Guidelines for Using American Psychological Association Format for Psychology Research Proposals Department of Psychology St. Francis Xavier University September, 2010

2 Table of Contents Page

Tables and Figures........................................................................................................................... 4 Most research proposals will not need tables and figures. When a complex design is involved, some information might be presented in figures or tables. Refer to all figures and tables in the written text. Do not use to words graphs, pictures or drawings to refer to figures. It is important to provide clear explanations and to tell the reader what to look for in the figures. As usual, there is a strict format that tables and figures must follow....................................................................... 4 This section, should present all of the sources included in your report and should not include any sources not mentioned in the lab report. The APA Publication Manual (2009) specifies several different formats depending on whether you are referring to a journal article, a book, or an article in a book. Pay careful attention to the punctuation. There are several general rules that always must be followed:.............................................................................................................................9 Other electronic sources. You will find up-to-date information on how to cite various web materials and e-mail at the following web address: http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx ........................................................................................................................................................12

the present tense is used with statements that have general applicability. For example. Avoid long. .54cm) c..3 How to Write a Research Proposal Using APA Style Rules of Presentation The APA Publication Manual not only specifies a format. and the date (see example below) f. the institution to which the report is presented. the relevant course.5-inch is in the ‘left’ box) b. (Go to Format – Paragraph – choose “first line” from line special pull down. make sure 0. the author's name. tables. In the text. Everything in the paper including text. and references should be double-spaced. and bottom of your pages. the numbers zero through nine should be presented in word form EXCEPT IN THE ABSTRACT. right. "human evolution" is preferable to "the evolution of man. Your research proposal should be stapled in the top left corner.. The research proposal must be typed on standard size paper in 12-pt Times Roman. Write in a clear and concise style. figure captions. Paragraphs should be indented by 0. c. Do not use 1st person personal pronouns in your report: "The following experiment will be conducted" is appropriate. Example: Twenty-five female and 22 male volunteers participated in the present experiment.5-cm) is required on the left. All pages (including title page) have a header on the left (1/2 inch from the top) consisting of a short title in all capital letters and the page number on the right. justify the right margin (make sure to use the ‘align left’ button on the menu bar) or break words at the end of a typed line. A margin of 1-inch (2. Any number that begins a sentence should be written in word form. Typically. researchers have shown") in the Introduction section of your paper if you are referring to past events (past studies).5-inch. e. b. however. (Go to File – Page setup – Margins tab – change all margins to 1” or 2.) h. Here are a few important guidelines: a. then close. Avoid sexist language. g. it also describes the style that should be followed in a research report.g. Go to View – Page Layout to see your header. Use the future tense to describe the method and analysis section of your proposal. (Go to View – Header and Footer – type your short title. The cover page should include the title. "Smith showed") or present perfect tense (e. awkward sentences. Use the past tense (e. make sure show number on first page is checked. Numbers of two or more digits should be expressed as numerals. Do not. including generic male nouns and pronouns.) (Go to Insert – Page numbers – select ‘Top of page” and “right” from pull down menus. d.g. (Go to Format – Paragraph – choose “double” from line spacing pull down) Do not use more than one space between paragraphs. top." Style a. whereas "I conducted the following experiment" is not. d.

some information might be presented in figures or tables. In tables the first letter of all main words in the title is capitalized. Make sure apply to cell is selected. As usual. Level 5 – Indented. Tables. Go to Table – Table Properties – Select the Table tab. Title. Figures. The figures themselves are NOT labelled Figure 1 or Figure 2. Then continue typing on the same line. Tables and Figures Most research proposals will not need tables and figures. bold and sentence case ending in a period. bold. etc. in sentence case (only a capital on the first word) and end with a period. Bold and Title Case Level 3 – Indented. The figure caption should be typed below the figure.indented ½ inchbold. in italics (with a period) and followed by a brief explanation. The figures are presented after the Tables (if any). “Figure X. there is a strict format that tables and figures must follow. Bold and Title Case Level 2 – Flush Left. The top border and the right axis must be removed. at the end of the lab report. references. References. click on Borders and Shading – Select the Border tab and click the appropriate button to get the border that you want for that cell (group of cells). Gridlines may show in grey but will not show in printed document. Do not use to words graphs. This means all main words are capitalized.) If you have another level of heading (subsub-headings). Make sure that ‘Hide Gridlines’ in the table menu is selected. and sentence case ending in a period. When a complex design is involved. and subheadings within the method section). In a table. Use horizontal borders above and below sections but not vertical borders between columns. The title of the table is in italics but the words “Table 1” are not.4 Levels of Headings Level 1 – Centered. pictures or drawings to refer to figures. italicized. Use a page break (Go to Insert – Break – Page Break). All research proposals will have at least two levels of headings (the abstract. they should be Level 3 . The units of measure must be specified. each first level heading (Abstract. . It is important to provide clear explanations and to tell the reader what to look for in the figures. Each figure should appear on its own page and should be sized to take up most of the space on that page.” should be flush left. Sub-headings should be Level 2 aligned left (not indented but flush to the left margin) and in bold font with all main words capitalized. italicized and sentence case ending in a period.in Title Case. (Click on the B button on your menu bar. In a figure.) Never leave a heading at the bottom of the page where the text begins on the next page. They should also be centered on the page (Click on Align Center on the editing menu bar) and bold.) should be Level 1 . Some rules to follow with figures: a. Refer to all figures and tables in the written text. Level 4 – Indented. etc. the independent variable should be presented on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable should appear on the vertical axis. after the reference page(s) (And after any appendices. b. etc at the top but only with the caption below the figure. A. click okay. make sure that the information is organized in a simple and logical way.) B. The tables come at the end of the report. (With a cell or group of cells in a table selected. If you have only two levels of headings. title. (See examples throughout this document.

b. but not underlined. specifying pertinent characteristics (such as number. Paraphrase. tables. and figures. gender) 3. Be concise and specific. not "figure 1". d. The names and order of these sections are as follows: abstract. e. If you are required to include tables. (Use page break – Go to ‘Insert’. The proposed participants. etc. c. including materials/apparatus.) should be centered and bold. introduction. Thus. The title of each section (Abstract. and complete test names. except units of measurement. Your figure may include a legend if appropriate. f. analysis and references. The abstract should describe four things: 1.5 c. in the following order: Appendixes. and should not be more than 120 – 150 words and laid out in one single paragraph. Abstract This is a brief. Terms should be defined and names of tests and drugs spelled out. d. In the text. Sections of a Research Proposal The proposal is organized into five major sections. data-gathering procedures. All numbers should be in the digit form (Arabic) except those that begin a sentence. method. introduction. . comprehensive summary of the study. references and appendixes and tables and figures on a new page. The expected findings (hypotheses) Some important points: a. (Unless the title falls alone at the bottom of a page) c. Figures. b. The Introduction section is titled with the title of your paper. always refer to "Figure 1". figures. abstract. where applicable 4. Do not begin the method and analysis sections on a new page. a. the purpose and content of your research. positioned within the limits of the borders of the figure. Start each of the title page. the word "table" and "figure" are capitalized. age. All abbreviations and acronyms must be defined. The abstract should refer to previous research in the area. d. e. then select ‘page break’) d. The experimental method. The problem under investigation or purpose of the study 2. All labelling should be horizontal except for the y-axis. select ‘break’. as well as. See examples from pages 20-22 for more information on tables and figures or chapter 5 of the APA manual. these items should appear after the References. Method. Simply double space and begin the next section. do not quote in the abstract. All labelling should be in a sans serif font such as Arial and the font size should be no smaller than 8 pt and no larger than 14 pt. Tables. It may also include appendices. or appendixes.

. It achieves this goal by first presenting general statements and then by becoming increasingly specific. Your review should provide a context for the study. c. The introduction includes a review of the literature relevant to the topic. gaps. This section should answer the following questions in a paragraph or two: 1. Introduction The introduction starts on the page following the abstract and it is labeled with the title of your paper. Make sure you define. Introduce the Major Purpose/Problem of your Study Orient the reader by providing one or two paragraphs that provides an overview of the purpose of your study. c. It should not include works of only tangential or general significance. that guided the development of your question. Avoid an exhaustive review of past studies. 2.6 Format: a. findings and conclusions.) Clearly detail the logical connection between previous work and your research. c. d. a. 4. (Use page break) b. b. puzzling findings. the problem under investigation. You should end the introduction by giving a brief outline of your study and a statement of your hypotheses. Provide the Relevant Background Material Assume the reader is familiar with your general area. Overview the Specific Linkage between Your Major Purpose and the Research Procedures You will Employ a. Clearly define all variable. The Development of your Research Question Indicate the precise relationship between the major purpose of your study and the research you have reviewed (shortcomings. etc. apparatus/materials and procedure. Formally state your hypotheses. It follows directly after the introduction. so that another researcher can replicate your work. and a description of your research strategy and its conceptual link to your purpose. The abstract is started on a new page after the title page (page 2). The beginning of the abstract starts on the next (double-spaced) line and is not indented. highlight essential details. 3. Method The method describes what you are going to do in the experiment and how you will do it. Orient the reader by providing an overview of the linkage between your problem and the research procedures you will use. Only review the studies that are directly relevant. what your procedures will be. and can include participants. The introduction should "funnel" the reader toward the hypotheses. b. in a GENERAL manner. The word ‘Abstract’ should be centered on the first line of the page. d.

This subsection presents the apparatus. French. Give the total expected number of participants and the number to be assigned to each experimental condition. or other specific identification. materials. When a particular demographic characteristic is an experimental variable the proposed group should be described specifically (race. & Harman. national origin). Only include detailed recruitment procedures if the recruitment is to be done in a unique or unusual way that contributes to the design of the study (hence might be replicated by someone in the future). Example: The task is designed using the Micro-Experimental Laboratory software (Schneider. Reaction time and accuracy will be the dependent variables. b. right). c. Do not include typical classroom or phone recruitment methods. A warning signal ("GET READY") will be first presented in the centre of the screen for one second. ethnicity. a. For nonhuman subjects. species. do not just give title). Detailed descriptions of complex apparatus may be included in an appendix.0° of visual angle at a distance of 85 cm. . 1990) on a i-Mac 20-inch computer. Typically. such as the location of the supplier. This will be followed. namely. Gender and level of spatial ability (high. This subsection summarizes each step to be used in the execution of the experiment. age. by the model that will be presented centrally for another second. The complex figures and the model to be used in the proposed experiment are shown in Figure 1. including the names and levels of the independent variables under study and the dependent variables measured. their duration. Procedure. There will be two within-subject variables. three figures where the model will be absent) and visual field (left. Example: Participants will be seated in front of a computer screen. is also presented here. Apparatus or materials. report the genus. It includes the order of completion of the tasks involved. the variable(s) measured and scoring procedure(s). The complex figure will be then presented for 33 ms at either side of fixation and will be followed by a mask that will be presented until response. type of response (three figures where the model will be present. Procedures begin when data collection begins. the name and description of tests (describe questionnaires. This section should be detailed enough to give the reader an accurate description of how the data will be collected. the procedures for selecting and assigning them. medium. Do not include trivial materials such as pencils or pens to fill out questionnaires. sex). and the agreements and payments made. 1976) will be used in this task. This section should NOT include the procedures for obtaining informed consent. 500 ms later. The design of the experiment. and any other lab equipment used is given here. any electronic or mechanical equipment. low: based on the final distribution of standardized scores on the Hidden Figures Test and the Mental Rotations Test) will be between-subject variables. These complex figures subtended 2. This subsection describes who the participants in the study will be (their species (if not human). or test(s) to be used in the experiment. Sixteen complex figures drawn from the Hidden Pattern Test of the Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests (Ekstrom.7 Participants.

8 .

The APA Publication Manual (2009) specifies several different formats depending on whether you are referring to a journal article. non-prescription drugs and other). The number of substances that participants report using at least once will be tallied for all substances giving a score with a possible range from 0 to 8. Pay careful attention to the punctuation. if they never tried it. The frequency with which participants reported using each substance will be given a score of 0. social exclusion. . The results of victimization questionnaire will be tallied to create a victimization score ranging from 20 (not victimized) to 140 (highly victimized). These analyses will only be conducted for the substance use variables that are significantly correlated with the social variables. There should be a description of the types of statistical tests that will be employed including details about which variables will be analyzed using these tests. journal articles. All references cited in the text. or used for information must be cited on the reference page. Tukey HSD posthoc tests will be used to identify any specific differences for significant multivariate tests. References This section. a book. if they used it daily. or an article in a book. or electronic sources).e. A multivariate analysis of variance will be conducted with gender and grade as the independent variables and substance use. if they used it occasionally (less than once per week). These frequency scores will be tallied for all substances giving a score with a possible range from 0 to 32. Do not categorize the reference list by type of material (books. b. marijuana prescription drugs.9 Analysis This section should detail the methods that will be used to obtain composite scores for any variables that have complex measures (i. Do not change the order of the authors’ names for a multi-author publication. social exclusion. should present all of the sources included in your report and should not include any sources not mentioned in the lab report. if they tried it once. or 4. A multivariate analysis of variance will be conducted with gender and grade as the between subject variables and participants substance use frequency scores for each drug (including tobacco.. Linear regression analyses will be conducted to see whether any of the social variables contribute significantly to the prediction of the substance use variables. 2. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients will be calculated for the relations between all the dependent variables. The results of questions one through five of the social exclusion questionnaire will be tallied to create a social exclusion score ranging from 5 (not excluded) to 35 (highly excluded). 3. There are several general rules that always must be followed: a. This will be referred to in the data analyses as the substance use score. questionnaires). inhalants. alcohol. Example: Results of the Substance Use Questionnaire will be summarized to create several composite scores for each participant. ecstasy. Be careful here. and victimization as the dependent measures. if they used it infrequently (twice or less in the last 3 months). 1. Instead. and victimization as the dependant variables. list all references in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name. This will be referred to in the data analyses as the substance use frequency score.

Therefore. Only sources which are referred to directly in the text can be included in the references For a reference drawn from a journal. date. The issue number is included in the reference only when the issues in a volume are not paginated consecutively. Multiple publications by the same author(s) are listed with the earliest publication first. under the indentation menu select ‘Hanging’ and make sure it says ‘by 0. Note that the ampersand “&” replaces “and” between authors’ names. Generally. There is no need to include database information such as ProQuest or PsycINFO. with journal website: Paivio. then the first word after the colon is also capitalized). When there is no DOI assigned. and use the reference format which includes the DOI. The reference page for this handout follows this format. provide the entry page URL of the database which holds the article. There is no need to include retrieval dates. each new issue starts with page one rather than continuing from the previous issue. Pay attention to the examples below. Example 2 below. Underlining is no longer used. Double-space the entire reference list. including an issue number. Articles almost all have a DOI (digital object identifier) assigned. APA format requires that researchers (including students) will always locate the DOI. i.. (1975). f.5-inch’) d. Each element of a reference (authors’ names. g. It is unacceptable to substitute an assigned DOI with the journal URL or database URL. please note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized (unless the title has a colon. provide the periodical home page web address (URL). It is important that you italicize the name of the journal and the volume number in the reference list. Memory and Cognition. The spacing of the authors’ names is important. This is not an “either-or” situation where the researcher may choose to ignore a DOI. Although this type of reference is rare for articles. with DOI: . When an article is not assigned a DOI. Retrieved from http://www. Authors are identified by their surnames and initials (in that order). These databases change the coverage of particular journals over time. article title. A.org/search/ 2. not their first names. Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye. 635-647. the issue number would be included in parentheses after the volume number. 3. The first line of each reference on the reference page is flush left. Volume 37 of the Journal of Social Issues consists of journal issues published in 1981).e.psychonomic. h. in most cases you do not include the issue number in your reference. use italics. i. e. In addition. "Two authors. and online content is ONLY available in an electronic database such as JSTOR. ‘Paragraph’. it may occur especially when the journal is discontinued. journals are organized in volumes (one per year) and issues (from perhaps two to twelve per year) (e.10 c. The subsequent lines of a reference are indented ½ inch (Go to ‘Format’. is either published in a discontinued periodical or the periodical web page does not exist. Two authors. including issue number. One author. no DOI. publication data) is separated from the next element by periods." It is more common to continue the pagination from one issue to the next within a volume.g. no issue number. In the case of the Journal of Social Issues.. 1. This is shown in Example 1.

.1540-4560. (1959-1963). G..J. Again. 6. and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. 37(2).. (2001). Multi-volumed book. E. T. Language and responsibility. 7. DRD2 A1 allele. C. dependence. doi:10. Plath.x References to books. 2). with DOI: Gilbert. no DOI: Alexander. 1. F. NY: Ronald Press 2. G. (1994). doi: 10.. New York. no DOI: Aronson. and depressive traits. New York: Wiley.1036/0071393722 6. Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress. & French. no DOI: Chomsky. One author.).tb02623. Rabinovich. W. More than 7 authors. New York. (Ed. The auditory modality (Vol. E. The social animal (10th ed. (2004). each volume of which you cite. Electronic version of a print book: Schiraldi. Psychoanalytic theory. 249-267. NY: Worth Publishers. NY: Pantheon. N. (2008). 5. McCleron.1981. 1-6). no DOI: Koch. S. L. only the beginning words are capitalized unless they are proper nouns or follow a colon. R. NY: McGraw-Hill. no DOI: James. 8.. N.. no DOI: .. & MacDonald. doi: 10. The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing. Welcome to the energy crisis.). (1981). recovery. G. (1979). Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 1-7. (1946).11 Becker. J. When a book is included in your reference list.. D. Asgaard. & Seligman. New York. F. and the name of the publishing company. Sugai. Smith. Two or more authors. the title of the book is underlined or italicized. Psychology: A study of science (Vols.. R. only one of which you cite.1111/j. New York. C. 2. L. R.1080/146222000410001676305 4. C. Journal of Social Issues. the state (or province) if the city is not well known. N.. Multi-volumed books. One author of a second or later edition. The title of the book is followed by the city of publication. … Botros. Two authors of an edited book.

P.12 Letheridge.org/apa-stylehelp.). The example below is taken from the APA Publication Manual (6th ed. (Eds. personal communications are not listed in the reference list.W. date of publication or of retrieval. Washington. C. p. References to articles in edited books. Kniskern (Eds. S. D. & Cannon. You will find up-to-date information on how to cite various web materials and e-mail at the following web address: http://www. Handbook of family therapy (pp. Other electronic sources. Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. A." then the book title. Lutes (personal communication. 2.. References should direct the reader as closely as possible to the information and provide URL addresses that work. April 18.T.R. Corporate author. The reference always begins with the name of the author(s) of the article. Note that the editors' initials precede their surnames. Email: T.C. 239-252). 1. & Kniskern. J. 1.P. The URL is the most critical element of the reference. Gurman & D. the authors should be included. Washington. Whenever possible. the page numbers for the article. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Use n.. Poon (Ed. Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language.d. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).. & Walsh. (no date) when a publication date is not available. published by that author. Two editors: Gurman. Family therapy outcome research: Knowns and unknowns. 179.: Author. This is followed by the name of the book editor(s). Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. and because the data is non-recoverable. In L. and an address. followed by the title of the article. J.A. not the book. no DOI: American Psychological Association.. Harker. at a minimum. (1980). 2001) stated that… . D.S.). but only cited in text with the date received. An edited book is often a collection of articles with authors other than the editor(s). as before. (2009).apastyle. preceded by "In.). The book title is italicized and. Emails are referred to as personal communications. New York: Praeger. D. One editor: Hartley.C. (1980).).aspx Internet references should include. K. Authors' initials follow their names. and finally the publication information for the book.S. only the first letters of the titles are capitalized. DC: American Psychological Association.741-775). (1981). Note: page numbers are not included. compiled by the editor(s). 9. In A. a document title or description.

the journal article by… etc.. When there are two authors. Dion (1972) found that adults judged the misbehaviour of unattractive children to be more socially undesirable than the misbehaviour of attractive children. . which is a serious academic offense. it is necessary to accurately identify the sources. use "and. Gray (1994) would be considered a secondary source when you wish to refer to the work of another person which Gray has cited. cite it as described below and list it on your reference page. The author name(s) and year of publication are inserted into the text at appropriate points. Gray (1994) discussed his views of the place of psychology in relation to other disciplines on pp. immediately after the author's name.13 Author-Date Citation Style It is extremely important that you do not present another's ideas as your own. Whenever you use ideas or information reported by other researchers. the first article. It has been reported that adults judge the misbehaviour of unattractive children to be highly undesirable (Dion." When they are enclosed in parentheses. 1972). For example. use "&. the name and date are cited in parentheses at the end of the opening phrase or at the end of the first sentence. Instead. Secondary sources are those which refer to the ideas or work of authors other than those who wrote the material you have read.’ ‘a study. Never refer to the articles you read by the title of the article or by the phrases the article. If you were to use Gray's view that psychology is central within other scholarly fields in a paper you would consider Gray as a primary source. 22-23. If you do not wish to include the author's name in the narrative. Primary Sources One author. The author-date citation style requires that you provide the authors' names and date of publication for each reference that you cite in the body of the text. refer to them by the authors’ names according to the author-date citation method.’ ‘many studies. within the narrative and parenthesized. The difference between the narrative and the parenthetical forms is only in the use of the conjunction "and" or the ampersand "&. in parentheses. Sources of information are considered either primary or secondary. include the publication date. When you wish to cite only one author within the narrative. ." .’ etc. In one study (Dion. both names are included in the reference citation. If you use terms like ‘past research. Two authors. even when you do not directly quote their material. This is considered plagiarism. 1972) adults judged the misbehaviour . APA journals use the author-date citation method to do this. Primary sources are those which describe directly the ideas or research of the author(s) who has written the material you are reading. The following set of examples shows citations for both primary and secondary sources in two formats." When the authors' names are part of the sentence. then you need to have a citation or citations for that work.’ ‘research has shown. The citation style depends on whether the author name(s) are part of the narrative or are shown in parentheses (see examples below).

First citation: Dion. Past research (Hassam & Grammick." (This means "and others" in Latin.. attractive individuals were believed to lead happier lives than unattractive individuals. 1982) found .) The abbreviation may be used in both forms of citation. & Walster." since “al. cite the first author's name followed by the abbreviation "et al. Three to five authors. Berscheid. Note the period which follows "al. Hunt and Uzgiris (1975) developed a set of scales to measure sensorimotor development. or with similar findings. When there are two or more works by the same author. Evidence of a physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported (Dion. 1972). Should you wish to cite a paper with six or more authors. Six or more authors. Multiple works within same parentheses. order them chronologically. and Walster (1972) reported evidence of a physical attractiveness stereotype. When you wish to cite a paper authored by three to five authors. . 1972). . A set of scales to measure sensorimotor development has been developed (Hunt & Uzgiris. be sure to include all authors' names in the reference list. using commas to separate citations. (1972) found that attractive individuals are believed to lead happier lives than average-looking or unattractive individuals. . all authors names must be cited the first time the reference appears. 1982) has indicated . Hassam and Grammick (1981. . Berscheid." after the first author's name for every citation.14 Note: When an article has more than one author do not rearrange their names alphabetically. 1975). The order of the names is an indication of the amount of work each person contributed or the order of importance. However.” is an abbreviation of the Latin word alia. For the second and subsequent citations. you may use the abbreviation "et al. . put them in the same parentheses. In this study (Dion et al. 1981. When you wish to cite several studies on the same topic. Subsequent citations: Dion et al.

’. 1993. Academic writing in psychology relies very little on the use of direct quotations. arrange them alphabetically and separate with semicolons within one set of parentheses. If a quotation is appropriate. 1981) have shown that… Memory for large amounts of information can be improved by visual imagery techniques (Bower & Clark. Secondary Sources On page 57. p. It is not necessary to include the year of Grant’s paper since the reader would look for it in Carlson and Buskist’s reference list. ) to indicate material that has been omitted from the original source. there are two forms it may take. . "The 'placebo effect. Several studies (Doron & O'Neil. 1975. Paivio.15 When two or more works by different authors are cited together. Mullaney. Talpers. 1969. The author and date are cited and the page number(s) is given. Kahn. you would now consider Carlson and Buskist as a secondary source which has provided you with information about Scott's research. 117-118. making sure that we cite the source. Examples are taken from the APA Publication Manual (5th ed. Use of Quotations in Psychology Proposals Please note quotations should be avoided unless absolutely appropriate and necessary. . using the authordate citation style described below. A) A short quotation (less than 40 words) is included directly in the text. 1996). pp. Quotation 1 (Note the use of single quotation marks to indicate material that was quoted in the original text. More often. Note also the use of three ellipsis points (.) She stated. & Rozin. 276). 1996) found that the mortality of finches during droughts related to the size of their beaks. Carlson and Buskist refer to a study by Grant (1986). disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miehle. . we paraphrase the material. . it takes the following form: The size of finches' beaks affects their mortality during times of drought (Grant as cited in Carlson & Buskist. If the citation is within parentheses. enclosed in double quotation marks. 1976. Jonides. This secondary citation is done by referring to the study in the narrative as follows: Grant (as cited in Carlson & Buskist. . If you wish to describe Grant's study in your paper and have not read Grant's study. 1979.). 1971). Because you have not read the actual Grant (1986) paper you must let your reader know where you read about it. put only the Carlson and Buskist (1996) reference on the reference page. Then.

16 Quotation 2 (Another way of dealing with the same material) Miehle (1993) found that "the 'placebo effect. disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Quotation 3 (Note that double quotes are now used around the material which was quoted in the original text. disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. 276).5” (1.27 cm). the behaviors were never exhibited again. 276) . Furthermore." which had been verified in previous studies. even when real drugs were administered. (p. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. B) A quotation of more than 40 words should be placed in a separate block of text which is placed on a new line and indented 5 spaces or ½ inch from the normal left hand margin.' which had been verified in previous studies. and the page numbers in parentheses follow the quote.) Miehle (1993) found the following: The "placebo effect.) The quotation marks are omitted." (p. (Go to Format – Paragraph – Change Left margin box to read 0.

Methods in behavioral research (4th..). Washington. Carlson. Mountainview. ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.).17 References American Psychological Association. Cozby. (1997). & Buskist. California: Mayfield Publishing. (1989). D.R.: American Psychological Association. (2009). Psychology: The science of behavior (5th ed. N. P.C.C. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. .). W.

They can be found on the following pages.18 Appendix Samples This appendix contains samples of a title page. abstract. figure caption page and figure. . table.

Austen in Psychology 225 Sensation and Perception Department of Psychology St. and Individual Differences in Spatial Skills by Ronald B. MacDonald 200812345 A research proposal presented to Dr. 2010 .Spatial Skills Running head: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERNCES IN SPATIAL SKILLS 1 Gender. Francis Xavier University December 3. E. Age.

The hypotheses are: participants who practise spatial activities will get better scores on the MRT than participants who practise non-spatial activities. Non-training group participants will rest during the time required for training. and. There will be approximately 50 participants given the first part of the MRT test and then divided into training and non-training groups (25 each). . both males and females will benefit from training.Header Here 19 Abstract The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of training on gender-related differences in mental rotation. Training group participants will complete the Space Relations subtest of the Primary Mental Abilities test battery and will manipulate three-dimensional block constructions resembling the structures found in the MRT. They then will complete the second part of the MRT. females will benefit from training more than males. All participants will also complete an activities questionnaire about spatial and non-spatial sports.

Header Here 20 Table 1 Distribution of Participants as a Function of Toys. Sports and Sex of Participants Sex Male Toys Spatial Non-Spatial Sports Spatial Non-Spatial 14 8 15 10 18 4 3 22 Female .

Header Here 21 Figure 1. . Grade in percent as a function of time spent studying daily and sex of students.

Grade in percent as a function of time spent socializing daily and sex of students. .Header Here 22 Figure 2.

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