An Arabic Translation Solves Some Problems in Galen Author(s): D. J. Furley and J. S.

Wilkie Reviewed work(s): Source: The Classical Review, New Series, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Jun., 1972), pp. 164-167 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/708358 . Accessed: 14/06/2012 14:23
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ALEXIS DAW SON AN ARABIC TRANSLATION SOLVES PROBLEMS IN GALEN SOME An in arteriis natura sanguis contineaturis a short treatise written by Galen to refute the theory of Erasistratus and his followers. tuos. armauit (= contraquos). Flacc. as at iii. 282 f. rather than doubt the obvious fact that the arteries contain blood--obvious because we can see blood escaping from them the moment they are pierced by a fine needle--ought to accept this and look again at the problems which had led them to doubt it: (i) why has Nature made two kinds of vessel to contain the same material? (2) how will pneuma be conveyed to the whole body if the arteries contain blood ? (3) how will voluntary motions be carried out if pneuma is not so conveyed ? (4) how can we explain the regular motions (sc.sonos. 8 quoscontrame senatus. It should have been obvious that diligit can only govern diuitias and aulam. but instead we have in the manuscripts a bad anacoluthon and an apparent leap into problems (3) and (4). 'focusing attention on'. also 123 above. 521 ipsas uoluit numerarisigna per horas (= per signa). Galen says that there are other of vessel for the same matter. who held that the arteries in the normal state of nature are full of pneuma. 11 aViLKa -ot7(0 TpJJoIov. We expect Galen to continue with problem (2). luxum. iii. as explained elsewhere in his works (apparently De usupartium 6). and less awkwardly than where the anastrophe causes the preposition to stand before a word that it could govern. Kent Sevenoaks School. and afectum. Att. not much more strangely than it behaves at iv. Scylla. vol. intent upon politics and militarism and slothful dalliance and the lascivious strains of music that caress the ear.' For uersus ad = Greek cdrofAe'asbel2.. 7-727. and are filled with blood only when a wound of some kind allows the pneuma to escape. 605 usque canes ad. the ad of 147 governing successively imperia. pp. esteeming wealth and royal pomp. 5 7v' ~v r'epots 8~•~LEV). the pulse) of the arteries (explained by the Erasistrateans as due to the forcing of pneuma through the arteries by the heart) if there is blood in them ? Problem (i) is dealt with in proper order (722. each has a different use. 8. Chapter 6 of this treatise (Kuihn. 721. . or Culex 205 in fessos requiemdare comparatartus (= fessos artus in requiem). y•• 723. This is true of the blood vessels. otherwise imperianeeds 'and' before it. and I postulate a truly Brobdingnagian specimen of prepositional anastrophe. Paraphrase: 'The mass of mankind dithers. x. whereupon blood enters from the veins through the anastomoses. 8) presents some difficult textual problems-so much so that the argument as handed down in the Greek manuscripts lapses into incoherence. iv. sic omnis ad unumuersa manus.THE CLASSICAL REVIEW x64 The minima turba implies an antithesis meaning 'the masses' which obviously cannot be tortured out of illafluit-the illafugit of Scaliger and the illafrequens of Pingre only succeed in being gallant-and so a supplement such as I propose seems inevitable. It begins clearly and forcefully enough: Galen says that the Erasistrateans. or Cic. fasces. Freed from turba the word aduersacan do other work. Though they contain the instances of two kinds orropAV•awLvE same matter.. Val. . cf..

The first . .THE CLASSICAL REVIEW Following immediately upon E'v iE'poS KaTa irpoatpEu v KVwIELS 7 at TOc apT27ptTV 7TwgS. 5) . This Arabic translation Ya. d. cd oS Kata rrpoat'pEULv •EyvL&. about the pulse. according to the traditional text: (725. 6ElKVVtLL . (723. something may be said about the joins in the incorrect order.. At once problem (2) comes up..O. yE•Yv•vLvwLEvaL rXOVcT&V E9E~•. 725.) (724.LaprcLvoVULV aL. (724.5) Before we consider the joins of the pages in their correct order.4) ELt .C av. 2-4. .v r4 fTPOJlcAAEWC wcS [al Ka'"r 7TpoapEacTLV] (725. as he has shown in his De usurespirationis. Hist. . The next sentence is gibberish. 5 3lKVvptLEaLpLaToS fEaTd.. In Kiihn's edition they are (a) 723. as follows: (I) .S (725. 5-6).hy What emergesfrom a study of the Arabic version is that the translatorworked from a Greek text in which two sections appeared in reverseorder as compared The two unintelligible passages (723.4) have been patched up by obvious that the surviving Greek manuscripts and the Latin versions all descend from an archetype in which two pages appeared in the wrong order. Akad. Wiss...07. Klasse. because the solution can now be proved beyond any doubt. EbE~r)S KtVOvfJEOv rrvEPeXovaW vtoltevacL a" aragd We appear to have some words of an introduction vaparr•oTl. editors and translatorson the supposition that each contains a lacuna. Various fillings have been suggested.e.. showing that this portion contains blood. (4) a 3EUCVVLEV ata-lzo /LEUTQS.. and then at once a part of the treatment of problem (4).ov c ta. follows an account of an experiment of which we shall say alta the teans are begging question: pneuma does not need to be carried by the arteries. 6 al Katad rpoatpEa~ v .Tra" a~taj.. to problem (3) about voluntary motions.. 5) 7TEP aL/Ja. But fortunately we need not delay over them. rt s. Preuss. EL aovraL . KLV... It is -s. 3-6) v KLv ) 7TpoflAAtELV. (723. ToYV ~PTrpu..rol/. 1934. Aov Tr ua64La KOt trYo'qETaL avarrvo EAOqg EVOV 1rvE~ ta Tr Galen "7S argues that the ErasistrarepPLEXovaev. and (b) 724. and AS 35905: 37b_50b. aaT .. . . in which an artery is exposed and ligatured twice. according to the Greek manuscripts: &AAd 7ITCS.3ELKVVLEV . 724.4 'v 7T poFCLAAE .. E'aTovTa.. (a) contains 125 words. aac. ThereEwov1ra.V7'aa.. and the portion between the ligatures is cut out..5 dAA 7Tws. d. from inspection of the Arabic translationmade by 'Isd ibn from a Syriac version made by is preservedin two manuscriptsin HIunainibn Ishaq. 8&EqLCEV -rcaypEvL qSAaXaO6- more below. Istanbul. EVETEPOLS foLV7Laa &E•LtEV. (b) 126 words. 6 and 725. 3-2. 165 we have at 6) (723. presumably because one leaf was removed and reinsertedwith verso preceding recto. 6) (3) al KaTa "rrpoapEtLv .5) with the traditional text... <. (2) aAAa& (724.. i. xxvi. For convenience of discussionwe will assign an arbitrarysequence of numbers to the relevant pages of the archetype in their correct order. 1-3.-Phil. ". listed by Ritter and Walzer in Sitzbr. AS 36318: 83b-94a.

2 and at the beginning of p. 3-4. How will pneuma be conveyed to the whole body if the arteries contain blood? The question is mistaken. He proceeds at once to problem (2): how will the pneuma be conveyed to the whole body.4) described above. What is particularly interesting about this restoration of the text is that the experiment can now be seen in its correct logical context. Presumably they bottom of p.) : 'So when they have agreed that the exposed arteries contain blood. I. P. 2.' In the Greek we have only . 3. if the arteries contain blood ? He finishes it off with the reference to De usu respirationis. but a few words were left out from the last line of the page.166 THE CLASSICAL REVIEW and third of these make the two desperate anacolutha in Ktihn's text (723. to consider problems (3) and (4): T '8' a'-rd &cataprcvovuL K LV 7~ rrpo/ AALv OT(9WS aa tKaTa TTEpalPEcEtLv Eovrat KV7cTaEtS. We shall see the necessity for this assumption when we consider the right join. as explained in De usu respirationis. With the text thus restored. as in the Arabic version. after that. 2 begins with the first words of a new sentence. 2. It will be noticed that the words at KaTa appear both at the TrrpoalpE•t• written at the were end of p. we can see that Galen treats the four problems raised by the Erasistrateans in order. 2 as 'turn-over' words. 3 we have i-oiyv v-a 8lKVULEV tLETardv. beginning of p. The second one is interesting. even in conditions when the Erasistrateans themselves admit that the arteries contain blood. that they move without any change. We may now consider the whole passage with the pages in the right order.aros7 alta He describes the experiment of ligaturing dap1-7ptpv •ETay/LJEVaL arteries twice. S. E Near the end of p. P.and goes on at the end of p. Galen finishes problem (I) at the bottom of what we have called page I. has one point of interest. 3 he says 'we cut out the part in the middle and show it to be full of blood'. ycyv1LVW1LEVaL atta. 3. the conclusion of the experiment was simply: 'We . Why are there two sets of vessels for a single matter? They serve a different use. 3 did not in fact end with the end of a sentence. and at the end of p. (Galen does no more than sketch this answer. 6 and 725. continuing on p. there is a stroke of chance which may be one reason why the error was not discovered earlier. W. probably because they seemed to have no grammatical function. if the arteries contain blood ? It can be shown experimentally that the pulse does continue regularly.) 4. The Arabic version now continues (translation by J. 2-4.. Lp-T7)pWJV which has a spurious look of logical sequence. The third wrong join. Near the 7TpEPEXovawv. as explained in De usupartium. There is to notice a further point about this wrong join. o0v Clearly we must supply something at the beginning. It is the quality. . 7TEPtEXOVCTLV E1KVV[LEV 4E7S KwVOV•LEvaS gvTasarapaa-roT Tws. According to the traditional Greek text.77~TwS aL r•WV 0vhaxc6j ovovrat. we prove to them.of the pneuma that the body needs. 3. 2 we have the genitive absolute i-cYv at. like z[oAoyqadvTwov arz&rvart. How will the pulse be maintained. supposing that these words were omitted by a copyist who had the pages in the wrong order. and were wrongly incorporated in the text after the reversal took place. How will voluntary motions take place? This question is similarly mistaken in supposing that pneuma has to be distributed from the heart. not the substance.

This is effective against the reported Erasistratean argument.2 Poralla gives two separate personal entries for the two references without further comment. SanguisContineatur For an account of the Greek manuscripts and Renaissance Latin translations. J. Rome. 645. it is enough to observe the pulse continuing abovethe ligatures to prove its point that the pulse continues regularly although the artery has been shown to be full of blood. S. 229v-233V). Albrecht's inaugural dissertation at Marburg. I2-648. 16 (K ii. Hell. der Lakedai3 P. WILKIE EUTHYCLES: ONE OR TWO SPARTAN ENVOYS? IN 367 the Spartans sent Euthycles as envoy to present their diplomatic case in discussions with the Persian King Artaxerxes at Susa. not only to touch. vii. 1966). Darius. With the text restored. since he thought that the very act of cutting the skin in order to expose the artery would cause a transfusion of blood into the arteries. BibliographicalNote An in arteriis natura sanguis contineatur?is preserved in two manuscripts in Greek: Laurentianus 74. I) and also described in AnatomicalProcedures 7. but also to sight. 15.' The point is that Galen extracts an agreement that in this condition(after making an incision in the animal's skin) the arteries contain blood. Galen mentions this in the same paragraph (7241-2). and shows that the regularity of the pulse is not affected thereby. in which a tube is inserted in an artery. Edmund's D. Anab. FURLEY House. see Albrecht's Introduction. 1913. I. before the battle of Issus. . the conclusion of the experiment now reads: 'We show that the portion between the ligatures is full of blood. So when they have agreed that the exposed arteries contain blood. and the conclusion is that the pulsing dynamisis carried by the coats of the artery.' In 333 the Spartans sent Euthycles to negotiate with Artaxerxes' successor. St. I I).THE CLASSICAL REVIEW 167 show that the portion between the ligatures is full of blood. 2 Arr. The experiment is not quite the same as that reported a few pages later (7331-734. not by its contents. ii. we proceed to show them that they pulsate without impediment. Prosopographie monier(Breslau.3 Niese gives separate entries but considers the case for establishing a link between them as between grandfather and grandson or Xen. Cambridge J. pp. cl. In the first experiment. 9Ir-98v) and Marcianus append. he published it in 1911: Galeni Libellus An in Arteriis Natura ? Albrecht apparently did not know of the Arabic manuscripts. In this second experiment. An edition of the text based on inspection of these was the subject ofF.3 of the twelfth century (ff. and a ligature is tied around the artery so as to press its coats against the tube. Poralla. V 4 of the fifteenth century (ff. the point is that the pulse is cut off below the ligature. 33. v-xvii. The Arabic translation was made in the ninth century.' But this is a conclusion that would not embarrass Erasistratus.

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