151D Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: 1.2(0.755)D = ±0.80 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 5.755 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 6.3 Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.2(0.755)D = ±0.4.30) (6.2.52 kips Ev = ±0.20 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 38.4.2(0.151D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.84 kips Ev = ±0.0) (13.048D Longitudinal Direction Side Walls (Brace Rods) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: 1.79 kips) = 1.20 kips) = 6.3 ρ transverse moment frame = 1.80 kips ) = 8.2(0.240)D = ±0.2S DS D = ±0.755)D = ±0.2S DS D = ±0.240)D = ±0.14 kips E v = ±0.30) (38.2S DS D = ±0.09 kips ρ transverse end wall = 1.048D Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line Seismic Design Category = D SDS = 0.79 kips E v = ±0.76 kips Ev = ±0.3 Site 2 E h = ρV = (1.3 ρ longitudinal = 1.2.14 kips) = 13.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.09 kips) = 49.

are not required except for the following: 1-29 .200 D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.2 S DS D = ±0. Em.2 S DS D Where: (ASCE 7 Eq.4-6) Emh = the maximum effect of horizontal seismic forces with overstrength factor included Ev = the effect of vertical seismic forces In the previous edition of the AISC Seismic Provisions.97 kips Ev = ±0.74 kips Ev = ±0.2S DS D Em = Emh − Ev = Ω o QE − 0. Em.4-5) (ASCE 7 Eq.200 D Determine the Maximum Seismic Load Effect.71 kips Ev = ±0. the maximum seismic load effects.30) (6.01 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 6. 12.2(1. In AISC 341-05 this has been changed to make it clear that the load combinations in the applicable building codes shall be used. Note that for buildings in SDC A.30) (9.01 kips ) = 11.3 Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E h = ρV = (1.2(1.57 kips) = 65. or C.200 D Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: 1.00)D = ±0. the maximum seismic load effect load combinations were different than the IBC.00 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 9.2 S DS D = ±0.2 S DS D = ±0. for each Building Site and each Direction Em = Emh + Ev = Ω o QE + 0.00)D = ±0. B. 12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems SDS = 1.3 ρ longitudinal = 1.90 kips) = 8.4.3 E h = ρV = (1.00)D = ±0.30) (50.90 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 50.3 ρ transverse moment frame = 1.2(1.57 kips ρ transverse end wall = 1.

66 kips) = 3. requires Em for elements supporting discontinuous walls or frames in SDC B. C.048D 1-30 .2S DS D = ±0.1.0 (2.1 Site 1 * Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line SDS = 0.2. which references ASCE 7 Section 12. E.2(0. which references ASCE 7 Section 12. and F.10.3.3.15 kips Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = Ω oV = (2.048D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = Ω oV = (2.0 (2.17 kips ) = 5.2).3.240)D = ±0.32 kips E v = ±0. Summarize Design Parameters Ωo transverse direction (moment frame) = 2.048D Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = Ω oV = (2.2S DS D = ±0.43 kips E v = ±0.4.1 and 1. D.5) (2. 1. E.0) (1.0) (12.17 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 1.3.4.3.5 for Site 1 Alternate) For determining the “the maximum force that can be delivered by the system” for purposes of designing the beam-to-column moment connection. D. requires Em for collectors in SDC C. IBC 1605. the value of Ωo shall be taken as 3.5 for Site 1 Alternate) Ωo longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 2.5* Ωo transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 2. The above requirements apply regardless of the R factor used in the design.66 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems • • IBC 1605.15 kips ) = 24.2(0.240)D = ±0.4.2(0.240)D = ±0.240 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 2.30 kips E v = ±0.5 (see the discussion in Sections 1. and F.3.2S DS D = ±0.1.1.

755)D = ±0.4.240 )D = ±0.2(0.2S DS D = ±0.2S DS D = ±0.240)D = ±0.52 kips ) = 6.79 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 13.151D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = ΩoV = ( 2.3.755 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 6.14 kips Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = Ω oV = (2.151D 1-31 .48 kips E v = ±0.2(0.5) (1.2S DS D = ±0.4.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1.00 kips Ev = ±0.5) (13.2(0.048D Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: 1.09 kips Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = ΩoV = (2.2 Site 1 Alternate Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line SDS = 0.80 kips ) = 17.240)D = ±0.3.5) (2.755)D = ±0.80 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 5.0) (5.85 kips E v = ±0.5) (6.2(0.14 kips) = 32.3 Site 2 Emh = Ω oV = (2.20 kips ) = 10.2(0.20 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 38.2S DS D = ±0.240 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 2.048D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = Ω oV = (2.52 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 1.30 kips Ev = ±0.048D Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line SDS = 0.79 kips) = 4.2S DS D = ±0.40 kips Ev = ±0.

14 kips Ev = ±0.4.3 should be used to design the following elements for all seismic design categories except SDC A (all 3 sites).4.00 V transverse direction (moment frame) = 9.2(1.0) (6. ASCE 7 Section 12.90 kips) = 13.53 kips Ev = ±0.4.1 ASCE 7 Sections Requiring Use of the Em Load Combination The following ASCE 7-05 Sections require the use of the Em load combination: 1.00)D = ±0.90 kips V longitudinal direction side walls (brace rods) = 50.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: 1.10.2S DS D = ±0.57 kips) = 101.0) (38.2S DS D = ±0.2(1. and their connections to resisting elements.4 Site 3 Emh = Ω oV = (2. E and Em The seismic force effects.4 E mh = Ω oV = (2. E and Em.01kips ) = 22.2 and 1.4.3 − Elements supporting discontinuous walls or frames.1 − Collector elements.0) (50.755)D = ±0.4.00)D = ±0.09kips) = 76.18 kips Ev = ±0.200 D Transverse End Wall Model (One End Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: E mh = Ω oV = (2.2S DS D = ±0.57 kips Transverse Moment Frame Model (One Frame) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: Emh = Ω oV = (2.2. splices.4.3.200 D Elements Designed Using Seismic Force Effects. 2. defined in Sections 1.2S DS D = ±0.151D Summarize Design Parameters On One Frame Line SDS = 1.01 kips V transverse direction end walls (brace rods) = 6.5) (9.200 D Longitudinal Side Wall Model (One Side Wall) Applied Horizontal Force: Applied Vertical Force: 1.3. 1-32 .00)D = ±0.2(1.2(0. ASCE 7 Section 12.3. 1.80 kips Ev = ±0.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1.3(2)(a). This latest edition still allows two strength based design methods. including amplified seismic loads for shear.5 specifies that anchor rods should be designed using the same load combinations used for the attached structure elements. Allowable Strength Design (new ASD) and LRFD. for steel structures is greater than 3. if applicable. which assumes the use of the matching load combinations from the Applicable Building Code (e.1 and 12. all affected provisions in Part I were rewritten in the dual format (new ASD and LRFD). R.2 AISC Seismic Provisions (341-05) Requiring Use of the Em Load Combination AISC 341-05 applies where the code specified seismic response modification coefficient. 2006 IBC).2. If the option is taken to design the structure using R = 3 and Ωo = 3.67 for ASD and Pa is the required axial strength of a column using ASD load combinations (without consideration of the amplified seismic load).3(2) (b).3. C. Note that Ωc Pn is 1. considered in the absence of any applied moment. except that it need not exceed the limits on the required compressive strength based on the nominal strengths of the connecting beam or brace elements. a) Axial tensile strength. and to not include seismic detailing. but the ASCE 7 Sections 12. unless specifically required by the IBC. as stated in Section 8. then the additional requirements of AISC 341-05 do not apply. b) Axial compressive strength. except that it need not exceed the maximum expected strength of the foundation to resist uplift. 1-33 .3 noted above must still be included in the design. E or F. A separate provision in Section 8. considered in the absence of any applied moment. AISC 341-05.4.10.4. Note that AISC 341-05 eliminated Part III which contained the rules for Allowable Stress Design to LRFD (strength) conversion. However.g.3.0. D. It should be noted that AISC 341-05 would also apply for cantilever column systems where R is less than 3 for SDC B. as stated in Section 8. Note that this provision inherently presumes that the tensile strength of the foundation anchor rods is sufficient to carry the full foundation weight. The following provisions of AISC 341-05 require the use of the Em load combination: 1.3 − Column Strength The following provisions for column axial strength (shown here in the ΩP ASD format) are only required to be met when c a > 0.4. Section 8.

should be used to design all other elements. Section 11. 5.4 – Ordinary Steel Concentrically Braced Frames Ordinary steel concentrically braced frame systems.5c – Required Flexural Strength of Columns at Column Bases. only the special design requirements apply for beams intersected by bracing members. E The seismic load effects.2a . Section 8. However. 4. AISC 341-05.3 Elements Designed Using Seismic Load Effects. for all seismic design categories except SDC A (all 3 sites). defined in Section 1.5b – Required Shear Strength of Columns at Column Bases. A column splice is a field connection which is either bolted. or a combination of both. for the connections of braces.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.4a – Column Splices. Section 8. Note that this provision applies to both pinned and fixed base columns. not listed above in Section 1.4). Note that this provision only applies to fixed base columns.4a and 14.4.1 for further discussion). 3. E. These splices need to be designed for the amplified forces determined at the location of the splice. 1. However.4a. in AISC 341-05. Section 8.4. Sections 13. Section 14. Alternatively.1RyMp) or the maximum moment that can be delivered by the system (See Section 1. the connections may meet the requirements for intermediate or special steel moment frames.Ordinary Steel Moment Frame Beam-toColumn Connections The beam-to-column connections of ordinary steel moment frames are required to be designed for the lesser of either the flexural strength of the beam or girder (1.3.4. the force need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred by either the brace or structure system (see Exceptions in Section 14. AISC 341-05.3.2. 6.4.4. welded. AISC 341-05. 1-34 .2. as stated in Section 14. AISC 341-05. AISC 341-05.4.

............................... 2-26 2......... 2-27 2.....2............................................... 2-6 2................................ 2-9 2.........................1......................................................................... 2-5 2...1 Structural Analysis Models ......................................... 2-10 2............................... 2-11 2....2........................12 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing.........................................6 Story Drift Checks.... 2-5 2................ 2-4 2 Design of Typical Members and Connections....2........ 2-50 2-1 ............... 2-39 2.................................................................................. 2-46 2...................................3....................................6 Story Drift Checks.......................... 2-22 2................................................................................................4 Seismic Analysis Results Summary for Horizontal Displacements ..............2......................... 2-5 2...................9 Design of Diaphragm Systems Including Horizontal Roof Bracing ......3.....7 Treatment of Collateral Loads.10 Determination of Diaphragm Seismic Weights Including Horizontal Bracing ...Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems DESIGN EXAMPLE 2 Design of Frames...................... 2-43 2.....3............................................................1..............3 Member Forces..............................................1..........................................3.........................2.2..........3 Member Forces......2....... 2-46 2...........2 Design Earthquake Forces......................7 Basic Load Combinations ........................................................... columns......7 Basic Load Combinations .......................5 Basic Load Case Analysis Results Summary for Member Forces .2...............................14 Design of End Wall OCBF............. 2-27 2..........2....1.................5 Basic Load Case Analysis Results Summary for Member Forces ..............................15 Design of Ordinary Moment Frames....... bracing and other elements of the lateral-forceresisting system......................3............................8 Allowable Strength Load Combinations................... 2-31 2.........................1............................................................2.................................................. Bracing and Other Elements of the Lateral-Force-Resisting System This example illustrates how the seismic design loads developed in Design Example 1 are applied for the design of frames........................... 2-3 Design Example Objective ..2.............13 Design of Side Wall OCBF............................................................................................................................ 2-8 2......................... 2-13 2...2 Diaphragm Flexibility and Torsion......................1....................................................................................................1 Structural Analysis ...1 Structural Analysis Models ........................................................................................ 2-15 2............................. Columns..............................................2.........................................................3......2...................... Problem Statement: ...................1........................................................................ E and Em................. C .....................................6 AISC Seismic Provisions (341-05)....................................................2........1 General Design Guidance – Typical Members and Connections ............ 2-17 2..............8 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations with Overstrength Factor...11 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing............. 2-6 2.......................................................1............................. 2-36 2.....................5 Determination of the Earthquake Loads................................................4 Seismic Analysis Results Summary for Horizontal Displacements ........................3 Alternate Bracing Concepts and Modeling..................................9 Alternate Basic ASD Load Combinations .......................................2 Design Earthquake Forces.. 2-18 2.................... 2-14 2..........3...........................................................2 Design Building A (R > 3) ............................... 2-8 2...................................... 2-44 2.............. 2-46 2....1.......................................................4 2006 IBC Load Combinations .....3 Design Building A – Alternate Design (R = 3) ........................ 2-10 2........... 2-13 2...................2.................................................. 2-42 2..... 2-23 2........... 2-17 2............................. 2-42 2............................. 2-22 2....

....................13 Design of Side Wall OCBF........4 Seismic Analysis Results Summary for Horizontal Displacements ...........12 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing..........................3......12 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing........................ 2-70 2......................... 2-87 2...... 2-114 2..............5......................................................7 Foundation Forces for Foundation Design .......................................................................2 Design Building B ........4 Exterior Rigid Frame Columns without Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom ........ 2-108 2... 2-51 2............. 2-69 2...................................10 Determination of Diaphragm Seismic Weights Including Horizontal Bracing ....11 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing. 2-113 2..3...........................7.....................................................................................................................1 Design Building A ...1 End Wall Columns with Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom ...................7 Basic Load Combinations ......................4.................................10 Determination of Diaphragm Seismic Weights Including Horizontal Bracing .................4......................4.............................................................................5 Basic Load Case Analysis Results Summary for Member Forces ...............................15 Design of Moment Frames .4 Design Building B .............................................................................................4.......................... 2-82 2.... 2-54 2.................................................... 2-95 2...................................................................................3...8...........8 Welding Issues and Quality Assurance Requirements .4.......8.... 2-99 2.... 2-77 2................... 2-116 2.......................................3...................................9 Design of Diaphragm Systems Including Horizontal Roof Bracing ................3 Member Forces........ 2-81 2.......................... 2-55 2......................4.......2 Design Earthquake Forces.............................2 Quality Assurance........ 2-82 2........5.............................4.........Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2........... 2-107 2............................. 2-100 2.......................4............ 2-111 2......8 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations with Overstrength Factor....................14 Design of End Wall OCBF..............5 Interior Rigid Frame Columns. 2-71 2........ 2-55 2...........................3....................................2 End Wall Columns without Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom ......................................6 Column Base and Anchor Bolt Design....................................6 Story Drift Checks.... 2-110 2...................................................................... 2-118 2-2 ......................7.............4.......9 Approved Steel and Welding Material ...8 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations With Overstrength Factor...............................1 Welding Issues....... 2-115 2..................................4...............................................................11 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing...............14 Design of End Wall ......................................... 2-78 2..........4............5 Beam-to-Column Connection Design ..................................................... 2-68 2............... 2-64 2.................................... 2-51 2............................................................... 2-60 2...................... 2-73 2..... 2-69 2..4........................ 2-66 Final Drift Check ....3...............3................. 2-72 2.........................7....................................................7......... 2-78 2...... 2-91 2...........................3 Exterior Rigid Frame Columns with Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom .......4..............4..13 Design of Side Wall ...........................................................................................................7.......................1 Structural Analysis Models ...... 2-73 2...........3..... 2-115 2..4................9 Design of Diaphragm Systems Including Horizontal Roof Bracing ............................ 2-112 2...........................15 Design of Ordinary Moment Frames.................................................................................... 2-111 2.......................................................................................

0 and AISC 341-05 b. Note that since Design Building A has been identified as SDC B in Example 1. CA 92410. it will be evaluated using two options: a.. Chester CT 06412. Design Building B Design Building B is located at Site 3: 1500 W. Metal Building Framing – Design Example 2 Two sets of building designs from Design Example 1 are further developed. 2-3 . Alternate Design – Using structural steel systems not specifically detailed for seismic resistance with R = 3. Using seismic force resisting systems with R > 3. Rialto Ave.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Problem Statement: The building configuration and matches that provided in Design Example 1. San Bernardino. Design Building A Design Building A is located at Site 1: 67 Winthrop Drive. and AISC 341-05 is not required Note that Design Building A is identical to the building used in Example 1.0.

2-4 . For a discussion on approved steels and weld material for seismic forceresisting systems.14. Material properties of steel plate and sheet used in this example for primary beams and columns have a minimum specified yield stress of 50 ksi. In addition.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Note that Design Building B is different with respect to the building used in Example 1 in that the interior columns are fixed at the base. affecting the redundancy factor. see Section 2. show how the design loads are applied for the design of frames. bracing and other typical members of a seismic force-resisting system. design typical members and connections in accordance with 2006 IBC and AISC 341-05. and rod bracing has a minimum specified yield stress of 50 ksi. HSS columns have a minimum specified yield stress of 46 ksi. except. Design Example Objective: Using the seismic design loads developed in Design Example 1.

For structures assigned to SDC A.1.1. and end wall and side wall braced frames.6-1 of ASCE 7. two different frame models are required. or system regularity of the structure. For some structures assigned to SDC D. equivalent lateral force analyses are permitted by Section 12.2 Transverse End Wall Model (Frames 1 and 11) The end walls of both Design Buildings A and B have the same basic structural system.e.1 DESIGN OF TYPICAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS GENERAL DESIGN GUIDANCE – TYPICAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS Structural Analysis The analysis procedures that are permitted for structural design are specified in Section 12.1. For this example it is assumed the systems are the same. flexible diaphragm assumption (See Subsection II. B. occupancy.6 and Table 12. Additional models may be developed if the structural systems of the frames or walls vary. and will result in very conservative beam axial loads. and C.1. dynamic analysis procedures may be required.6. E. 2. It is common practice in metal building design to model the structural system as a series of two-dimensional models. For the typical metal building configurations. frames without and with interior column fixity. and F. An even more accurate application would be to apply tributary loads at discrete points along the member.1. Separate models are typically developed for individual transverse moment frames. there are no restrictions on analysis procedures. 2.e. respectively.1. depending upon the height. i. therefore. Applying the seismic load at one end only is overly conservative. Applying the seismic load at one side only is overly conservative and will result in very conservative beam axial loads.1 Transverse Moment Frame Models (Interior Frames 2-10) Because there are two interior moment frame designs (Design Building A and B) being considered. period.D of the Introduction to this Guide for further discussion).Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2 2.3 Longitudinal Side Wall Model The seismic load is applied at both ends of the side wall because it more closely portrays the actual locations of the seismic inertial forces. Applying the seismic load at one end only is overly conservative and will result in very conservative 2-5 . such as found in this example. The seismic load is applied at both sides of the end wall because it more closely portrays the actual locations of the seismic inertial forces. The seismic load is applied at both ends of the frame because it more closely portrays the actual locations of the seismic inertial forces. the same analysis model can be used for both designs.1.1 2. 2. An even more accurate application would be to apply tributary loads at discrete points along the member. i.

This section provides discussion on how the structural models would be modified for these different alternatives. 2.1-1 End Wall Moment Frame Alternative V/2 OR V/2 OR Eh/2 OR Eh/2 OR Emh/2 Emh/2 Figure 2.1-2 Side Wall Moment Frame Alternative 2. 2. V/2 OR V/2 OR Eh/2 OR Eh/2 OR Emh/2 Emh/2 Figure 2. The structural period. An even more accurate application would be to apply tributary loads at each frame line. The structural period.3. R- 2-6 . Rvalues and redundancy factor may all change. and metal wall panels instead of rod x-bracing. the earthquake design forces need to be reevaluated to determine whether they are still valid. cable x-bracing instead of rod x-bracing.8.3.4.3 Alternate Bracing Concepts and Modeling In some cases. Since a flexible diaphragm assumption is used in this example.D of the Introduction to this Guide. rigid) and torsion (both inherent and accidental) is discussed in Subsection II.1. fixed base columns instead of xbracing. redistribution of horizontal forces associated with torsional effects is not applicable per ASCE 7 Section 12.2 Diaphragm Flexibility and Torsion The approach used for roof diaphragm rigidity (flexible vs. the earthquake design forces need to be reevaluated to determine whether they are still valid. causing a change in the earthquake design forces. 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems beam axial loads.1. Alternative concepts include moment frames instead of x-bracing.2 Fixed Base Columns Instead of X-Bracing If one uses different structural systems.1 Moment Frames Instead of X-Bracing If one uses different structural systems.1. it may be necessary or desirable to utilize alternative bracing concepts for metal building lateral-force-resisting systems.1.

3. However. because AISC only covers the material properties of those steel components included in the definition of structural steel in the AISC Code of Standard Practice. Cable bracing should not be used in buildings in SDC F. The IBC does not currently include metal wall panels as seismic resisting systems except as provided for in Section 2211 for light-framed.3. AISC 341-05 does not list steel cable as an approved material. Therefore. V/2 OR V/2 OR Eh/2 OR Eh/2 OR Emh/2 Emh/2 Figure 2. this does not preclude the use of cable x-bracing as part of the seismic-forceresisting-system.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems values and redundancy factor may all change. 2-7 . cold-formed steel walls.1. causing a change in the earthquake design forces.1. the recommendation is to limit cable bracing in SDC D or E to buildings with heights less than 15 feet. 2. However.2.1-4 Side Wall Fixed Base Column Alternative 2.1-3 End Wall Fixed Base Column Alternative V/2 OR V/2 OR Eh/2 OR Eh/2 OR Emh/2 Emh/2 Figure 2.1.5.4 Metal Wall Panels Instead of Rod X-Bracing Some metal building manufacturers elect to use metal wall panels as shear panels instead of rod x-bracing for end walls and/or side walls.3 Cable X-Bracing Instead of Rod X-Bracing The structural model for cable x-bracing is essentially identical as rod xbracing. it is the opinion of the authors that restrictions should be placed on using cable bracing in areas of high seismicity because of the lack of inelastic behavior inherent in steel cables. as noted in the AISC 341-05 User Note of Section 14. and to use an R = 0. as noted in the User Note of Section 6.

1. and all other provisions are referenced to ASCE 7. The authors are of the opinion that the basic ASD load combinations currently provided in IBC and ASCE 7 need to be revised to reflect this same logic. Note that IBC and ASCE 7 refer to Allowable Stress Design with regard to these combinations. metal wall panels may only be used as shear panels in Seismic Design Categories A.2. 2. or C with the structural system specified as one not specifically detailed for seismic design resistance.2S DS D (ASCE 7 Eqs. roof live loads were not provided since they are not required to be included in load combinations which include seismic loads.4. The ASD load combinations in Section 1605. Roof live loads are not required in either the LRFD load combinations or the alternate ASD load combinations because of the low probability of roof live loads occurring simultaneously with earthquake loads. whereas AISC 341-05 is now based on Allowable Strength Design.4-4) 2-8 . While not specifically permitted.3.3. the earthquake loads are defined by two load effects.1 are more compatible with the AISC Allowable Strength Design than are the ASD load combinations in Section 1605. Note that the 2006 IBC provides only the provisions up to the determination of the Seismic Design Category. B. and further cross-referenced to ASCE 7 Sections 12.4. because AISC ASD does not permit increases in allowables. E and Em In the IBC load combinations. They also were previously defined in Design Example 1 and are repeated below: E = ρQ E ± 0. 2.5 Determination of the Earthquake Loads. E and Em.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Therefore. There are two sets of load combinations that are provided for use with ASD. It should be noted that for this example. load combinations are defined in Section 1605. 12. it is the opinion of the authors that metal wall panels may be used in structures assigned to SDC D and E provided an R = 1 is used in the design and the height is limited to 15 feet. It would be prudent to have this option reviewed and approved by the authority having jurisdiction.1. with the R-value equal to 3. respectively.4-1 through 12. unless the construction is as defined in Section 2211.4 2006 IBC Load Combinations In the 2006 IBC.2 and 12. The structural model should be identical to that used for wind loads.3. These load effects are defined in IBC Section 1602.4 that is to be used with both LRFD and ASD for the design of certain elements and components. There is one set of load combinations to be used with Load Resistance and Factor Design (LRFD). In addition there is one set of special seismic load combinations in IBC Section 1605.

AISC 341-05 provides the nominal strength.6 AISC Seismic Provisions (341-05) AISC 341-05 is written in a unified format that addresses both Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Allowable Strength Design (ASD). have been repeated in Design Example 2 in Sections 2. LRFD was the only method permitted. E and Em have been defined in more commonly understood terms as E = E h + Ev E m = E mh + E mv The values of the above terms. The lateral load analysis for member forces is done based on Eh and Emh. For LRFD. For users of ASD format.4-5 through 12. depending on the design method used. the design shall be performed in accordance with: Ra ≤ Rn / Ω where 2-9 . To provide clarity for this example.2 S DS D (ASCE 7 Eqs.4-7) The second term is actually a vertically applied load and should be added to the dead load. determined in Design Example 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems E m = Ω o QE ± 0.1. and 2. 2. 2.2. While either LRFD or ASD design is permitted. the seismic load definitions. 12.2.4. Note that in the previous edition of this Guide the strength design load factors were used because the AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) did not allow choice between design methods for steel structures assigned to high SDC. and then the appropriate required strength is determined. In the 2005 AISC Seismic Provisions. so the allowable stress capacities in the AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) would be calibrated to strength load combinations. AISC provided the conversion factors in Part III of the Seismic Provisions. Therefore. the ASD load combinations are presented instead of LRFD load combinations that were presented in the previous Guide.3.2. for this example ASD design is utilized. the design shall be performed in accordance with: Ru ≤ φRn where Ru = required strength (LRFD) Rn = nominal strength φ = resistance factor For ASD. Part III was eliminated since the allowable strength capacities have been calibrated to the basic allowable stress combinations of the 2006 IBC and ASCE 7-05.2.

7 ρQE Eq. this Guide will use that design basis of AISC 341-05.3 are identical to those in IBC. The 2006 IBC Special Seismic Combinations (using overstrength factor) in 2-10 .105S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0.75S (0.2 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations with Overstrength Factor In AISC 341-05.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Ra = required strength (ASD) Rn = nominal strength Ω = safety factor Recognizing that most metal buildings are currently design using ASD.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0.0 + 0.8 Allowable Strength Load Combinations As previously discussed in Section 2. where appropriate. IBC Basic Allowable Stress Design Load Combinations are compatible with the AISC Allowable Strength Design.3 are as follows: (1. These load combinations are listed in this section and are used as the basis for design in this document.8. 2. but presented in a more user friendly format. Therefore Part III of the 2002 Seismic Provisions (ASD-to-LRFD conversion) was eliminated. The collateral load is treated as a live load for load combinations where the minimum downward load is required.14 S DS ) D ± 0.1. C For metal building seismic designs.4.7 Treatment of Collateral Loads.1.4. 8 The ± was added to the above load combinations to make it understood that load combinations should be checked for earthquake loads in all orthogonal horizontal directions. 5 Eq.7 ρQ E (1.6 − 0. ASD and LRFD are fully integrated (all equations are shown in dual format) in Part I.4. 2.2.2. The applicable ASCE 7 load combinations 5.8.525ρQE + 0. collateral loads are treated as follows: 1. 6 and 8 from Section 12. or 2. 6 Eq. Either design method is valid provided that the load combination is consistent.1 Basic Load Combinations The ASCE 7 allowable strength seismic load combinations in Section 12. 2. 2. The collateral load is treated as a dead load for load combinations where the maximum downward load is required.1.0 + 0.1.1. It should be noted that only the load combinations that include seismic loads are included and that other load combinations may govern the design.

0 + 0.2.7Ω o QE 2. However. this Guide is recommending the use of the load combinations in ASCE 7-05 Section 12. 6 and 8 from Section 12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems section 1605. The second set is called the alternate basic load combinations. 2. 8 2-11 . an increase in allowables is not permitted.4.6 − 0.3.4.105S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0.1. 5 Eq. and because they may be used in building foundation design which is typically done on an ASD basis. Therefore.4 are complete for the LRFD design method. the “not detailed for seismic” option. B. The 2007 Supplement to the IBC deletes the special seismic load combinations in IBC Section 1605.0 + 0.7Ω oQ E (1.4. They may also be used for structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories A. The ASCE 7 Section 12. The nonseismic ASD load combinations may be used for ASD design of buildings in all seismic design categories. and instead provides a cross-reference to the load combinations in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0. when using the alternate ASD load combinations with the AISC Specification (AISC 360-05). Eq. 1. The alternate basic ASD load combinations are not currently in ASCE 7. or C if R = 3 is used for design.3.2 of ASCE 7-05 provides the correct special load combinations (or overstrength factor load combinations) to use with ASD.3. which was first created for the 1997 UBC to make the seismic provisions consistent with current steel design practice at that time.4. Section 12.e.14 S DS ) D ± 0.4.3. these alternate basic load combinations will not likely provide the most economic solution.2. but not for the ASD design method. The 2006 IBC does not include ASD-compliant special seismic combinations. 6 Eq.1 are as follows: (1. The alternate ASD load combinations are included in this Guide for completeness. Therefore. The first set is called the basic load combinations and is based on the ASD load combinations found in ASCE 7.4.525Ω oQE + 0.2. Both load combination sets were adopted into the IBC.75S (0. i.3 allowable strength seismic load combinations with overstrength factor load combinations 5.9 Alternate Basic ASD Load Combinations There are two sets of ASD load combinations in the IBC.

2.4 (Eq. 16-20) 0.4 Eh Ev + 1 .1.4 (IBC Eq. The two ASD load combinations that contain seismic loads are: D+L+S ± E 1. 16-21) It should be noted that in these two load combinations.4 E 1. the roof live load.4 1 .2 are as follows. is not included. The collateral load. the alternate set of the basic load combinations of IBC Section 1605.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems For this design example.4 1. is included in the first combination.1. 2. defined previously: D+C + L+S ± 0 .9-1) (Eq.4 (Eq.9 D ± E 1. 2.9 D ± E 1.9-4) 2-12 .9-3) (Eq.4 (IBC Eq. which for metal building seismic design is treated as a dead load. the collateral load is treated as a live load in the second combination and therefore is not included.9-2) Substituting E.9 D ± Eh Ev − 1 . 2.1.3.1. Lr. The ASD load combinations can be restated as: D+C + L+S ± 0. However. C.

1489 6X0. I 9 4 C V/2 J 10 19 FT.1489 6X0.5 12 6. 0.281' Symm.0X0.75X0.375 2 34.25 0.5 2E/2E 6.50 12 5X0. 2 D 64 FT.0X0.0X0.2-2 Design Building A – Transverse Frame Analysis Model 2-13 21'-3 3/8" S .5 6.625 CAP/STF 8. WEB THK. C L Frame 10 SS SS S 6 4 5 SS SS SS SS 7 SS SS HH 8 SS SS 9 20' E.1489 5X0.625 inch diameter. Figure 2.3125 6.25 4 30. I.25 0.3125 0. 1 A F 6 3 G 7 H 8 23 FT.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.896' H 12 PIPE 6-5/8 X 10. 70 FT.25 20'-0" 6X0.0 HORZ STF 2.25 16'-0" 5X0.3125 10'-0" 6X0.5 5 22.0X0.5 6. CONNECTION DETAILS : Location Web Dep.1780 5X0.F.0 2E/2E 6. 65' 35' O.125 5X0.78 6X0.25 6X0.25 0. 3 2 SS SS 6X0.3125 0.5 2E/2E 6.375 2.0 3E/2E 6.3125 0.25 10'-0" 0.5 6.F.H.0X0.5 10 25.5 11 6. Type Plate Plate(DN) Plate Plate(UP) Bolts 1 8.25 10'-1" 5X0.1780 6X0.5 inch diameter while the brace rods for the side wall are initially assumed to be 0.375 6. Pinned Base V/2 OR Eh/2 OR E 5 19 FT.F.3125 0.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 9 25.375 10'-0" 5X0.1 Structural Analysis Models Transverse Moment Frame Model Exterior Frame Columns: Fixed Top.1780 5X0.2 DESIGN BUILDING A (R > 3) The building configuration and initial trial moment frame and brace rod sizes are shown in the following figure.25 16'-0" 5X0.1489 5X0.0X0.375 7 22. I.25 3 N/A CAP (EXT) 6.F.375 8.25 0.2.25 6.0X0.0X0.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 8 33.0X0.625 BASE 8.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 6 22.0X0. The brace rods for the end wall are initially assumed to be 0.25 0.25 N/A (4)-3/4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A (4)-3/4 (10)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (4)-1/2 Figure 2.4170' WEB THK. K OR Eh/2 OR Emh/2 Emh/2 B 64 FT.0 BASE 8.125 16'-10 3/4" 1 11 0. O.2-1 Design Building A – Trial Moment Frame 2. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top.25 6X0.0X0.0X0.75X0.240' 6X0.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Transverse End Wall Model

Exterior Frame Columns: Pinned Top, Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top, Pinned Base

Figure 2.2-3 Design Building A – Transverse End Wall Analysis Model Longitudinal Side Wall Model

Exterior Frame Columns: Pinned Top, Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top, Pinned Base

Figure 2.2-4 Design Building A – Longitudinal Side Wall Analysis Model 2.2.2 Design Earthquake Forces

**The design earthquake forces on individual frame or brace lines based on Design Example 1 are as follows:
**

Design Building A Site 1

V (kips) 2.17 1.66 12.15

Eh (kips) 2.17 1.66 12.15

Ev (kips) 0.048D 0.048D 0.048D

Emh* (kips) 5.43 3.32 24.30

**Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall
**

*

The values of Emh in the table are based on Ωo = 2.5 for transverse moment frames and Ωo = 2.0 for the transverse end wall and longitudinal side wall.

2-14

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

2.2.3

Member Forces

For Design Building A, the dead, collateral, and earthquake forces on individual frame or brace lines based on Design Example 1 using AISC 341-05, and the requirements of AISC 360-05 Section C2.1b (second order analysis by amplified first-order elastic analysis) are as follows: Axial (kips) −3.08 −2.73 −6.20 −5.98 −1.55 −1.33 −1.45 0 −0.90 0 0 −3.08 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 −21.3 0 0 −19.8 −37.8 13.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear (kips) −1.45 −1.45 0 0 2.39 −2.98 −0.06 0 0 −0.45 0 0 −0.09

Dead Load

Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Top Moment Frame Int. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Int. Columns - Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam

2-15

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Collateral Load

Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Top Moment Frame Int. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Int. Columns - Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam

Earthquake Loads, Eh

Axial (kips) −1.18 −1.18 −2.57 −2.57 −0.66 −0.57 −0.62 0 −0.47 0 0 −1.18 0 Axial (kips) 0.45 0.45 −0.72 −0.72 0.02 0.02 −0.01 1.08 −0.70 0.83 5.09 −3.08 4.05

Moment (ft-kips) 0 −9.15 0 0 −8.48 −16.2 5.72 0 0 0 0 0 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 17.83 0 0 18.51 −9.31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Shear (kips) −0.62 −0.62 0 0 1.02 −1.28 −0.03 0 0 −0.24 0 0 −0.05 Shear (kips) 1.09 1.09 0 0 −0.45 −0.46 0.27 0 0 0 0 0 0

Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Top Moment Frame Int. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Int. Columns - Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam

2-16

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Maximum Earthquake Loads, Emh1

Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Ext. Columns - Top Moment Frame Int. Columns - Bottom Moment Frame Int. Columns - Top End Wall Brace Rod (Ωo = 2.0) End Wall Brace Column (Ωo = 2.0) End Wall Beam (Ωo = 2.0) Side Wall Brace Rod (Ωo = 2.0) Side Wall Brace Column (Ωo = 2.0) Side Wall Beam (Ωo = 2.0)

1

Axial (kips) 1.13 1.13 −1.80 −1.80 2.16 −1.40 1.66 10.18 −6.16 8.10

Moment (ft-kips) 0 44.58 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Shear (kips) 2.73 2.73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ωo = 2.5, unless otherwise noted.

2.2.4

Seismic Analysis Results Summary for Horizontal Displacements

In this section, the horizontal displacement results are presented for Design Building A for each of the structural analysis models. The actual twodimensional linear elastic analysis was done by others and is not presented here, but is based on the structural models and applied loadings presented earlier. The seismic displacement results are based on the applied frame line base shear, V, using unfactored load values (i.e. E, not 0.7E). Horizontal Displacements at the Eave Height Resulting from Applying the Frame Line Base Shear, V Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Braced Frames Longitudinal Side Wall Braced Frames

2.2.5

0.742 in 0.102 in 0.169 in

Basic Load Case Analysis Results Summary for Member Forces

In this example, the member forces are presented for each of the basic load cases. Two seismic load cases are included. One seismic load case is for Eh and the other is for Emh. For the examples presented here, Eh and V are identical but since this is not always the case, separate basic load cases have been identified for the purposes of this document. The actual two-dimensional analysis was done by others and is not presented here, but is based on the structural models and applied loadings presented earlier.

2-17

3.12-1 states “there shall be no drift limit for single-story structures with interiors walls.8-15: 2-18 . For this example.4 of this example. this Guide provides drift calculations. 12. as discussed in Section 1. the upper bound period limits of ASCE 7 Section 12. The story drifts are calculated using ASCE 7 Equation 12. i. Note that footnote a of ASCE 7 Table 12. For illustrative purposes. Alternatively. these analyses were performed by others and the results provided in Section 2.2.1. the interior walls.2. even though it could be argued that they are unnecessary.25. They are increased by an incremental factor to account for P-delta effects.: Cd = 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.8.25. ceilings. Note that the base shear V of this example and Design Example 1 were determined using the simplified code period formulas.2 are not used when calculating drift.815. Typically for metal buildings. 2. partitions and ceilings should be detailed to accommodate drift).8-15) Cd = the deflection amplification factor from Design Example 1.6.” If this exception is utilized.e. partitions.6. Substituting the above values and the previous displacement into ASCE 7 Equation 12. three story drifts are calculated corresponding to the three structural models. for the longitudinal side wall I = the occupancy importance factor from Design Example 1 = 1. for the transverse moment frame Cd = 3.0 δxe = the elastic horizontal deflections resulting from applying the base shear V to an elastic structural analysis model of the building seismic-force-resisting system. three sets of drift checks will be made for each design. if a dynamic analysis (or Rayleigh equation) is performed and used for design and analysis. For this example.1. it would be prudent to communicate this on the contract documents (i.8.e.1 Determine Story Drift without P-Delta Effects δx = Where: C d δ xe I (ASCE Eq. and exterior walls that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts.6 Story Drift Checks Story drift is evaluated based on ASCE 7-05 Section 12. for the transverse end wall Cd = 3.

8. is determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12.8. θ= Where: Px Δ V x hsx C d (ASCE 7 Eq.7. per ASCE 7 Section 12.25(0.0 3.8. δx. This Pdelta incremental factor is defined as: Incremental Factor = 1. inches Cd = deflection amplification factor in ASCE 7 Table 12.0. θ shall not exceed θmax.8.0 3. ASCE 7 Section 12. 12.0 Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 2.0 1−θ Where the stability coefficient.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Story Drift w/o P-Delta Effects. δx Transverse Moment Frame 3(0.8-17) 2-19 .742 in ) = 2. It should be noted that in ASCE Section 12.10 . it states that if θ ≤ 0.7 requires that the story drift.33 in 1.θ .8.55 in 1.7.7 For each seismic load combination.25 βC d θ max = (ASCE 7 Eq.2.2 Determine P-Delta Incremental Factor in Accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12. where computing Px.7. the story height is taken as the eave height). 0.23 in 1.2-1 In addition. the P-delta effects can be ignored.8-16) Px = the total unfactored vertical load at and above Level x. inches (Note that for a single story building that Δ is equal to δx) Vx = the seismic shear force acting between level x and level x-1 hsx = the story height below level x (for buildings with pitched roof.102 in ) = 0.25(0. be increased by a factor relating to the P-delta effects. which is the same as stating that the incremental factor may be taken as 1.169 in ) = 0. tributary to the frame line under consideration Δ = the design story drift occurring simultaneously with Vx.5 ≤ 0. 12.6.

0 and determine θmax based on that assumption.8-16. the β factor along with the P-delta incremental factor should be reevaluated based on actual shear demand to actual capacity and the drift rechecked. Px would also include 20 percent of the snow load.5[9(26.96 )] = 128. 12. 12. θmax and the P-delta incremental factor are determined for each of the seismic-force-resisting systems (along each brace/frame line). since member capacities have yet to be calculated.6.08 + 6.8-17. However it should also be noted that Px need never include the roof live load. the value of θ computed from Eq. 2. For the example.90 + 0. For initial design calculations.96 kips Longitudinal Side Wall Px = 0. the end wall Px is taken as the end wall brace column load multiplied times 8. the negative sign indicating compression has been ignored for simplicity in presentation.47 ) = 10. Eq. Note that ASCE 7 permits that where the P-delta effect is included in an automated (second order) analysis. floor live load and collateral load tributary to the frame line under consideration. The value of Px is the total vertical load obtained previously in this design example and is the sum of all unfactored column axial loads (including gravity only columns with axial loads taken at the top of the columns) resulting from dead load.06 kips Transverse End Wall Px = 8(0. if the drift is greater than allowable. For this example. unless otherwise required by the authority having jurisdiction.0 can conservatively be used.20 + 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems β = the ratio of the shear demand to capacity between level x and level x-1. Once a design has been established.06) + 2(10. while the side wall Px is taken as half of the total of all moment frame and end wall column loads.3 Determination of Px In the following calculations.57 ) = 26. β = 1. using the results of the P-delta analysis. 12. Where the ratio is not calculated.8-17 shall still be satisfied. separate values of θ. However. is permitted to be divided by (1 +θ) before checking Eq. The following calculations illustrate the determination of Px for two example building designs.2. it is typical to assume β = 1.2 kips 2-20 . Transverse Moment Frame Px = 2(3.18 + 2. Note that if the flat roof snow load is greater than 30 psf.

2.12-1. The allowable story drift is a function of occupancy category and building types. and exterior wall systems have been designed to accommodate the story drift and the building is four stories or less in height.15 0.020hsx. is determined by simply multiplying the story drift without P-delta effects by the P-delta incremental factor. The design story drift is compared with the allowable story drift.2 θ 0.12 The design story drift with P-delta effects.0 1.0 1.15 1.06 10.12-1. if θ > θmax in any of the above cases.6.2. β is not calculated and is therefore taken as 1.020hsx. one obtains: Story Drift Parameters θmax Incremental factor 0.0028 0. Δ.4 Determine the P-Delta Incremental Factors Vx is taken from the problem statement for this design example and hx is taken as the eave height of 240 inches. the allowable drift for this example is 0. It should be noted that in this example P-delta effects could be ignored in all frame lines.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.025hsx provided the interior walls. it was determined that the occupancy category was II.020 0.5 Determine the Design Story Drift with P-Delta Effects and Compare with IBC Drift Allowables of ASCE 7 Section 12. Cd and δx are indicated previously in this design example. It is recommended that the building first be checked for the value of 0. Δa. equal to 20 feet for this example. From ASCE 7 Table 12. 2. either the seismic-forceresisting system would need to be redesigned or β would need to be calculated in order to determine if adequate shear capacity was present in the design.0074 Note. then no special detailing of architectural components will be required beyond that already specified.17 0. 2-21 . if the aforementioned conditions are not met. Note that the allowable drift would be 0. In Design Example 1. If it is acceptable. Substituting the above data into the P-delta equations.0. hsx is taken as the eave height. partitions.0 Px Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 26.96 128.6. ceilings. specified in ASCE 7 Table 12.

The applicable load combinations with overstrength factors are: 2-22 .8. 8 2.7 ρQ E (0.0 in 6.048D.0 in In the example. S ≤ 30 (so S = 0).1. 5 Eq. 2.7 ρQE Substituting SDS = 0.7 ρQE 0. Equation 6 will not govern and will not be considered further in this example.2. S ≤ 30 (so S = 0).7 Basic Load Combinations The basic load combinations are discussed in Section 2. Therefore.566 D ± 0.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0. no special detailing of architectural components is required beyond that already specified. From the problem statement and Design Example 1.2. therefore.048D.8 in 4.0336( D + C ) ± 0.55 in 0.7 ρQE Eq.025hsx 6.2.240 yields the following: 1. From the problem statement and Design Example 1.1.0 + 0.8 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations with Overstrength Factor The load combinations with overstrength factor are discussed in Section 2.8 in 4. Ev = 0.0 in 6. 5 Eq. Ev = 0. The applicable basic load combinations are: (1.14 S DS ) D ± 0. and L = 0.8. Design Story Drifts Δ Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 2.1. C is considered as D if it results in an adverse loading.8 in 0.33 in 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems For this design example. Equation 6 will not govern and will not be considered further in this example. Therefore.020hsx design allowables. all the design story drifts are less than the 0.23 in 0.020hsx 4. 8 Eq. separate drift check calculations are made for each of the seismic forces resisting systems. C is considered as D if it results in an adverse loading. and L = 0 .6 − 0.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems (1. 8 The example buildings contain three sets of horizontal roof bracing that transfer wind and seismic forces from the end walls and roof to the sets of vertical bracing that are provided along the longitudinal walls of the buildings. however. These horizontal roof bracing systems are acting as diaphragms in transferring horizontally applied loads to the seismic force resisting elements. wind against the end walls and seismic forces are transferred from the end wall columns at the roof.7Ω o QE 2.1 Determination of Diaphragm Design Force Coefficients Including Horizontal Bracing Diaphragms.7 or 0.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0. 2. each frame resists a tributary portion of the roof seismic force.14S DS ) D ± 0.10-1 where 2-23 . In the transverse direction (assuming flexible diaphragm behavior).7Ω oQ E (0.6 − 0. 8 Eq. including horizontal bracing requirements. so as to align with the vertical columns that are spaced along each end wall of the building.9. Typically.2. Each set of horizontal bracing is laid out between adjacent transverse moment frames that are spaced 25 feet apart.7Ω o QE Substituting SDS = 0.0 + 0. 12. shown in subsequent sections are unfactored. with bracing work points spaced at 25 foot centers across the building width. experience has shown that horizontal bending of purlins and girts in conjunction with the stiffness of roof panels are adequate to resist the marginal forces that develop over this short distance. are specified in ASCE Section 12.9 Design of Diaphragm Systems Including Horizontal Roof Bracing Eq.240 yields the following: 1.7Ω o QE 0.525.1. through roof purlins that act as struts. to the work points of the horizontal roof bracing. the roof spans the short distance between each frame without bracing. Eh. Fp. Design forces are calculated by the following: Fpx = ¦F i=x n i= x n i ¦ wi wpx ASCE Eq.0336( D + C ) ± 0. Thus. Note that in allowable strength design load combinations used in conjunction with AISC 341-05. these seismic loads are factored by either 0. consistent with the definition of a diaphragm in 2006 IBC Section 1602. 5 Eq.566 D ± 0. and component forces.10. 5 Eq.2. Horizontal seismic load effects.

Eq. Design Building A is required to be designed using SDC B requirements. when the loads are determined in accordance with ASCE 7.longitudinal = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = 12.00)wpx 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Fpx Fi wi wpx = diaphragm design force = design force at level i (determined by ASCE 7 Eq.3.4.0 for all Seismic Design Categories.10-1 n Fpx = Froof .4SDSIwpx (0.096 wpx 2-24 . Roof bracing/diaphragm design forces in the longitudinal axis of the building are based on the design forces used for the bracing of the longitudinal side walls. the redundancy factor.3 for further discussion).2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0. using ASCE 7 Eq.1.1: wpx = wi = W = 164.15kips wroof = 0.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0.4) (0. ρ. Per ASCE 7 Section 12.4SDSIwpx Note that for a one-story building.1.2) (0.2kips i with the limitation that 0.240) (1. 12.15 kips yields.048wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.240) (1.3.4. 12.074wroof.10.longitudinal 164.4. Substituting the following values determined in Section 1.2 kips Fi = V = 12. 12. that is applied to diaphragms (including horizontal bracing systems) is 1.8-11) = weight tributary to level i = weight tributary to diaphragm at level x with the limitation that 0. the equation for Fpx simplifies to the following: Fpx = V but is still subject to the maximum and minimum limitations above.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0. The load combinations to be used for the design of members and connections in the horizontal bracing system need not consider special seismic load combinations with the overstrength factor except where the members also serve as collectors or are common to the vertical seismic force resisting system (See Section 1.

071wroof.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0.1: wpx = wi = W = 31. Substituting in the values from Section 1.3.4SDSIwpx (0.2) (0.240) (1. 12. use Fpx = 0.17 kips + 1. use Fpx = 0.4 kips = 53.10-1 n Fpx = Froof . For a typical interior bay.074wroof.66 kips = 3.4SDSIwpx 2-25 .048wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.4.3.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.5 kips + 22.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.1: wpx = wi = W = 31.transverse 31.83 kips yields.5kips + 22.longitudinal Diaphragm design forces for the metal roof deck that spans the short 25-foot dimension between transverse frames is based on the design forces used for the transverse frames.17 kips yields. using ASCE 7 Eq.5 kips Fi = V = 2.096wpx Therefore. the average of the two adjacent frame design forces is used. using ASCE 7 Eq.00)wpx 0.4.9 kips Fi = V = 2.transverse = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = 2.4) (0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Therefore.17kips wroof = 0.5kips i with the limitation that 0.240) (1.4kips ) roof = 0.069wroof.10-1 n Fpx = Froof . substituting in the values from Section 1.17kips + 1. 12. transverse For the two end bays.069wroof.66kips ) w (31.transverse = ¦F i=x n i=x i ¦w w px = i (2.transverse with the limitation that 0.

240) (1.2) (0.00)wpx 0.0 psf times the tributary wall area.2.048wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.10 Determination of Diaphragm Seismic Weights Including Horizontal Bracing Seismic forces resulting from the roof and wall weight are resisted in the longitudinal direction by three bays of horizontal roof bracing that collect and transfer these forces to the vertical side wall bracing.240) (1.3 = 313.3 kips 2-26 . at a weight of 3. 22. the horizontal roof bracing resists forces resulting from both the roof and frame weights: Roof panel and insulation Roof purlin Frame Collateral Load Total = = = = = 1.09 ft ) × 3.5 psf 6. the diaphragm also resists tributary forces for the end walls. is the largest of the three forces calculated above.000 lbs = 300 kips End Wall Weight = 2 × (200 ft ) (22.09 feet is the average height of the end walls.longitudinal 2.071wroof.254 lbs = 13.0 psf 1. Total Seismic Weight roof .longit = 300. The resulting seismic weights are equal to: Roof Weight = (200 ft ) (250 ft ) (6 psf ) = 300.096 wpx Therefore.3 kips Where.5 psf 1. transverse The controlling diaphragm design force in the longitudinal direction.0 psf × roof area In the longitudinal direction. use Fpx = 0. The following calculations consider only diaphragm forces in the longitudinal building axis.0 psf 2.074wroof.0 + 13.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0.0 psf 2 = 13.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems (0. In the longitudinal direction.4) (0. resulting in: Fpx = 0.

3 kips) = 23.074(313.19 kips Froof .384 lb 3.2.12 (23.384 lb Figure 2. For simplicity’s sake and to promote a more uniform roof bracing design.11 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing For Design Building A.longitudinal = 2.074wroof (from Section 2.2. the diaphragm design force in the longitudinal direction becomes: Froof = 0.9.2.19kips ) (1000lbs / kip ) = 200 ft 116 lb/ft Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing Each building has three sets of horizontal roof bracing which combine to resist the longitudinal forces.1) Froof. Distribution of the total applied forces to each set of bracing may be subject to differing opinions. 2.12. the seismic design force applied at each work point of the roof bracing is: (116 lb/ft ) (25 ft ) = 967 lbs 3 sets of bracing The reaction force at each end of the truss is equal to: (200 ft − 25 ft ) (116 lb/ft ) = 3.1 Horizontal Bracing Systems For Design Building A. it is preferred to assume that forces are distributed equally between each set of bracing.2-5 Plan View of Typical Roof Bracing – Design Building A 2-27 . longitudinal = 0.384 2 × 3 sets of bracing lbs The 25 feet is deducted because the last 12.2.5 feet at each end of the span is assumed to load the eave strut and vertical bracing directly. 967 lb 967 lb 967 lb 967 lb 967 lb 967 lb 967 lb 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 8 @ 25 ft = 200 ft 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.

The compression members of the horizontal truss system (at the most heavily loaded strut that is not a collector.0) (4.0 for diaphragms per ASCE 7-05.3.4.384 lbs where ρ = 1.3.79 kips cos(45°) 0. Section 12.785 lbs = 4.1). horizontal tension-only bracing systems are permitted to be designed using the normal Eh = ρQE load combinations. each rod is oriented at 45 degrees. Section 12.384 lbs 3. and 4 are smaller.384 lbs = = 4.2-7 may be needed when cold-formed purlin section cannot be shown to be adequate to resist the resulting stresses. Em = ΩoQE (see Section 2.0) (3. connections are designed using the load combination with overstrength.79 kips where ρ = 1.4.0 for diaphragms per ASCE 7-05.1 Note that the required design force is computed for Rod 1 in Figure 2.384 lbs) = 3. thus. Brace rods are designed using AISC 360-05. shown as Member “A” in Figure 2.2-5.79 kips) = 4. Design Load Combination IBC and AISC 341-05 are nonspecific but imply an inherent difference between vertical braced frames and horizontal bracing systems that are used as diaphragms. From Figure 2.3. The analysis to determine these smaller forces is not included in this example.2-6) must be designed for a seismic design force equal to: Eh = ρQE = (1. while the design forces for Rods 2.707 The maximum seismic design force in the horizontal bracing rods is: E h = ρQE = (1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems The actual design forces in each brace element must reflect the member orientation and the tension-only nature of the rod bracing used. The design of these struts should consider applicable vertical loads plus any bending moment that may result from eccentricity between the location of horizontal bracing forces and the center of the compression member. For this example.1 AISC 360-05 is also used for the design of the compression struts. Special strut members as shown in Figure 2. 3. the lateral spacing of bracing points (25 ft) is equal to the longitudinal column spacing. Although vertical tension-only bracing is permitted. 2-28 .2-5. the rod tension and connection seismic design force in Rod (1) is: QE = 3.

734 lb 3.384 lb Figure 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems In addition.73 kips 25 ft 967 lb 967 lb 967 lb 483 lb 7.384 lbs ) (100 ft ) − 967 lbs(25 + 50 + 75 ft ) = 7.734 lb 1 EAVE A 2 B 3 C 4 RIDGE 7.734 lbs = 7. Positioning the Roof Bracing and Struts to Minimize Eccentricity 2-29 .2-6 Design Building A. Free Body Diagram Showing Bracing Chord Seismic Design Force at Mid-Span purlin P strut 2.2-6 and is equal to: Chord Force = (3. the tension/compression chord seismic design force must be resisted by the roof beams and splices of the main building frames at braced bays as shown in Figure 2.2-7.

2-8. The eave struts often serve as collector elements for earthquake forces along the building length and transfer them to the vertical bracing systems.6 lbs) = 543 lbs 2-30 .8 lb 228 lb Figure 2. are calculated as follows: From end wall: (20 ft ) (25 ft ) (3 psf ) (0.4 lb TO WALL BRACING APPLIED FORCES 428 lb 542.4 lb TO WALL BRACING 28 lb 685.4 lb TO WALL BRACING BRACED BAY 75 ft BRACED BAY 25 ft 685.12.074) = 8 lb / ft ¹ ¹ © ¬© ¼ The resulting applied forces and internal forces for Design Building A are shown in Figure 2.2.0) (542. The applied eave strut seismic design forces.2 lb 28 lb COMPRESSION TENSION 28 lb 257.2 Eave Struts The eave struts are the members at each eave of the roof that form the intersection of roof and wall.2-8 Eave Strut Applied and Internal Forces – Design Building A The resulting seismic design forces for the eave struts are as follows: Eh = ρQE = (1.6 lb 457. 8 lb/ft 28 lb BRACED 50 ft BAY 100 ft 685.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.074) = 28 lbs 4 From tributary roof and side wall: ª§ 25 ft · º § 20 ft · «¨ 2 ¸ (6 psf ) + ¨ 2 ¸ (3 psf )» (0. for Design Building A.4 lb 142.

2-7. splices.927 lbs Eave struts often serve as collectors or drag elements. Because the eave strut carries no more seismic forces in this regard than many other roof purlins.0) (3. Section 14.2. Eave struts become collectors when forces from the horizontal roof bracing systems are required to be transferred through a length of strut to the location of vertical braced frames. D. only Eh forces are required for the design of the collectors. the required seismic design force from the roof to the wall bracing would be as follows: Eh = ρ QE = (1. E. ASCE 7 Section 12.384 lbs = 3.1 requires collector elements. it was considered appropriate to design for this portion of the force in the same manner as other similar elements are designed.384 lbs If only a single eave strut is provided to resist both forces. and their connections in Seismic Design Categories C. the eave strut might also act as a strut to transfer both the forces shown above. while the required strength of brace connections need not exceed either the maximum force that 2-31 . Alternatively. An additional strut force is required to transfer the forces from the horizontal to the vertical bracing. Note that in this example. and F to be designed using the special Em load combination forces. In this example. Other tributary seismic forces carried by the eave strut are small in magnitude due to the typically small tributary width of roof and wall that attaches to the strut. therefore only a single span of strut at each braced frame acts as a collector element.2. the bays align. Brace members are designed using Eh. then the member seismic design force would be the following: Eh = 543 lbs + 3. As a separate strut. that is SDC B. similar to the situation shown in Figure 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems It should be noted that appropriate load factors need to be applied to the above loads when added to load combinations. Depending upon the positioning of the horizontal roof and vertical rod bracing. This becomes a particular design consideration when the location of roof bracing bays does not match the location of bays containing vertical braced frames.13 Design of Side Wall OCBF Ordinary concentrically braced frame member design is covered in AISC 34105. as well as the forces from the roof bracing to the wall bracing. a separate strut member could be provided at the bracing.10. 2.384 lbs) = 3.

(1) As the sum of the forces from the roof bracing plus the eave struts: V = 3(3.09 kips © ¹ 2-32 .05 kips ) = 5.384 lbs + 685 lbs ) = 12.2.050 lb/bay = 4.4 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (4. Design forces for the horizontal beam at the braced bay were described in the preceding section.150 lbs The difference is not significant and is primarily due to round-off of numbers in the analysis. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2.150 lbs = 4.2-9 Longitudinal Side Wall Analysis Model Horizontal Force per Longitudinal Braced Bay. Forces in the bracing and adjacent columns are calculated in this section.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems can be developed by the system or a load effect based upon using the amplified seismic load. Figure 2. Section 1. QE: QE = 12.e. Member Forces Seismic forces resisted by the side wall bracing can be calculated two ways.05 kips 3 bays Brace Rod Length = Brace Rod Force: (25 ft )2 + (19 ft )2 = 31.207 lbs (2) As the total calculated building seismic force (from Example 1.2.1): V = 12. the load combination using overstrength factors). For this example the total calculated building seismic forces from Example 1 will be used.4 ft § 31.9.4. Emh (i.

00 0.00 0.13 7. For example.2.00 0.7Ω o QE 1 −7.0) P M Side Wall Brace Rod Design Forces (kips) (ft-kips) Dead (D) 0.7Ω o QE 7.05 kips ) = 3.0336( D + C ) + 0.2 Pa Ma ASD Load Combinations (kips) (ft-kips) 1.13.1 Design of Side Wall Brace Rods Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.7Ω o QE 0.56 Pa Ma ASD Load Combinations 1 (kips) (ft-kips) w/overstrength 1. a column which serves as part of a transverse moment frame in one direction and as part of a concentrically braced frame in the other direction is subject to orthogonal effects.09 0.0336( D + C ) − 0. 2-33 .00 0.00 0.00 1.56 0.00 0.00 −3.13 −7.2.7 ρQE 3.00 Va (kips) 0.13.00 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for the brace rod connection design. orthogonal effects are typically found in columns and column bases which are elements of the seismic force resisting systems in each direction.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 0. Note that these columns are elements of the building moment frames.56 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 −3.00 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) 10.00 1.2 Design of Side Wall Brace Columns Side wall brace columns must meet the requirements of Section 8. In metal building designs.13 0.00 0.00 0.08 kips © ¹ 2.7Ω o QE 0.00 5.3 of AISC 341-05.7 ρQE 0.566 D + 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.566 D − 0.00 0.7 ρQE 0.566 D + 0. Design of these columns may have to include the simultaneous orthogonal column forces caused by dead and collateral load conditions depending on the seismic design category.0.00 0.00 V (kips) 0.00 0.566 D − 0. Ωo = 2.13 0.7 ρQE 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Column Force: § 19 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (4.00 Collateral (C) 0. 2.0336( D + C ) + 0.

2.00 0. E.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0. ASCE 7 Section 12. While either option is sufficient to satisfy this code requirement.00 1.00 0.3. i.08 Collateral (C) −1. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.4 . Section 8.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.06 2.08 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) −6.7 ρQE −3.7Ω o QE −8.00 0.00 0.18 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) −3.41 Pa ASD Load Combinations 1 (kips) w/overstrength 1.566 D + 0.09 −6.7 ρQE −6.566 D − 0.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. nonparallel systems (see ASCE 7 Table 12.7Ω o QE 0.5.00 0.3-1).00 Ma (ft-kips) 0. the first approach is commonly used for design of metal building systems because the other approach is tied with the more complex methods such as time-history analysis.0336( D + C ) + 0. Ωo = 2.0336( D + C ) − 0.3 lists two possible solutions (1) Apply 100 percent of the design force in one direction and 30% in the other. For high seismic applications (SDC D. the orthogonal effects are required only when Type 5 structural plan irregularity is present. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 0.25 0. orthogonal effects need not be investigated for buildings assigned to SDC B.00 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems In accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12.00 V (kips) 0.7 ρQE 0.16 Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) 1. and (2) Simultaneous application of orthogonal ground motion.566 D − 0.56 1.00 0.72 M (ft-kips) 0.7 ρQE −2.57 0.00 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.00 0.e.90 0. 2-34 .0. or F) the orthogonal effects must be considered in all cases.0) P Side Wall Brace Column Design Forces (kips) Dead (D) −3.00 0.566 D + 0.00 0.7Ω o QE 1 −0.7Ω o QE 0.5.0336( D + C ) − 0. For SDC C.00 Va (kips) 0.

0336( D + C ) − 0.05 −0.2.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0. using the ASD provisions.00 0.14 −0. Section 8.84 Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) w/overstrength1 1.13.00 −0.0.7 ρQE 2.14 −0.7Ω o QE 0.7Ω o QE 5.566 D + 0.7 ρQE 2.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.14 1.00 Collateral (C) 0.00 0.566 D − 0.84 0.10 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) 1.7Ω o QE 0.3 of AISC 34105.05 −0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.67 5. 2-35 .05 0.05 Va (kips) −0.7 ρQE −2.67 −5.05 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 8.00 0.3 Design of Side Wall Brace Beams Side wall brace beams must meet the requirements of Section 8.84 1.00 0.67 0.00 V (kips) −0.566 D − 0.05 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.67 M (ft-kips) 0.566 D + 0.3.14 −0.84 0. 2.7 ρQE −2.4 .7Ω o QE 1 −5.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0. Ωo = 2.0) P Side Wall Brace Beam Design Forces (kips) Dead (D) 0. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 0. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.00 4.00 0.00 Va (kips) −0.0336( D + C ) − 0.00 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame columns are calculated in accordance with the 2005 AISC Specification (360-05) Sections D and E.09 −0.

the load combination using overstrength factors).2-10 – Transverse End Wall Framing Horizontal Force per End Wall Braced Bay.83 kips 2 bays Brace Rod Length = Brace Rod Force: (25 ft )2 + (21 ft )2 = 32. Section 14.660 lbs = 830 lb/bay = 0.4. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2. as shown below.9.2. Brace members are designed using Eh. while the required strength of brace connections need not exceed either the maximum force that can be developed by the system or a load effect based upon using the amplified seismic load (i. using the ASD provisions. 2. Section 1. Alternatively. can be made to obtain the brace rod and column forces.2. of 21 ft) 2-36 .1. ht.6 ft (using avg. Member Forces A calculation. the forces from the frame analysis based on more accurate geometry can be used. the total seismic design force for each end frame is: V = 1. From Example 1. QE: QE = 1.66 kips Figure 2.14 Design of End Wall OCBF Ordinary concentrically braced frame member design is covered in AISC 34105.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame beams is calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.3.e.

00 0.47 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) −0.16 ASD Load Combinations 1.00 0.00 Collateral (C) 0.00 0.00 0.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.00 Va (kips) 0.76 −0.00 0.83 kips ) = 1.6 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (0.90 Collateral (C) −0.00 0.0.00 0.76 −0.7Ω o QE V (kips) 0.00 0.7Ω o QE 0.566 D − 0.00 0.70 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) −1.00 0.00 0. Ωo = 2.2 Design of End Wall Brace Columns End wall brace columns must meet the requirements of Section 8.7 ρQE 0.00 0.566 D + 0.00 1.7Ω o QE 0.00 0.51 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.0) P M End Wall Brace Rod Design Forces (kips) (ft-kips) Dead (D) 0.566 D + 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.2.08 0.00 0.00 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) 2.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for the brace rod connection design.00 .0336( D + C ) − 0.70 kips © ¹ 2.2.0336( D + C ) + 0.7 ρQE 0.40 2-37 M (ft-kips) 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems § 32.7 ρQE 1.0) P End Wall Brace Column Design Forces (kips) Dead (D) −0.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 Pa (kips) 0.00 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 0.1 Design of End Wall Brace Rods Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 0. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.566 D − 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.08 kips © ¹ Column Force: § 21 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (0.76 0.14.83 kips ) = 0.00 0.76 Pa (kips) 1.0.51 −1.00 0. Ωo = 2.00 0.14.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.51 −1. 2.51 1.00 1.00 V (kips) 0.00 0.3 of AISC 341-05.00 0.

00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.4 .3 of AISC 34105.91 −0.7 ρQE 0. the requirements of AISC 341- 2.47 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0. There are no additional requirements specific to column members in Section 14 of Part I. AISC 341-05 for OCBF.566 D + 0.49 0.00 0. Section 8.3 must be satisfied. using the ASD provisions.00 Va (kips) 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.00 0.02 Pa (kips) −2.93 −1.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0. if 05.7 ρQE 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations 1.00 0.4 .00 −0.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) −1.00 0.566 D − 0. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.83 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 1. For allowable strength design.45 −0.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.0336( D + C ) + 0.0.44 −1. Ωo = 2.00 0.566 D + 0. Ω c Pa Pn > 0.66 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) M (ft-kips) 0.2.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.0) P End Wall Brace Beam Design Forces (kips) Dead (D) 0.3 Design of End Wall Beam End wall brace beams must meet the requirements of Section 8.00 0.00 0. Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame columns are calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.39 −0.566 D − 0.24 0.00 0. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.00 0.00 2-38 .00 V (kips) −0.0336( D + C ) − 0.7 ρQE 1.00 0. Section 8.00 Collateral (C) 0.14.7Ω o QE 0.00 Va (kips) 0.7Ω o QE 0.

00 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.7 ρQE 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.15.16 −1.7Ω o QE 0. Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame beams is calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.25 1.71 −0. 2.2.80 Pa (kips) −9.00 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.58 −0.566 D − 0.58 −0.00 V (kips) 0.71 −0.0336( D + C ) + 0.98 −2.7 ρQE 1.88 M (ft-kips) 0.25 −0.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.71 −0.25 −0.89 −2. Section 8.16 −1.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.566 D + 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.7Ω o QE 0.00 0.7 ρQE 0.00 0.5) Top of Interior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.16 1.0.00 0.7 ρQE 0.71 −0.7 ρQE 0.00 0.00 0.72 −1.1 OMF Columns Moment frame columns must meet the requirements of AISC 341-05.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.0336( D + C ) − 0.566 D + 0.15 Design of Ordinary Moment Frames 2.00 0.58 Pa (kips) 1.566 D − 0.00 Va (kips) −0.25 Va (kips) −0.0336( D + C ) − 0. using the ASD provisions.00 .0336( D + C ) + 0.34 −8. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.3.2. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05. Ωo = 2.57 −0.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) 0.00 0.566 D − 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations 1.00 0.566 D + 0.7 ρQE 1.33 −3.7 ρQE 2-39 P (kips) −5.4 .00 0.00 0.16 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.

58 −4.95 0.7 ρQE 0.99 −43.13 Pa (kips) −3.00 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.566 D − 0.36 −1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.7Ω o QE 0.00 −9.80 Ma Pa (kips) (ft-kips) 0.00 0.566 D + 0.7 ρQE 1.45 −0.7 ρQE 0.00 −8.32 −7.7Ω o QE Top of Exterior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.00 −10.64 −2.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 0.00 1.00 −6.0336( D + C ) + 0.7 ρQE 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 −2.00 0.00 0.7Ω o QE P M (kips) (ft-kips) 0.86 0.7Ω o QE Bottom of Interior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.00 −3.20 0.566 D − 0.00 V (kips) 0.00 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.23 −1.58 2-40 .43 −24.73 −1.7Ω o QE 0.566 D + 0.57 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.72 0.566 D + 0.09 2.00 −4.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.566 D − 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.00 0.00 −0.01 0.90 −0.00 0.566 D − 0.00 −1.00 0.00 1.01 Pa Ma (kips) (ft-kips) 0.57 0.3 −9.10 −7.7Ω o QE 0.7 ρQE 1.18 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.00 Va (kips) 0.58 Ma (ft-kips) −18.38 −2.73 −4.00 0.7Ω o QE 0.00 −10.15 17.7 ρQE 0.12 0.00 0.566 D + 0.45 1.06 −1.77 −2.00 0.62 1.73 Va (kips) −1.7Ω o QE Pa Ma (kips) (ft-kips) 0.7 ρQE M (ft-kips) −21.25 P (kips) −2.54 V (kips) −1.80 −4.00 0.00 0.83 44.56 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.

26 Va (kips) −0.83 −0. if > 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.34 Ma (ft-kips) −0.2 Design of OMF Beams There are no additional requirements specific to beam members beyond the AISC 360-05 requirements. Section 8. If the initial trial sizes for the moment frame beams and/or columns increased in flexural stiffness. the previously calculated drift checks are appropriate. E.75 −2. Ω c Pa There are no additional requirements specific to column members of ordinary moment frames in Section 11.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.566 D − 0.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) −3. the previously calculated drift checks would be conservative and not require recalculation. of AISC 341-05 beyond the AISC 360-05 requirements. F.4 . Allowable Strengths The axial.15 −43. and flexural strength of the moment frame columns are calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D. Had the initial trial sizes for the moment frame beams and/or columns been changed. Section 8.3. 2-41 .25 −4.4 .05 1.7Ω o QE 0.15.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1. the requirements of AISC 341Pn 05.2.73 1.68 19. 2. As a result.566 D + 0. Final Drift Check The previously calculated drift checks were based on displacements using the initial trial member sizes.3 must be satisfied. None of the trial member sizes changed as a result of the design of the moment frame beams and columns. using the ASD provisions.23 −4. G and H.7Ω o QE 0.09 −2. For allowable strength design.0336( D + C ) + 0. the drift calculations might need to be repeated.27 −62. Flexure need not be combined with axial forces when considering this provision. shear. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.

3125 0.125 16'-10 3/4" 1 11 0.0X0.4170' WEB THK.25 0.5 6.375 2 34.25 10'-1" 5X0.1780 5X0.F. B.1 of this guide.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 8 33.5 10 25.25 16'-0" 5X0.25 0.25 10'-0" 0. I.0X0.50 12 5X0. steel structures may be designed without consideration of the seismic detailing requirements of AISC 341. O. I.0X0.25 6X0.0X0.5 12 6. 65' 35' O.240' 6X0.3-1 Design Building A – Trial Moment Frame 2.0X0.1780 6X0.3125 10'-0" 6X0.25 20'-0" 6X0.375 8.5 11 6.3. WEB THK.1489 5X0.0X0.0X0.896' H 12 PIPE 6-5/8 X 10.3125 0. The building configuration and initial trial moment frame and brace rod sizes is shown in the following figure.5 2E/2E 6.5 2E/2E 6.1489 6X0.1 Structural Analysis Models Transverse Moment Frame Model Exterior Frame Columns: Fixed Top.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 9 25.0X0. Type Plate Plate(DN) Plate Plate(UP) Bolts 1 8. and C. 3 2 SS SS 6X0.78 6X0. 0.4. The brace rods for the end wall are initially assumed to be 0. With this approach.75X0.125 5X0.375 2.375 10'-0" 5X0.25 6. with the exceptions noted in Section 1.0X0.F.5 inch diameter while the brace rods for the side wall are initially assumed to be 0.625 BASE 8.0 2E/2E 6.5 6.3125 0.25 0.1489 6X0. provided R=3 is used when determining seismic forces.281' Symm.0 3E/2E 6.F. This example illustrates the use of this alternative approach.25 0.25 0.25 3 N/A CAP (EXT) 6.5 6.0 BASE 8.0 HORZ STF 2.375 6.F.0X0. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top. Pinned Base 2-42 21'-3 3/8" S . C L Frame 10 SS SS S 6 4 5 SS SS SS SS 7 SS SS HH 8 SS SS 9 20' E.0X0.3 DESIGN BUILDING A – ALTERNATE DESIGN (R = 3) An attractive alternative approach to the design of steel structures is permitted by the 2006 IBC and ASCE 7-05 for structures assigned to SDC A.1489 5X0.1780 5X0.3125 6.5 5 22.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.25 N/A (4)-3/4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A (4)-3/4 (10)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (4)-1/2 Figure 2.625 inch diameter.H.0X0.25 4 30. This means that members and connections are designed without consideration of the overstrength factor.4.25 16'-0" 5X0.625 CAP/STF 8. CONNECTION DETAILS : Location Web Dep.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 6 22.25 6X0.75X0.375 7 22.3125 0.

3-2 Design Building A – Transverse Frame Analysis Model Transverse End Wall Model Exterior Frame Columns: Pinned Top. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top. Pinned Base Figure 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Figure 2. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top.3-4 Design Building A – Longitudinal Side Wall Analysis Model 2. Pinned Base Figure 2.2 Design Earthquake Forces The design earthquake forces on individual frame or brace lines based on Design Example 1 are as follows: 2-43 .3-3 Design Building A – Transverse End Wall Analysis Model Longitudinal Side Wall Model Exterior Frame Columns: Pinned Top.3.

Columns – Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam 2-44 . Columns – Bottom Moment Frame Ext. and the requirements of AISC 360-05 Section C2. Emh loads are required for the design of collectors as discussed in Section 1.3.3 0 0 −19.8 −37. Columns – Top Moment Frame Int. However.45 0 0 2.55 −1. 2.98 −0. for SDC C. B.048D 0. or C structures.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Design Building A Site 1 Alternate Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall * V (kips) 2.33 −1.98 −1.08 −2.4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear (kips) −1.8 13.52 1.09 Dead Load Moment Frame Ext.52 1. Columns – Bottom Moment Frame Int.79 13.45 −1.45 0 −0. and earthquake forces on individual frame or brace lines based on Design Example 1 using the “not detailed for seismic” provisions.20 −5.06 0 0 −0.90 0 0 −3.048D 0.1 of Example 1. collateral.14 Eh (kips) 2.048D Emh (kips) * * * No value is given for Emh because AISC 341-05 is not required when the alternate design (R = 3) option is used for SDC A. the dead.79 13.14 Ev (kips) 0.39 −2.4.3 Member Forces For Design Building A Alternate.1b (second order analysis by amplified first-order elastic analysis) are as follows: Axial (kips) −3.73 −6.45 0 0 −0.08 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 −21.

Emh Not required for the alternate design (R=3)* * No values have been computed for Emh (i. Columns – Bottom Moment Frame Ext.e.2 5.53 −0.50 −3.17 −0. However. Columns – Top Moment Frame Int.48 −16.32 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear (kips) Earthquake Loads. Columns – Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam Moment (ft-kips) 0 −9.84 −0. Columns – Top Moment Frame Int.01 1.90 5.62 −0.47 0 0 −1.02 0.53 −0. Emh taken as zero) because AISC 341-05 is not required when the alternate design (R = 3) option is used for Seismic Design Categories A.84 0.18 −1.02 −0. Emh loads are 2-45 . Columns – Bottom Moment Frame Int.72 0 0 0 0 0 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 20.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Collateral Load Axial (kips) −1.62 0 −0.26 1.18 −2.57 −2. Columns – Bottom Moment Frame Ext.62 0 0 1.72 0 0 21.57 −0.33 4. or C. for SDC C.57 −0.49 −10.76 0.05 Shear (kips) 1. Columns – Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam Maximum Earthquake Loads.66 −0.03 0 0 −0.53 0.24 0 0 −0. B. Columns – Bottom Moment Frame Int.28 −0.53 0.02 −1.38 Axial (kips) Moment Frame Ext. Eh Moment Frame Ext.18 0 Axial (kips) 0.15 0 0 −8.26 0 0 −0.81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Moment (ft-kips) Shear (kips) −0.

V 0. 2. 2-46 .6 Story Drift Checks Story drift is evaluated based on ASCE 7-05 Section 12. even though it could be argued that they are unnecessary. E.3. it would be prudent to communicate this on the contract documents (i.” If this exception is utilized. Eh and V are identical but since this is not always the case.4 Seismic Analysis Results Summary for Horizontal Displacements In this section.e. For this example. partitions and ceilings should be detailed to accommodate drift). They are increased by an incremental factor to account for P-delta effects. The actual two-dimensional analysis was done by others and is not presented here.e. Horizontal Displacements at the Eave Height Resulting from Applying the Frame Line Base Shear. V. For the examples presented here. and exterior walls that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts. three sets of drift checks will be made for each design. but is based on the structural models and applied loadings presented earlier. using unfactored load values (i. One seismic load case for Eh is included. the interior walls. the member forces are presented for each of the basic load cases. Note that footnote a of ASCE 7 Table 12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems required for the design of collectors as discussed in Section 1.860 in 0. Typically for metal buildings. For illustrative purposes.12-1 states “there shall be no drift limit for single-story structures with interiors walls. but is based on the structural models and applied loadings presented earlier.111 in 0. not 0.8. separate basic load cases have been identified for the purposes of this document. ceilings.4.7E). partitions.4. three story drifts are calculated corresponding to the three structural models.5 Basic Load Case Analysis Results Summary for Member Forces In this example. The story drifts are calculated using ASCE 7 Equation 12.3.3.6. the horizontal displacement results are presented for Design Building A Alternate for each of the structural analysis models. The actual twodimensional linear elastic analysis was done by others and is not presented here.183 in Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Braced Frames Longitudinal Side Wall Braced Frames 2. The seismic displacement results are based on the applied frame line base shear. 2.1 of Example 1.815. The seismic load case using Emh is not required for the alternate design (R=3). this Guide provides drift calculations.

25(0. Alternatively.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.6. for the transverse moment frame Cd = 3. for the longitudinal side wall I = the occupancy importance factor from Design Example 1 = 1. i.111in ) = 0.8-15) Cd = the deflection amplification factor from Design Example 1.6.1.e.25.3.1. ASCE 7 Section 12. the upper bound period limits of ASCE 7 Section 12. For this example.8.3.58 in 1.1 Determine Story Drift without P-Delta Effects δx = Where: C d δ xe I (ASCE Eq.183 in ) = 0. if a dynamic analysis (or Rayleigh equation) is performed and used for design and analysis.0 δxe = the elastic horizontal deflections resulting from applying the base shear V to an elastic structural analysis model of the building seismic-force-resisting system.860 in ) = 2. 12.36 in 1.8. δx.4 of this example.3.8-15: Story Drift w/o P-Delta Effects.7 requires that the story drift.0 3. as discussed in Section 1.59 in 1. be increased by a factor relating to the P-delta effects. Substituting the above values and the previous displacement into ASCE 7 Equation 12.0 Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 2.7 For each seismic load combination.25. Note that the base shear V of this example and Design Example 1 were determined using the simplified code period formulas. This Pdelta incremental factor is defined as: 2-47 .25(0. for the transverse end wall Cd = 3. these analyses were performed by others and the results provided in Section 2. δx Transverse Moment Frame 3(0.2 are not used when calculating drift.2 Determine P-Delta Incremental Factor in Accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12.: Cd = 3.8.0 3.

it states that if θ ≤ 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Incremental Factor = 1. if the drift is greater than allowable. 12. Eq. inches (Note that for a single story building that Δ is equal to δx) Vx = the seismic shear force acting between level x and level x-1 hsx = the story height below level x (for buildings with pitched roof.0 can conservatively be used. the β factor along with the P-delta incremental factor should be reevaluated based on actual shear demand to actual capacity and the drift rechecked. is determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12. it is typical to assume β = 1. 12. θ shall not exceed θmax.7. separate values of θ. 12. tributary to the frame line under consideration Δ = the design story drift occurring simultaneously with Vx. Note that ASCE 7 permits that where the P-delta effect is included in an automated (second order) analysis. is permitted to be divided by (1 + θ) before checking Eq. However. θmax and the P-delta incremental factor are determined for each of the seismic-force-resisting systems (along each brace/frame line).25 βC d θ max = (ASCE 7 Eq.8-17 shall still be satisfied. per ASCE 7 Section 12. The value of Px is the total vertical load obtained previously in this design example and is the sum of all unfactored column axial loads (including gravity only columns with axial loads taken at the top of the 2-48 .8.8-17) β = the ratio of the shear demand to capacity between level x and level x-1. It should be noted that in ASCE Section 12. where computing Px. 12. using the results of the P-delta analysis.8-16) Px = the total unfactored vertical load at and above Level x. 12.2-1 In addition. For this example. θ= Where: Px Δ V x hsx C d (ASCE 7 Eq.7.10 . For initial design calculations. β = 1. the P-delta effects can be ignored. 0.5 ≤ 0.8-17.0.8. the story height is taken as the eave height).8-16. Once a design has been established.0 1−θ Where the stability coefficient. inches Cd = deflection amplification factor in ASCE 7 Table 12. since member capacities have yet to be calculated.8. which is the same as stating that the incremental factor may be taken as 1.0 and determine θmax based on that assumption.θ . Where the ratio is not calculated.7. the value of θ computed from Eq.

if θ > θmax in any of the above cases.18 + 2.0 1.15 1.90 + 0. Substituting the above data into the P-delta equations.96 128.17 0.0074 0.06) + 2(10.037 0.08 + 6.57 ) = 26.96 )] = 128.15 0.4 Determine the P-Delta Incremental Factors Vx is taken from the problem statement for this design example and hx is taken as the eave height of 240 inches. Note that if the flat roof snow load is greater than 30 psf.0. β is not calculated and is therefore taken as 1. The following calculations illustrate the determination of Px for two example building designs.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems columns) resulting from dead load.2 Note.0 Px Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 26. Px would also include 20 percent of the snow load. Transverse Moment Frame Px = 2(3.0 1.2 kips 2. the end wall Px is taken as the end wall brace column load multiplied times 8.6.3. 2. either the seismic-forceresisting system would need to be redesigned or β would need to be calculated in order to determine if adequate shear capacity was present in the design. However it should also be noted that Px need never include the roof live load. For the example. while the side wall Px is taken as half of the total of all moment frame and end wall column loads. floor live load and collateral load tributary to the frame line under consideration.3.0028 0. the negative sign indicating compression has been ignored for simplicity in presentation. 2-49 . one obtains: Story Drift Parameters θ θmax Incremental factor 0. unless otherwise required by the authority having jurisdiction.6. It should be noted that in this example P-delta effects could be ignored in all frame lines.20 + 1.06 kips Transverse End Wall Px = 8(0. Cd and δx are indicated previously in this design example.06 10.96 kips Longitudinal Side Wall Px = 0.3 Determination of Px In the following calculations.47 ) = 10.5[9(26.

1. Δ.0 in 6. and exterior wall systems have been designed to accommodate the story drift and the building is four stories or less in height. C is considered as D if it results in an adverse loading. partitions.020hsx 4. From the problem statement and Design Example 1.5 Determine the Design Story Drift with P-Delta Effects and Compare with IBC Drift Allowables of ASCE 7 Section 12. For this design example. In Design Example 1. S ≤ 30 (so S = 0). The applicable basic load combinations are: 2-50 . if the aforementioned conditions are not met.0 in In the example.3. Design Story Drifts Δ Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 2.8. The design story drift is compared with the allowable story drift.36 in 0.1.58 in 0. Ev = 0. 2.6.020hsx.025hsx 6.12-1. equal to 20 feet for this example. is determined by simply multiplying the story drift without P-delta effects by the P-delta incremental factor. separate drift check calculations are made for each of the seismic forces resisting systems for each design.025hsx provided the interior walls.020hsx. therefore. If it is acceptable.3. Note that the allowable drift would be 0. From ASCE 7 Table 12. hsx is taken as the eave height. no special detailing of architectural components is required beyond that already specified. ceilings.12 The design story drift with P-delta effects. The allowable story drift is a function of occupancy category and building types. then no special detailing of architectural components will be required beyond that already specified. specified in ASCE 7 Table 12.59 in 0.8 in 4. Δa. It is recommended that the building first be checked for the value of 0.12-1.0 in 6.8 in 0. Equation 6 will not govern and will not be considered further in this example. and L = 0 .7 Basic Load Combinations The basic load combinations are discussed in Section 2. all the design story drifts are less than the 0. it was determined that the occupancy category was II. the allowable drift for this example is 0. Therefore.8 in 4.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.020hsx design allowables.048D.

14S DS ) D ± 0.7 ρQE Substituting SDS = 0.9 Design of Diaphragm Systems Including Horizontal Roof Bracing Eq.7Ω o QE Substituting SDS = 0.1. 5 Eq. In the transverse direction (assuming flexible diaphragm behavior). 8 Eq. however.0336( D + C ) ± 0. 8 Eq.14S DS ) D ± 0.3. 8 2.0 + 0.2.1.0336( D + C ) ± 0.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0. Equation 6 will not govern and will not be considered further in this example.3.566 D ± 0. through roof purlins that act as struts. wind against the end walls and seismic forces are transferred from the end wall columns at the roof.566 D ± 0. Therefore. each frame resists a tributary portion of the roof seismic force.7 ρQ E (0. Thus. so as to align with the vertical columns that are spaced along each end wall of the building. 8 The example buildings contain three sets of horizontal roof bracing that transfer wind and seismic forces from the end walls and roof to the sets of vertical bracing that are provided along the longitudinal walls of the buildings.7Ω oQ E (0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems (1. experience has shown that horizontal bending of purlins and girts in conjunction with the 2-51 . Typically. Ev = 0. with bracing work points spaced at 25 foot centers across the building width. consistent with the definition of a diaphragm in 2006 IBC Section 1602.048D.8 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations With Overstrength Factor The load combinations with overstrength factor are discussed in Section 2.6 − 0. 5 Eq.6 − 0. C is considered as D if it results in an adverse loading.240 yields the following: 1. 5 Eq.7 ρQE Eq. These horizontal roof bracing systems are acting as diaphragms in transferring horizontally applied loads to the seismic force resisting elements. The applicable load combinations with overstrength factors are: (1.0 + 0.240 yields the following: 1. the roof spans the short distance between each frame without bracing. 5 Eq.7Ω o QE 0.8.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0.7Ω o QE 2. to the work points of the horizontal roof bracing. S ≤ 30 (so S = 0). Each set of horizontal bracing is laid out between adjacent transverse moment frames that are spaced 25 feet apart. From the problem statement and Design Example 1.7 ρQE 0. and L = 0 .

and component forces. Substituting in the values calculated in Section 1.2 yields slightly more load than if the system was detailed for seismic loads as in 2.1.9. Note that in allowable strength design load combinations used in conjunction with AISC 341-05. The load combinations to be used for the design of members and connections in the horizontal bracing system need not consider special seismic load combinations with the overstrength factor except where the members also serve as collectors or are common to the vertical seismic force resisting system (See Section 1. are specified in ASCE Section 12. the redundancy factor.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.10. 12. Design forces are calculated by the following: Fpx = ¦F i=x n i= x n i ¦ wi wpx ASCE Eq.10. 2.3. these seismic loads are factored by either 0.3 for further discussion).3.4. 2-52 . shown in subsequent sections are unfactored.4.8-11) = weight tributary to level i = weight tributary to diaphragm at level x with the limitation that 0.1. Eq.3. when the loads are determined in accordance with ASCE 7.4.10-1 where Fpx Fi wi wpx = diaphragm design force = design force at level i (determined by ASCE 7 Eq.4.7 or 0.4SDSIwpx Note that for a one-story building.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems stiffness of roof panels are adequate to resist the marginal forces that develop over this short distance.0 for all Seismic Design Categories. including horizontal bracing requirements. 12. the equation for Fpx simplifies to the following: Fpx = V but is still subject to the maximum and minimum limitations above.1. 12. Per ASCE 7 Section 12. Eh. Horizontal seismic load effects. that is applied to diaphragms (including horizontal bracing systems) is 1. Fp.1 Determination of Diaphragm Design Force Coefficients Including Horizontal Bracing Diaphragms. ρ.525.1. Design Building A Alternate is also required to be designed using SDC B requirements.

2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.52 kips yields.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Roof bracing/diaphragm design forces in the longitudinal axis of the building are based on the design forces used for the bracing of the longitudinal side walls.4.240) (1. using ASCE 7 Eq.00)wpx 0.096wpx Therefore.3.240) (1.longitudinal 164. use Fpx = 0.4. 12.4) (0.2 kips Fi = V = 13.240) (1.00)wpx 2-53 .14kips wroof = 0.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0. Substituting in the values calculated in Section 1.2kips i with the limitation that 0.longitudinal Diaphragm design forces for the metal roof deck that spans the short 25-foot dimension between transverse frames is based on the design forces used for the transverse frames.5kips i with the limitation that 0.52kips wroof = 0.longitudinal = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = 13.2: wpx = wi = W = 164.048wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.4) (0.transverse = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = 2. For a typical interior bay.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.5 kips Fi = V = 2.080wroof.3.transverse 31.10-1 n Fpx = Froof .2) (0.080wroof.10-1 n Fpx = Froof .2: wpx = wi = W = 31.2) (0. 12.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0. substituting in the values from Section 1.14 kips yields.4SDSIwpx (0.080wroof.240) (1.4SDSIwpx (0. using ASCE 7 Eq.

2) (0. using ASCE 7 Eq. The following calculations consider only diaphragm forces in the longitudinal building axis.31 kips yields.4 kips = 53.5 kips + 22.79 kips ) w (31. transverse The controlling diaphragm design force in the longitudinal direction.240) (1.240) (1.3.4 kips ) roof = 0.52 kips + 1.10-1 n Fpx = Froof .longitudinal 2.5 kips + 22.79 kips = 4. resulting in: Fpx = 0. use Fpx = 0.080wroof.9 kips Fi = V = 2.096wpx Therefore.080wroof.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.096wpx Therefore.transverse with the limitation that 0.00)wpx 0. Substituting in the values from Section 1.080wroof. is the largest of the three forces calculated above. use Fpx = 0. In the longitudinal direction.10 Determination of Diaphragm Seismic Weights Including Horizontal Bracing Seismic forces resulting from the roof and wall weight are resisted in the longitudinal direction by three bays of horizontal roof bracing that collect and transfer these forces to the vertical side wall bracing.080wroof.52 kips + 1.048wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.transverse = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = i (2.4. the average of the two adjacent frame design forces is used.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0. transverse For the two end bays.3.4SDSIwpx (0.2: wpx = wi = W = 31.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 0. the horizontal roof bracing resists forces resulting from both the roof and frame weights: 2-54 .048wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0. 12.4) (0.

12 (25.5 lb) (25 ft ) 3 sets of bracing = 1. at a weight of 3.3. For simplicity’s sake and to promote a more uniform roof bracing design.000 lbs = 300 kips End Wall Weight = 2 × (200 ft ) (22. the seismic design force applied at each work point of the roof bracing is: (125.longit = 300.5 psf 1.3 kips Where. The resulting seismic weights are equal to: Roof Weight = (200 ft ) (250 ft ) (6 psf ) = 300. Distribution of the total applied forces to each set of bracing may be subject to differing opinions. 2. it is preferred to assume that forces are distributed equally between each set of bracing.046 lbs 2-55 .080(313. the diaphragm design force in the longitudinal direction becomes: Froof = 0.3.longitudinal = 2.0 psf times the tributary wall area.3.9.3 kips) = 25.254 lbs = 13.3 kips 2.12. 22. the diaphragm also resists tributary forces for the end walls.0 psf 2 = 13.1 kips) (1000 lbs / kip ) = 200 ft 125.1 kips Froof .0 psf × roof area In the longitudinal direction.11 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing For Design Building A Alternate.5 psf 6.3 = 313.0 psf 2. longitudinal = 0.1) Froof.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Roof panel and insulation Roof purlin Frame Collateral Load Total = = = = = 1.09 ft ) × 3. Total Seismic Weight roof .5 lb/ft Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing Each building has three sets of horizontal roof bracing which combine to resist the longitudinal forces.080wroof (from Section 2.1 Horizontal Bracing Systems For Design Building A Alternate.0 + 13.3.09 feet is the average height of the end walls.0 psf 1.

046 lb 1.046 lb 1.1).661 lbs 3.177 lbs = 5.661 lbs 2 × 3 sets of bracing The 25 feet is deducted because the last 12.046 lb 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems The reaction force at each end of the truss is equal to: (200 ft − 25 ft ) (125. thus. horizontal tension-only bracing systems are permitted to be designed using the normal Eh = ρQE load combinations. For this example.661 lb Figure 2. the rod tension and connection seismic design force in Rod (1) is: 3.046 lb 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 8 @ 25 ft = 200 ft 3.046 lb 1. Em = ΩoQE (see Section 2.046 lb 1.18 kips cos(45°) 0. Design Load Combination IBC and AISC 341-05 are nonspecific but imply an inherent difference between vertical braced frames and horizontal bracing systems that are used as diaphragms. the lateral spacing of bracing points (25 ft) is equal to the longitudinal column spacing. Although vertical tension-only bracing is permitted. 1. connections are designed using the load combination with overstrength.5 lb/ft ) = 3.046 lb 1.661 lb 3. each rod is oriented at 45 degrees.3. For Figure 2.5 feet at each end of the span is assumed to load the eave strut and vertical bracing directly.3-5.707 QE = 2-56 .3-5 Plan View of Typical Roof Bracing – Design Building A Alternate The actual design forces in each brace element must reflect the member orientation and the tension-only nature of the rod bracing used.661 lbs = = 5.

the tension/compression chord seismic design force must be resisted by the roof beams and splices of the main building frames at braced bays as shown in Figure 2.0) (3.4.368 lbs = 8.18 kips where ρ = 1.1 Note that the required design force is computed for Rod 1 in Figure 2. The compression members of the horizontal truss system (at the most heavily loaded strut that is not a collector) must be designed for a seismic design force equal to: E h = ρQE = (1. Section 12.18 kips ) = 5. Special strut members as shown in Figure 2. The design of these struts should consider applicable vertical loads plus any bending moment that may result from eccentricity between the location of horizontal bracing forces and the center of the compression member. 3.046 lbs ) ( 25 + 50 + 75 ft ) = 8.0 for diaphragms per ASCE 7-05.3-7 may be needed when cold-formed purlin section cannot be shown to be adequate to resist the resulting stresses.3-6 and is equal to: AAltchordforce = (3.0) (5.661 lbs ) (100 ft ) − (1. while the design forces for Rods 2.0 for diaphragms per ASCE 7-05.661 lbs ) = 3.4.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems The maximum seismic design force in the horizontal bracing rods is: E h = ρQ E = (1.3. The analysis to determine these smaller forces is not included in this example.661 lbs where ρ = 1. and 4 are smaller. Section 12.3.3-5.37 kips 25 ft 2-57 . In addition. Brace rods are designed using the same procedures as shown for Design Building A.1 AISC 360-05 is also used for the design of the compression struts.

368 lb 1 EAVE A 2 B 3 C 4 RIDGE 8.2 Eave Struts The eave struts are the members at each eave of the roof that form the intersection of roof and wall.12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1. Free Body Diagram Showing Bracing Chord Seismic Design Force at Mid-Span purlin P strut 2.3-6 Design Building A Alternate.046 lb 1. Positioning the Roof Bracing and Struts to Minimize Eccentricity 2.3-7. The applied eave strut seismic design forces are calculated in the same fashion as for Design Building A as: 2-58 .046 lb 523 lb 8.3.368 lb 3. The eave struts often serve as collector elements for earthquake forces along the building length and transfer them to the vertical bracing systems.661 lb Figure 2.046 lb 1.

4 lbs / ft ¹ © ¹ ¬© ¼ The resulting applied forces and internal forces for Design Building A Alternate are shown in Figure 2.4 lb/ft 30 lb BRACED 50 ft BAY 100 ft 720. 2-59 .Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems From end wall: ( 20 ft ) ( 25 ft ) (3 psf ) (0.080) = 8.0) (570 lbs) = 570 lbs It should be noted that appropriate load factors need to be applied to the above loads when added to load combinations. 8.3-8 Eave Strut Applied and Internal Forces – Design Building A Alternate The resulting seismic design forces for the eave struts are as follows: Eh = ρQE = (1.0 lb TO WALL BRACING 30 lb 720.080) = 30 lbs 4 From tributary roof and side wall: ª§ 25 ft · º § 20 ft · «¨ 2 ¸ (6 psf ) + ¨ 2 ¸ (3 psf )» (0.0 lb TO WALL BRACING BRACED BAY 75 ft BRACED BAY 25 ft 720.3-8.0 lb TO WALL BRACING APPLIED FORCES 450 lb 570 lb 480 lb 30 lb COMPRESSION TENSION 30 lb 270 lb 150 lb 240 lb Figure 2.

it was considered appropriate to design for this portion of the force in the same manner as other similar elements are designed. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2. As a separate strut. This becomes a particular design consideration when the location of roof bracing bays does not match the location of bays containing vertical braced frames. Member Forces Seismic forces resisted by the side wall bracing can be calculated two ways.3.2. D.9. therefore only a single span of strut at each braced frame acts as a collector element. a separate strut member could be provided at the bracing.13 Design of Side Wall As stated in Section 2. 2. Alternatively. Depending upon the positioning of the horizontal roof and vertical rod bracing. splices. 2-60 . Eave struts become collectors when forces from the horizontal roof bracing systems are required to be transferred through a length of strut to the location of vertical braced frames. ASCE 7 Section 12. then the member seismic design force would be the following: Eh = 570 lbs + 3. the provisions of AISC 341 are not applicable. the eave strut might also act as a strut to transfer both the forces shown above.1 requires collector elements.3. E.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems An additional strut force is required to transfer the forces from the horizontal to the vertical bracing. and their connections in Seismic Design Categories C. as well as the forces from the roof bracing to the wall bracing. therefore members are designed in accordance with AISC 360 only. and F to be designed using the special Em load combination forces in SDC C.661 lbs If only a single eave strut is provided to resist both forces. and F. D.661 lbs = 4.3-7. similar to the situation shown in Figure 2. the required seismic design force from the roof to the wall bracing would be as follows: Eh = ρ QE = (1.661 lbs) = 3. Other tributary seismic forces carried by the eave strut are small in magnitude due to the typically small tributary width of roof and wall that attaches to the strut.3.0) (3.10. E. the bays align.231 lbs Eave struts often serve as collectors or drag elements. Because the eave strut carries no more seismic forces in this regard than many other roof purlins. In this example.

2.4.2): V = 13.140 lbs The difference is not significant and is primarily due to round-off of numbers in the analysis.50 kips © ¹ Column Force: § 19 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (4.140 lbs = 4. Design forces for the horizontal beam at the braced bay were described in the preceding section. QE: QE = 13.3-9 Longitudinal Side Wall Analysis Model Horizontal Force per Longitudinal Braced Bay. Figure 2.38 kips ) = 5.4 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (4.661 lbs + 720 lbs ) = 13.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems (1) As the sum of the forces from the roof bracing plus the eave struts: V = 3(3.38 kips 3 bays Brace Rod Length = Brace Rod Force: (25 ft )2 + (19 ft )2 = 31. For this example the total calculated building seismic forces from Example 1 will be used.143 lbs (2) As the total calculated building seismic force (from Example 1. Forces in the bracing and adjacent columns are calculated in this section.33 kips © ¹ 2-61 .4 ft § 31.380 lb/bay = 4. Section 1.38 kips ) = 3.

0336( D + C ) − 0. i. a column which serves as part of a transverse moment frame in one direction and as part of a concentrically braced frame in the other direction is subject to orthogonal effects.13. For high seismic applications (SDC D.00 0.85 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. For SDC C.00 0.00 V (kips) 0.566 D + 0. or F) the orthogonal effects must be considered in all cases.00 0.2. nonparallel systems (see ASCE 7 Table 12.3 lists two possible solutions 1.00 0. In metal building designs.3.2 Design of Side Wall Brace Columns Side wall brace columns in this example need only meet the requirements of AISC 360.7 ρQE 0.00 5.50 Pa (kips) 3.13.00 0. In accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12. E. Design of these columns may have to include the simultaneous orthogonal column forces caused by dead and collateral load conditions depending on the seismic design category. ASCE 7 Section 12.0336( D + C ) + 0. 2-62 . Simultaneous application of orthogonal ground motion. and 2. the orthogonal effects are required only when Type 5 structural plan irregularity is present. For example.3. orthogonal effects are typically found in columns and column bases which are elements of the seismic force resisting systems in each direction.85 −3.7 ρQE P (kips) 0.00 0.566 D − 0.5.3-1).7 ρQE 0. Apply 100 percent of the design force in one direction and 30% in the other.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.0) Side Wall Brace Rod Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.e.00 0.85 M (ft-kips) 0.85 −3.5.00 0. orthogonal effects need not be investigated for buildings assigned to SDC B.7 ρQE 1.1 Design of Side Wall Brace Rods Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1. Note that these columns are elements of the building moment frames.00 0.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 2.

0336( D + C ) + 0.08 −1.00 0.00 0.00 Va (kips) −0.73 −2.07 3.05 2-63 .00 0.00 V (kips) −0.566 D + 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.07 −3.18 −3.00 0.00 0.0) Side Wall Brace Column Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.0336( D + C ) − 0.38 Pa (kips) 3.7 ρQE 0.7 ρQE 1.00 0.566 D − 0.7 ρQE 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems While either option is sufficient to satisfy this code requirement.07 −3. using the ASD provisions.00 Va (kips) 0.07 −4.07 M (ft-kips) 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.7 ρQE 1.3. the first approach is commonly used for design of metal building systems because the other approach is tied with the more complex methods such as time-history analysis. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.59 M (ft-kips) 0.14 −0. 2.7 ρQE P (kips) −3.00 0.0) Side Wall Brace Beam Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.33 Pa (kips) −6.00 0.05 −0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.7 ρQE 0.3 Design of Side Wall Brace Beams Side wall brace beams in this example need only meet the requirements of AISC 360.00 Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame columns are calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.566 D − 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.13.7 ρQE P (kips) 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 V (kips) 0.7 ρQE 0.14 −0.09 −0.566 D + 0.07 0.

QE: QE = 1.90 kips ) = 1. Member Forces A calculation.6 ft (using avg. From Example 1. Alternatively.90 kips 2 bays Brace Rod Length = Brace Rod Force: (25 ft )2 + (21 ft )2 = 32.3.790 lbs = 895 lb/bay = 0. ht.3. as shown below. the forces from the frame analysis based on more accurate geometry can be used.6 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (0.3.4.3-10 – Transverse End Wall Framing Horizontal Force per End Wall Braced Bay. therefore members are designed in accordance with AISC 360 only. the provisions of AISC 341 are not applicable. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame beams is calculated in accordance with the AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.9.2. the total seismic design force for each end frame is: V = 1. using the ASD provisions.79 kips Figure 2.17 kips © ¹ Column Force: 2-64 . 2. of 21 ft) § 32.14 Design of End Wall As stated in Section 2. Section 1. can be made to obtain the brace rod and column forces.3.

7 ρQE P (kips) −0.2 Design of End Wall Brace Columns As stated in Section 2.566 D + 0.76 kips © ¹ 2. the provisions of AISC 341 are not applicable.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.3.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.7 ρQE 0.7 ρQE 0.7 ρQE P (kips) 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems § 21 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (0.14.00 0.1 Design of End Wall Brace Rods As stated in Section 2.00 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.9.3.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.3.0) End Wall Brace Column Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.566 D − 0. therefore members are designed in accordance with AISC 360 only. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 Va (kips) 0.3.14.0336( D + C ) + 0. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2.00 0.00 0.02 M (ft-kips) 0.00 0. therefore members are designed in accordance with AISC 360 only.3.82 −0.00 0.76 Pa (kips) −1.82 M (ft-kips) 0.47 −0.566 D − 0.00 V (kips) 0.7 ρQE 0.04 0.7 ρQE 1.82 0.00 V (kips) 0.00 0.82 −0. the provisions of AISC 341 are not applicable. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 0.0) End Wall Brace Rod Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.88 −1.90 −0.17 Pa (kips) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.7 ρQE 0.566 D + 0.00 2-65 .00 1.00 0.7 ρQE 1.95 −0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.90 kips ) = 0.00 0.

therefore members are designed in accordance with AISC 360 only.566 D − 0.3. using the ASD provisions. the provisions of AISC 341 are not applicable.25 Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame beams is calculated in accordance with the AISC360-05 Sections D and E.00 V (kips) −0.566 D + 0.3.57 −0.00 0. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.0) End Wall Brace Beam Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.7 ρQE P (kips) 0. 2.15 Design of Moment Frames 2.3.00 0.90 Pa (kips) 0.00 0.3.0336( D + C ) − 0.00 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame columns are calculated in accordance with the AISC 360-05 Chapters D and E.00 2-66 .00 V (kips) 0. 2.7 ρQE 0.1 Design of Moment Frame Columns As stated in Section 2.00 0.63 −0. therefore members are designed in accordance with AISC 360 only.15.00 0.98 −2.3 Design of End Wall Beam As stated in Section 2.0336( D + C ) + 0.7 ρQE 0.63 −0.14. using the ASD provisions.3.00 0. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.0) Top of Interior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) P (kips) −5.63 M (ft-kips) 0.00 0.45 −0.00 0.63 0. the provisions of AISC 341 are not applicable.71 −0.00 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.25 −0.71 −0.7 ρQE 1.84 M (ft-kips) 0.24 0.00 Va (kips) −0.00 0.

0336( D + C ) − 0.7 ρQE 1.00 0.48 −4.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.566 D + 0.7 ρQE 0.84 Pa (kips) −9.0336( D + C ) − 0.7 ρQE 0.65 −8.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.20 −2.00 0.00 0.7 ρQE 0.566 D − 0.10 −2.00 V (kips) 0.00 0.566 D − 0.00 0.80 P (kips) −6.25 −3.00 2-67 .97 −2.00 Va (kips) 0.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 0.566 D + 0.00 0.92 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 Bottom of Interior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.00 0.00 0.7 ρQE 1.57 −0.00 0.7 ρQE M (ft-kips) 0.7 ρQE Pa (kips) −9.00 0.7 ρQE 0.42 −8.00 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations 1.

2-68 .15. E. F. the drift calculations might need to be repeated.7 ρQE P (kips) −2.566 D + 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Top of Exterior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.02 0.92 M (ft-kips) −21.98 2. 2.70 Allowable Strengths The axial.67 −4.7 ρQE 1. the previously calculated drift checks would be conservative and not require recalculation.72 Ma (ft-kips) −16. Final Drift Check The previously calculated drift checks were based on displacements using the initial trial member sizes. As a result.15 −20.3. using the ASD provisions.97 −45.53 Pa (kips) −3.7 ρQE 0. and flexural strength of the moment frame columns are calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D.0336( D + C ) + 0. Had the initial trial sizes for the moment frame beams and/or columns been changed.06 −1.26 −3.62 −1.3 −9. shear. G and H.45 −26.566 D − 0.56 V (kips) −1.26 Va (kips) −1.41 −1.2 Design of Moment Frame Beams There are no additional requirements specific to beam members beyond AISC 360-05 requirements.0336( D + C ) − 0.18 0.73 −1.17 −1.7 ρQE 0. the previously calculated drift checks are appropriate. None of the trial member sizes changed as a result of the design of the moment frame beams and columns. If the initial trial sizes for the moment frame beams and/or columns increased in flexural stiffness.45 −0.

4-2 Design Building B – Transverse Frame Analysis Model 2-69 .0X0.375 2 28.108' Symm.3125 0.0X0.0X0.25 10'-4 3/4" 5X0.0X0. I.125 5X0. I 9 4 C V/2 J 10 19 FT.3125 0. 2 D 64 FT.0 HORZ STF 2.3125 0.0X0. 65' 35' O.5 6. 8 x 5/16 WEB THK 0. 70 FT.3125 6.1 Structural Analysis Models Transverse Moment Frame Model Exterior Frame Columns: Fixed Top. Type Plate Plate(DN) Plate Plate(UP) Bolts 1 17.3125 0. O.0 2E/1F 6. The brace rods for the end wall are initially assumed to be 0.375 10'-0" 5X0.25 0. C L Frame 10 S S S 6 4 5 S S S S S 7 S S S 8 H S 9 20' E.5 10 17. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Fixed Top.25 7.0X0.5 2E/2E 6. 1 A F 6 3 G 7 H 8 23 FT.1489 6X0.1489 6X0.F. WEB THK.H.0X1. 8 x 5/16 12 5X0.4 DESIGN BUILDING B The building configuration and initial trial moment frame and brace rod sizes is shown in the following figure.1489 5X0.25 0.0X0.3125 16'-0" 5X0.F. Figure 2.5 BASE 8.596' 6X0.25 10'-0" 0.25 3 N/A CAP (EXT) 5.5 10'-0" 6X0.4-1 Design Building B – Trial Moment Frame 2.1489 R. 0.50 12 5X0.F.1489 5X0.0X0.F.125 17'-0 1/2" 1 11 0.25 12 17.F.25 16'-0" 5X0.4170' WEB THK.5 11 17.875 inch diameter.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.25 N/A (4)-3/4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A (4)-1 (6)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 (8)-3/4 Figure 2.5 6. K OR Eh/2 OR Emh/2 Emh/2 B 64 FT.5 5 17.75X0.25 5X0. CONNECTION DETAILS : Location Web Dep.25 4 28. I.25 20'-0" 6X0.125 5X0.25 0.1780 5X0.5 CAP/STF 8.375 6.5 2.125 5X0.5 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 6 17.375 7 17.3125 8.F. Fixed Base V/2 OR 21'-11 3/4" H Eh/2 OR E 5 19 FT.5 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 8 28.0X0.25X0.0X0.25 6X0.4. 3 2 S 5X0.0 2E/2E 6.042' H L.5 6.25 0.0 2E/2E 6.0X0.0 BASE 8.25 0.625 inch diameter while the brace rods for the side wall are initially assumed to be 0.0 SPLICE N/A N/A N/A 9 17.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Transverse End Wall Model Exterior Frame Columns: Pinned Top.200D 0.90 50.0 for the transverse end wall and longitudinal side wall.01 6.200D 0.4.90 50. Pinned Base Figure 2.5 for transverse moment frames and Ωo = 2.200D Emh* (kips) 22.1.4-3 Design Building B – Transverse End Wall Analysis Model Longitudinal Side Wall Model Exterior Frame Columns: Pinned Top. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top.2 Design Earthquake Forces For this building example.4-4 Design Building B – Longitudinal Side Wall Analysis Model 2. the redundancy factor ρ is taken as 1.14 Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall * The values of Emh in the table are based on Ωo = 2. Pinned Base Figure 2.57 Ev (kips) 0.2 of this guide).0 (See discussion in Section 1.80 101. The design earthquake forces on individual frame or brace lines based on Design Example 1 are as follows: Design Building B Site 3 V (kips) 9. 2-70 .01 6.57 Eh (kips) 9.4.53 13. where there are more than three moment resisting connections along the line of resistance. Pinned Base Interior Frame Columns: Pinned Top.

58 −1.45 0 0 −0.2 −0.07 0 0 −0. Columns .58 −0. Columns .27 −0.90 −0. the dead. Columns . Columns . and the requirements of AISC 360-05 Section C2.98 −6.90 0 0 −3.97 0 0 0 0 0 0 2-71 .Bottom Moment Frame Ext. Columns .05 −0.Bottom Moment Frame Int.47 0 0 −1.Bottom Moment Frame Ext.71 0 −0.4.92 −6.05 −1.28 −9.3 4.3 Member Forces For Design Building B. Columns .Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam Axial (kips) −1. Columns .63 −0.Top Moment Frame Int.1b (second order analysis by amplified first-order elastic analysis) are as follows: Axial (kips) −3.56 −2.20 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 −10.05 Dead Load Moment Frame Ext.Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam Collateral Load Moment Frame Ext.69 −1. Columns .76 −0.45 −1.67 −0.20 −1. and earthquake forces on individual frame or brace lines based on Design Example 1 using AISC 341-05.58 −0.32 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 −25.05 1.40 −1.20 −2.67 −16.24 0 0 −0.Top Moment Frame Int.5 1. collateral.2 −40.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear (kips) −1.56 −0.13 −0.70 −24.32 −2.63 −3.8 12.17 −0.63 −0.13 2.68 0 −0.03 0 0 −0.09 Shear (kips) −0.Bottom Moment Frame Int.

unless otherwise noted. the horizontal displacement results are presented for Design Building B for each of the structural analysis models.67 −1.78 26.60 3.4.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 Moment (ft-kips) 0 37.88 −0.65 21. Columns .0) 1 Ωo = 2. Emh1 Moment Frame Ext.90 3.52 −16.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear (kips) 2.Bottom Moment Frame Int. The actual twodimensional linear elastic analysis was done by others and is not presented here.38 −19.80 6.09 −0. Columns .86 −3. using unfactored load values (i.65 20. Columns . but is based on the structural models and applied loadings presented earlier.90 0.4 Seismic Analysis Results Summary for Horizontal Displacements In this section.90 42. Columns .7E).e.60 −0.22 1.91 Axial (kips) 1.Top End Wall Brace Rod (Ωo = 2.45 66. Columns .49 0.23 −0.0) Side Wall Beam (Ωo = 2.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maximum Earthquake Loads. Columns .0) Side Wall Brace Rod (Ωo = 2.09 −0.12 −21.25 9.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Earthquake Loads. 2.72 Moment (ft-kips) 0 15.0) End Wall Brace Column (Ωo = 2.49 27. Columns . The seismic displacement results are based on the applied frame line base shear.67 −0.Top Moment Frame Int.49 −0.23 9.62 33. Columns . 2-72 .Top Moment Frame Int.Bottom Moment Frame Ext.Top Beam At Exterior Column Beam At Interior Column Beam At Center End Wall Brace Rod End Wall Brace Column End Wall Beam Side Wall Brace Rod Side Wall Brace Column Side Wall Beam Axial (kips) 0. V.5.77 4.0) Side Wall Brace Column (Ωo = 2.01 −5. E.63 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear (kips) 0.63 5.14 −45.88 −0.Bottom Moment Frame Ext.0) End Wall Beam (Ωo = 2.22 −0.85 −114.Bottom Moment Frame Int.34 −25. Eh Moment Frame Ext. not 0.25 2.01 9.

separate basic load cases have been identified for the purposes of this document. The story drifts are calculated using ASCE 7 Equation 12.: Cd = 3.6. three sets of drift checks will be made for each design. the interior walls.278 in 0.6. partitions.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Horizontal Displacements at the Eave Height Resulting from Applying the Frame Line Base Shear. For this example. For illustrative purposes. 2. this Guide provides drift calculations.588 in 0. For the examples presented here.6 Story Drift Checks Story drift is evaluated based on ASCE 7-05 Section 12.708 in Basic Load Case Analysis Results Summary for Member Forces In this example. partitions and ceilings should be detailed to accommodate drift).” If this exception is utilized. even though it could be argued that they are unnecessary. Note that footnote a of ASCE 7 Table 12.8. The actual two-dimensional analysis was done by others and is not presented here.4.1 Determine Story Drift without P-Delta Effects δx = Where: C d δ xe I (ASCE Eq. V Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Braced Frames Longitudinal Side Wall Braced Frames 2. 2. Typically for metal buildings. but is based on the structural models and applied loadings presented earlier. the member forces are presented for each of the basic load cases. for the transverse moment frame Cd = 3.815. Two seismic load cases are included. it would be prudent to communicate this on the contract documents (i.4.12-1 states “there shall be no drift limit for single-story structures with interiors walls. ceilings. i.8-15) Cd = the deflection amplification factor from Design Example 1.4.25. 12. for the transverse end wall 2-73 .5 0. three story drifts are calculated corresponding to the three structural models. and exterior walls that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts. Eh and V are identical but since this is not always the case.e.e. One seismic load case is for Eh and the other is for Emh. They are increased by an incremental factor to account for P-delta effects.

8.0 1−θ Where the stability coefficient.76 in 1.3.8.4 of this example. 12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Cd = 3. if a dynamic analysis (or Rayleigh equation) is performed and used for both design and analysis.0 Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 2.7.278 in ) = 0.588 in ) = 1.0 3.8-15: Story Drift w/o P-Delta Effects.2 Determine P-Delta Incremental Factor in Accordance With ASCE 7 Section 12. Substituting the above values and the previous displacement into ASCE 7 Equation 12.8. is determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12.8-16) 2-74 .0. be increased by a factor relating to the P-delta effects.0 3. δx Transverse Moment Frame 3(0. these analyses were performed by others and the results provided in Section 2. the upper bound period limits of ASCE 7 Section 12. ASCE 7 Section 12.91 in 1.7 requires that the story drift. This Pdelta incremental factor is defined as: Incremental Factor = 1. it states that if θ ≤ 0. For this example.0 δxe = the elastic horizontal deflections resulting from applying the base shear V to an elastic structural analysis model of the building seismic-force-resisting system.25(0.θ . the P-delta effects can be ignored.7.8. θ= Px Δ V x hsx C d (ASCE 7 Eq.7 For each seismic load combination. for the longitudinal side wall I = the occupancy importance factor from Design Example 1 = 1. δx. It should be noted that in ASCE Section 12.8.25.25(0.31 in 1. as discussed in Section 1. Alternatively. which is the same as stating that the incremental factor may be taken as 1.1.10 .1.6. Note that the base shear V of this example and Design Example 1 were determined using the simplified code period formulas.4.71 in ) = 2.2 are not used when calculating drift.

using the results of the P-delta analysis. The value of Px is the total vertical load obtained previously in this design example and is the sum of all unfactored column axial loads (including gravity only columns with axial loads taken at the top of the columns) resulting from dead load. unless otherwise required by the authority having jurisdiction. floor live load and collateral load tributary to the frame line under consideration. θ shall not exceed θmax. Px would also include 20 percent of the snow load. Once a design has been established. Note that ASCE 7 permits that where the P-delta effect is included in an automated (second order) analysis.0 and determine θmax based on that assumption. Note that if the flat roof snow load is greater than 30 psf. β = 1.5 ≤ 0. For this example. separate values of θ. per ASCE 7 Section 12. the β factor along with the P-delta incremental factor should be reevaluated based on actual shear demand to actual capacity and the drift rechecked.8-17 shall still be satisfied. For initial design calculations. However. 12. 2-75 . is permitted to be divided by (1 + θ) before checking Eq.8-16.0 can conservatively be used. the end wall Px is taken as the end wall brace column load multiplied times 8. it is typical to assume β = 1. since member capacities have yet to be calculated. inches Cd = deflection amplification factor in ASCE 7 Table 12. the value of θ computed from Eq. 12.8-17.2-1 In addition. inches (Note that for a single story building that Δ is equal to δx) Vx = the seismic shear force acting between level x and level x-1 hsx = the story height below level x (for buildings with pitched roof.8. 0.7. Where the ratio is not calculated.8-17) β = the ratio of the shear demand to capacity between level x and level x-1. while the side wall Px is taken as half of the total of all moment frame and end wall column loads. tributary to the frame line under consideration Δ = the design story drift occurring simultaneously with Vx. However it should also be noted that Px need not include the roof live load. 12. where computing Px. 12. if the drift is greater than allowable. Eq. θmax and the P-delta incremental factor are determined for each of the seismic-force-resisting systems (along each brace/frame line). the story height is taken as the eave height).25 βC d θ max = (ASCE 7 Eq. The following calculations illustrate the determination of Px for two example building designs. For the example.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Where: Px = the total unfactored vertical load at and above Level x.

47 ) = 10.28 10. 2-76 .96 129.15 1.2 kips 2.6.6.0018 0.4. either the seismic-forceresisting system would need to be redesigned or β would need to be calculated in order to determine if adequate shear capacity was present in the design.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.0. one obtains: Story Drift Parameters θ θmax Incremental factor 0.6.56 ) = 26. Transverse Moment Frame Px = 2(2.96 )] = 129. It should be noted that in this example P-delta effects could be ignored in all frame lines. Δ.5 Determine the Design Story Drift with P-Delta Effects and Compare with IBC Drift Allowables of ASCE 7 Section 12.0 1.5[9(26. the negative sign indicating compression has been ignored for simplicity in presentation.90 + 0. Δa.15 0.17 0. specified in ASCE 7 Table 12.20 + 2. is determined by simply multiplying the story drift without P-delta effects by the P-delta incremental factor. Cd and δx are indicated previously in this design example. if θ > θmax in any of the above cases. Substituting the above data into the P-delta equations.0 Px Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 26.2 Note. The allowable story drift is a function of occupancy category and building types. The design story drift is compared with the allowable story drift.4 Determine the P-Delta Incremental Factors Vx is taken from the problem statement for this design example and hx is taken as the eave height of 240 inches.28 kips Transverse End Wall Px = 8(0.96 kips Longitudinal Side Wall Px = 0.28) + 2(10.40 + 1.3 Determination of Px In the following calculations.12-1. 2.0076 0. β is not calculated and is therefore taken as 1.98 + 6.0071 0.0 1.4.4.12 The design story drift with P-delta effects.

therefore. 8 Eq.0 in 6. equal to 20 feet for this example. S ≤ 30 (so S = 0).7 ρQ E (0.020hsx 4. Note that the allowable drift would be 0.8.7 Basic Load Combinations The basic load combinations are discussed in Section 2. and L = 0 . Equation 6 will not govern and will not be considered further in this example.020hsx design allowables. partitions. it was determined that the occupancy category was II. no special detailing of architectural components is required beyond that already specified.200D.1. separate drift check calculations are made for each of the seismic forces resisting systems for each design.7 ρQE Substituting SDS = 1.025hsx 6.0 in In the example.4. 8 2-77 . if the aforementioned conditions are not met.91 in 2.14( D + C ) ± 0.46 D ± 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems In Design Example 1. ceilings. C is considered as D if it results in an adverse loading.1.8 in 4. From ASCE 7 Table 12. From the problem statement and Design Example 1.7 ρQE Eq.025hsx provided the interior walls.31 in 0. If it is acceptable. all the design story drifts are less than the 0. The applicable basic load combinations are: (1.12-1.020hsx.7 ρQE 0.6 − 0. Ev = 0. Therefore. Design Story Drifts Δ Transverse Moment Frame Transverse End Wall Longitudinal Side Wall 1.020hsx.76 in 0.14S DS ) D ± 0. and exterior wall systems have been designed to accommodate the story drift and the building is four stories or less in height.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0. It is recommended that the building first be checked for the value of 0.00 yields the following: 1.8 in 0.8 in 4.0 + 0. 2. the allowable drift for this example is 0. 5 Eq. hsx is taken as the eave height. 5 Eq. For this design example.0 in 6. then no special detailing of architectural components will be required beyond that already specified.

7Ω o QE 0.7Ω o QE 2. 8 Eq. C is considered as D if it results in an adverse loading.00 yields the following: 1.8 Allowable Strength Seismic Load Combinations with Overstrength Factor The load combinations with overstrength factor are discussed in Section 2. The applicable load combinations with overstrength factors are: (1.14( D + C ) ± 0. each frame resists a tributary portion of the roof seismic force.46 D ± 0. consistent with the definition of a diaphragm in 2006 IBC Section 1602. 8 The example buildings contain three sets of horizontal roof bracing that transfer wind and seismic forces from the end walls and roof to the sets of vertical bracing that are provided along the longitudinal walls of the buildings. experience has shown that horizontal bending of purlins and girts in conjunction with the stiffness of roof panels are adequate to resist the marginal forces that develop over this short distance. 5 Eq.7 or 0.8. Ev = 0. to the work points of the horizontal roof bracing. shown in subsequent sections are unfactored. with bracing work points spaced at 25 foot centers across the building width.14 S DS ) ( D + C ) ± 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. Typically. Therefore. and L = 0. these seismic loads are factored by either 0. Eh.14S DS ) D ± 0. Note that in allowable strength design load combinations used in conjunction with AISC 341-05. the roof spans the short distance between each frame without bracing. however. wind against the end walls and seismic forces are transferred from the end wall columns at the roof. so as to align with the vertical columns that are spaced along each end wall of the building. through roof purlins that act as struts. S ≤ 30 (so S = 0). Equation 6 will not govern and will not be considered further in this example. Horizontal seismic load effects. Each set of horizontal bracing is laid out between adjacent transverse moment frames that are spaced 25 feet apart.7Ω oQ E (0.1.2.20D.1.4.6 − 0.525. and component forces.4.9 Design of Diaphragm Systems Including Horizontal Roof Bracing Eq.7Ω o QE Substituting SDS = 1. From the problem statement and Design Example 1. Fp.0 + 0. In the transverse direction (assuming flexible diaphragm behavior). Thus. 5 Eq. These horizontal roof bracing systems are acting as diaphragms in transferring horizontally applied loads to the seismic force resisting elements. 2-78 .

10-1 i where Fpx Fi wi wpx = diaphragm design force = design force at level i (determined by ASCE 7 Eq.9. 12. that is applied to diaphragms (including horizontal bracing systems) is 1.57 kips yields.1. using ASCE 7 Eq.10. including horizontal bracing requirements. 12. Design forces are calculated by the following: Fpx = ¦F i=x n i= x n i ¦w wpx ASCE Eq.0 for all Seismic Design Categories.10-1 2-79 .10.4SDSIwpx Note that for a one-story building. are specified in ASCE Section 12. Roof bracing/diaphragm design forces in the longitudinal axis of the building are based on the design forces used for the bracing of the longitudinal side walls. ρ.8-11) = weight tributary to level i = weight tributary to diaphragm at level x with the limitation that 0. when the loads are determined in accordance with ASCE 7.4. the equation for Fpx simplifies to the following: Fpx = V but is still subject to the maximum and minimum limitations above.3. the redundancy factor.1 Determination of Diaphragm Design Force Coefficients Including Horizontal Bracing Diaphragms. Design Building B is required to be designed using SDC D requirements.4. Per ASCE 7 Section 12.4: wpx = wi = W = 164.3 for further discussion). 12.2 kips Fi = V = 50. The load combinations to be used for the design of members and connections in the horizontal bracing system need not consider special seismic load combinations with the overstrength factor except where the members also serve as collectors or are common to the vertical seismic force resisting system (See Section 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. Eq.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.3. 12.4.4. Substituting in the values calculated in Section 1.1.

2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.01 kips yields.490wpx Therefore.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Fpx = Froof .245wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.4.225) (1.4SDSIwpx (0.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.10-1 n Fpx = Froof . wpx = wi = W = 31.4SDSIwpx (0. Substituting in the values from Section 1.longitudinal 164.2) (1.01kips wroof = 0.transverse 31.57kips wroof = 0. substituting in the values from Section 1.4.2) (1.4: 2-80 .225) (1.00)wpx 0.longitudinal Diaphragm design forces for the metal roof deck that spans the short 25-foot dimension between transverse frames is based on the design forces used for the transverse frames.286wroof.3.225) (1.longitudinal = ¦F i= x n i= x n i ¦w w px = 50.4) (1.5kips i with the limitation that 0.transverse = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = 9.225) (1.00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0.245wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.4) (1. use Fpx = 0.4.308wroof.00)wpx 0. transverse For the two end bays.2kips i with the limitation that 0. 12.3.286wroof.5 kips Fi = V = 9.490wpx Therefore. using ASCE 7 Eq. use Fpx = 0. For a typical interior bay. the average of the two adjacent frame design forces is used.308wroof.

00)wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ (0. 12.0 psf 1.4SDSIwpx (0.225) (1.10 Determination of Diaphragm Seismic Weights Including Horizontal Bracing Seismic forces resulting from the roof and wall weight are resisted in the longitudinal direction by three bays of horizontal roof bracing that collect and transfer these forces to the vertical side wall bracing.9 kips Fi = V = 9. at a weight of 3. In the longitudinal direction.490wpx Therefore.90kips ) w (31. use Fpx = 0. is the largest of the three forces calculated above.90 kips = 15. resulting in: Fpx = 0.10-1 n Fpx = Froof .295wroof.00)wpx 0.5kips + 22.transverse with the limitation that 0.5 kips + 22.5 psf 6.0 psf times the tributary wall area.01kips + 6.225) (1.0 psf × roof area In the longitudinal direction.2) (1.245wpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0. The resulting seismic weights are equal to: 2-81 .4kips ) roof = 0. transverse The controlling diaphragm design force in the longitudinal direction.4.01 kips + 6.longitudinal 2. The following calculations consider only diaphragm forces in the longitudinal building axis.4 kips = 53. the horizontal roof bracing resists forces resulting from both the roof and frame weights: Roof panel and insulation Roof purlin Frame Collateral Load Total = = = = = 1.0 psf 2. the diaphragm also resists tributary forces for the end walls.transverse = ¦F i= x n i= x i ¦w w px = i (9.91 kips yields.4) (1.2SDSIwpx ≤ Fpx ≤ 0.5 psf 1.308wroof. using ASCE 7 Eq.295wroof.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems wpx = wi = W = 31.

5 feet at each end of the span is assumed to load the eave strut and vertical bracing directly.3 kips 2.11 Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing For Design Building B.0 psf 2 = 13.4.4.4.longit = 300.3 kips Where. Total Seismic Weight roof . For simplicity’s sake and to promote a more uniform roof bracing design.254 lbs = 13.12 (96.12.5 lb/ft ) = 14. 2. Distribution of the total applied forces to each set of bracing may be subject to differing opinions.000 lbs = 300 kips End Wall Weight = 2 × (200 ft ) (22.9.50 kips Froof .09 ft ) × 3.308(313.longitudinal = 2. 22.4.021 lbs 3 sets of bracing The reaction force at each end of the truss is equal to: (200 ft − 25 ft ) (482.308wroof (from Section 2. the seismic design force applied at each work point of the roof bracing is: (482.1) Froof.0 + 13.073 lbs 2 × 3 sets of bracing The 25 feet is deducted because the last 12.50kips) (1000 lbs / kip ) = 200 ft 482. it is preferred to assume that forces are distributed equally between each set of bracing.09 feet is the average height of the end walls. longitudinal = 0.1 Horizontal Bracing Systems For Design Building B. the diaphragm design force in the longitudinal direction becomes: Froof = 0.3 = 313.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Roof Weight = (200 ft ) (250 ft ) (6 psf ) = 300. 2-82 .3 kips) = 96.5 lb/ft Determination of Diaphragm Element Design Forces Including Horizontal Bracing Each building has three sets of horizontal roof bracing which combine to resist the longitudinal forces.5 lb/ft ) (25 ft ) = 4.

horizontal tension-only bracing systems are permitted to be designed using the normal Eh = ρQE load combinations. 2-83 .0 for diaphragms per ASCE 7-05. For this example.021 lb 4. the lateral spacing of bracing points (25 ft) is equal to the longitudinal column spacing. the rod tension and connection seismic design force in Rod (1) is: QE = 14.90 kips cos(45°) 0.4. 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 4. Design Load Combination IBC and AISC 341-05 are nonspecific but imply an inherent difference between vertical braced frames and horizontal bracing systems that are used as diaphragms.707 The maximum seismic design force in the horizontal bracing rods is: E h = ρQE = (1. Brace rods are designed using the AISC 360-05.3.3.073 lb 14.4-5.902 lbs = 19.1 Note that the required design force is computed for Rod 1 in Figure 2.021 lb 4.021 lb 4.021 lb 4.90 kips ) = 19. connections are designed using the load combination with overstrength. each rod is oriented at 45 degrees.073 lbs = = 19.1).021 lb 4.4-5. Section 12. and 4 are smaller. thus.021 lb 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 8 @ 25 ft = 200 ft 14.073 lbs 14. The analysis to determine these smaller forces is not included in this example. while the design forces for Rods 2.021 lb 4. Em = ΩoQE (see Section 2.0) (19.4-5 Plan View of Typical Roof Bracing – Design Building B The actual design forces in each brace element must reflect the member orientation and the tension-only nature of the rod bracing used. Although vertical tension-only bracing is permitted. From Figure 2.073 lb Figure 2.90 kips where ρ = 1.

0) (14.1 AISC 360-05 is also used for the design of the compression struts.4-6) must be designed for a seismic design force equal to: Eh = ρQE = (1.166 lbs = 32.4-7 may be needed when cold-formed purlin section cannot be shown to be adequate to resist the resulting stresses. Special strut members as shown in Figure 2.073 lb Figure 2.021 lb 2010 lb 4.021 lbs(25 + 50 + 75 ft ) = 32. shown as Member “A” in Figure 2. The design of these struts should consider applicable vertical loads plus any bending moment that may result from eccentricity between the location of horizontal bracing forces and the center of the compression member. In addition.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems The compression members of the horizontal truss system (at the most heavily loaded strut that is not a collector.073 lbs ) (100 ft ) − 4.073 lbs where ρ = 1. Section 12.4. the tension/compression chord seismic design force must be resisted by the roof beams and splices of the main building frames at braced bays as shown in Figure 2.17 kips 25 ft 4.166 lb 14. Free Body Diagram Showing Bracing Chord Seismic Design Force at Mid-Span 2-84 .4-6 and is equal to: Chord Force = (14.021 lb 4.073 lbs ) = 14.0 for diaphragms per ASCE 7-05.3.021 lb 32.4-6 Design Building B.166 lb 1 EAVE A 2 B 3 C 4 RIDGE 32.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems purlin P strut 2. are calculated as follows: From end wall: ( 20 ft )( 25 ft ) (3 psf ) (0.12. Positioning the Roof Bracing and Struts to Minimize Eccentricity 2.2 Eave Struts The eave struts are the members at each eave of the roof that form the intersection of roof and wall.4-7.308) = 116 lbs 4 From tributary roof and side wall: ª§ 25 ft · º § 20 ft · «¨ 2 ¸ (6 psf ) + ¨ 2 ¸ (3 psf )» (0. The eave struts often serve as collector elements for earthquake forces along the building length and transfer them to the vertical bracing systems.4. The applied eave strut seismic design forces.308) = 32.4-8. for Design Building B.5 lbs / ft ¹ © ¹ ¬© ¼ The resulting applied forces and internal forces for Design Building B are shown in Figure 2. 2-85 .

7 lb TO WALL BRACING BRACED BAY 25 ft 2. Depending upon the positioning of the horizontal roof and vertical rod bracing.7 lb TO WALL BRACING BRACED BAY 75 ft 2.073 lbs) = 28.785.7 lb TO WALL BRACING 116 lb APPLIED FORCES 1.741 lb 2. the required seismic design force from the roof to the wall bracing would be as follows: Emh = Ωo QE = (2.205.4-7. similar to the situation shown in Figure 2.044.7 lb 580.4 lb 928.146 lbs If only a single eave strut is provided to resist both forces.205.785.0) (14.0) (2.3 lbs It should be noted that appropriate load factors need to be applied to the above loads when added to load combinations. then the member seismic design force would be the following: Emh = 2.1 lb 116 lb COMPRESSION TENSION 116 lb 1.205. the eave strut might also act as a strut to transfer both the forces shown above.3 lbs) = 2.6 lb Figure 2. Alternatively.5 lb/ft 116 lb BRACED 50 ft BAY 100 ft 2. As a separate strut.146 lbs = 31.785.013 lbs 2-86 .867 lbs + 28. a separate strut member could be provided at the bracing.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 32. as well as the forces from the roof bracing to the wall bracing.3 lb 1.857. An additional strut force is required to transfer the forces from the horizontal to the vertical bracing.4-8 Eave Strut Applied and Internal Forces – Design Building B The resulting seismic design forces for the eave struts are as follows: Eh = ρQE = (1.

2. Note that the redundancy factor. For this example the total calculated building seismic forces from Example 1 will be used. and their connections in Seismic Design Categories C.2.1 requires collector elements. is equal to 1.10. ρ. Other tributary seismic forces carried by the eave strut are small in magnitude due to the typically small tributary width of roof and wall that attaches to the strut. D.e.3 as discussed in Section 1. Because the eave strut carries no more seismic forces in this regard than many other roof purlins. Brace members are designed using Eh.1. the bays align. while the required strength of brace connections need not exceed either the maximum force that can be developed by the system or a load effect based upon using the amplified seismic load. and F to be designed using the special Em load combination forces. E.3. ASCE 7 Section 12. 2-87 . Member Forces Seismic forces resisted by the side wall bracing can be calculated two ways.073 lbs + 2.577 lbs (2) As the total calculated building seismic force (from Example 1. therefore only a single span of strut at each braced frame acts as a collector element.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Eave struts often serve as collectors or drag elements. it was considered appropriate to design for this portion of the force in the same manner as other similar elements are designed. (1) As the sum of the forces from the roof bracing plus the eave struts: V = 3(14.4. Section 1.4): V = 50.4. splices.9.4. Emh (i. In this example. This becomes a particular design consideration when the location of roof bracing bays does not match the location of bays containing vertical braced frames. Section 14. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2.13 Design of Side Wall OCBF Ordinary concentrically braced frame member design is covered in AISC 34105.570 lbs The difference is not significant and is primarily due to round-off of numbers in the analysis. the load combination using overstrength factors). Eave struts become collectors when forces from the horizontal roof bracing systems are required to be transferred through a length of strut to the location of vertical braced frames.4. 2.786 lbs ) = 50.

3 V (kips) 0.00 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) Ma Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) (ft-kips) 1.566 D + 0.3 0.860 lb/bay = 16.9 kips ) = 12.00 0.3.570 lbs = 16. Ωo = 2.00 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 42.00 27.0336( D + C ) + 0.4 ft § 31.00 0.00 0.0) P M Side Wall Brace Rod Design Forces (kips) (ft-kips) Dead (D) 0.00 2-88 .00 Va (kips) 0.7 ρQE 0.4-9 Longitudinal Side Wall Analysis Model Horizontal Force per Longitudinal Braced Bay. QE: QE = 50.566 D − 0.00 0. Forces in for bracing and adjacent columns are calculated in this section.7 ρQE 19.00 −19.1 Design of Side Wall Brace Rods Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.9 kips ) = 21.00 0.9 kips 3 bays Brace Rod Length = Brace Rod Force: (25 ft )2 + (19 ft )2 = 31.2 kips © ¹ Column Force: § 19 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (16.4.3 0.00 Collateral (C) 0.00 0.4 0.84 kips © ¹ 2.0336( D + C ) − 0.5 0.13.00 0.3 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Design forces for the horizontal beam at the braced bay were described in the preceding section.7 ρQE 0.00 1.00 0.7 ρQE 19.00 −19.00 0. Figure 2.4 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (16.

7 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for the brace rod connection design.0336( D + C ) + 0. orthogonal effects are typically found in columns and column bases which are elements of the seismic force resisting systems in each direction.5.00 0. E.7Ω o QE 1 0.00 0.e. In metal building designs.3-1). Note that these columns are elements of the building moment frames. For high seismic applications (SDC D.00 0. the first approach is commonly used for design of metal building systems because the other approach is tied with the more complex methods such as time-history analysis.00 0.7 29.00 Va (kips) 0. ASCE 7 Section 12. For example. For SDC C.0336( D + C ) − 0. orthogonal effects need not be investigated for buildings assigned to SDC B.20 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) −16.5. i.3 of AISC 341-05. or F) the orthogonal effects must be considered in all cases.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) 29. In accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12. 2. a column which serves as part of a transverse moment frame in one direction and as part of a concentrically braced frame in the other direction is subject to orthogonal effects. While either option is sufficient to satisfy this code requirement.00 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.00 0.00 2-89 .6 M (ft-kips) 0. the orthogonal effects are required only when Type 5 structural plan irregularity is present.32 Collateral (C) −1. Ωo = 2.3 lists two possible solutions (1) Apply 100 percent of the design force in one direction and 30% in the other.2 Design of Side Wall Brace Columns Side wall brace columns must meet the requirements of Section 8.7Ω o QE 0.00 0.00 1.7 Ma (ft-kips) 0.7Ω o QE 0.00 0.566 D − 0.13.0) P Side Wall Brace Column Design Forces (kips) Dead (D) −3.00 0. and (2) Simultaneous application of orthogonal ground motion.7 −29. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 V (kips) 0.2. nonparallel systems (see ASCE 7 Table 12.4.3.00 0.00 0. Design of these columns may have to include the simultaneous orthogonal column forces caused by dead and collateral load conditions depending on the seismic design category.00 −29.7 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) −25.566 D + 0.

00 0.00 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0.00 21.00 0.7 ρQE 0.14 −0.566 D − 0.14 −0. Ωo = 2.05 2-90 .4.3 V (kips) −0.00 Va (kips) −0.00 0.00 0.00 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) Ma Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) (ft-kips) 1.00 0.7 ρQE 15.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) −16. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.566 D − 0.3 Design of Side Wall Brace Beams Side wall brace beams must meet the requirements of Section 8.3.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.00 Va (kips) 0.13.00 1.0336( D + C ) + 0.7 ρQE 0.566 D + 0.00 0.4 −7.4 .3 0.00 Va (kips) 0.05 −0.0 Ma (ft-kips) 0. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.2 −19.0336( D + C ) − 0.7 0.00 0.7Ω o QE 0.7 ρQE 15.7 ρQE 0.81 Pa (kips) −22. 2.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0. using the ASD provisions.00 −15.7 ρQE 1.00 −15.0) P M Side Wall Brace Beam Design Forces (kips) (ft-kips) Dead (D) 0.00 0.566 D − 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.3 0.8 16.0336( D + C ) + 0.05 0.02 −13.566 D + 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations 1. Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame columns are calculated in accordance with the AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.3.00 0.6 13.0336( D + C ) − 0.7Ω o QE 0.00 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 33. Section 8.566 D + 0.00 0.9 0.09 −0.00 Collateral (C) 0.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.6 9.00 1.00 0.00 0.3 of AISC 34105.7 ρQE 0.3 0.00 0.

4. while the required strength of brace connections need not exceed either the maximum force that can be developed by the system or a load effect based upon using the amplified seismic load.3.3 as discussed in Section 1. ρ.6 −23.0336( D + C ) + 0. is equal to 1. Alternatively.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) 23.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.05 1.14 Design of End Wall OCBF Ordinary concentrically braced frame member design is covered in AISC 34105. Emh (i.90 kips 2-91 .4. can be made to obtain the brace rod and column forces.00 0.05 −0.00 0. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.14 −0. From Example 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1. The member design follows similar procedures as shown for the roof bracing in Section 2.1.566 D − 0. Section 8. Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame beams is calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.00 0. the forces from the frame analysis based on more accurate geometry can be used. using the ASD provisions.0336( D + C ) − 0.3.6 −23. Member Forces A calculation.4 . Brace members are designed using Eh.7Ω o QE 0. the load combination using overstrength factors).14 −0.6 23.e.4.4.00 Va (kips) −0. Section 1. as shown below.6 Ma (ft-kips) 0.4. the total seismic design force for each end frame is: V = 6.3.566 D + 0. 2.7Ω o QE 0. Section 14. Note that the redundancy factor.

45 kips ) = 4.45 kips ) = 2.4. ht.00 0. QE: QE = 6.50 kips © ¹ Column Force: § 21 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (3.00 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) 9.00 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 0.00 0.0) P M End Wall Brace Rod Design Forces (kips) (ft-kips) Dead (D) 0.00 0. Ωo = 2.900 lbs = 3.86 0.00 5.45 kips 2 bays Brace Rod Length = Brace Rod Force: (25 ft )2 + (21 ft )2 = 32.00 Collateral (C) 0.14.1 Design of End Wall Brace Rods Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.4-10 – Transverse End Wall Framing Horizontal Force per End Wall Braced Bay.450 lb/bay = 3.6 ft · QE = ¨ ¨ 25 ft ¸ ¸ (3.90 kips © ¹ 2.3.6 ft (using avg. of 21 ft) § 32.00 0.01 V (kips) 0.00 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Figure 2.00 2-92 .

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD Load Combinations 1.7Ω o QE 0.14( D + C ) − 0.46 D + 0.31 −6.00 0.00 0.90 Collateral (C) 0.00 −0.00 0.77 0.00 0.566 D + 0.47 0.00 0.31 6.00 0.00 0.46 D + 0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 −4.7Ω o QE Pa (kips) 4.7Ω o QE 3.00 0.00 0.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.00 0.3.0336( D + C ) − 0.50 0.7 ρQE 0.7 ρQE 0.00 0.14.7 ρQE 1.08 0.00 Va (kips) 0.7 ρQE 0.31 −6.00 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) −5.00 0.10 Pa (kips) 6. 2.7Ω o QE 0.566 D + 0.00 0.0336( D + C ) − 0.00 0.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for the brace rod connection design.47 V (kips) 0.7Ω o QE 0.00 0.00 Va (kips) 0.00 0.10 −4.00 Va (kips) 0.2 Design of End Wall Brace Columns End wall brace columns must meet the requirements of Section 8.00 −5.00 −0.3 of AISC 341-05.05 0.7 ρQE 2.00 Pa Ma ASD Load Combinations (kips) (ft-kips) w/overstrength1 1.00 −4. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.00 0.14( D + C ) + 0.566 D − 0.10 4.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0.0) P M Column Design Forces (kips) (ft-kips) Dead (D) 0.00 1.00 0.46 D − 0.23 0.00 2-93 .31 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0.7 ρQE 1.62 1.10 −4.00 0.65 0.00 0.7 ρQE 0.7Ω o QE 2.00 −3.14( D + C ) − 0.566 D − 0.00 0.00 0.14 D + C ) + 0.00 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE ) −3.4.7Ω o QE 0.0336( D + C ) + 0.80 Ma Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) (ft-kips) 1. Ωo = 2.00 Va (kips) 0.20 1.46 D − 0.

45 −0.3.14. using the ASD provisions. AISC 341-05 for OCBF.25 Va (kips) −0.71 −0.25 −0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.566 D − 0.00 0.4.3 Design of End Wall Beam Ω c Pa Pn > 0. For allowable strength design.0336( D + C ) − 0.71 −0.83 M (ft-kips) 0.14 Pa ASD Load Combinations 1 (kips) w/overstrength 1.14 0.3 of AISC 34105.25 −0.3 must be satisfied. 2.00 0.00 0.71 −0.7Ω o QE 4. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0. the requirements of AISC 341- End wall brace beams must meet the requirements of Section 8.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.14 1.00 4.7Ω o QE −4. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.00 V (kips) −0.24 0.83 −4.4 . if 05.4 .7 ρQE 3.83 2-94 .14 0.3.25 1.566 D − 0.83 4.7 ρQE 3.0336( D + C ) − 0.0) P End Wall Brace Beam Design Forces (kips) Dead (D) 0.00 0. There are no additional requirements specific to column members in Section 14 of Part I.00 0.7Ω o QE 0. Section 8.7Ω o QE 0.71 −0.00 Ma (ft-kips) 0.00 0. Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame columns are calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.0336( D + C ) + 0.00 0.566 D + 0.00 Collateral (C) 0.00 0.90 Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) Pa ASD Load Combinations (kips) 1.7 ρQE −3.566 D + 0. Section 8.00 Va (kips) −0.49 Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) 6. Ωo = 2.7 ρQE −3.00 0.

70 −2.60 9.38 45.4.13 −0. Allowable Strengths The axial strength of the brace frame beams is calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D and E.15 Design of Ordinary Moment Frames 2. Loads and Load Combinations (ρ = 1.33 −3.14( D + C ) − 0.3.05 3. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.7Ω o QE 0.15 −19.23 Ma Pa (kips) (ft-kips) −10.3.56 −0.14( D + C ) + 0.46 D − 0.7Ω o QE 2-95 .4 .58 Va (kips) 6.46 D − 0.78 −47.46 −2.63 −0.46 D + 0.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.4.73 2.10 −6.28 26.28 17.5) Top of Interior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.05 −3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.37 1.32 −46.52 −10.65 −0.09 66.7 ρQE 1. using the ASD provisions. 2.40 −0.01 −2.46 D + 0.54 −10.76 46. Section 8.98 Pa Ma (kips) (ft-kips) −10.31 −2.96 V (kips) −0.7Ω o QE P M (kips) (ft-kips) −6.7 ρQE 0.1 OMF Columns Moment frame columns must meet the requirements of AISC 341-05. Ωo = 2.14( D + C ) + 0.77 18.7Ω o QE 0.15.14( D + C ) − 0.51 6.11 −2.7 ρQE 0.25 −6.88 −18.01 Va (kips) 2.

12 Pa (kips) −10.51 6.60 9.14( D + C ) + 0.90 −0.37 1.97 −10.78 −114.58 Va (kips) 6.25 −6.46 D + 0.34 −3.09 −0.99 V (kips) −0.14( D + C ) − 0.92 −2.76 −45.14( D + C ) + 0.45 Ma (ft-kips) −30.46 D + 0.13 −0.02 M (ft-kips) 1.7 ρQE 1.25 −3.01 Va (kips) 2.92 Ma (ft-kips) −78.31 −2.05 3.46 −2.74 −3.87 −10.7Ω o QE P (kips) −6.14( D + C ) − 0.46 D − 0.7 ρQE 0.10 −6.35 −31.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1.7 ρQE 0.23 Pa (kips) −10.7Ω o QE 2-96 .82 81.46 D − 0.17 32.56 −0.7Ω o QE 0.7Ω o QE 0.75 33.73 2.24 80.41 −79.65 −3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Bottom of Interior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.

11 −1.5 −10.42 −5.15 −0.7 ρQE 1.22 Pa (kips) −4.63 0.03 −1.09 0.14( D + C ) + 0.36 Va (kips) −0. Section 8.77 −38.30 1. as Pn specified in AISC 341-05.46 D − 0.98 −1. For allowable strength design.90 2.52 −2. using the ASD provisions.14( D + C ) − 0.49 1. G and H.10 −51.46 D + 0.3. Allowable Strengths The axial.91 −5.4 .2 15.58 −0. Section 8.94 −4. None of the trial member sizes changed as a result of 2-97 .22 M (ft-kips) −25. the requirements of AISC 341Pn 05.20 0.7Ω o QE P (kips) −2.20 −67.14( D + C ) − 0.7Ω o QE 0.89 −3.10 −1. F. and flexural strength of the moment frame columns are calculated in accordance with AISC 360-05 Sections D.7Ω o QE 0.19 14. Flexure need not be combined with axial forces when considering this provision. if > 0.13 −22. E.85 Ma (ft-kips) −30.7 ρQE 0. Ω c Pa There are no additional requirements specific to column members of ordinary moment frames in Section 11.71 Pa (kips) −3.7Ω o QE 1 Note that the ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength are only used for Ω P column base design and for column axial check where c a > 0.61 −0.7 ρQE ASD Load Combinations w/overstrength1 1. Part I of AISC 341-05 beyond AISC 360-05 requirements. Final Drift Check The previously calculated drift checks were based on displacements using the initial trial member sizes.4 .23 V (kips) −1.25 Va (kips) −1.7 ρQE 0.33 Ma (ft-kips) −14. shear.14( D + C ) + 0.46 D − 0.3 must be satisfied.14 37.30 −1.46 D + 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Top of Exterior Columns Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh = ρQE) Earthquake w/overstrength (Emh = ΩoQE) ASD Load Combinations 1.85 −2.

4. the previously calculated drift checks would be conservative and not require recalculation. 2.2 Design of OMF Beams There are no additional requirements specific to beam members beyond the AISC Specification (360-05) requirements. 2-98 . Had the initial trial sizes for the moment frame beams and/or columns been changed. the drift calculations might need to be repeated. As a result. the previously calculated drift checks are appropriate. If the initial trial sizes for the moment frame beams and/or columns increased in flexural stiffness.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems the design of the moment frame beams and columns.15.

7 Emax 0.08 Pa (kips) −4.8 −8.67 −3.7 −87.1.5QE )1 ASD Load Combinations 1.85 −0.69 −0.4 Ma (ft-kips) 10.7 Emax 0.1 −56.566 D + 0.7 Emax 1.84 −0.42 4.0336( D + C ) + 0.7 Emax 1.14( D + C ) + 0.58 Va (kips) 2. which gives equivalent seismic forces to R = 1 Design Building B Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Emax = 3.48 64.7 Emax 1 P (kips) −1.93 1.566 D − 0.39 1.5QE . which gives equivalent seismic forces to R = 1 2-99 . Design Building A (R > 3) Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Emax = 3.67 70.55 5.7 Emax 0.5QE )1 ASD Load Combinations 1.9 38.55 −0.3.38 M (ft-kips) −24.2 −9.35 Va (kips) 2.46 D + 0.5 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION DESIGN As previously discussed in Section 1.5QE .6 34.25 2.85 Emax = 3.0336( D + C ) − 0.63 1.46 Emax = 3.83 −0.63 0.1 −74.7 Emax 0.8 Ma (ft-kips) 16.1 −60.14( D + C ) − 0.46 D − 0.05 −2.33 −0.6 V (kips) 2.4 V (kips) 2.7 Emax 1 P (kips) −1.66 0.44 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. the R = 1 approach is used throughout this Guide for the beam-to-column connection design.24 −2.07 Pa (kips) −2.53 −2.93 M (ft-kips) −19.3.02 −1.

an exception is provided for end-plate moment connections.4 = 107. the end plate and bottom bolts should be checked for the maximum positive moment and axial force.4 ft .2. The maximum positive moment (34.kips M axial = ¨ u ¸ (d − t f ) = ¨ ¸ 2 12 in/ft ¹ © © 2¹ The connection design negative moment is then M c = 111. Maxial.9 ft-kips.5.2 ft-kips) will not control the design. The beam flange width is 5 in.50 kips.33 × 1. or subtracted from the factored connection moment for axial compression. 2-100 . the controlling moment at the connection is −74. is used for the design of this connection. Fnv = 48 ksi) are used.5 = 51. AISC 341-05. 2.1 Design Building A 2. the end-plate connection design procedure in the AISC/MBMA Design Guide 16. is §P · § 3. double-sided partial-joint-penetration groove welds and double-sided fillet welds are permitted if the connections are designed to resist a required force of 1.5 = 6.2a are followed. Section 7. 2.5 in − 0. However.9 − 4.5 ft . however it stipulates that ASD design forces should be multiplied by 1. provided the prescriptive requirements of Section 11. stipulates that all faying surfaces shall be prepared as required for slip-critical joints with a Class A surface. However.kips The shear force that accompanies this design moment is equal to 4.6 × 1.95 kips. Therefore.5 = 3. For this example the axial load is compression.25 in ) = 4.1R y Fy Ag of the tension portion of the connection part. ASTM A572 Gr 50 steel and 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems AISC 341-05 does not require qualifying cyclic testing for the moment connections of ordinary moment frames. The equivalent moment. from the above table.5. Flush and Extended Multiple-Row Moment End-Plate Connections. AISC/MBMA Design Guide 16 has a procedure for modifying the connection moment due to the effects of axial load. since the connection is not symmetrical.1 × 1.5.63 × 1.75 in diameter A325-N bolts ( Fnt = 90 ksi. However. In this example.1 Beam-to-Column End-Plate Connection Design AISC/MBMA Design Guide 16 is based on LRFD design. The procedure is to convert the factored axial load into an equivalent moment that is added to the factored connection moment for axial tension.50 kips · (30. The end-plate width is 6 in to match the column flange width.5 = −111. whereby the faying surfaces of these connections are permitted to be coated with coatings not tested for slip resistance.1. or with coatings with a slip coefficient less than that of a Class A surface. This section prohibits using single-sided partial-joint penetration groove welds and single-sided fillet welds to resist tensile forces in the connection.

25 − 1.75 in h2 = 25.25 · d1 = 30.25 − 1.5 − 0.o = 1 3 16 1 2 in in b p = 6 in tp = 1 2 pb = 3 in pext = 2 1 2 in in 1 2 g = 3 in d = 30 in t w = 0.25 · d 0 = 30.10-1 Geometric Design Data Calculate: γ r = 1.5625 in © 2 ¹ § 0. the end-plate yield-line strength is: 2-101 .1780 in Figure 2.75 in Using the AISC/MBMA Design Guide 16 analysis procedure (Appendix B).5 − 3.1875 − ¨ ¸ = 31.6875 in h1 = 28.25 · d 2 = 30.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Geometric design data b f = 5 in tf = 1 4 p f .5 − 0.0 for extended connections § 0.625 in © 2 ¹ § 0.0 − ¨ ¸ = 25.5 − ¨ ¸ = 28.625 in © 2 ¹ h0 = 31.5 + 1.i = 1 in p f .

0 ksi ) (0.085 = 1.0 in) = 2.5 in + 0.i ¹ © s ¹ © p f . Bolt prying force for outer bolts: Qmax.i = 1.0 ª § 28.1 in 2 φb M pl = 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems φ b M pl = φ b F py t 2 pY where: Y= bp ª§ h1 · § h2 · § h0 · 1º 2 ¸ +¨ ¸ +¨ ¸ − » + h1 p f .75[2(39.o = w′ = bp w′t 2 p 4 ao § F′ 2 F py − 3¨ o ¨ w′t p © · ¸ ¸ ¹ 2 1 · 6.75 in) [2.5 in · ao = 3.5 in ≤ s ∴use p f .12 in + 0.25 (3.75 in · § 25.5625 in + 28.75-inch diameter A325 bolts: Pt = π d b2 Fnt / 4 = π (0.0 in)(3.75 in · ¸ ¸ «¨ ¸+ ¸ +¨ ¨ 2 ¬¨ © 1.006 in ¸ − 0.75pb + h2 (s + 0.0 in § 3 1 · § − ¨ db + ¸ = − ¨ in + in ¸ = 2.i = 1.1875 in ¸ ¹ ¼ © + 2 {(28.11 = 3320 in − kips = 2991 in − kips .1875 in 2 © 16 ¹ 2 16 ¹ ©4 3 3 § tp · § 0.9(50.75 in ¸ ¸ − 0.6875 in · 1 º ¨ ¸ − 2» ¨ 1. 1.11 there is thin plate behavior with prying action forces.75 in) 2 (90 ksi) / 4 = 39.75 (3.75 in) [1.682¨ ¨ 0.12 in ¹ § 31.76 kips φ M np = φ [2 Pt ( ¦ d n )] = 0.085 = 3.682¨ ¨d ¸ © ¹ © b¹ 2-102 .625 in )] = 5117 in − kips Since: φ M np > φb M pl 1.0 in )] + (25.25pb ) + g «¨ ¸ ¨ ¨ ¸ 2 2« ¬© p f .5 in Y= 6.5 in ¹ © 2.5 in ) 2 ( 295.625 in + 25.o ¹ 2» ¼ g [( ) ] s= 1 1 bp g = (6.1 in ) = 3320 in − kips For 0.12 in 2 2 p f .i + 0.0 in )]} 3.0 in = 295.76 kips ) (31.0 + 3.

85(6.80( 2.o )d 0 + 2Tb (d1 + d 2 )] [2( Pt − Qmax.45 kips (2.80( 2.i )d1 + 2Tb d 2 ] M q = max [2( Pt − Qmax.85(6.1875 in ) ¸ + » «(0.1875 in)(0.1875 in ) ¸ + » «(0.45 kips (50.1875 in)(0.80w ¸ ¨ « ¹ © 8 © 2 ¬ ·º 1 ¸» ¸ 4p f .75 in ) (90.o )d 0 + 2( Pt − Qmax.50 in) ¸ ¸ = 6.50 in ) (50.i )d1 + 2Tb (d 0 + d 2 )] [2Tb (d 0 + d1 + d 2 )] 2-103 .1875 in = 1.33 kips Connection strength for bolt rupture with prying action Tb = specified bolt pretension load = 28 kips [2( Pt − Qmax.50 in − 1.006 in) 2 § · 14.50 in ) ¸ ¸ «¨ » 8 ¹ ¬© ¼ = 11.0 in ) · º 2 + 0.o ¹» ¼ ª § 0.0 ksi ) ¨ 2 1 © ¹ » =« 3 π (0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ao < pext − p f .1875 in ) ¨ ¸ ¸ «¨ » 8 ¹ ¬© ¼ = 14.44 kips Qmax.0 in ) · º 2 + 0.85b p · § π db Fnt ¨ ¸ ¨ ′ ′ + = + Fo «t p F py ¨ 0.i = w ′t 2 p 4ai § F′ F − 3¨ i ¨ w ′t p © 2 py · ¸ ¸ ¹ 2 ai = 1. 80 + + ¨ ¸ ¨ p « © 2 ¹ © 8 ¬ ·º 1 ¸ ¸» 4 p f .o = (4)(1.i ¹» ¼ ª § 0.50 in) Q max. 75 ) ( 90 .0 ksi ) · «§ » 4(1. 0 ) «¨ » 4(1.006 in (same for outer bolts) 3 ª § 0.3125 in 3 ª 2 § 0.85b p · § π db Fnt ¨ ¸ ′ Fi′ = «t 2 F py ¨ w 0 .50 in ) (50. o = 2.i = 6.04 kips © ¹ 2 2 Bolt prying force for inner bolts: Qmax.0 ksi ) − 3¨ ¨ (2.0 ksi ) ¨ 2 1 © ¹ » =« 3 § · in ksi π ( 0 .

5625 in ) + 2( 28 kips ) ( 28.4418 in 2 ) = 21.75-inch diameter A325-N bolts. From AISC 341-05 Table J2.625 in )] = 5167 in − kips [2(39.4. Fnv Ab = 48 kips(0.33 kips ) ( 28. 2-104 .04 kips ) (31.625 + 25.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems [2(39.5625 + 28. For 0. it is noted that the maximum fillet weld size specified in AISC 360-05 Section J2.04 kips ) (31.625 + 25.76 − 6.33 kips ) ( 28. if used.75(5477 in − kips) = 4108 in − kips = max φM n = φM pl = 3320 in − kips = 276.76 − 6.625 in ) + 2( 28 kips ) ( 25. For this example.2 kips The design shear strength of the four compression side bolts is then φVn = 4(0.5625 + 25.5625 in ) + 2(39.625 in ) + 2( 28 kips ) (31.625 in )] = 5116 in − kips [2( 28 kips ) (31.2.95 kips ok The compression bolts are satisfactory. Welds on both sides of the web are required only from the inside of the tension flange to three bolt diameters below the innermost bolt.76 − 6. If E70 electrodes are used. If the 2002 AISC Seismic Provisions are used.5 ft − kips ok It is accepted practice to assume that the compression side bolts resist the shear force at the connection. fillet welds are acceptable for the beam flange to end-plate weld. CJP welds are used for the beam flange to end-plate welds.75) ( 21.76 − 6.6 kips > 6. the minimum weld size at the beam web and the end-plate is 1/8-in.7 ft − kips > M c = 107. 3/16-in fillet welds on both sides of the web are sufficient to develop the web in tension. Also.625 in )] = 4805 in − kips = 5477 in − kips Since φM pl = 3320 in − kips < φM q = 0.b is not applicable to the beam flange and web to end-plate fillet welds.2 kips ) = 63.625 in )] = 5477 in − kips [2(39.

To the authors’ knowledge.10 k v E / Fy C v = 1. When using these equations.2 Panel Zone Design According to the AISC/MBMA Design Guide 16.37 k v E / Fy Cv = 1. The nominal strength.1.5. no test data is available that shows that full tension field action can be developed for positive moment (that is.10 k v E / Fy < h / t w ≤ 1.10 k v E / Fy h / tw For h / t w > 1. Vn. panel zone plates in gable frames can be designed using the AISC 360-05 rules for beam webs.6 Fy )( Aw )(C v ) where For h / t w ≤ 1. The required shear force is Vu = M u Pu − 2 h where Mu = required flexural strength Pu = required thrust at the rafter face of the panel zone Because of seismic load reversal. the variable h is the depth of the panel zone plate at the rafter side. moment that causes compression in the outside flanges) at the panel zone region of gable frames. as follows: Vn = (0.37 k v E / Fy Cv = where Aw = av t w kv = 5 + 5 (a v / h) 2 1. tension field action cannot be used for the seismic design.0 For 1. is determined using the provisions in the AISC 360-05 Section G.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.51Ek v ( h / t w ) 2 Fy 2-105 .

is h = 29.99 in 2 The allowable shear stress.99 in 2-106 .125 h 29. A 0.1489 in a v = 33.75 in a v 33. Fv. Vu.10-2 Panel Zone Dimensions The applied shear force. is Vu = M u Pu − 2 h = (111.02 kips 29.99 in h = = 201.10-2.5 kips − = 43.99 in t w = 0.1489-inch thick plate is to be checked for Mu = 111.9 ft − kips ) (12 in ) 3.75 in = = 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems av = width of the panel zone at the column top tw = panel zone plate thickness The panel zone dimensions for this example are shown in Figure 2.1489 in 29.50 kips.4 t w 0. w Figure 2.9 ft-kips and Pu = 3.

1489-inch thick panel zone plate is not quite adequate.6) (50 ksi ) (33.1933) = 26. It is not necessary to show repetitive calculations for Design Building B.02 kips > φVn = 26.1489 in ) (0.6 Fy ) ( Aw ) (Cv ) = 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems kv = 5 + 5 = 8.1780-inch thick panel zone plate is required.02 kips Since Vu = 43.2 Design Building B The design forces for Design Buildings A and B are very similar with regard to the beam-to-column moment connection. the 0.23 kips .75 in ) (0. a diagonal stiffener could be used.951 (1. φVn = φ (0.1933 ok 2 ( h / t w ) Fy ( 201.4) 2 (50 ksi ) And.9(0.37 8.951( 29000 ksi ) / (50 ksi ) = 98.125) 2 Since h / t w > 1.71 Cv = 1.51Ek v 1. Alternatively. 2-107 . An increase to 0.51( 29000 ksi ) (8. 2.23 kips < 43.37 k v E / Fy = 1. Design Building B does have fixed interior column bases that would need to be designed for the strength-based load combinations and follows the same procedure as used in the knee area connections.951) = = 0.5.

Furthermore. shear. including the amplified seismic load. Appendix D. the horizontal force component shall be determined from the required strength of the bracing connections.1( R y Fy Z ) using LRFD.1 · the smaller of 1) 1.5 ¹ 2-108 . the required flexural strength shall be equal to or greater than the required strength of the bracing connections. and flexural strength. bolts. Section 8. for © 1.5 of AISC 341-05 gives column base requirements for axial. or ¨ ¸ ( R y Fy Z x / H ) using ASD. connectors. AISC 341-05 also stipulates that the available strength of anchor rods is to be determined in accordance with Section J3 of AISC 360-05. For columns.1. Section 1908. the required flexural strength shall be equal to or greater than § 1. including the column base attachment to the foundation. Appendix D.5 ¹ the column. For columns. • The required shear strength of the column base shall be the summation of the horizontal components of the required strengths of all steel elements connected to the column base. or ¨ ¸ ( R y Fy Z ) using © 1. as well as AISC 341-05 note that the available strength of the concrete elements of the column base such as the anchor bolt embedment length and any reinforcing steel shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. • The required axial strength of the column bases shall be the summation of the vertical components of the required strengths of all steel elements that are connected at the column base. and rods at the base of a column used to transmit forces between the steel superstructure and the foundation. For diagonal bracing utilized as part of the seismic load resisting system (SLRS).Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. The strength of anchors that fall outside the scope of ACI 318. including the column base attachment to the foundation. For diagonal bracing utilized as part of the seismic load resisting system (SLRS). or 2) the shear calculated using the load combinations of the applicable building code. provided they are within the scope of Appendix D. the horizontal component shall be equal to or greater than the smaller of 1) § 2 · 2( R y Fy Z x / H ) using LRFD.16.6 COLUMN BASE AND ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN AISC 341-05 defines “column base” as an “Assemblage of plates. shall be in accordance with an approved procedure. • The required flexural strength of the column base shall be the summation of the required strengths of all steel elements connected to the column base. as amended by IBC 2006. as summarized below.” Section 1912 of the 2006 IBC. This shall include the analysis of the column base attachment to the foundation.

75 factor. if the system connections are required to be designed for either amplified seismic loads or loads based on member strengths. then the column base connection must be designed for the same loads. it states that column bases are required to be designed for the same axial forces for the connections framing into them. or F. After a joint AISC/ACI committee discussed the 0. or 2) the moment calculated using the load combinations of the applicable building code. E. for the column.75 factor on the nominal strength for anchor bolts in SDC C. Specifically. D. ACI 318-08 Appendix was revised to prescribe that 0. including the amplified seismic load. AISC 341-05 includes an extensive commentary to the column base section.5 includes an exception to the 0. The exception will be removed from AISC 341-10. • Section 8. 2-109 .75 applies only to the concrete elements of the interface. Also. which provides additional discussion and guidance on this topic.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ASD.

3. It is expected that for foundation designs.2. Section 1605.1 states that where the foundation is proportioned using the strength design combinations of IBC Section 1605. The first set called the Basic Load Combinations are based on the load combinations found in ASCE 7. The way this effect is be included with other loads is clearly illustrated in Section 12. The second set called the alternate basic load combinations is based on load combinations found in the Uniform Building Code prior to 1997 and permit an increase in allowable values to be used with wind or seismic loads. However. two sets of load combinations which use allowable stress are specified. Current practice is to proportion footings using allowable bearing pressures although strength design is permitted.2.2 and the computation of the seismic overturning moment is by the equivalent lateral-force method or the modal analysis method. IBC Section 1801.3. The net effect of the all the changes in the IBC and ASCE 7 in the areas associated with the soil-structure foundation interface and load combinations is expected to be negligible from prior codes.2 states that when the alternate basic load combinations are used to evaluate sliding. Section 12.7 FOUNDATION FORCES FOR FOUNDATION DESIGN Typically the metal building manufacturer is not responsible for the foundation design. Because there are so many options for designing the foundations. is required to be combined with other loads. the alternate basic load combinations will be used in most cases. It is important to note that Exception 2 of Section 12.4.4 of ASCE 7. the metal building manufacturer specifies the loads imposed upon the foundation.4 of ASCE 7. It is also recommended that the design values of ρ and Ω that were used 2-110 . the proportioning shall be in accordance with Section 12.2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.4 of ASCE 7 shall not be used.2S DS D ). The vertical seismic load effect.3.4 of ASCE 7 permits a 25 percent reduction in the foundation overturning moment if equivalent static procedures are used (provided the structure is not an inverted pendulum or cantilever column) and a 10 percent reduction if modal analysis procedures are used. In IBC Section 1605. This set does not permit increases in allowable values to be used with wind or seismic load. However. it is recommended that the unfactored basic loads be provided to the foundation designer to allow the opportunity to develop the load combinations depending on the approach he or she would prefer to take.13. Ev ( 0.2 of ASCE 7 states that Ev is permitted to be taken equal to zero where determining demands on the soil-structure interface of foundations when used in ASCE 7 Equation 12-4. overturning and soil bearing at the soil-structure interface. It is very important that the foundation loads are clearly identified. Either set may be used for design.3. the reduction for foundation overturning provided in Section 12.

Frame Earthquake Ev = 0.00 −0.07 ±0.47 0.47 0.70 ±0.08 Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.00 0. Frame Earthquake Ev = 0.00 0.90 0.00 ±0. 2. Eh should be divided by 1.27 ±0.77 ±4.00 0.90 0.00 0.00 ±0.90 0.00 −0.00 −0.90 0. Frame Earthquake Ev = 0. Frame Earthquake Ev = 0.00 −0.00 Design Building B P M Vframe (kips) (ft-kips) (kips) 0.2 End Wall Columns without Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom Design Building A (R > 3) P M Vframe (kips) (kips) (ft-kips) 0.00 0.90 0.048(D + C) Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh).048(D + C) 2-111 .00 ±0.47 0.00 −0.00 ±0.00 −0.83 0.00 −0.47 0.00 ±3.07 ±0.00 Design Building A (R = 3) P M Vframe (kips) (kips) (ft-kips) 0.00 0. 2.048(D + C) Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.00 0.7.00 −0.4 and Ev can be taken as zero when used ASCE 7 Equation 12.00 ±0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems be included with the load information.00 Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh. The values in the following sections have been taken from the analysis results and base shear values previously determined in this design example.00 0.2(D + C) Note that if ASD is used for foundation design.49 0.00 0.00 0.1 End Wall Columns with Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom Design Building A (R > 3) P M Vframe (kips) (kips) (ft-kips) 0.7.4-2.00 0.00 −0.00 0.76 ±0.

00 0.26 ±3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh. Frame Earthquake Eh.90 0.00 ±3.45 −0. 2.00 0.53 ±1.90 0.00 0.00 ±3. Frame Earthquake Ev = 0. Earthquake Ev = 0.00 ±0.09 0.00 −0.33 0.00 −0.08 Design Building B P M Vframe (kips) (kips) (ft-kips) 0.47 0.00 Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.048(D + C) −3.3 Exterior Rigid Frame Columns with Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom Design Building A (R > 3) Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.7.00 −0.00 −0.62 0.00 0.12 0.08 −1.45 0.00 −1.10 2-112 .00 0.00 0. Frame Earthquake Ev = 0.00 −0.00 0.00 ±0.45 ±3.62 ±1.10 0.2(D + C) Note that the corner columns have half the tributary load as interior end wall columns and both D and C should be divided by two.08 −1.00 0.00 0.048(D + C) Design Building A (R = 3) P M Vframe (kips) (kips) (ft-kips) 0. Frame Earthquake Eh.20 −1.08 ±0.00 −0.00 −3.27 Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake (Eh).00 0.00 0.18 ±0.00 ±0.18 −0.20 ±0. Earthquake Ev = 0. Long.12 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.048(D + C) Design Building A (R = 3) Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) 0. Long.00 0.

08 −1.49 ±0. Long.00 ±0.90 ±16.00 0. Earthquake Ev = 0.00 −3.2(D + C) Design Building B Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) 0.00 ±0.53 ±1. Long. Earthquake Ev = 0. Long.048(D + C) Unfactored Loads Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.08 −1. 0.90 0.00 ±0. 2.90 ±0.00 0.2(D + C) Note that the columns are pinned at the base and transmit no moment to the foundations.00 0.20 −0.26 0.20 −0.00 ±20.32 −1.58 0.90 ±0.62 0.63 0.49 ±0.00 ±0.00 0. Frame Earthquake Eh.09 Earthquake Eh.00 Earthquake Ev = 0.048(D + C) ±0. Frame Earthquake Eh.00 −3.10 0. Long.65 0.20 ±0.00 ±0.10 Design Building B Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) 0.0 0.00 0. Frame Earthquake Eh.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.18 −0.45 0.7.00 −1.00 Design Building A (R = 3) Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) 0.00 ±0. Earthquake Ev = 0.44 Note that the columns are pinned at the base and transmit no moment to the foundations.00 ±0.18 −0.45 Collateral (C) 0.20 ±0.63 0.00 0.58 0.00 −3. 2-113 .00 −1. Frame 0.32 −1.45 ±1.44 Design Loads Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.62 Earthquake Eh.00 −3.00 −1.00 0.4 Exterior Rigid Frame Columns without Bracing Connected to the Top and Bottom Design Building A (R > 3) Vlong P Vframe Design Forces (kips) (kips) (kips) Dead (D) 0.00 −1.00 0.

72 0.00 0.00 0.42 Design Building A (R = 3) Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) 0.00 ±0.00 −0.00 0.76 0.00 0.00 0. for Design Building B.00 0.20 0.00 ±3.13 0.00 0.048(D + C) Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.92 −2.00 ±0.20 0. the columns are pinned at the base in the longitudinal direction but are fixed at the base in the transverse direction.7.05 −0.00 −6.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. Frame Earthquake Eh.5 Interior Rigid Frame Columns Design Building A (R > 3) Vlong P Vframe (kips) (kips) (kips) 0.00 0.00 −6.00 ±1.78 0. Also.00 0.00 ±0.00 0.00 −2.0 0.00 −2. Earthquake Ev = 0.00 0.90 −0.09 0.00 1.00 0.84 0.90 Note that the columns are pinned at the base and transmit no moment to the foundations for Design Building A. Long. Long. Frame Earthquake Eh. Frame Earthquake Eh.00 0.23 Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh. Earthquake Ev = 0. Earthquake Ev = 0.57 0.048(D + C) Design Forces Dead (D) Collateral (C) Earthquake Eh.00 0.2(D + C) P (kips) −6.60 ±45.00 0.57 0.00 ±0. 2-114 .00 0.42 Design Building B Vlong Mframe Vframe (kips) (kips) (ft-kips) 0.56 ±0.00 0. Long.00 ±0.

Specific examples given for demand critical welds include: 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. If the structure is maintained at a temperature lower than 50° F. Section 7. 3. SMAW electrodes classified in AWS 5. First. Charpy V-Notch toughness of 20 ft-lb at a temperature of -20° F.1 WELDING ISSUES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS Welding Issues For seismic applications. Complete-joint-penetration (CJP) welds between the column and base plate when CJP groove welds used for column splices in the designated SLRS have been designated as demand critical.1. 2. Typical examples of demand critical welds in special moment frames (SMF) and intermediate moment frames (IMF) include beam flange to column welds. AISC 341-05 references the 2004 version of AWS D1. column splice welds. and base plate to 2-115 . welds of single plate shear connections to columns.8. Charpy V-Notch toughness of 40 ft-lb at a temperature of 70° F as determined by Appendix X. SMAW electrodes classified in AWS 5. 2. including: 1. all member and connection welds within the Seismic Load Resisting System (SLRS) are required to be made with filler metals with a Charpy VNotch (CVN) toughness of 20 ft-lb at a temperature of 0° F (. as well as 40 ft-lb at a temperature of 70° F as determined by an appropriate AWS classification test methods. the qualification temperature for Appendix X is to be a maximum temperature of 20° F higher than the anticipated service temperature.18° C).1 as E7018 or E7018-X b. or other approved method when the steel frame is normally enclosed and maintained at a temperature of 50° F or higher. GMAW solid electrodes It should be noted that the manufacturer’s certificate of compliance shall be considered sufficient evidence of meeting this requirement.8 2.5 as E7018-C3L or E8018-C3 c. Welds designated as demand critical have additional requirements. The following electrodes are exempt from the production lot testing requirement when the CVN toughness of the electrode is 20 ft-lb at a temperature not exceeding -20° F as determined by AWS classification test methods. beam web to column welds. a.3 and Appendix W of the Seismic Provisions give an expanded list of welding requirements over those in previous editions.

1 does not contain specific quality criteria applicable for seismic loading. is required for CJP and PJP groove welds along with other items as detailed in Appendix Q. 2. based on the tested item. should also be considered as demand critical welds.8.2 Quality Assurance Quality assurance inspection performed by an independent inspection agency. as well as column splice welds made with CJP groove welds.1. Any special quality requirements for seismic applications are left to the engineer. low cycle fatigue or plastic hinging regions. however. the owner. welds of single plate shear connections to columns.1 does include visual quality criteria. and beam web to column welds. Inspection is required by AWS D1. All WPS should be verified to ensure that the essential variables of the WPS are within the operating parameters provided by the filler metal manufacturer. but does not specify the location or types of welds that require NDT. Other welds such as those joining the web plate to flange plates in built-up EBF link beams. qualified individuals or agencies approved to perform such 2-116 . These requirements would also apply for beam to end-plate moment connection welds. The 2006 IBC requires special inspection for steel construction. All welding is to be performed in accordance with a welding procedure specification (WPS) as required in AWS D1. The plan must meet any building code requirement such as those in the 2006 IBC.3. nondestructive testing (NDT) methodology and NDT quality criteria. The form of NDT is specified within Appendix Q.1. AISC 341-05 contains the provision for and requirements of a quality assurance plan in Section 18 and Appendix Q. it should be verified that the selected filler metal is classified by the filler metal manufacturer with the appropriate level of CVN toughness. The emphasis is placed upon visual inspection. 3. Secondly. These requirements would also apply for beam to end-plate moment connection welds. with a few exceptions as noted in Section 1705. Typical examples of demand critical welds in ordinary moment frames (OMF) include beam flange to column welds (also beam to endplate welds). addressing only static (elastic) and high-cycle fatigue applications. is not a requirement of AWS D1. Nondestructive Testing (NDT). but at the prerogative of. This task is left to the engineer. 4. but is addressed generically in a form that includes both the fabricator’s or erector’s inspection and the outside inspection that is provided by.3. The 2006 IBC requires the submittal of filler metal manufacturer’s certifications of compliance for their filler metals in IBC Table 1704. AWS D1. Typical examples of demand critical welds in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) include CJP groove welds between link beams and columns. in addition to any requirements of the engineer.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems column base welds. Special inspection is performed by independent.1 and approved by the engineer of record. AWS D1.

2. The quality assurance plan must be prepared by a registered design professional and specify the special inspection requirements and testing requirements. but is rather left to the determination of the registered design professional.2 allows in-shop quality assurance activities to be waived if welding is performed on the premises of an approved fabricator. unless the fabricator is otherwise approved by the building official. Section 1705 of IBC 2006 requires a quality assurance plan for seismic-forceresisting systems in Seismic Design Categories C. and identification of those individuals responsible for performing such functions. AISC 341-05 gives appropriate guidance in this area. testing and structural observation for seismic applications is not defined within the IBC. D. Structural observation by the engineer or his or her designated representative is also a requirement. The fabricator and erector must complete a statement of responsibility acknowledging their awareness of the quality assurance plan. including the type of testing and frequency of testing. for which periodic special inspection is permitted. their plans and procedures for providing quality control to achieve the contract requirements. Special inspection includes an inspection of the fabricator’s operations and quality control procedures.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems inspections by the building official. E or F. except for single-pass fillet welds 5/16" or less. The exact extent of additional special inspection. 2-117 . The 2006 IBC Section 1704. Structural steel welding operations must receive continuous special inspection.

1. Section 6. Each system assures a certain level of ductility. the higher is the ductility and/or overstrength of the system. In other words. At this time. it is not the only relevant specification.2. when a ductile SFR system is selected. which is 55 ksi for ordinary frames (OMF and OCBF) and 50 ksi for all higher ductility systems. several widely used seismic-force resisting systems are not listed in the IBC or ASCE 7 due to lack of test data and research. expressed by factors R and Ωo. the system will have no assumed ductility and the only behavior 2-118 . such as cold-formed steel.9 APPROVED STEEL AND WELDING MATERIAL The use of materials for members and connections in metal building systems is governed by provisions of the pertinent material specifications (see IBC. In turn. 2. contains the approved list of materials validated for ductile behavior. The higher the R-factor. However. Since metal building systems almost exclusively use ordinary moment and braced frames this is not a practical limit. Conversely. steel joists or steel cables (wire strand) are covered elsewhere.2). any material is permitted. the use of AISC 341-05 becomes mandatory (IBC Section 2205. Chapter 22) which lists the approved materials or ASTM Specifications. B or C) are not restricted with regard to material selection for seismic-force resisting systems (SFRS). overstrength and redundancy. Use of steel materials other than structural steel for seismic applications is only partially covered by the standards. is not greater than 3 or the SFRS is not a cantilevered column system. even when the actual tensile strength is higher. Fy. designers must make their own judgment for buildings assigned to high seismic design categories.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2. and in some cases the procedure for dealing with non-listed materials. Other steel construction. On the other hand. all materials listed in AISC 360-05 are appropriate as long as the system modification factor. Although AISC 360-05 covers a large portion of metal building elements and connections.2) stipulates how the structural steel shall be used in seismic applications: 1. in elements subject to inelastic behavior. however. if R factor is not greater than 3. International Building Code (Section 2205. if the R-factor is taken as unity (R = 1). E or F). AISC 341-05. as described in the AISC Code of Standard Practice. When a building is assigned to a high Seismic Design Category (D. Metal buildings assigned to a low Seismic Design Category (A. the specified yield strength of Fy = 50 ksi becomes an upper limit.0 (“structure not detailed for seismic”) or the SFRS is not a cantilevered column system. R. The same section of AISC 341-05 also prescribes an upper limit on the specified yield strength. In low seismic applications. and the list is growing. these standards cover nearly eighty systems.

the quality assurance and control procedures discussed in Sections 2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems that can be theoretically achieved is elastic. which is conservative for many design cases. 2-119 .9 of this guide should still be performed even though the R value is less than 3. This rational approach is suitable for most seismic force resisting systems where traditional design was based on the elastic behavior of materials and systems and there is long history of satisfactory performance. It should be noted that when the R = 1 option is used. Ignoring system ductility and overstrength is equivalent to using a system modification factor. R = 1. Cable bracing and low buildings with through-fastened metal wall panels used as shear walls are the examples where the above approach is utilized in this manual.8 and 2.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2-120 .

.1 Case 1 – Small Interior Mezzanine........... 3-9 3...........2.................................... 3-2 3...............2 Case 2 – Small Mezzanine Full Length of Building...................2 Design Example Objective: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Vertical Distribution of Forces: .........3 Solution: ........................................................................................................3 Solution: ............................3 Case 3 – Large Mezzanine as Separate Story................2 Design Example Objective: ...................3................................. 3-13 3.......... 3-8 3.............................................................................................................. In particular..............................................................1........... 3-5 3...............2 Design Example Objective: .........3............................................. 3-16 3-1 ..............3 Solution: ................................................3..1...................2...................1........................2......... 3-12 3......... Three different cases will be evaluated with the mezzanine being an increasing percentage of the total floor area............................... 3-9 3..............................................5 Torsional Analysis Check........................2.2....4 Vertical Distribution of Forces: ..............1............. 3-10 3................................................... 3-6 3........................................1.............................................5 Torsional Analysis Check................... 3-13 3........... 3-12 3......................................... the code limitations on single story construction are examined when a mezzanine is present................................................. 3-8 3........................................1 Problem Statement:......................... 3-5 3.. 3-4 3......4 Torsional Analysis Check.........Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems DESIGN EXAMPLE 3 Evaluation of Design Options for a Metal Building System with a Concrete Deck Mezzanine (Rigid Diaphragm) These examples illustrate how metal building systems can be used for the lateral-forceresisting system when a mezzanine with a concrete deck is added........................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Background...........................................1 Problem Statement:.............................. 3-7 3.3................................................... 3-9 3................. 3-4 3...............................................................1 Problem Statement:....................................................................................................................

and • Wall weight ≤ 20 psf.5. (b) Multi-story up to 35 feet in height (IMF only).2.5. provided that: • Tributary dead load to the roof and floor ≤ 35 psf.7 has further restrictions for SDC F.6 of ASCE 7 provides limitations on OMF and intermediate moment frame (IMF) usage in SDC D and E.5.7) (a) Single-story.2.2. SDC F (ASCE 7 Section 12. Permitted Conditions for OMF and IMF (all other conditions are NOT permitted) 1. (b) Multi-story IMF less than or equal to 35 feet in height. up to 65 feet in height provided that: • Tributary dead load to the roof ≤ 20 psf. SDC E (ASCE 7 Sections 12.6 and 12.2. Section 12. SDC D (ASCE 7 Sections 12.2 indicates that “the aggregate area of a mezzanine or mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the area of that room or 3-2 .5. Definition of a story versus a mezzanine IBC Section 505.2.7) (a) Single-story. (b) Multi-story IMF less than or equal to 35 feet in height provided that: • Tributary dead load to the roof and floor ≤ 35 psf. B.5. Section 12. and • Wall weight above 35 feet ≤ 20 psf (all OMF and IMF higher than 35 feet).Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3 BACKGROUND A.5. General Ordinary moment frames (OMF) have no height or weight limitations for Seismic Design Categories (SDC) A. and • Wall weight ≤ 20 psf. 2. up to 65 feet in height provided that: • Tributary dead load to the roof ≤ 20 psf (all OMF and IMF higher than 35 feet). and • Wall weight ≤ 20 psf.5.2.8 and 12. floor or wall weight limits for this option.2. or C. B.5. and • Wall weight above 35 feet ≤ 20 psf (all OMF and IMF higher than 35 feet).6 and 12. Note that there are no roof.9) (a) Single-story.2. 3. up to 65 feet in height provided that: • Tributary dead load to the roof ≤ 20 psf (all OMF and IMF higher than 35 feet). C.

… In determining the allowable mezzanine area.2. which deals with structures associated with other structures in which case the weight limit is 10% of the total weight. no such requirements currently exist in the seismic requirements. However. it is not uncommon for local building codes to allow explicitly for mezzanines larger than the 33% limitation of IBC Section 505. One should check with the local building official for any possible restrictions on the use of mezzanines. it is the opinion of the authors that as a rule of thumb.2.” Neither IBC. with respect to structural provisions.” IBC Section 505. nonbuilding structures supported by other structures need to be included in a combined analysis when the weight of the nonbuilding structure exceeds 25% of the total weight. For purposes of determining member seismic design forces.1 indicates that “a mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance with this section shall be considered a part of the floor below. torsional analysis should not be ignored on any mezzanine building system where the mezzanine weight is greater than 25% of the deadweight of the tributary portion of the building to which it is attached. however. It is the opinion of the authors that a better measure of whether a mezzanine should be treated as a floor from a seismic perspective would be weight rather than floor area. In Chapter 15 of ASCE 7. the area of the mezzanine shall not be included in the area of the room. In the absence of clear definition. the authors of this guide opted for the only definition available within either standard. 3-3 . The closest to this requirement is provided in Section 12.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems space in which they are located.1 of ASCE 7-05.3. which is associated with IBC fire and occupancy provisions of Chapter 5. nor ASCE 7 defines a mezzanine.

1). as applicable. The latter requires the inclusion of all dead loads and a portion of other loads.2.1 3. 3-4 .1 CASE 1 – SMALL INTERIOR MEZZANINE Problem Statement: Building Design Example at Site 2 (SDC D) Given: Roof Dead Load = 5 psf Roof Collateral Load = 5 psf Eave Height = 20 ft Wall Dead Load = 3 psf (metal walls including girts) Mezzanine Dead Load = 60 psf Mezzanine Height = 10 ft Note that weight limits for classification of steel moment frames given in ASCE 7 Sections 12. These provisions are written specifically for the classification of steel moment frames.5.6 through 12.5.7.1.9 refer to dead loads tributary to the frame under consideration (dead loads are clearly defined and listed in ASCE 7 Section 3. Therefore.2.2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3. which differs from the calculation of effective seismic weights in ASCE 7 Section 12. snow load.1. roof live. floor live. or other non-permanent loads are not required by ASCE 7 to be part of this evaluation.

1.1. Determine if the mezzanine qualifies as a story.2 Design Example Objective: Determine vertical distribution of earthquake forces for the given building to lateral-force-resisting system elements.3 Solution: 1. 3-5 .375 ft 2 ∴Mezzanine is considered small enough not to be treated as a separate story and building can be classed as single story. Amezz = 25 ft × 25 ft = 625 ft2 Aroom = 200 ft × 250 ft – 625 ft2 = 49. 3.375 ft2 Amezz 625 ft 2 = × 100 = 1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 10 Bays @ 25' = 250' 25' Full height columns typical all four corners 200' Metal Building With Mezzanine – Case 1 3.3 % < 33% Aroom 49.

tributary to one frame. wroof (allowable) = 20 psf wroof (actual) = 5 psf + 5 psf = 10 psf wmezz ( estimated ) § 25 ft · 60 psf × ¨ × 25 ft ¸ © 2 ¹ = 3.1. Ordinary moment frame meets all three criteria.75 kips Therefore.4 Vertical Distribution of Forces: The weight of the roof and the weight of the mezzanine.5 ft ) ( 25 ft ) (60 psf ) = 18. Not applicable since building height is less than 35 feet. are calculated as follows.5 kips ) ( 20 ft ) = 0. wx hx (51. wx ( roof ) = ( 25 ft ) ( 200 ft ) (10 psf ) + 2( 25 ft ) (10 ft ) (3 psf ) = 51.75 psf = (25 ft × 200 ft ) wtotal = 10 psf + 3. Tributary dead load check.75 psf ≤ 20 psf ∴OMF can be used for lateral and vertical stability of the mezzanine.500 lb = 51. Note that the three checks in this section were to verify that the system qualifies as a means to resist the seismic forces. The actual seismic forces are calculated in Section 3.5 kips ) ( 20 ft ) + (18.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 2.5 kips ) ( 20 ft ) + (18. 3. 3.75 kips ) (10 ft ) C vx ( roof ) = ¦w h i =1 n = i i C vx ( mezzanine ) = wx hx ¦w h i =1 n = (18.846 (51.75 kips ) (10 ft ) i i 3-6 .75 kips ) (10 ft ) = 0. therefore is an acceptable framing system. Wall weight check (above 35 feet).4.5 kips wx ( mezzanine) = (12.1. Note that the weight of the roof includes the weight of the walls above 10 feet. It is the designer’s responsibility to ensure that a load path exists for these loads and to properly account for them.750 lb = 18.75 psf = 13. Some seismic forces were estimated.154 (51.

5 kips Therefore.84 kips Fx ( mezzanine ) = Cvx ( mezzanine )V = 0.34 kips The frames should also be checked for the following vertical distribution which may produce more bending in the interior columns of the frames.216(51.25 18.05 kips 3.27 > 0. a torsional rigidity analysis should be performed.3 of this Guide) V( oneframe ) = C sW( oneframe ) = 0.5 Torsional Analysis Check If the weight of the mezzanine divided by the tributary weight of the frames associated with the mezzanine is greater than 25%. 3-7 .17 kips ) = 12. then a torsional rigidity analysis should be performed.216(70.75 kips ) = 4.5 kips + 18.1.75 + 51.25 kips C s = 0.154(15.5 kips ) = 11.216(18.25kips ) = 15.4.216 (from Section 1. Fx ( roof ) = C s wx ( roof ) = 0.75 kips = 70.17kips ) = 2.12 kips Fx ( mezzanine) = C s wx ( mezzanine) = 0.846(15. This would include all parts of the structural systems that would seismically resist lateral seismic and torsional forces.75 kips = 0. wx( mezzanine ) wx( mezzanine ) + wx( roof ) = 18.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems W( oneframe ) = wx( roof ) + wx( mezzanine ) = 51.3.17 kips Fx ( roof ) = Cvx ( roof )V = 0.

2 3.1 which includes partition loads as dead loads) Mezzanine Height = 10 ft Mezzanine 25' 10 Bays @ 25' = 250' 200' Metal Building With Mezzanine – Case 2 3-8 .1 CASE 2 – SMALL MEZZANINE FULL LENGTH OF BUILDING Problem Statement: Building Design Example at Site 2 (SDC D) Given: Roof Dead Load = 5 psf Roof Collateral Load = 5 psf Eave Height = 20 ft Wall Dead Load = 3 psf (metal walls including girts) Mezzanine Dead Load = 50 psf Mezzanine Partition Load = 10 psf (see ASCE 7-05 Section 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3.1.2.

750 ft 2 ∴Mezzanine is considered small enough not to be treated as a separate story and building can be classed as single story. The weight of the mezzanine includes the weight of 10 feet of the wall adjacent to the mezzanine.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3.4 Vertical Distribution of Forces: The weight of the roof and the weight of the mezzanine.250 ft2 = 43.2. Amezz = 25 ft × 250 ft = 6.250 ft 2 = × 100 = 14. 3.2. Tributary dead load check.2 Design Example Objective: Determine vertical distribution of earthquake forces for the given building to lateral-force-resisting system elements. Not applicable since building height is less than 35 feet. 2. The actual seismic forces are calculated in Section 3.4.3 % < 33% A room 43. therefore is an acceptable framing system.5 psf = 17. 3. 3.5 psf ≤ 20 psf ∴OMF can be used for lateral and vertical stability of the mezzanine. Note that the three checks in this section were to verify that the system qualifies as a means to resist the seismic forces. Wall weight check (above 35 feet). Determine if the mezzanine qualifies as a story.13 kips 3-9 . tributary to one frame.125 lb = 51. Note that the weight of the roof includes the weight of 10 feet of the left wall and 5 feet of the right wall (adjacent to the mezzanine). wx ( roof ) = ( 25 ft ) ( 200 ft ) (10 psf ) + ( 25 ft ) (10 ft + 5 ft ) (3 psf ) = 51. Some seismic forces were estimated.2.750 ft2 A mezz 6.5 psf (25 ft × 200 ft ) wtotal = 10 psf + 7. Ordinary moment frame meets all three criteria.250 ft2 Aroom = 200 ft × 250 ft – 6. wroof (allowable) = 20 psf wroof (actual) = 5 psf + 5 psf = 10 psf wmezz ( estimated ) = 60 psf × (25 ft × 25 ft ) = 7. are calculated as follows. The assumption was that the column inside the structure that supports the mezzanine was only partial height and didn’t extend to the roof.2.3 Solution: 1.

728 (51.25 kips ) (10 ft ) i i W( oneframe ) = wx( roof ) + wx( mezzanine ) = 51.250 lb = 38.25 kips Therefore.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems wx ( mezzanine ) = ( 25 ft ) ( 25 ft ) (60 psf ) + ( 25 ft ) (10 ft ) (3 psf ) = 38. 3.31 kips ) = 14.04 kips Fx ( mezzanine) = C s wx ( mezzanine) = 0.13 kips ) ( 20 ft ) + (38.06 kips Fx ( mezzanine ) = C vx ( mezzanine )V = 0.3. 3-10 .31 kips Fx ( roof ) = Cvx ( roof )V = 0.4.216(51. since beam and post frames with rods or shear walls would likely be stiffer than the interior moment frames.728(19. This would include all parts of the structural systems that would seismically resist lateral seismic and torsional forces.25 kips ) = 8.38 kips ) = 19.31 kips ) = 5.3 of this Guide) V( oneframe ) = C sW( oneframe ) = 0. Stiffness of the end bay frames must be maintained for this to be a valid assumption.38 kips C s = 0.5 Torsional Analysis Check If the weight of the mezzanine divided by the tributary weight of the frames associated with the mezzanine is greater than 25%.2.25 kips ) (10 ft ) ¦w h i =1 n i i C vx ( mezzanine ) = w x hx ¦w h i =1 n = (38.13 kips + 38. Fx ( roof ) = C s wx ( roof ) = 0.272 (51. C vx ( roof ) = wx hx = (51.25 kips = 89.13 kips ) ( 20 ft ) = 0. Note that since the main frames were all assumed to be the same. That is.13 kips ) = 11.272(19.216(38.25 kips ) (10 ft ) = 0.25 kips The frames should also be checked for the following vertical distribution which may produce more bending in the interior columns of the frames. then a torsional rigidity analysis should be performed.26 kips The above forces should be increased for torsional effects where they may be significant.216 (from Section 1.13 kips ) ( 20 ft ) + (38. expandable endwall frames would be desired. that the stiffness and therefore the distribution would be based on tributary areas.216(89.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems wx( mezzanine ) wx( mezzanine ) + wx( roof ) = 38. 3-11 .43 > 0.13 kips Therefore.25 kips = 0.25 38. a torsional rigidity analysis should be performed.25 + 51.

1 which includes partition loads as dead loads) Mezzanine Height = 10 ft A 65' 11 10 9 10 Bays @ 25' = 250' O 70' H 65' M 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A B C E F G J K M 8 @ 25' = 200' Metal Building With Mezzanine – Case 3 3-12 .1 Problem Statement: Building Design Example at Site 2 (SDC D) Given: Roof Dead Load = 5 psf Roof Collateral Load = 5 psf Eave Height = 20 ft Wall Dead Load = 3 psf (metal walls including girts) Mezzanine Dead Load = 50 psf Mezzanine Partition Load = 10 psf (see ASCE 7-05 Section 3.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3.3.3 CASE 3 – LARGE MEZZANINE AS SEPARATE STORY 3.1.

2b. or be prequalified in accordance with AISC 358.250 ft2 Aroom = 200 ft × 250 ft – 20.750 ft 2 ∴ Mezzanine needs to be treated as a separate story.250 ft 2 = × 100 = 68 % < 33% A room 29. such as building vertical irregularities. Once the building (or frame) is classified as multi-story. Intermediate moment frames (IMF) – IMF’s do not have the story limitation of either ASCE 7 Sections 12. Amezz = 135 ft × 150 ft = 20.2.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3. Determine if the mezzanine qualifies as a story.6 or 12. The requirements for IMF’s in AISC 341-05 must be followed. so the latest version (2005) of that framing system comes with more stringent requirements when compared to earlier editions. The complete lateral force resisting system associated with the column lines identified in the figure above is as follows: Transverse Lines 1 and 11 Lines 2 thru 8 Lines 9 and 10 Longitudinal Lines A and M Lines D and H OCBF IMF OMF or OCBF IMF OMF Note that AISC 341-05 contains some changes to the IMF system.250 ft2 = 29. Beam to column connections need to meet the general requirements of AISC 341-05. the following are possible options to consider: a. Section 10. Since an ordinary moment frame cannot be used for lateral stability for more than a single story. 3. therefore they are permitted for the lateral stability system for this example.5.2. The publication of AISC 358 covers three common configurations of bolted end-plate moment 3-13 . With tapered frames (columns) the soft story or stiffness requirements should be investigated. as stipulated in Section 10. including: i.2 Design Example Objective: Determine vertical distribution of earthquake forces for the given building to lateral-force-resisting system elements.2a.750 ft2 A mezz 20.3.3 Solution: 1. it may be necessary to reevaluate the diaphragm condition and some other criteria.5.7 that ordinary moment frames have.3. 2.

however. ii.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems connections.1). Section 7. Structural steel materials with a pronounced yield plateau. b. Protected zones are designated areas in the frame rafter near plastic hinge locations where any discontinuities made with holes or welds must be avoided. and elongation of at least 20 percent (on 2 inch specimen) are generally acceptable (AISC 341.4. good weldability. the mezzanine framing and bracing scheme is not specified. as described in AISC 341-05. Chapter 6.1).3b.2b.1 of AISC360-05. a two-stage equivalent system is allowed with the following restrictions: i. Section 8. unless the suitability of the material is determined by testing or other rational criteria (AISC 341-05. iii. Also. Section 6. iv. Section C6. The more stringent notch toughness criteria for filler metal must conform to AISC 341-05. Section 7. λp of Table B4. The stiffness of the lower portion must be at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper portion. Commentary. The specified minimum yield stress of the steel to be used for members in an IMF is limited to 50 ksi. The complete lateral force resisting system associated with the column lines identified in the figure above is as follows: Transverse Lines 1 and 11 Lines 2 thru 10 OMF or OCBF OMF Note that the base of columns in the mezzanine area is at the top of the mezzanine.4(8). Note that test parameters will be expanded in the next version of AISC 358 to be published in the near future.2a. when prequalified moment connections of AISC 358 are used. v. the range of tested parameters imposes severe restrictions on the beam depth and flange sizes (AISC 358. Table 6.4 and 8. For the size and location of protected zones near prequalified moment connections refer to AISC 358 Section 6. in accordance with AISC 341-05 Sections 10. Demand critical welds are required near connection end-plates. column elements must meet more stringent limits for seismically compact elements of AISC 341-05. The width-to-thickness limitations of compression members shall meet the compactness requirements.1). 3-14 . As long as the columns of the upper floor rest on the mezzanine as a foundation. When prequalified connections from AISC 358 are used. Two-stage equivalent lateral force procedure – Another solution is to make the break at the top of the slab of the mezzanine.

Depending on the size of the building and loads. so resistance to lateral forces is provided by systems within four exterior walls. Section 13. This ratio shall not be less than 1. iv. OCBF (typically tension-only rods or angle bracing) has height limitations similar to OMF. The period of the entire structure shall not be greater than 1. no weight limits apply to OCBF with height below 35 feet. The reactions from the upper portion shall be those determined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the ratio of the R/ρ of the upper portion over R/ρ of the lower portion.1 times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base.0. In many cases OCBF is not a suitable alternative to moment frames. If the building height does not exceed 35 feet. the whole building can be configured not to rely on the lateral resistance of interior frames. where brace connections are sized to match the expected tension yielding strength of the braces. The flexible upper portion shall be designed as a separate structure using the appropriate values of R and ρ. The complete lateral force resisting system associated with the column lines identified in the figure above is as follows: Transverse Lines 1 and 11 OMF or OCBF Lines 2 thru 8 Core building (Lines A thru H) stabilizes Lines H thru M 3-15 . The complete lateral force resisting system associated with the column lines identified in the figure above is as follows: Transverse Lines 1 and 11 Lines 2 thru 8 Lines 9 and 10 Longitudinal Lines A and M Lines D and H OCBF OCBF OMF or OCBF OCBF OMF or OCBF d.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems ii. In other words. SCBF requires detailing in accordance with AISC 341-05. the special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) is a workable solution. c. The rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using the appropriate values of R and ρ. roof and floor diaphragms can be used to collect and transfer interior loads towards the endwalls and sidewalls. since brace diagonals would interfere with the open space requirements inside a building. iii. however. When the height or weight limits are exceeded. the SFRS in four walls can be OCBF.

a torsional analysis should be performed. 3-16 .4 Torsional Analysis Check By inspection.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Lines 9 and 10 OMF Longitudinal Lines A thru H Stabilized by core building Lines H and M Treated as a width extension and braced by OCBF 3. the mezzanine weight exceeds 25% of the total weight and therefore.3.

..7 Determine the Seismic Load Effect................1.................................................................. 4-22 4.....................2 Determine Site Profile Class..... 4-23 4-1 ..................................................................................................................1 Wall Design Loads .............2 Connection to Longitudinal Walls.........e...............................Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems DESIGN EXAMPLE 4 Determination of Seismic Design Forces and Detailing Requirements for a Metal Building with Concrete or Masonry Walls (Hardwalls) The purpose of this example is to illustrate the seismic design of a metal building with hardwalls (i.............1 Determine Latitude and Longitude for the Site ................................................................................. 4-3 4................................................................3 Wall Anchors at Front and Rear Walls ................2.................................................................................2 Wall Design and Wall to Metal Connection.......................................................................................................... V ...................... 4-2 Design Example Objective:...1..........2.............................................. 4-3 4.................... 4-4 4........................................2...2.............................................. 4-3 4........................1...... 4-2 4 Distribution of Seismic Design Loads .1............. 4-3 4..........................................................................................................................1............. 4-3 4...................................4 Transfer of Seismic Forces to Shear Walls......... 4-20 4................ Problem Statement: ................................................ 4-16 4........... 4-3 4........................... for the Building in each Direction .1... concrete or masonry outer walls).......3 Determine Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Site Ground Motion Values ................ 4-12 4...4 Determine Site Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters............ 4-12 4....... E......... 4-11 4...............................6 Determine the Seismic Base Shear....................... 4-3 4..1 Determine Earthquake Design Forces ...............3 Side Wall Girts .........5 Determine the Occupancy Importance Factor and Seismic Design Category .........................1......................

0F 20 LOAD BEARING 7-¼ “ TILT-UP PANEL LOAD BEARING 7-1/4" TILT-UP PANEL CONCRETE SHEARSHEAR WALL. Wind Exposure B Collateral Load: 3 psf (sprinkler system) Location: 522 S. 4-2 FRAME 24 FT. Also. 3-second gust. = 100 FT. TRANSVERSE MOMENT FRAMES EXTERIOR COLUMNS: FIXED TOP. Alturas. A LEDGER Metal Building Framing – Design Example 4 Building Use: Manufacturing Loads: Roof Live Load: 20 psf Ground Snow Load: 15 psf Design Wind Velocity: 85 mph.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Problem Statement: NON-LOAD BEARING 7-¼ “ TILT-UP NON-LOAD BEARING 7-1/4" TILT-UP PANEL PANEL CONCRETE SHEAR WALL. PINNED BASE 4@ 25 F T. provide seismic design forces for the moment frames and the concrete and masonry walls. SHEAR WALL) (INTERMEDIATE PRECAST ROOF PURLINS SUPPORTEDBY BY BEAMS BEAMS AND ROOF PURLINS SUPPORTED COLUMNS. ROOF SLOPE 1/2 : 12 WALL 27 FT. FT 25 = T. 8@ . Main St. CA 96101-4115 Soils Properties: IBC/ASCE 7 Site Class D Design Example Objective: Provide seismic design forces and recommended connection design details for a metal building with concrete or masonry walls. (INTERMEDIATE PRECAST ROOF PURLINS SUPPORTED BY A BY WALL) ROOF PURLINS SUPPORTED LEDGER ANGLE ANGLE. . PINNED BASE INTERIOR COLUMNS: PINNED TOP. AND COLUMNS NON-LOAD BEARING 7-¼ “ TILT-UP PANEL NON-LOAD BEARING 7-1/4" TILT-UP PANEL (INTERMEDIATE PRECAST SHEAR WALL) CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS.

5-1 Based on the problem description.1. 4-3 .480 Longitude = −120. from ASCE 7 Figure 22-16) Long period may affect design of buildings that have the fundamental period longer than 4 seconds. this parameter can be disregarded.1.4 Determine Site Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters S DS = 2 § 86.542 4.579 g 3 © 100 ¹ 2 § 50.1 Determine the Building Occupancy Category per IBC 2006 Table 1604.5.1 Determine Latitude and Longitude for the Site Latitude = 41. the category is “II” and the corresponding seismic importance factor I = 1.2 Determine Site Profile Class Site Class D (given) 4. and Importance Factor. Therefore. the building use is manufacturing with “normal occupancy”.335 g 3 © 100 ¹ S D1 = 4.67¨ ¸ = 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 4 4.0 .3% g TL = 16 sec.1. (Long-period transition period.1% g Fa = 1. based on ASCE 7 Section 11.857 S MS = 86. 4.1.3 Determine Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Site Ground Motion Values S S = 70.3 % g · S M 1 = 0.5 Determine the Occupancy Importance Factor and Seismic Design Category See Design Example 1 for procedure.1% g S1 = 27.1.9 % g · S MS = 0. 4.9% g S M 1 = 50.67¨ ¸ = 0.1 DISTRIBUTION OF SEISMIC DESIGN LOADS DETERMINE EARTHQUAKE DESIGN FORCES See Design Example 1 for procedure.5. 4.1. As the period of typical metal building systems is shorter than 1 second.239 Fv = 1.

5.020(24 feet )0.6(1): SDC = D From Table 1613.0 psf 4-4 .2 Determine the Seismic Design Category (SDC) Based on IBC Tables 1613.217 seconds Ta = 0.8 for steel moment frame x = 0.0 psf = 2.6. Transverse direction moment frames: Transverse direction end walls: Longitudinal direction sidewalls: Ta = 0.5.6.75 = 0.1.8-7) Where: CT = 0. for the Example Building in Accordance with ASCE 7 Section 12.2 Determine the Initial Effective Seismic Weight.2 Assumed Weights for Initial Seismic Loads Roof panel and insulation = 1.5.5.1.0 psf = 3. 4.020(24 feet )0. Ta.75 = 0. The concrete shear walls are therefore classified as “other”.2 Ta = Ct hn x (ASCE 7 Eq.6 Determine the Seismic Base Shear. V See Design Example 1 for procedure.8.356 seconds Ta = 0.6(2). 12.6(1) and 1613.1. hn = 24 feet.1.028 in the transverse direction because the structural system is steel moment frame CT = 0.5 psf Roof purlin Frame Wall Girts Collateral Load = 1.75 for “all other structural systems”.020 in the longitudinal direction and the transverse end walls because the structural systems are neither ordinary braced frames nor moment frames or steel eccentric braced frames.5.1 Determine the Approximate Fundamental Period. W.028(24 feet ) 0.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 4.6(2): SDC = D Therefore the SDC is D 4.217 seconds 4.8 = 0.7. of the Building per ASCE 7 Section 12. with Occupancy Category II and the SDS and SD1 Site Values From Table 1613. eave height for all frames x = 0.0 psf = 1.

6 psf ) 2 2 2 = 68.28 kips End Wall Weight = (2.0 + 90.0 + 3.75 + 68.0 + 90.55 kips Total Effective Seismic Weight = 18.5 + 1.6 psf ) 2 2 2 = 34.0 psf ) = 9.275 lbs = 34.75 kips Longitudinal Wall Weight at Roof Level = (1.250 ft 2 © ¹ 4-5 .38 kips Longitudinal Wall Weight at Roof Level = (600 ft )(1.250 ft 2 © ¹ § 25 ft · 2 Longitudinal Wall Area = 2(24 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 600 ft 2 © ¹ § 25 ft · 2 Longitudinal Wall Parapet Area = 2(3 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 75 ft 2 © ¹ End Wall Area = (100 ft ) (27 ft ) = 2.375 lbs = 9.550 lbs = 68.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Tilt-Up Wall = 90.500 ft 2 ) (1.3 kips Front Transverse End Wall (One End Wall) § 25 ft · 2 Roof Area = (100 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 1.6 = 285.6 kips Total Effective Seismic Weight = 6.8 kips Rear Transverse End Wall (One End Wall) § 25 ft · 2 Roof Area = (100 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 1.500 ft 2 Wall Area = 2(24 ft ) (25 ft ) = 1.0 psf ) = 18.6 psf ) + (150 ft ) (90.200 ft 2 Parapet Area = 2(3 ft ) (25 ft ) = 150 ft 2 Roof Weight = (2.28 + 244.88 + 34.6 psf ) = 244.6 psf Transverse Moment Frame (One Frame) Roof Area = (100 ft ) (25 ft ) = 2.750 lbs = 18.0 + 2.0 + 2.6 psf ) + (75 ft ) (90.700 ft Roof Weight = (1.620 lbs = 244.5 + 1.0 + 3.55 = 87.700 ft 2 ) (90.200 ft ) (1.250 ft 2 ) (1.

38 kips Longitudinal Wall Weight at Roof Level (600 ft ) (1.0 psf ) = 75.400 ft 2 End Wall Area = (100 ft ) (24 ft ) = 2.6 kips End Wall Weight at Roof Level (Two End Walls) = 2(2.000 ft 2 Longitudinal Wall Area = (27 ft ) (200 ft ) = 5.6 psf ) = 494.6 psf ) = 2 2 2 = 34.400 ft End Wall Parapet Area = (100 ft ) (3 ft ) = 300 ft 2 Roof Weight (20.0 + 3.7 kips 4-6 .6 kips Total Effective Seismic Weight = 9.275 lbs = 34.250 ft 2 ) (1.6 + 137.100 lbs = 137.640 lb = 494.375 lb = 9.5 + 1.0 + 90.0 + 494.700 ft 2 ) (90.6 psf ) = 244.000 lb = 75.5 + 1.400 ft 2 ) (1.6 = 288.0 psf ) = 9.620 lb = 244.000 ft ) (1.700 ft 2 Roof Weight = (1.6 psf ) ¨ 2 ¸ 2(2 ) ¹ © = 137.6 psf ) § 300 ft 2 · + 2¨ ¸ (90.1 kips Total Effective Seismic Weight = 75.28 kips End Wall Weight = (2.3 kips Longitudinal Side Wall (One Side Wall) Roof Area = (100 ft ) (200 ft ) = 20.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems § 25 ft · 2 Longitudinal Wall Area = 2(24 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 600 ft © 2 ¹ § 25 ft · 2 Longitudinal Wall Parapet Area = 2(3 ft ) ¨ ¸ = 75 ft © 2 ¹ End Wall Area = (100 ft ) (27 ft ) = 2.0 + 90.0 + 90.400 ft 2 ) (1.0 + 3.28 + 244.38 + 34.0 + 2.1 = 706.0 + 2.0 kips = 2 2 Longitudinal Wall Weight = (5.6 psf ) + (75 ft ) (90.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

4.1.6.3 Select Design Coefficients and Factors and System Limitations for Basic Seismic Force Resisting Systems from ASCE Table 12.2-1

Transverse Moment Frames For ordinary steel moment frames, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following:

R = 3 .5

ȍo = 3

C d = 3.0

Per definition in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3.1.1, roof diaphragm condition is flexible for both directions, since building has metal roof and concrete shear walls parallel to the direction of loading, along both principal axes. Note g of ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 allows for a reduction of Ωo for moment frames when the roof diaphragm is flexible.

R = 3 .5

ȍo = 2.5

C d = 3.0

Note that design of FR beam-to-column moment connections of ordinary moment frames uses seismic load effects where R=1.0 (see Design Example 1 for explanation). Transverse Front End Wall For intermediate precast shear wall, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following:

R = 4 .0

ȍo = 2.5

Cd = 4

Note: As of 2005 edition, ASCE 7 lists the intermediate precast shear walls which is more practical alternative to special concrete shear walls, yet it allows adequate building height for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D and E. Transverse Rear End Wall For intermediate precast shear wall, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following:

R=5

ȍo = 2.5

C d = 4.5

Despite its name, this intermediate precast shear wall is not identical to the wall used at the front end wall. The SFRS selected for that end wall is a “bearing wall system”; hence, the R and Cd factors are lower. The SFRS chosen for the rear and longitudinal walls is a non-bearing type shear wall, i.e., “building frame system”. Longitudinal Walls For intermediate precast shear wall, select from ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 the following:

R=5

Ω o = 2.5

C d = 4.5

4-7

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

Footnote g of ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 also applies to concrete/masonry walls listed above with flexible diaphragms. The final overstrength factor, after ½ reduction, for SFR systems used in this example is shown in the following table. Summary R 3.5* 4 5 5

Ωo

2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0

Transverse Moment Frames Transverse Front End Wall Transverse Rear End Wall Longitudinal Walls

Cd 3 4 4.5 4.5

* For design of FR beam-to-column moment connections of ordinary moment frames, R=1.0 ASCE 7 Section 12.2.3.2 states “where a combination of different structural systems is utilized to resist lateral forces in the same direction, the value of R used for design in that direction shall not be greater than the least value for any of the systems utilized in the same direction.” However, the same provision allows that R-factor is determined independently for each line of resistance, if three listed conditions are met. This building satisfies all three, i.e., (1) the building occupancy is I or II, (2) the building has no more than two stories in height, and (3) the roof diaphragm is flexible. Roof diaphragm design still requires the least R-factor for each direction of loading. Same section of ASCE 7 also states that “the deflection amplification factor, Cd, and the system overstrength factor, Ωo, in the direction under consideration at any story shall not be less than the largest value of this factor for the R-factor used in the same direction being considered.” Therefore, determining R, Ωo and Cd from the tabulated values and stated limitations yields:

Transverse Moment Frames Transverse Front End Wall* Transverse Rear End Wall* Longitudinal Walls* * Intermediate precast shear walls

R*** 3.5** 4 5 5

Ωo

2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0

Cd 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

** For design of FR beam-to-column moment connections of ordinary moment frames R=1.0 *** Transverse direction diaphragm design uses R=3.5

4-8

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

4.1.6.4 Determine the Seismic Base Shear, V, for Two-Dimensional Models

V = C sW Where:

Cs = S DS §R· ¨ ¸ ©I¹

ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

**Except Cs need not exceed:
**

Cs = S D1 §R· T¨ ¸ ©I¹

for

T ≤ TL

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

**and Cs shall not be taken less than:
**

C s = 0.01

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

**and in addition, if S1 ≥ 0.6g, then Cs shall not be taken as less than:
**

Cs = 0.5S1 §R· ¨ ¸ ©I¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-6)

**Summarize Design Parameters S DS = 0.579
**

S D1 = 0.335

TL = 16 sec.

I = 1.0

R-factor is 3.5, 4.0 or 4.5, depending on the SFRS under consideration. Transverse Direction (Moment Frames) T = Ta = 0.356 seconds W = 87.3 kips Cs = S DS 0.579 = = 0.165 § R · § 3.5 · ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹

S D1 § 1 · ¨ ¸= § R · ©T ¹ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ 0.335 § 1 ¨ ¨ § 3.5 · © 0.356 sec ¸ ¨ © 1 ¹

4-9

(T < TL=16 sec)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

C s (max ) =

· ¸ ¸ = 0.269 ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems

C s (min ) = 0.01

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

**Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for this example because S1 < 0.60 g .
**

Therefore, C s = 0.165

**V = CsW = (0.165)(87.3 kips ) = 14.40 kips
**

Front End Walls

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

T = Ta = 0.217 seconds W = 285.8 kips Cs = S DS 0.579 = = 0.145 § R · § 4.0 · ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ S D1 § 1 · ¨ ¸= § R·©T ¹ ¨ ¸ ©I¹

(T < TL=16 sec)

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2)

Cs (max ) =

· 0.335 § 1 ¨ ¸ = 0.386 ¨ § 4.0 · © 0.217sec ¸ ¹ ¨ ¸ © 1 ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8.-3)

C s (min ) = 0.01

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for this example because S1 < 0.60 g . Therefore, C s = 0.145 V = CsW = (0.145) (285.8 kips ) = 41.44 kips Rear End Walls T = Ta = 0.217 seconds W = 288.3 kips Cs = S DS 0.579 = = 0.116 § R · § 5.0 · ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2) (T < TL=16 sec) (ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-1)

C s (max ) =

· S D1 § 1 · 0.335 § 1 ¨ ¸ = 0.309 ¨ ¸= ¨ § R · © T ¹ (5.0) © 0.217 sec ¸ ¹ ¨ ¸ I © ¹

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-3)

C s (min ) = 0.01

(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5)

Equation 12.8-6 is not applicable for this example because S1 < 0.60 g . Therefore, C s = 0.116

4-10

217 sec ¸ ¹ ¨ ¸ © 1 ¹ (ASCE 7 Eq.217 seconds W = 706. Longitudinal Walls (Shear Walls) Redundancy factor is ρ = 1 4-11 . 12. ρ. The ASCE 7 redundancy factor rule utilizes the number of shear wall bays.01 (ASCE 7 Eq. C s = 0.44 kips Longitudinal Direction Side Walls T = Ta = 0.74 kips ) = 81. 12.7.60 g .3. the redundancy factor is calculated separately for each line of resistance.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems V = CsW = (0.335 § 1 ¨ ¸ = 0.3. E.4.a).7 (ASCE 7 Eq.4 for longitudinal wall Any shear wall having length equal to or longer than three times its height will satisfy the redundancy requirement of ASCE 7 section 12.8-6 is not applicable for this example because S1 < 0.116 § R · § 5.1 Determine the Redundancy Factor.8-3) C s (min ) = 0.116 V = CsW = (0.2 Because the building design utilizes a flexible diaphragm assumption. 12.1. for the Building in each Direction See Design Example 1 for procedure. in each Direction based on ASCE 7 Section 12.7 for transverse walls (200 ft ÷ 27 ft) = 7.309 ¨ § 5. determined as the length of the wall divided by the wall height as follows: (100 ft ÷ 27 ft) = 3.3 kips ) = 33. Therefore.579 = = 0.0 · © 0.8-1) Determine the Seismic Load Effect.8-2) C s (max ) = · 0.4. 12.116) (288. 4.8-1) (ASCE 7 Eq. so the redundancy factor can be taken as unity (ρ = 1).1. 12.2.116) (706.0 · ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ © 1 ¹ S D1 § 1 · ¨ ¸= § R · ©T ¹ ¨ ¸ ©I¹ (T < TL=16 sec) (ASCE 7 Eq.7 kips Cs = S DS 0.98 kips 4.8-5) Equation 12.

3. therefore.56 kips For a wall length of 200 feet the resulting force per foot is (24.2 WALL DESIGN AND WALL TO METAL CONNECTION Non-load bearing concrete shear walls on the longitudinal sides and at the rear of the building are subjected to wind and seismic forces that occur in directions both parallel and against the walls.1 kips ) = 24.116W = (0.0 kips + 137.96 kips ) (1000 lbs/kip) = 60 100 ft lb/ft 4-12 .2.145W = (0.1 Shear Wall Forces Shear walls are designed to resist seismic forces resulting from the self-weight of the wall.56 kips ) (1000 lbs/kip) = 123 lb/ft 200 ft Front Wall V = 0. The connection from the building to the wall only needs to be designed for the portion of seismic force that is transferred from the building to the wall (not the portion due to the shear wall’s self-weight).96 kips For a wall length of 100 feet the resulting force per foot is (5. as follows: Longitudinal Walls V = 0. for moment frames. plus the seismic force that is transferred to the wall from the building.28 kips ) = 5.88 kips + 34.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Transverse End Walls (Shear Walls) Redundancy factor is ρ = 1 Transverse Direction (Moment Frames) Moment frames in the building interior do not satisfy ASCE 7 exception in Table 12.2. The load-bearing wall at the building front is subjected to these forces plus tributary roof dead and live loads.1. In this example.116) (75.3-3. 4. the force transferred from the building to the walls results from the sum of the tributary weights of the roof and the concrete walls not parallel to the direction of the seismic force.1 Wall Design Loads 4. The seismic force transferred from the metal building to the concrete walls would be a set of uniform loads. 4.145) (6. the redundancy factor for transverse direction is ρ = 1.

2. i.4 SDS I ww ≥ 0.2.2 specifies that wall bending must be considered if the spacing of anchors exceeds 4 feet.5 ft · + 4. ASCE 7 Section 12. A force of 400 SDS I (lbs/linear foot) of wall 3. A force of 0.1. the code requirements apply only to columns common to two intersecting systems. other elements of the seismic force resisting system.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Rear Wall V = 0.1. Anchor spacing at greater than 8-foot intervals is not recommended for normal wall construction.05 kips For a wall length of 100 feet the resulting force per foot is (5. Note that ASCE 7 Section 12. 280 lbs/linear foot of wall where: Fp = the design force in the individual anchors I = occupancy importance factor (from Section 4.6 psf ) = 1.11.2 specifies that wall anchors must be designed to resist ′ .e.5 lists the requirements for direction of loading. ASCE 7-05.116W = (0.5 ft ¸ (90. using the greater of the following: the force Fp 1. different building configurations can result in significantly different strength requirements for the connection between building and wall.579 g ) ww = the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor § 22.05 kips ) (1000 lbs/kip) = 51 lb/ft 100 ft However. 4.. This requires anchoring the wall to the building at intervals of 4 to 8 feet. orthogonal effects.4.2 Code Out-of-Plane Wall Forces All of the perimeter walls in this example are supported by the building against out-of-plane wind and seismic forces.38 kips + 34.1. I = 1.11. or F.1.427 lb/ft =¨ © 2 ¹ 4-13 . Section 12. This is discussed more completely in Section 4. Therefore. for typical metal building systems with flexible diaphragms.116) (9. collectors or beams are not subject to design requirements of this section. per unit length of wall. S DS = 0.2.1 times weight of the structural wall 2. when the building is assigned to SDC D.0 ) SDS = the design earthquake short-period response acceleration (from Section 4.1. Unless Type 5 horizontal irregularity (nonparallel systems) is present. such as roof diaphragm. E.28 kips ) = 5.

Therefore.427 lb/ft ) = 143 lb/ft 2.1(1.8S DS Iww = 0.579) (1.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Structural walls (longitudinal shear walls) of this example are not anchored to the roof diaphragm (See Figure 4. The required strength for wall anchors is based on the largest of: 1. the ASCE 7-05 provisions of 12.0) (1.1 apply. the forces in the roof diaphragms include only seismic loads related to seismic weight of the roof (plus portion of snow. Since this roof diaphragm is flexible.579) (1.11.463(1.4(0. the weight of the concrete walls is 90.2.0) ww = 0. Therefore. Since wall forces (in the transverse direction) are transferred to resisting frames via beam action.463ww lb/ft Using purlin spacing of 5 feet. if any). the roof diaphragm is connected to the eave perimeter members.31 kips 4-14 . and the unit wall weight calculated earlier.5 feet. The required strength for wall anchors is calculated from ASCE 7 Equation 12.427 lb/ft ) = 330 lb/ft ≥ 0.427 lb/ft ) = 661 lb/ft Fp′ = 662 lb/ft (5 ft ) / 1000 = 3. the anchorage force becomes: Fp′ = 0. Also.125 lbs © 2 ¹ In the longitudinal direction.2-4). which is at 22.1 do not apply for the transverse direction of loading. which is typically small. hence. Fp′ = 400S DS I = 400(0. The wall is connected to transverse frames via spandrel beam bolted connections.8(0.1ww = 0. the ′ = 330 lb/ft required anchorage force per foot of wall length is equal to Fp The spandrel beam connection to frame columns should use this force.2-2).6 psf and all walls are 24 feet tall with a 3-foot parapet. Fp′ = 0.0) = 232 lb/ft ′ = 280 lb/ft 3.4 S DS Iww = 0. roof diaphragm is anchored directly to the concrete wall. there is no direct connection between the roof diaphragm and longitudinal walls. additional provisions of ASCE 7 Section 12. which are bolted at the top of the transverse moment frames.11. at the front end wall (See Figure 4. Fp For this example. Note that these heights are adjusted for the actual location of the spandrel beam.2.11-1: Fp′ = 0.579) (1. The beam reaction based on anchorage forces at the longitudinal walls is: § 25 ft · Fp = 330 lb/ft ¨ ¸ = 4.

one purlin. ft. The code-specified basic roof live load for this example is 20 psf. Because the actual tributary area that is supported by each roof connection is relatively small (i.7 for ASD.3 Wall-Supported Gravity Loads from Building In this example.000 lbs or 250 lb/ft for the 100-foot wall length.2. or combined (as applicable) • Connection bearing at the purlin connection bolt • Purlin support member (angle.4.) • Purlin support member connection to wall embedded plate (welded or bolted connection) Note that Code treats the component force Fp essentially the same way as the base shear V: they are both covered under the common term QE which represents the effect of horizontal seismic forces.5 ft2). but because snow loading is not required to be considered together with seismic loads in areas where the flat roof snow load is 30 psf or less.1..2. The total dead load supported by the wall is 6. All applicable ASD or LRFD load combinations. Because the site is subjected to a ground snow load requirement of 15 psf.250 sq. the front wall is the only load-bearing wall present. The exception is that the redundancy factor for non-structural components can be taken as ρ = 1. Assuming typical 5-foot purlin spacing.2.2 require that the force Fp in selected steel elements is further increased by 1. 4-15 . which is reducible for large tributary areas. so the final seismic anchorage force for each purlin at the front end wall is: Fp = 1.0 for LRFD). 5 ft × 25 ft ÷ 2) = 62.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Additional requirements of ASCE 7 Section 12.e. the tributary area of roof supported by this wall is 1.6.8 lb/ft of the 100foot wall length.31 kips) = 4.1.875 lbs. no reduction is permitted for this connection.11. etc.4 (3. or 68. the wall is also required to support tributary roof snow loads (including drift loads against the 3-foot parapet). each purlin connection to the front wall requires (5 ft) (250 psf) ÷ 1000 = 1. and load factors apply (0.2.0. tension. and 1. channel. the roof snow load is not calculated here.63 kips This force applies to the following purlin anchorage strength checks: • Bolt strength. shear. The total unreduced live load supported by the front wall is: (20 psf ) (1250 ft 2 ) = 25. From Section 4. 4.25 kips This represents the roof live load reaction plus tributary portion of the dead loads.

STANDARD HOLE . the means of drainage from the roof needs to be considered. One approach is to provide concrete or masonry walls that are shorter than the roof so that the metal roofing can extend over the top of the wall.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 4. with a 3-foot parapet. For this example. It is the wall designer’s responsibility to determine and provide the required details. slotted-hole connections. or other means in order to have the wall classified as a nonload-bearing wall. it would be prudent to alert the wall designer that these provisions have not been made in the metal building manufacturers’ design and need to be provided by the wall designer when such conditions are present. But in this example. the nonload-bearing conditions of the ASCE 7 are satisfied. as shown in Figure 4. However. Section 7. combined dead plus live or dead plus snow load conditions would exceed this limit. drainage will be assumed to be provided via a gutter system that will be provided along the continuous length of the longitudinal walls between the metal roof and concrete walls. 4-16 .2 Connection to Longitudinal Walls In this example.2. the walls extend above the roof. First.2. vertical loads from the roof need to be prevented from transfer to the wall by providing separate framing. SHORT SLOT ⊥ FORCE . not the metal building manufacturer. Therefore. Because this detail separates the roof framing from the concrete wall. a nonload-bearing wall is limited to supporting no more than 200 lb/ft of applied vertical loads.2-1 Use of Bolt Holes in High Seismic Applications The geometry of the connection used between the roof and wall also needs to consider several other factors. SLOT || FORCE Figure 4. Although dead loads alone might fall within this limit.2 requires that bolts be installed in standard holes or in short-slotted holes perpendicular to the applied load (see Figure 4.2-1). Note that AISC 341-05.2-2. As defined in the ASCE 7 Section 11. the two longitudinal walls are nonload-bearing shear walls.

3 recommends a deflection limit of L/240 for wind loading. Transverse moment frames that brace the walls are spaced at 25 feet apart. Therefore.2-2 Section Showing Continuous Gutter System Another factor that needs to be considered in the connection between the building and wall are the code requirements for maximum lateral spacing of anchorage against out-of-plane wall forces.2-2. assuming 10 year-wind and elastic behavior.1 Spandrel Beam used as a Connecting Element If a spandrel beam is used. however. 4-17 . The beam must be designed to transfer the longitudinal wind or seismic forces from the building roof horizontal bracing system into the shear wall. 4.25-inch wall thickness are typically spaced about 4 to 6 feet apart. if used.2. can be sloped down from the plane of bracing to connect directly to the support beam or column web adjacent to the support beam. 2. There are no Code prescribed serviceability limits for seismic loads. Horizontal roof bracing rods. it is recommended that a similar serviceability limit (L/240) be used assuming a seismic load (Fp) as described below. the following factors should be considered in the design: 1. whereas normal wall anchor spacing for a 7. AISC Design Guide No.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Figure 4. either a spandrel beam or eave trusses need to be provided to collect the forces from the walls and transfer them to the moment frames.2. The horizontal deflection of the beam should be limited based on the acceptable maximum deflection allowances. as shown in Figure 4. Therefore.

4 S DS I ww 0.28 kips (ASCE 7 Eq. therefore.1 ww Fp Where: SDS = design spectral response acceleration = 0.5 ft) (90.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 3. 4.68 kips The total horizontal wall force is given by: Fp = 0.232W p = 0. cantilevered height of the wall parapet should be measured from the height of the spandrel beam. The spandrel beam must be designed to resist the out-of-plane seismic wall forces.579 g ) 1.4 (0.5 ft/2 + 4.11-1) 4-18 .1.579g for this design example ww = (22.0 ww = 0. it should be designed for the out-of-plane forces per ASCE 7 Section 12. The true.1 ww Fp The weight of the wall tributary to the spandrel beam based on a 25-foot spacing of the transverse frames and a wall weight given by: W p = (25 ft ) ww = 25 (1. not from the point of intersection of the roof line and wall.2-3 Spandrel Beam Used as Connecting Element The spandrel beam is the main load-carrying element in the structural wall (shear wall).427 kip/ft = the weight of the concrete wall tributary to the spandrel I = importance factor = 1.68 kips ) = 8.0 for this design example ′ = 0.427 kips/ft ) = 35.232 ww > 0. ′ = 0.232(35.6 psf / 1000) = 1. 12.11. Maxim um Lateral Beam Deflection Figure 4.

orthogonal effects.0 inch = I min (horiz ) 5wL4 384 EI 4 3 5(330 lb/ft ) (25 ft ) (12 in/ft ) = = 100 in 4 (384) (29. all component forces and moments calculated above will be further multiplied by the applicable load factor: 0.86 ft . which in this case are the transverse moment-resisting frames and the building end walls. Both. but are more complex to erect. 4-19 . Rhoriz = Fp 2 = 8. Unless Type 5 horizontal irregularity (non-parallel systems) is present.28 kips = 4. for typical metal building system the Code requirements apply only to columns common to two intersecting systems.000.28 kips 1000 = 331 lb/ft 25 ft whoriz L2 8 Applied uniform load. bending moment.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems The spandrel beam should be designed for the following member forces: End Reaction.0 for LRFD. 1. when building is assigned to Seismic Design Category D through F.. the redundancy and the overstrength factors used with component forces are unity (1. such as roof diaphragm.2.e. to be designed to resist the forces resulting from application of the Fp component forces. collectors or beams are not subject to design requirements of this section. Assuming that the building details permit a maximum deflection of 1 inch. whoriz = Max.2 Eave Trusses Used as Connecting Element An alternative means to resist the Fp wall anchorage forces is to provide continuous lines of eave trusses along the longitudinal sides of the building.7 for ASD and 1.kips For member design. the required minimum moment of inertia. would be. M max (horiz ) = = (331 lb/ft ) (25 ft )2 8(1000 lbs/kip ) = 25.2. as shown in Figure 4. Imin. Eave trusses are lighter than horizontal beams and have less deflection concerns.0).2-3.5 lists the requirements for direction of loading. Note: ASCE 7-05 Section 12. i. other elements of the seismic-force resisting system.0 in ) Note that the building code does not require the primary resisting systems. 4.000 psi ) (1.14 kips 2 Fp L = 8. Therefore.

a simple wall anchor connection can be provided by connecting the roof purlins to the walls with a connection designed for the required out-of-plane anchorage force.3 Wall Anchors at Front and Rear Walls At the two end walls. Assuming a uniform purlin spacing of 5 feet. These purlins are capable of providing a strong and continuous cross-tie across the length of the building. and by designing the purlins for the resulting tension/compression forces. the required design out-of-plane anchorage force between the wall and purlin would be: Fp = (331 lb/ft ) (5 ft ) = 1.2-3 Eave Trusses Used as Connecting Elements 4. the resulting connections might resemble one of those shown in Figures 4. although the purlins alone do not necessarily provide a clearly defined load path into the horizontal roof bracing system that takes the forces to the longitudinal shear walls.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems Figure 4.2. Forces are transferred from the purlins to the horizontal bracing by one of the following mechanisms: • Where metal roof systems with documented shear strength and stiffness values are used.655 lbs At the bearing wall. the metal roofing can act as a subdiaphragm to transfer forces from the purlins to the main horizontal bracing cross ties. Connections at the nonbearing wall might be similar. except with vertically slotted holes in the connections so that the purlin weight is supported entirely on the adjacent roof beam.2-4. Documentation of shear strength and stiffness could be in the form of 4-20 .

the transverse shear forces at the end frames and the gravity forces at the front wall must be accounted for in the design. (a) (b) Figure 4.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems calculations per the appropriate analytical method or test results based on a recognized test procedure. • An alternative load path is to provide a spandrel member along the rake at the end walls. Due to the generally large depth of diaphragm versus the relatively short span between main horizontal bracing cross ties. similar to that shown in Figure 4.2-4(a). The level of documentation required may depend on the engineer of record. the shear forces associated with this transfer tend to be trivial. Additionally.2-4 Example of Wall Anchor Connection 4-21 . which can transfer forces to the main horizontal bracing cross ties.

1 requires that these collector elements in SDC C or higher be designed using the special load combination with overstrength of ASCE 7 Section 12. provided that the continuous wall reinforcing is designed as a collector element to transfer the combined forces of metal building and walls to the resisting shear wall sections.3.4 Transfer of Seismic Forces to Shear Walls In Section 4. as shown in Figure 4. • If the concrete wall system is interconnected along the wall length.2. In this instance.2 • If the concrete wall sections are not interconnected at each end.2.4.2-5. This is often accomplished by providing a sleeve or by 4-22 . Location of Horizontal Roof Bracing Effective Shear Wall Length Figure 4.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 4. The design of the load path and connections that transmit this force needs to consider a number of factors. and (2) the designer of the walls would need to provide an extensive amount of information (the detailed distribution of shear forces between the walls and collector system).10. This is generally the preferred approach. a substantial steel collector element may be required. although details relating to continuity of the wall reinforcing across the wall joints need to be able to accommodate expected thermal and shrinkage movements of the individual wall sections while also providing sufficient strength to meet code requirements.2-5 Hypothetical Wall Elevation When the location of the resisting shear walls does not align with the locations of the applied forces (in this case. ASCE 7 Section 12.1. since (1) a greater weight of steel would be needed to provide a separate steel collector element than if it were included in the wall design. the attached metal building will transfer seismic forces to the shear wall caused by the metal building weight. then a collector element needs to be provided to transfer these forces to the resisting elements. the roof horizontal bracing and the forces from the individual wall panels).2. as well as the self-weight of concrete wall sections that are too flexible to resist seismic forces due to wall openings. the total seismic design force from the metal building to the concrete walls was determined. but instead often contain many openings that reduce the total effective shear wall length.1. This design approach is generally not recommended. then seismic forces from the roof horizontal bracing can be directly connected to the wall. • Building walls are generally not continuous.

when any attachment or force transfer is planned. it is all too easy for the designer of the metal building to assume that the wall designer will provide the needed elements. 4-23 . In the absence of communication and a clearly defined scope. 4. since it is simpler and more economical to connect the wall along one line at the top. and the designer of the wall to assume that the metal building will do likewise.3 SIDE WALL GIRTS Intermediate side wall girts are generally not used with single-story structural concrete or masonry walls. with the result that code-required elements may be missed.Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems wrapping the continuous reinforcing bars within the wall for a short distance on each side of the joint to provide a slight elasticity to permit small shrinkage movements to occur without inducing high tensile stresses in the bars. The real meaning of these factors is that clear communication and coordination needs to occur between the designer of the metal building and the designer of the perimeter walls.

Seismic Design Guide for Metal Building Systems 4-24 .

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