General Hot-Dip Galvanizing vs.

Continuous Sheet Galvanizing
(aka After-Fabrication Galvanizing)
Hot-rolled structural steel, plate, grating, expanded metal, fasteners, small parts, tubing pipe, etc. is singularly (collectively on fixtures or perforated baskets for small parts) suspended by chain or wire and passed through a cleaning process, molten zinc bath, and quench (air or water). Controlled but not guaranteed: bright, shiny, matte, or some combination Structural shapes, plate, strip, & bars >3/16" to <1/4" (>4.8mm to <6.4mm): 2 oz./ft2 (85 microns) ≥1/4" (≥6.4mm): 2.3 oz/ft2 (100 microns) Fasteners, small parts, steel hardware Class B (other centrifuged articles): 2.0 oz/ft2 Class C (over 3/8" (9.52mm) in diameter): 1.25 oz/ft2 One coating type to: ASTM A 123 for structural steel shapes, plate, bars ASTM A 153 for small parts & fasteners ASTM A 767 for reinforcing steel ASTM A653 Galvanized: G60, G90, G120, G210 Galvannealed: A60, A90, A120 Galvalume: (55% Al, 45% Zn) Galfan: (95% Zn, 5% Al) Interior only, unless painted/powder coated over galvanized coating (≥G180 have some exterior applications) Yes, typically over galvannealed finish 7 gauge (3/16") to 32 gauge (0.102") thick Coil: 1" to 60" wide Flat sheets: 48" to 60" wide ~14 million tons/year (7.3 million in 2009) GalvInfo Center www.galvinfo.com American Galvanizers Association www.galvanizeit.org Uses Automotive body panels, appliances, HVAC duct, framing studs, roofing.

General Galvanizing

Performance & Condition
Appearance

Continuous Galvanizing
(aka Coil to Coil Galvanizing)
Controlled: regular spangle, minimum spangle, no spangle, dull, shiny Hot- or cold-rolled steel in coil form is unwound and in ribbon fashion passed through a chemical cleaning process, a bath of molten zinc (or zinc alloy), a high pressure air flow to remove excess zinc and control the coating thickness, dried, and recoiled for further processing into slit coil or cut-tolength form.

Coating Thickness

G60: 0.30 oz/ft2 (13 microns) G90: 0.45 oz/ft2 (19 microns) G210: 1.05 oz/ft2 (45 microns)

Coating Designation

Interior/Exterior Yes ≥3/16" to 20" thick ≤ 90' long Nails, fasteners, structurals, grating, expanded metal, rod, pipe, tubing reinforcing bar, rounds, flats, squares, plate ~3.1 million tons/year

Exposure Conditions Paintable Size/Configuration Availability Annual Production
(US and Canada)

Uses Bridges, light poles, communication towers, electrical poles, electrical substations, transmission towers, guardrail, sign structures, nails, fasteners, stadiums & racetrack structures, truck & trailer frames, wastewater treatment facilities, agricultural and irrigation equipment, ornamental gates & fences, transportation (rail & bus stations)

Authority

Steel Manufacturers Association www.steelnet.org American Iron & Steel Institute www.steel.org

http://www.galvanizeit.org/galvanizers

Suppliers

www.steelnet.org

American Galvanizers Association

Phone: 720-554-0900

Fax: 720-554-0909

www.galvanizeit.org

aga@galvanizeit.org

Inc. called Galvalume. (See Time to First Maintenance chart below) General galvanized steel coating thickness is largely a function of the available iron in the steel . pure zinc outer layer. Typically.0 1 mil = 25. Silicon and phosphorous of certain percentages in the steel yield the customary shiny silver coating and other percentages result in matte gray coatings. HVAC duct. coating or it can be annealed afterwards and designated as an A60. Continuously galvanized sheet steel is most commonly produced to ASTM A 653 and designated as a G60. rinsing) prior to paint application.56oz/ft2 Any steel piece (≥ 3/16” thick) or weldment that can fit into the general galvanizing bath can be galvanized.galvanizeit.General Galvanizing and Continuous Sheet Notes Appearance The appearance of general galvanized zinc coatings is largely a function of the chemistry of the steel being galvanized. Time to First Maintenenance Chart 100 Time to first maintenance* (years) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1. in a > 98% pure zinc bath and have no specific coating designation. it produces zinc corrosion products and these must be removed prior to painting. Continuously galvanized steel sheet may be annealed to fully alloy the zinc coating . Sheet steel is always galvanized coil to coil. i. The material in this publication has been developed to provide accurate and authoritative information about the time to first maintenance of hot-dip galvanized steel after fabrication. Some manufacturers stamp parts directly from the coated coil.4μm = 0. various steel products are galvanized with specific coating thickness minimums per ASTM) A 123. Thus. CSA G164. Continuous sheet is largely pure zinc. the longer lasting the corrosion protection of the steel. Continuously galvanized steel can have a number of different appearances. Thus. Regardless. They are usually painted for use in electrical cabinets.5 5. and electrical junction boxes. automotive body panels. ISO 1461. A 767.5 3. Size/Configuration Availability *Time to first maintenance is defined as the time to 5% rusting of the steel surface. coating. called Galfan® Exposure Conditions General galvanized steel is used primarily for corrosion protection in exterior applications (utility poles. It is important to note. Once the coil has cooled. Furthermore. However. galvannealed sheet steel is ready for painting without surface preparation.5 2. the more iron and the thicker the coating. custom to the order. General galvanized steel coatings have three zinc-iron alloy layers.0 4. with little alloy layer and thin relative to general galvanized coatings. matte gray.0 2. the corrosion protection is the same for bright and dull coatings of the same thickness. almost always painted. etc. guardrail) but may also be used for indoor applications (swimming pools. 0 1. This material provides general information only and is not intended as a substitute for competent professional examination and verification as to suitability and applicability. A 153. boat trailers. Metallized Coating Thickness Micrograph 1 mil 1 mil 1 mil Coating Designation Hot-Dip Galvanized Metallized Zinc Galvanized Paint Hot-Dip Galvanized Sheet Zinc Paint Electroplated Galvanized Sheet Electroplated Coating Thickness Corrosion protection is linearly related to the zinc coating thickness. structural steel members up to 1. G120. Elements such as silicon and phosphorous in certain ranges can also promote thicker coatings. sign structures. or building façades. or 95% zinc – 5% aluminum. or AASHTO specifications.5 times the length of the galvanizing bath can be galvanized via a process called progressive dipping. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use. However. etc.e. it exhibits a spangle (flake look) and is bright and shiny. and a ductile. Regulating the speed of the steel as it passes through the molten zinc bath and the force of the air shower as the steel exits the bath controls whether the coating is a G60 or a G210. general galvanized steel products require surface preparation (sweep blasting.roughing the coating surface. G90.e. © 2010  American Galvanizers Association. Continuously galvanized sheet steel zinc coatings are so thin they do not provide long term corrosion protection on their own for exterior applications. Sheet steel can also be produced in a bath of 45% zinc – 55% aluminum.0 Key Rural Suburban Temperate Marine Tropical Marine Industrial Paintable As a part of the corrosion protection zinc provides. agricultural equipment. i. Primary interior uses for continuously galvanized sheet steel include appliances.the more mass. The publication of the material herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the American Galvanizers Association. after a short period of time (approximately 6 months or less in most atmospheric exposure conditions) the galvanized steel will look the same. all harder than the steel itself.org aga@galvanizeit. passivation coatings can be applied to dull the coating in preparation for painting or other value-added processes. cleaning.org . American Galvanizers Association Phone: 720-554-0900 Fax: 720-554-0909 www. the thicker the zinc coating.5 4. the steel is uncoiled and either slit into narrower width coils or cut to length in sheets commonly available in sizes such as 48” x 96”and 60” x 120”. The bulk of steel galvanized in the general galvanizing process comes from fabricators who purchase it from steel service centers and thus the chemistry is either not known or not specifically selected. A90. pulp & paper plants). All general galvanized coatings are produced the same way. Average Thickness of Zinc (mils) 3.