You are on page 1of 5

DETERMINATION OF WIND LOADS

The 2009 International Building COOs (IBC) wind proVisions found in IBC section
1609 have adopted the provisions of ASCE 7-05 , MInimum DeSJgn Loads for
BuiJdmgs and Other Structures, by reference. These provisions, which appear in
Chapter 6 of ASCE 7, can be difficolt to understand, This Codemaster provides
step.bystep instructions explaming how to determine the deslgn wind loads First,
Steps 1 through 4 address how to determine charactenslics about the slNcture's
location and configuration that direcl1y affect the magnitude of wind loads. Next
Step 5 addresses determination of Importance Factor which is a step common to
all wind design methods. Next, Step 6 clearly outlines the different methods that
may be used to determine the design wind loads lor the structure. Finally, a step-
by-step format is presented to provide a clear explanabon for the three most
I commonly used design methods
location V(mph) location V(mph)
Hawaii 105 Virgin Islands 145
Puerto Rico 145 American Samoa 125
Guam 170
Notes
1, Unear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.
2. Islands and costal areas outslde the last contour shall use the last wind speed
contour of the costal area
3. MoontalflOUS terrain. gorges, ocean promontories, and special wtnd regions
shaH be examined for unusual WInd conditions.
STEP: 2 DETERMINE EXPOSURE CATEGORY (8 C. OR D)
Tel: (847) 991-2700
Fax (847) 991-2702
skghosh@aol.CQm
Copyright 0 2009 by SKGA
DESCRIPTION
Surface Roughness Bis dlaractenzed by urban and suburban
areas, wooded areas. or other terrain with numerous doseIy
spaced obstructions haVIng the size of single-family dwellings or
larger, Use of Exposure Category Bis limited to those areas lor
which tarratn representative of Surface Roughness Bprevails in
the upwind directlon for a distance of at least 2600 feet or 20
limes the height of the building or other structure, whichevef is
greater,l
Exposure Capplies for all cases where Exposure Bor Ddoes
"',_
Surface Roughness 0 is characterized by flat, unobstructed
areas and watll!' surfaces outside hurricane prone regionS
including smooth mud flats. salt flats, and unbrolo:en ice.
Exposure 0 applies where Surface Roughness 0 prevails in the
upwind direction fOf a distance greatll!' than 5000 fI or 20 times
the building height, whichevef is greater. Exposure 0 extends
into downwind areas of Surface Roughness BOf Clor adistance
of 600 fI or 20 limes the height of the building or structure,
whichever is greater
CodeMaster developed by:
......CIIIA._
A subsidiary 01 SK Ghosh Associates Inc.
www.skghoshassoclates.CO<T\
ISBN 978-1-936039--01_2
c
B
o
EXP.
'For buildings whose mean rooftlelQhlllles$ than or equal klJO ll. the upwn:! dislance may'
be reduced tp 1500 tl.
Three Exposure Categones (B, C, and 0) are defined in terms of the extent and
types of Surface Roughness that are Upwind of the site Surface Roughness
Categories B, C, and 0 are a classification system established to reflect the
;characteristics of ground surface irregularities. The more obstrucbons (e.g. trees,
structures, fences. etc.) there are on the site upwind of the building, the more the
effects of WInd forces are reduced due to friction. The Exposure Category (B, C, or
0) needs to be determined based on the Surface Roughness Category (IBC
section 1609.4.2, ASCE 7Section 6.5.6.2), l'Iflidl is a function of the topography,
vegetation, and constructed lad lties. and the Upwind distance oyer which the
Surface Roughness prevails The following table may be used to determine the
Exposure Category lor the site (IBC Section 1609,4, ASCE 7 Section 6.5.6.3).
The term "mean roof heighr in ASCE 7Section 6.2 is defined as the average of the
roof eave height and the height to the highest poinl on the roof surface, except
for roof angles of less than or equal 1010 degrees, the mean roof height is equal to
the roof eave height Eave height is defined in ASCE 7 Section 6.2.
'"
''''

'"
''''
140 140 150

western GuW Of Mexico I


Mid and .Northern AtIanlic
'00

'M
Slates
'"
''''
'M
'"

DETERMINE BASIC WINO SPEED (35ECONO GUST)
IBC Figure 1609 (ASCE 7 Figure 6-1) shown below presents basic wind speeds for
the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii and other U.S territories. The basic
wind speeds shown reflect the peak gust Wind speed recorded within an averaging
time of approximately 3 seconds at 33 feet above ground lor Exposure Category C
(see Step 2). The special wind regionS (as shown by gray shading on the map) are
required by IBC section 1609.3 (ASCE 7 Section 6.5.4) to have their basic wind
speed detennined in accordance With the local jUrisdiction requirements and ASCE
7 section 6.54 Even if not located in a special wind region, it is a good idea to
confinnthe basic wind speed with the local jurisdicbon in which the structure wiJI be
built.
;he wind design of abuilding typicany involves two aspects design of (1) the Main
I-VInd Fon;&-RBSiSlmg System (MWFRS) and (2llhe Components and Cladding
C& C).
Mam WIIld System (MWFRS) An assemblage of slructural
elements aSStgl'led 10 provide support and stability for the overan structure, The
system geneTaUy receIVeS wlIld Ioalfmg from more !han one sorface
Components end CJaddmg (C &C): Elements of !he buldlng envelope thaI do
:)( qualify as part of the MWFRS Examples of components are fasteners, studs,
Jrtins, and glrts and examples 01 cladding are wall and roof ooveOngs. curtain
IS and 0V9fhead doots
NOTE: The minimum horizontal wind Jnssure for the MWFRS of,n enclosed
Of" partially encloud building 15 10 pst acting on the ,rea of the building
rojlCted onlo a vertical plane normal to Ihe assumed wind direction In
iCcordance with ASCE 7 Stctlon 6.1. The minimum design wind pressure for
C & C15 10 acting In either direction normal to the surfac. Glazing in
Occupancy Cat89Of'Y II, IH, Of IV buildings located In wind-borne debris
Ions needs to be Pl'otected as Impact resistant acconling to ASCE 7
6.5.9.3 over 1) lhe first 60 ft height above the ground and 2) the first
',0 It above aggregate surface roofs located withIn 1500 ft of the bulldlng.
:Hustration of MWFRS and C& C
'"
,
,
"-
,

,
I ,
,:

.,
.-.. 12
,e
..,.
STEP 2 DETERMINE TOPOGRAHIC FACTOR Krr
If there are 1'10 abrupt changes in the topography and the structure is on le'l8l
ground K.J =1.0. O\heIwise, determme K.J =(1+ K" /(2, and are
sellorth In ASCE 7Flg\lre (pages 45-46).
STEP 3 DETERMINE Ps30 FOR MWFRS
Use ASCE 7 FlQure 6-2 (pages 38-39), Based on the basic WInd speed and the
roof angle, delern1ine which IS the Slmpflfied deSIgn 'Mnd pnlssure for
Exposure e, h =30 11:, and / =1,0, Note that load Case 1cooesponds to poSItive
internal pressure and Load case 2 10 negauve Internal pressure The design of the
roof members or the MWFRS IS Influenced by intemal pressure However. for
SIITIpIe diaphragm bUJIcIings With roof angles less Ittan 25' it can be assumed thai
the maXImum Uplift. produced by apo5Itive inlemal pressure. IS the mntrolkng load
case From 25" to 45' both posiove 800 negatIVe internal pressure cases (load
Cases 1and 2. respectIVely) need to be checked for the roof, because !he external
pressore on the W1ndwartl roof beoomes positive beyond a roof angle of
appI'OXlmalely 25-
-= ). KJl / plJIJ ASCE 7Equabon (6-1)
Simplified design WInd pressure. P., for the MWFRS of Iow-ose Simple
bu\ldIf'lgS rapresent the I'Illt pressures (sum of ellltemal and intemaJ) 10 be applied
10 the honzonlal and vertical proteebons of sorta<:es as shawn below and
In Figure 6-2 (page 37), It IS calculated '" accxwdance WIth ASCE 7 Secbon
6.4.2.1 For the honzontal pressure zooes (Zones A, e, C. and 0), fJf Is the
combInabori of the 'NlrIdward and leeward pressures
Notes:
1. End zone WIdth =28, 8 = 10% of least-horiZontat dimenSIOn or O.4h,
whichever is smaller, bul not less than either 4% of leasl horizontal
dimension or 3II.
2, For the design of the MWFRS III the longitudinal direction of wioo, use
a=O and locate \he Zone ElF, GIH boundaries at mid-leoglh of the
"'Idlng
3, load Case 1and 2 are to be c:hecked lor 25- < e<45". Load Case 2
at 25- is provided only for interpolalJon purposes.
4 IIIhe total horizontal loads on Zones Band 0 are negallve, they are to
be tall:en aqualla zero.
Note that the load pattern shown in ASCE 7 Figure 6-2 (page 37) Is
reqwred to be applied to each comer of the building In tum as the reference
comer - See ASCE 7 FlQUre 6-10 (page 53). However. if a buiIdiog IS
doubly symmetrical, no new Il1foonalion wiD be produced as the building is
turned 10 make 8 new comer !he reference comer If a building Is
syrrmebical about one axis only, one 90- bJm of lt1e building wi" produce
new InformaIJon that needs to be oooSldered In design
STEP 5 - DETERMINE PnefJO FOR C& C
Use ASCE 7 FlQure 6-3 (pages 42-44) to determme PtrIt Based on the
basic wmd speed, tie roof angle. and the effective area of the component
determine P/d, which Is the net design Wind pressure fOt B,
h=30 11:./ =1.0, and /(a =1.0. The pressures areglYen for zones 1-3 (roof)
and Zones -4 and 5 (waJlS)1n1O wtlICh the SlJrface area of the buildrng Is
d."Ided. as shown Kl Figure 6-3 (page 41).
DETERMINE NET DESIGN WIND PRESSURE
PnfttFORC&C
I
,
,
,
,
,
Flal Roof

Kd < 1 and takes into


account the reduced
probability of
maximum Winds
coming from any given
direction.
II should be noled that
the corresponding
wind load factor
(ASCE 7 Sections 2.3
and 2.4) should be
consistent with the
selection Of K.,. Refer
to ASCE 7
Commentary to
Chapter 2 for further
delails.
How?
ASCE 7 Table 6-4
(page 80)
Wind
Oirectionality
Factor, Kd
(6.5.4.4)
Gable Roof (7" < e 45)
STEP-SySTEP PROCEDURE FOR METHOO 2-
AN"-vnC"- PROCEOURE (ASCE 7 SECTION 6.51
Determine
What?
(ASCE 7 SectIon)
Noles'
1. a = 10% of the Ieasl honzontal dimension or OAh, whicl1ever Is smaller,
but not less than either 4% of least horizontal dimension or 3 ft
2. For hip roofs with e 25, Zone 3 is to be treated as Zooe 2
Note: Steps 1-6 at beginning of this CodeMaster should be completed
befool proceeding with the steps beIcrti
ASCE 7 Equallorl (6-2)
'"

,
,
"

/: ,
,
P"" = "Kid I Ptdl
.,
,
,
,
Net design wind pnmure. P/IIlI, for the C &Cof bUildings deSigned using
Method 1represents the net pressures (sum of external and internal) to be
applied normal to each bUilding surface as shown in ASCE 7 Ffgure 6-3
(page 41) and as ShOWn below It IS calculated in ICCOfdance with ASCE
7SecIJon 6,4 2.2
I

,
H
1Transve.... )
..
MWFRSonc-.
--
-
-
"I I r
, ,r
(1
Ii"
STEP8y.STEP PROCEDURE FOR ASCE 7 METHOO 1:
S,MPLIFIED PROCEOURE (ASCE 7 SEcr"", 6.4)
Note steps 1-6 at beglnnJrlQ of thJs CodeMasler should be compleled before
WIth the steps below
ThIs SImplified method IS applk:able to buildH'lgs satisfying all of the conch\iol'ls set
forth In ASCE 7Secboo 6,4,1. These condlbons IocllJI1lllhe following:
The boiIdlng Is smple diaphragm, and reguIar-shaped as defned
lt1 ASCE 7 section 6.2.
The butldlng Is eodosed as defined In ASCE 7Secboo 6.2 &rKl conforms
to the WlflO.bom8 debris prDVISlOns of ASCE 7Sectton 6.5.9.3.
The building is no! a I\eXl'ble building as defined III ASCE 7 Section 6.2
The bUIlding does r'lOl have response c:haracteoslics making Hsubje<;t to
across Wind IoadIllQ or 0Ihet assocaated ph.enomena and does not have a
Site kx:allon where upwind obslructlons may wammt special ronsIderalJon.
The buBdlng has an approximaleJy symmetrical cross section In each
directlon with either a flat roof or 8 gable or hlp roof With slopes no!
exceeOr1Q 45-.
The building is exempted from mionel load cases as iodicated In ASCE
7, FlOUre 6-10, Note 5 or these torsional load cases do not conlrollhe
design of any of the MWFRSs (rTl8alllll!J the building is not sobfed to
Sllfnfficanl tmlon).
OelllflTllllEllhe Height 8nd Expowre Al1Juslment Coebnt, ;., In accordance with
ASCE 7 FlQure 6-2 (page 40). The tabUlated Wind pnlssures are based on
Exposure Bal 30 II. heighl The Helghf and Exposul8 Adjustment Coebnl, )..
lakes Into accoont other exposure and helght condi\lOl'ls.
rSTEP 1 DETERMINE HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE
_ AOJUSTMENT COEFFICIENT A
This worillS will h1lt'd1llllrldio'lg tIat SKGA. SCI ICC a"ld Ihs IUthor1 n
Il'tformatlOll bul are not antrnptlng 10 render tnglllCOnl'lQ or olhef prof8lllONll
1lIr'oUS. If such servICea we 18q1JQd. thI auilianal of quIllfltd profeuiDnall ahooId
be.:lUght SKGA, SCI. ICC and ths IU#lors DISClAIM IOY..a II RESPQNSIBIUTY
and lIABILOY b"lCClAC)' of n tie .......1d Iht InfOrmIIon CCXlIIIned in Ihd
pOOIicIlJon the flj extent pemIIIad by ill I8w
The siu::lule cannot ha'le fInj 01 .. fypeS 01 roofs
.""-....
.-
.-
"""" WI1 roof sk:Jpe ) 45 d!lg
The sInX:tlru cannot r 01 \l'it fOOMng
Solid fre&.star'ldIng waijs LlfMat.ons on type of
SoIIIIlgIIS IlnItlUrtI
._-
STEP 3 DETERMINE TOPOGRAPHIC FACTOR K.l!
STEP 4 DETERMINE NET PRESSURE COefFICIENT ene!
fOR MWFRS AND C & C
Determine veIodly pre5S1Jre exposure ooe1'rtcienlS. 14 III accordance With
ASCE 1 5ection 6.566. Nolt flat the sublaipt "Z-II lor any helghl abOVe ground
level and !he subsctlpt of(' II tot the mean roof htlght For tOe windward wall of
a structure. K..IS used, For leeward wall and SldttwaIII, and for \lll'1f\dWard and
__K,Is ....
Based on !he baslc wn:I speed. V .,. ......nd 1LIQRa\lOn pteIaIA. q.
from IBC Table 16096.2 PI
STEP 5 DETERMINE DESIGN WINO PRESSURE p"P( fOR
MWFRS AND C & C
STEP 2 DETERMINE VELOCITY PRESSURE EKPOSURE
COEFFICIENT Kz K"
c...::; net preatn 'bMId on !1G!t(;al 'c.
For lie des9l rJ fie MWFRS and C&C .. unoil'll edlrnallI'ld net
ft based on .. net pt-..a coeftIcieo'l( c... The IftSSUIt o:JdoInI.
c.... lor walsand roofs ildlIIiIl".lId ttw"n 18C T8bIt 1609 6.2 (2) 'MIn c..may
MfI!!'In flan one YaIIJe. ltlI rm'e ....... WI"Id laid condilal" u.-t., deIign
STEP 1 DETERMINE WINO STAGNATION PRESSURE q,
If '*"n rJJ 8ttl.4lt dmges tllIe I)' WId tI'te IN:lft 1\ on M
-r1.,cI<'K. whereK1 ldl( dr,. '1CM'tt1
"ASCE 7 FIgUte 6-4 (pagel4S--401
p..' q.K, C.dl K"J I1!C 1&.3'
WInd pteSSlJrBS iQ iIAIIed on. end 1\ a cIrecIon I'CInTlII m. II
I>lting.....". ... "", d..- _ .. from 11!C_
1609 &3 """"..., _ "" .. MWfRS '*"'" be "" .... 10 pol""""""
by iIe .. of h !itIJctln P'Of'C*l on a pIInt m!he 8IIUIned WIld
th::lIon, See ASCE 7 Section 6.1 4 b aw.
IBC SectIon 1609.641 reqUItes consldnllOn ollOftional effects as lndk::ated
In ASCE 1 FIgUre 69 in the design of !he MWFRS The exceptlOt'll1 ASCE 7
section 6.5.12.3 permils one-story buIlding, With h 30 feel to be cleslgned fOt
load Case 1and load Case 3only,
load Case 3 requires 15 percenl of !he wind rxeillJm on the Windward and
leeward waUs of Case 1to ICCOUIlI for !he effects due 10 Vrtnd alOng !he dl8gOO8t
of the building.
Oeslgt wnj JWesstnlS b C&CcsmI be ..... 10 PIf DIg In ...dncion
normal 10 I1e arfIoa. 'Mnd b'.ctt COlIW <r eIenwlllri
besed on f1e BIIecIYe WIld ... c:onlII'Ied wihn fie ZO* I'iIO wNd'l tie ItJfaoe
area of the IS dl\*lded. II indiCated In ASCE 1 figures referenced Itt
IBC ' ....'609.62(2).
ASCE 7 5edlon 62 dem 'BUilDING, SJ'*'l
DIAPHRAGM- on PI9' 21 as: AbuiIdIIg In 'flhdI ball
WIlIdwaro and IeewW wind loacII lit
lhl'Ollgh lIoor and roof iIlV"... to .. ..,. IIWicaI
MWFRS {It.g no SIl'UCIl.nllCP8lltlorw}
I 7Section 82 oem.. 'BUilDING Of'N CI'I
Pf9I 21 AbuIcIn; IlfwinQ eatfI ... II IIaII 80
pert:ent opIfI. n. oondIlIl:It ... b IK!l _
by ltlI A. ) 0SA, wtoIIt
A."1IltaI ..d ClpII'IIfIOIltI' will .....1ttCtIYIIlK*Ivt
ullrTWll! ....... in ft 1m'!
A" =III grt:III ..d.1III "flo '" 'tIIflicI'I A,.. IIIC11nD1sd
(m'l
Howo?
(continued)
BI..idngs with h " 60 It
p'" q(GC,,)' qj (GC",)
Notes on q
q represents lhe velocity pressure, Which Is the
ronversion of the basic wind slleltd into
pressure at a specific helghl
q '" as defined In
ASCE 7 SectIOn 6.5.10
For definllions of q. qh, qr, see ASCE 7
5ecboo 6.3
F:q,GC,A,
wtlere;
Cf ", nel force coemctenl from ASCE 7 Figures 6
21 through 6- 23 (pages 74-76)
I
A, '" projected area normal to the wind except
where C, is specified for tha actual lurface
area. sq, ft.
F
for Open
Buildings
And Other
Structures
(6.5.13)
(continued)
p
for Enclosed
lind Partially
Enclosed
Buildings
(6.5.12)
For buidngs the buildllg
needS b as a
""""""""" 1>,"""
r ASCE 7 5Ialon e2 ..1KJIlOlNG OR OTHER
ST'RUCl\JRE REGlJLAR-5HAPEO" on 21. A
IbUdng or 0Nl' tlNdIft hlIY't111 flO

__
ASCC 1 Sedlon U dIrr. 'B\Jl.OINO OR OllER
STRUC'Tl..RES RIGlT on flIDI21 as (II
0IlW1N3n -..!lda! ...
_1ilII'_101Hz..
ASCt: 1 CornmIntII, t8 5.8 P9I 2lU Illll
JII'OVI6II "'tonnItIon on hOw to dteImlinI lit
01. stn.e:turI AIIo IBe Sec:tlon
The h8IgIll 0I1he 1609 6 1 llIrn 1 for a/I"'II r.d purpclMI 6IftnII1
IQd 1N:ln. one hI '-. (751e1t 1nIt
sa.,..ltndlIe,.,
.-:!II" <; .. IleiIt' 7:l teel n kHUIt wktIllIIb (.. I
- , d:lmIIIr.:llIy QUIIIIieI to IlII Ilt __
, MeIlad II1W..dlIliIIt
The sln.lctln cannot be ASlI'UCt.n lilt. ngdGl" ""'" lit heIflt Ind ....
&el\SjllVf! 10 "'.,_1m! III:Ii:M unIIefy 10 tit ID
... .....
ttij; be
a..for """d'I
.............
buIlt*tg JI ..walle d
--- IPIdIl lXI".U
CI" snd GC.
reflect lila relatIVe
pressures esUmated
to eXIst on Ihe
eKterlol' surfacfl' and
are dep&nClenl upon
Ithe
configuration of lhe
structure including
Ilhe roof. These
coefflclents ere nol
applicable to open
buildings
GC" values for C & C
also depend on the
effective WInd area.
which Is denned In
ASCE 7 section 5,2
----IRigid Buildings- MW="'='---'-'-
Olgn Wind (ASCE 7 Sections 6.5 12.2 1 and
Prollure 65.12.2,2)
=1 All heights: p '" qGCp - Q. (GCPt )
LOIN "'; p '" - (GC...
Ftexl aulldings- MWFRS
(ASCE" Section 6512 2.3)
P'" q( Gt C,,) - q, (GCpj)
I
Parapets
jASCE 7 SectioI16.5.12.2.4)
p'" qpGC/Xl
C&C
I
(ASCE 7 Seclion 6.5.124)
Low-rISe buHd'ngs and buildi'lgs with h.5 eo ft;
p '" qll ({GCa) - (GC...)J
ASCE 7 Figs 6-11
Ge" for Ithrough 6-17
Components (pages 55-65)
and Cladding
(6,5.1122)
P
for Enclosed
Ind PartIally
EncloMd
Buildings
(6.512)
Ge,,/ for Low-
Rise MWFRS
(6,5,1121)
EK1CmJIII
Pressure
Coefficient I
ASCE 7
C, fot MWFRS Figs. 6-6. 6-7,
(65.11.21) and 6-8
I(pages 48-51)
ASCE 7 Fig. 6-10
(pages 53-54)
D.I.rmln.
What? How? Wnll doe. It moan?
(ASCE 7 SeclJon)
-- --
Hllipful Noles:
(continued)
13. See ASCE 7
Commentary
Section C65.8,
pages 293-294, for
determination of
IbUilding period or
its reciprocal.
building frequency,
(contlOU6d)
4 ASCE 7
(co/llinued)
Commenlaly
Section C62,
pages 281-282.
impHes thai a
buHding with height
not eKceedlng four
1times the least
horizontal dimension
may be considered
rigid.
ASCE 7 Figure 65
(page 47)
For open buildings.
GCI) renects ,",ow
Intemal
Gel" '" 0.00
much build-up of
Pr ...ur. pressure IS elt ma'ed

For partially
10 exf$t Within the
OC.
enclosed buildings.
11n:erlor 01 the build:ng
(6,5111)
GCPf '" +0.55 and
and Is dapcndolll
0,55
upon the enclosure
For enclosed I classtflcaUon
buildings. Gel> '"
l+O,18 and"() 18
2) dynamic
ampUficalion of 'N!nd
ror neKible
G, GdG/for nexlbl.
bulldil"l9s) tak.lnto
accounl the following
two effects II'l the
direction parallel 10
wind loads
1) wind turbulence -
structure Interaction
Helpful Notes:
1. Where
combined gusl
effect factors and
pressure
coefficients (GCI"
GCpj and GC",)
are given in f.gures
lind tables. the
gust effect factO\'" is
not determined
separately.
2. In lieu of the
procedure defined I
In these sections,
gust effect factor
may be determined
by any rational
procedtJre given in
the Illcognlzed
Ilteralllre
For neKible
structures (period
? 1 sac.). calculate
G per ASCE 7
Sectlorl6.5.8.2
OUII Effect
Fletor, G, Gt
16.'.6)
Topographic
Faclor, Kif
(6572)
Oelermlne
Wh.t? How? What does II me.n?
(ASCE' _Ion,
SeE 7 Table 6-3
(page 79) While the bask: wind
It is Important 10 speed, V, represents
note that the
V,toel1y the wind speed at 33
subscopt 'z' is lor
Preu... any height above feel above ground for
Ellposure ground level and Exposure Category C,
Coef'fklentl (tot ttl sob . I -h" . II<, Var V
,ach wind e scnp IS represents !he WInd
dlrKtlon), for the mean roof speed al z or h feel
K.. I4t heigh," Also, the respectlvelyabo'n
(65.8.6) velOCIty ground for the
81lposure coeffIClent"d . E
may be calculated C7"" xposura
In accordance with a egory.
Nota 2 to Table 6-3.
Only applies If Kzt win Do grealer
there are abrupt than 1 if the rr.e
changes in the conditions listed Il'I
topognlphy. If ASCE 1 SectIOn
Ulef8 are no abrupt 6,5.7.1 exist. K"
changes in the takes Into aCOOUflt the
topography and faCllhal jf a buUdlng
the structure is on sils on the upper half
level ground, Kif = 1. of an isolated hWI,
If the live conditions ridge, or escarpment,
Il8led In ASCE 7 Ias a result, the
5ecI1OO 6,5 7 1 bulldlllQ can be
eKIIt. then expected to
Kn '" (1 +K, K1K:J f ekperi9l1ce
; and K" K2 and 1<:J higher wmd sPMds
are set rorth lrt thaI" Ii ,1 ww)!
ASeE 7 FlQure 6-4
1
siluatett 'll ItwO!l
(pages 45-46). ground
. -
For rigid
structures (period
<; 1 sac.). use G '"
0.85 or calculate
per ASCE 7
Section 6.5.8.1.
STEP.By.STEP PROCEDURE FOR THE ALTERNATE ALL-HEIGHTS METHOD
(I Be SECTION 1609.6)
on roof
configuration
(continued)
p
for Enclosed
and Partially
Enclosed
Buildings
(6.5.12)
F
for Open
Buildings
And Other
Structures
(6.5.13)
How?
(continued)
Buildings with h > 60 I.:
p'" q(GCp) - qi (GCpi)
Notes on q :
q represents the velocity pressure, which is the
conversion of the basic wind speed into
pressure at a specific height
q'" O.OO256(K,)(Kzt }(Kd )(Vl}(I} as defined in
ASCE 7 Section 6.5.10
For definitions of q, qi, qn, q" see ASCE 7
Section 6.3
IF=q,GC,A,
Where:
C/ '" net force coefficient from ASeE 7 Figures 6-
21 through 6- 23 (pages 74-76)
A, '" projected area normal to the wind except
where C, is specified for the actual surface
alea, sq. ft.
The structure cannot have any of the types of roo1s:
Mullispan gable
Stepped
.-
.00"""
With roof sq:.e >45 dcg
The sIru::lure ClWlrlOt tle My ,j lhe :::-.;:::='. --
Solid frll&.stanOOg walls Limitations on type of
Solid S9l5 structure
._-
Detennine velocity pressure exposure coelficlents, K,. in accordance WIth
ASCE 7 Sectton 6.5.6,6, Note that the subscript "z" is fOf any height above ground
level and the subscript "h" is for the mean roof height. For the windward wall of
a slNclure, K, is used. For leeward wall and sidewalls. and for windward and
leeward roofs, is used
DETERMINE TOPOGRAPHIC FACTOR, K
zt
C.. =net pressure coefficient based on - (GCp,))
For the design of the MYt'FRS and C&C, the sum of the external and intemal net
pressures are based on the net pressure coefficient C".. The pressure coefficient,
C.., for walls and roofs is determined from IBC Table 1609,6,2 (2). 'Nhere C". may
have more than one value, the more severe WInd klad condition is used in design.
p.. =q. K, C".[I Kzl! IBe Equation 16-34
Wind pressures are applied SKTlUItaneously 00, and in a direction normal to, aI
building envelope waf and roof surfaces ISlg the above equation from IBC section
16096.3 Design wind forces for the MWfRS camot be less than 10 psf multiplied
by the area of the structure proJeCted on a plane normal to the assumed wind
direction see ASCE 7 section 61.4 for criIefia.
IBC Secbon 1609,6.4.1 requires oonslderabon of torsional effects as indicated
In ASCE 7 Figure 6.9 in the design of the MWFRS. The exception in ASCE 7
section 6.5.12.3 permits one-story buildings with h.:::: 30 feet to be deSigned for
I Load Case 1 and load Case 3 only
Load Case 3 requires 75 percent of the wind pressures on the WIndward and
leeward walls of Case 1to account fOf the effects due to Wind along the diagonal
of the building
Desigl wild presstreS for C&Ccamot be less than 10 pst acli1g i'I Elllhef cirectia'I
normal to the surtace. Wnd pressures for each amponent or cladding element is
based on the elfedr..oe wirld ar9ll oontamd wrttwlthe zones into 'Nhich the surlace
area of the building is divided, as indicated in ASCE 7 figures referenced in
Tablel609,6.2(2).
Ns'tll'Crl; is pubIshed WIlh the understaf1ding ltIiI Sl<GA, SCI. ICC and the authors an!
supplying llfarmabon but are not altempbng to render engineefiog or other professional
services If suctl servlC8S are reqwred. the assi5taoce of qualified profeSSlOl"l8ls should
be sought. Sl<GA. SCI. ICC and the authors DISClAIM any and aI RESPONSIBILITY
and LlABlUTYtor the accuracy of and the application of the llformabon contained III this
publicaboo 10 the full extent pennilled by the law
If there are no changes il the topogaphy and the slruclun! is 00 level grcxnl,
K
zl
= 1,0. OlherNise, determioe K
lI
={1+ K,K:l.KJ'f whem K
1
, K
2
, and K] are set forth
in ASCE 7 FlQUre 6--4 (pages 45-40)
see ASCE 7Commentary C6.6
ASCE 7 Section 6.2 defines "BUiLDING, SIMPLE
DIAPHRAGM' on page 21 as: Abuilding in whdl both
windward and leeward wind loads are transmitted
through floor and roof diaphragms 10 the same vertical
MWFRS (e.g. no structural separations).
ASCE 7 section 6,2 del\ne$ "BUILDING, OPEN" 00
page 21 as: A t:M.tilg havilg each WIll at least 80
percent open This rordibon IS expressed lor each WIll
by lhe eq..I8Iion A" 08As Where
IA" =1oIlII_r:I opllIWlgS II a WIll that I8C8MlS positive
exlllmal 11 fl2 (mlj
=the gross area rt thaI wall'I which A. is derJlIfied.
II' 1m')
For buildings, the buiIdiog
needs to quaMy as a
simple diaphragm buMding.
ASCE 7 Section 6.2 defines "BUILOING OR OTHER
STRUCTURE, REGULAR-SHAPEO" 00 page 21 as: A
building or other structure having no unusual
I geometrical irregulanty in
ASCE 7 Section 6.2 defines "BUILDiNG OR OTHER
STRUCTURES. RIGID" on page 21 lIS: A building or
St.ructure reeOs to be one 'oII1er structure wnos. fundamental frequency is gl'eater
01 the following: !han or aqua/to 1Hz
1) Rigid ASCE 7 Commentary C658, pages 293 and 294,
provides Information on how to determine the
OR IundamentaI frequency r:I a structunl, Also. IBC Section
2) The I'letoht of the 1609,6.1, Item 1, klf aI Wllents and purposes, defines a
structure:!,: 75 feet ngid slrUCture as one that has a height:: 751eet and a
and the helght-lO- height-kHeast \Yldth ratio 4, So if the structure has a
least WIdth ratiO 4 height 75 feet and a helght-tlHeast \Yldth rallo 4, rt
automalK:ally qualifies 10 use the A1lemate Al-Heights
Method under tIvs d1eckliStltem
The s1n.lc1ure A,lructure lhat is rigid Of meets the height and the
to dynamic stendemess above is unlikely to be sensitive to
effects _
The sln.dure carnJt be
located on a_ tr wtidl

IlM1g " he wake rt
---
speciallXJIlSidel aIOI
Note: Steps 1-6 al beginning of !his CodeMasler should be compleled before
proceeding with the steps below
The alternate all-heights method is applicable to buildings thaI satisfy all of the
ooodilions set forth in IBC Section 160961 The condltJorlS are: