The Mars Society Inc.

Presents

The Fourth International Mars Society Convention
at

Stanford University, Stanford, California

August 23 – 26th, 2001

The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Wednesday, August 22 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. Early registration and Dormitory Check-in Governor's Corner Dormitory Area Music of Mars (free concert) Thursday, August 23 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby Plenary Sessions A Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m.- Dr. Robert Zubrin - The Next Step for The Mars Society 10:00 a.m. - Elon Musk - to be announced 11:00 a.m. - Dr. Mike Griffin - to be announced Track Sessions 1:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Track 1A – Robotic Exploration on Mars Track 2A – Public Policy and Political Action Track 3A – Martian Culture, Government, Literature and Art Track 4A – Comp and Comm Systems/ Risk Assessment Track 5A – Can Life Exist on Mars/ The Other Hab – MDRS Track 6A – Chapter Council Workshop Sessions Special Events 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. Reception - Lagunita Courtyard 8:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. Panel Discussion - Building an Ecosystem - Healing the Earth by Means of a Martian Genesis Dr. Robert Zubrin, Dr. Chris McKay, Sam Burbank, Kim Stanley Robinson, Gus Frederick Moderator: Maggie Zubrin Free and Open to the Public - Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297 Bldg 300, Room 300, Capacity 100

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Thursday, August 23, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 A Robotic Exploration on Mars Track 2 A Public Policy and Political Action Track 3 A A World of its Own: Martian Culture, Government, Literature and Art Markley et al Red Planet: Scientific and Cultural Encounters Landis, G. - Mars Crossing: Technology in Science Fiction Poss, R. – Mars in the Cinema, a Comparative Study Track 4 A Comp and Comm Systems ------------Risk Assessment Milliun, J. A Leveraged Approach to Development McGowan, J.F. Very Low Bit Rate Video Track 5 A Can Life Exist on Mars? ------------The Other Hab MDRS Bishop, J. The Mineralogy of Mars and the Search for Life Kuznetz, Gan On the Existence and Stability of Liquid Water Shannon, D. - Is an Inorganic Process responsible for Formations in Mars Meteorite Landis, G. Halobacteria, a Candidate for Life on Mars Zubrin, R. Interstellar Panspermia and Life on Mars Shull, D. - Lunar and Martian Paleontology Track 6A Chapter Council Workshop Sessions Vancil, C. Organizing and Managing a Chapter Workshop continues

1:00 p.m.

G. Frederick Invasion of the Speleobots

1:30 p.m.

Enos, H. Gamma Ray Spectrometer

2:00 p.m.

McGown, R.D. and A.I. - Mars Meteor Survey

Hirata, C. Barriers to a Human Exploration Mission Hurtak and Egan, Legal Implications for an International Mission Fisher, G. - The Need for Government prior to going to Mars Livingston, D. - a Code of Ethics and Standards Olson and Contursi Cutting the NASA Umbilical Lusignan, B. Universities in the Age of Commercial Space Schuman, D. - To Mars through Washington

Chapin, N. What about the Data?

Open

2:30 p.m.

Beyer, J. - A Mission Plan for Mars NG, T.C. Sampling Tools for Mars

Mackenzie, B. Raising the First Children on Mars Erickson, B. Designing the Laws of Mars

3:00 p.m.

3:30 p.m.

4:00 p.m.

4:30 p.m.

5:00 p.m.

5:30 p.m.

Brown, Boyer and Weaver Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on Mars Sylvan, R. – Increased Cost Effectiveness of Human-Robotic Synergy Sims, M. - Role of Robotics in Human Settlement Whitehead, J. Mars Ascent Propulsion for Robotic Missions Open

Poss, R. – Rethinking the “New World” Hypothesis Schwennesen, P. The Frontier Thesis and Ideology Tilenius, E. and Hidalgo, L. – International Space University ISU continues

Vancil, C. Private Backup for Deep Space Network ------------Sylvan, R. Mathematical Analysis Risk of NASA and DOD Sauer, Sarper Successful Landing Probabilities Miles, R. Risk-Adjusted Mission Value

Carberry, C. Mars Society Political Workshop Political Workshop continues

Open

Open

Political Workshop continues

Open

Open

-------------Schubert, F. Design and Construction of the MDRS Sklar and Legarde Scouting the Southwest Zubrin, M.and Colgan, M. - the MDRS at Kennedy Space Center Open

Fisher, G. – Chapter Projects Workshop Workshop continues

Workshop continues

Workshop continues

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The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Friday, August 24 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby Plenary Sessions B Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m. - Albert Haldemann - The Mars Exploration Rover Project 10:00 a.m. - Dr. Imre Friedmann – Fossil Traces of Life in the Martian Meteorite ALH84001 11:00 a.m. - Kim Stanley Robinson - to be announced
Track Sessions

1:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m. Track 1B – FMARS Second Field Season Track 2B – Terraforming/Spacesuit Design Track 3B – Biomedical Issues affecting Mars Exploration Track 4B – Mars and Education Track 5B – Innovative Technologies for Mars Exploration Special Events

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297

7:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. Plenary Panel Presentation - 2001 Field Season at the FMARS, a Video Journal by Sam Burbank 8:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. - Panel Discussion - A Novel Approach - Mars Novelists Read from and Discuss their Works (book signing by authors) Greg Benford, Geoff Landis, Kim Stanley Robinson, Robert Zubrin Dinkelspiel Auditorium, capacity 700

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Friday, August 24, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 B FMARS Second Field Season Track 2 B Terraforming Creating an Ecosystem on Mars -----------------Spacesuit Design Frederick, G. Martian Light Levels Track 3 B Biomedical Issues Affecting Mars Exploration Track 4 B Mars and Education Track 5 B Notes from the Underground – Innovative Technologies for Mars Exploration Allen, M. The Mars Environment Observer Scout Mission Stoker, C. Robotics

1:00 p.m.

Smith, P. - Mars Cameras on Devon Island

Hill, T. - Tethered Experiment for Mars Operations

1:30 p.m.

Quinn, K. Remote Sensing for Human Exploration Cockell, C. and Lee, P. – Mars Analog Habitats in an Impact Crater Osinski, Lee, et al Impact-induced Hydrothermal Activity Clancey, W. Exploration vs Problem-Solving Lim, D. - High Arctic Lake Sediments, a Tool for Planning for Mars Exploration James et al Exercising Martian Resource Utilization Technologies at Analog Sites Blitch, J. – Studies for Robot Assisted Exploration Open Open

Fogg, M. - A Mathematical Model of Terraforming Mars

2:00 p.m.

Warren-Rhodes, K. Human Impact on the Environment: Applications to Mars Hoffman, N. Volatile Inventories on a Frozen "White Mars" Palermo, E. - Dust Steaks or Water Stains, a Martian Enigma --------------Anderson, D. Design and Construction of Analog Suits for FMARS 2001 Barker et al - The Mars Suit External Audio System

Swanson, G. - A Model for Minimizing Risk of Sudden Death during Exercise Cuttino, M. Medical Emergencies on Mars Stenberg, W. Tooth Loss: an Unavoidable Occupational Health Risk? Savin, C. - Dental Maintenance and Emergency Protocol Coles, D. The New Human Being

Scott, D. - Lewis and Clark's Corp of Discovery as a Model for Mars Exploration Mandell, H. Involving NonTraditional Customers in the Grand Adventure Dodds, E. Teaching Space in a Public School Classroom Sari, M. Martians in the Arctic

McKay, C. AMEBA Scout Concept

2:30 p.m.

Zubrin, R. – The Translife Mission

3:00 p.m.

Kuznetz, L. More than Mars...Much More Frederick, G. Welcome to Pele Base

Lemke, L. – Mars Exploration Airplanes Charania, A.C. Networks on the Edge of Forever

3:30 p.m.

4:00 p.m.

Open

Estefan, J. et al Mars Latin Rover: Educational Program

Strizi et al – Sun Mars Libration Points and Mission Simulations

4:30 p.m.

5:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m.

Gorguinpour and LeClaire - Berkeley Space Suit Design Team Mohanty, S. - Mars Extreme Gear Design Open

Open

Open Open

Salotti, M. Marsbase, an Educational Simulation Game Hussain, D. - The NASA Academy Open

Open

Open Open

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The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Saturday, August 25 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby Plenary Sessions C Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m. - Shuttle Commander and Astronaut Eileen Collins 9:45 a.m. - Dr. Pascal Lee – Mars Analog Research on Devon Island 10:45 a.m. - Panel Discussion with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Crew 11:45 a.m. (to 12:30 p.m.) - Anna Paulson - The Michigan Mars Society Rover Project Track Sessions 1:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Track 1C – Mars Analog Rover Design Track 2C– Advanced Concepts in Propulsion and Launch Options Track 3C – Human Factors and Crew Selection Track 4C – Methods of Public Outreach Track 5C – Power Production, In-Situ Utilization, and Mars Base Concepts Special Events 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Space Camp Goes to Mars - a Youth Discovery Day Free and Open to kids ages 8 - 18 Memorial Auditorium 1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Mars Society Steering Committee Meeting Open to Conference Attendees Bldg 300, Room 300, Capacity 100 6:30 p.m. - 9:00 p.m. Annual Mars Society Banquet 9:00 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. Mars Society Open-microphone Membership Meeting Lagunita Courtyard, seating limited to 500

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297

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Saturday, August 25, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 C Mars Analog Rover Design Track 2 C Advanced Concepts in Propulsion and Launch Options Muscatello, A. Synthesis of Lowhydrogen Aromatic Fuels for Mars Ohlandt, C. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Space Propulsion using Advanced Fuels Onik, G. - The GBG Heavy Lift Orbital Launch System Dowd, M. - Outline of an Integrated Space Program Track 3 C Human Factors and Crew Selection Track 4 C Methods of Public Outreach Track 5 C Power Production, In-situ Utilization, and Mars Base Concepts Frankie, B. - Dry Reforming: A Unique Flow sheet for Fuel Production

1:00 p.m.

Cairns, B. - The Project Marsupial HOP (Australia)

1:30 p.m.

Vesna, N. et al – Compaq Mars, A Mars Analog Rover (Toronto) Biernacki and Zawisza – Report from the Polish Rover Team Burns, J. - Cruising with Big Horns

2:00 p.m.

Fiore, S. et al Shared Mental Model Theory and Group Dynamics in Extreme Environs Seedhouse, E. Early Polar Exploration and its Implications for Crew Selection Funaro, J. - Crew Composition for Mars Missions

Murphy, G. - From the Red Centre to the Red Planet

Hilton, M. Listening to Earthlings Talk about Mars Hidalgo, L. - Yuri's Night

2:30 p.m.

3:00 p.m.

3:30 p.m.

Paulson, A. Volunteers and Corporations Cooperate Ohlandt, C. - A review of Power Source Options

Wynter, J. - SelfLaunching Payloads: a Novel Approach to LEO Nordley, G. Access to Mars by Rotating Tethers

4:00 p.m.

4:30 p.m.

Strong, W. Communications and Computer Systems Strong, W. Maximizing Living Space

Pelizzari, M. - Nonpropulsive Access to the Martian Surface Gaviraghi - The Pianeta Marte Affordable Mars Mission Lusignan, B. Single STEP to Orbit, the only way to Mars Zubrin et al Progress in Mars Exploration Technologies

Stabb, S. et al What's New in Choosing Who: Team Assessment and Selection Putman, J. - EEG Biofeedback and Maintaining Functional Integrity Watkins, D. – Psychological Suitability for Long Duration Space Flight: the View from History Open

Davis, S. Simulating a Martian Settlement on a Computer Jacobson, B. Bringing Mars to Children and Other Audiences Carlsson, C. – Getting Local Media and Political Attention

Chamitoff, G. et al - Identification, Display and Optimization of Resources Schneider and Bruckner - Water Vapor Absorption in a Zeolite Molecular Sieve Poston, B. - Mars Kites for Human Habitation

Mackenzie, B. One Way to Mars, an Early Permanent Settlement Schubert, F. Infrastructures for the First Base on Mars

Becker, F. - A Child Once Dreamt of Space Mackenzie, B. Mars Analog Settlement, Research and Education Center Bell, L. - Chapter Projects Workshop

Open

Brown, J. Technologies to Settle Mars this Decade Braham, S. Technical Task Force Workshop

5:00 p.m.

5:30 p.m.

Strong, W. Telemetry and Remote Teleoperation Fijalkowski, B., Articulated Triad Martian Roving Vehicle Open

Open

Technical Task Force Workshop continued Technical Task Force Workshop continued

Open

Chapter Projects Workshop continued

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The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Sunday, August 26 8:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby 12:00 noon - dormitory checkout deadline Plenary Sessions D Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m. - Hannes Griebel, Dr. Michael Bosch and others - The Mars Society Balloon Mission: a Lowcost Mars Super-Pressure Balloon Mission 10:00 a.m. - Dr. Chris McKay – Life on Mars: Past, Present and Future 11:00 a.m. - A Panel Discussion with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Mission Support Team Track Sessions 1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Track 1D – Analog Studies Relevant to Mars Exploration Track 2D – Human Missions to Mars and Robotic Synergy Track 3D – The Long Haul – Mobility on Mars Track 4D – Financing Options/Mars Society Planning Track 5D – Life Support Technology Track 6D – Chapter’s Council Workshop Sessions Special Events 5:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Closing Plenary - Dr. Robert Zubrin Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297 Bldg 300, Room 300, Capacity 100

Everyday – Vendors and Displays, Annenberg Auditorium Foyer

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Sunday, August 26, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 D Analog Studies and Their Relevance to Mars Exploration 1:00 p.m. Lusignan, B. Life on the High Deserts of Earth and Dry Valleys of Mars Track 2 D Human Missions to Mars and Robotic Synergy Betts, B. et al Planetary Society's Mars Outposts Proposal Panel Discussion Planetary Society Panel Discussion continued Brown et al Mars Scheme IV:TMS/Caltech Human Exploration Endeavor Mickler, S. Junkyard Mars: Humans to Mars using the Clarke Orbit Junkyard Brandenburg et al - Solaris MET: Low Cost Human Mission Track 3 D The Long Haul - Mobility on Mars Track 4 D Financing Options for Mars Missions -------------Mars Society Planning Livingston, D. Space Tourism after Dennis Tito: Mars and Space Tourism Track 5 D Life Support Technology Track 6 D Chapter’s Council Workshop Sessions

Jones, J. Inflatable Tumbleweeds for Mars

Crocker, J. - A Methanogen Based BioRegenerative Life Support System Gormly, S. Distributive Life Support Testing

Kelly, L. – Planning Chapter Outreach and Communications

1:30 p.m.

Burns, J. Operational Research on a Manned Mars Rover Hussein, D. – Next Generation Mobile Access to Satellite Data McKay, C. Analog Studies Workshop

2:00 p.m.

Sims et al Long Day's Drive: Long Range Rover Exploration Martian Arctic Landis and Linne - Mars Hopper for Robotic Exploration File, D. Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts Joslyn, T. Mountaineering on Mars

Zubrin, M. Staying Aloft: Fundraising for Mars Society Projects Pioneer, J. 3 COM Mars a Coca Cola Bottling Company Vancil, C. Mars Balloon Group

Workshop Continues

Calahan, D. Algal Turf Scrubbers for Mars

Open

2:30 p.m.

3:00 p.m.

Analog Studies Workshop continued

Fisher, G. - The Mars Society Measure of Readiness

3:30 p.m.

Analog Studies Workshop continued Analog Studies Workshop continued

4:00 p.m.

Seedhouse, E. Fast-Track using the ThetaPinch Thruster Brown & Hirata - Mars Scheme IV: Trajectory Analysis

Cockell, C. – Martian Polar Expeditions Open

Mackenzie, B. Steering Committee and Member Input Open

Frederick, G. Controlled Ecological Mouse Support System Worthington, E. - Detection of P-Cymene by Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor Coles, D. Astro Farming

4:30 p.m.

Open

Open

Open

Open

Kotliar and Prokopov Fire Safety based on Ignition Suppression Kotliar and Prokopov Hypoxic Artificial Atmosphere for Spaceships

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The Hakluyt Prize Essay
Bridget Gallaway bgal13@juno.com May 24, 2001

I am an 18-year old college student and I am writing to you because I need your help with a goal to which I am dedicating the rest of my life. It is an endeavor that will catapult the human race into an era of discovery, excitement, and achievement - a manned mission to Mars. Mars is the new frontier, with the potential to reawaken human hopes, dreams, and opportunities. The exploration of our solar system can tell us much about who we are, where we come from, and the innumerable possibilities of where we might go. Our first humble steps in that direction have already taken place, and I have no doubt that conditions on our planet will, in the future, demand that we go further. We should begin the journey now. A mission to Mars need not be a dream for future generations. We have the necessary technology within our grasp. We can be safely on Mars within ten years, without exorbitant cost. All it will take is a group of determined people with a vision for the future. There are natural offshoots of Martian exploration that will revolutionize life right here on Earth and help create better living conditions for billions of people. Better propulsion systems will be developed, with cleaner forms of energy. As we begin to colonize Mars, methods of extracting water from the desert will be required. These technological achievements will help poor nations on Earth become prosperous, as deserts become open to irrigation and the food surplus increases. Other, less tangible benefits of space exploration also exist. In the future, Martian colonies will not be only for scientists and engineers. Colonies will attract entrepreneurs, doctors, artists, musicians, and even tourists. It is not just a scientific endeavor; it is one that will benefit everyone. The new "space culture" will be a time of great creative and artistic achievement. It is part of the human psyche to learn, explore, create a better life…and to survive. It is only through the colonization of Mars that these needs will be fulfilled. I cannot imagine anything more noble than helping to ensure the survival of the human race. I firmly believe that the development of Mars and beyond will be the greatest undertaking in human history. I am excited about my own personal involvement. However, one more aerospace engineer will not take us to Mars. I sincerely hope you will join with me and others in this quest. Please be an advocate for future generations by leading your nation in joining this effort. Our world is old and tired. The human spirit is stagnating under the burden of an existence without

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direction. But within each of us is the ancient spirit that drove us to tame the natural elements, conquer the seven seas, and settle every continent. That same spirit will, with your help, take us to the stars.

Sincerely,

Bridget Gallaway 1542 NE 159th Ct. Portland, OR 97230 United States of America 503.254.9620

LIST OF LEADERS TO WHOM THIS LETTER WAS SENT: World Leaders: President George W. Bush -- USA Vice President Dick Cheney -- USA Prime Minister Jean Chrétien - Canada President Mary McAleese -- Ireland Prime Minister John Howard -- Australia Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel -Austria Prime Minister Guy Verbofstadt - Belgium President Li Teng-hui - Republic of China on Taiwan Prime Minister Paul Nyrup Rasmussen -Denmark Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen -- Finland President Jacques Chirac -- France Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder -Germany Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi -- Italy Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi -- Japan Prime Minister Willem Kok - The Netherlands Prime Minister Helen Elizabeth Clark - New Zealand Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg -- Norway Prime Minister José Maria Aznar Lopez -Spain Prime Minister Göran Persson -- Sweden Chancellor Francois Couchepin - Switzerland Prime Minister Tony Blair - United Kingdom Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan President Vladimir Putin -- Russia Prime Minister Ariel Sharon -- Israel Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee -- India President Fernando Henrique Cardoso - Brazil President Fernando de la Rua Bruno -Argentina Pope John Paul II

Members of the US House of Representatives Committee on Science: Rep. Constance A. Morella (8th, MD) Rep. Christopher Shays (4th, CT) Rep .Curt Weldon (7th, PA) Rep. Lynn Woolsey (6th, CA) Rep. Nick Smith (7th, MI) Rep. Vernon Ehlers (3rd, MI) Rep. Gil Gutknecht (1st, MN) Rep. Judy Biggert (13th, IL) Rep. Todd Akin (2nd, MO)
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Rep. Timothy V. Johnson (15th, IL) Rep. Felix J. Grucci, Jr. (1st, NY) Rep. Melissa Hart (4th, PA) Rep. James A. Barcia (5th, MI) Rep. Jerry F. Costello (12th, IL) Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson (30th, TX) Rep. Brian Baird (3rd, WA) Rep. Joe Baca (42nd, CA) Rep. Joseph M. Hoeffel (13th, PA)

Rep. Steve Israel (2nd, NY) Rep. Jim Matheson (2nd, UT) Rep. Lynn N. Rivers (13th, MI) Rep. Joe Barton (6th, TX) Rep. Roscoe G. Bartlett (6th, MD) Rep. Ken Calvert (43rd, CA) Rep. Chris Cannon (3rd, UT) Rep. John Culberson (7th, TX) Rep. Sherwood L. Boehlert (23rd, NY) Rep. Bob Etheridge (2nd, NC) Rep. Lamar Smith (21st, TX) Rep. Dave Weldon (15th, FL) Rep. Anthony D. Weiner (9th, NY) Rep. David Wu (1st, OR)

Rep. Frank D. Lucas (6th, OK) Rep. George R. Nethercutt (5th, WA) Rep. Gary G. Miller (41st, CA) Rep. Mike Pence (2nd, IN) Rep. Bart Gordon (6th, TN) Rep. Nick Lampson (9th, TX) Rep. John B. Larson (1st, CT) Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (18th, TX) Rep. Dennis Moore (3rd, KS) Rep. Ralph M. Hall (4th, TX) Rep. Mark Udall (2nd, CO) Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (45th, CA) Rep. Earl Blumenauer (3rd, OR)

Members of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation: Sen. George Allen (VA) Sen. Conrad Burns (MT) Sen. John Breaux (LA) Sen. Sam Brownback (KS) Sen. Barbara Boxer (CA) Sen. Max Cleland (GA) Sen. Jean Carnahan (MO) Sen. Byron Dorgan (ND) Sen. John Ensign (NV) Sen. John Edwards (NC) Sen. Peter Fitzgerald (IL) Sen. Fritz Hollings (SC) Sen. Daniel Inouye (HI) Sen. John Kerry (MA) Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison (TX) Sen. Trent Lott (MS) Sen. John McCain (AZ) Sen. Jay Rockefeller IV (WV) Sen. Gordon Smith (OR) Sen. Olympia J. Snowe (ME) Sen. Ted Stevens (AK) Sen. Ron Wyden (OR)

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Thursday, August 23, 2001 Thursday Plenary Session 9:00 am The Next Step for the Mars Society Dr. Robert Zubrin President, The Mars Society zubrin@aol.com In this session I will report on our current situation, and describe the Mars Society’s plan to build a movement capable of getting humans to Mars. The plan relies upon using our success with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station program to establish our public presence and credibility so as to enable us to launch greater projects and ever more powerful political initiatives. These new and greater projects include not only a radical expansion of our Mars analog field research program, but the initiation of the Mars Society’s first space flight mission. This low cost mission, currently called “Translife” will undertake dramatic and critically necessary research that is outside the intellectual framework of the existing NASA robotic and manned space flight programs, and, if successful, will position the Mars Society to undertake ever more complex and expensive missions, as our technical and financial resources progressively expand. Thursday Plenary Session 10:00 am TBA Elon Musk Thursday Plenary Session 11:00 am TBA Dr. Mike Griffin Track 1A 1:00 pm Invasion of the SpeleoBots Gus Frederick with Dr. Penelope Boston gus@norwebster.com Terrestrial lava tube caves are natural receptacles for accumulations of water. Often, due to lower temperatures coupled with the insulation properties of the surrounding rock, these accumulations are in the form of ice. Locating and cataloging similar features on Mars could be of value for the search for life and in helping to determine past climatic conditions on the Red Planet. Such features may also prove useful in future colonization efforts for shelter and as a potential source of water. But how to explore them? One unique approach recently proposed employs specialized swarms of insect-like mini-

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robots accompanying one or more flexible rover/relay station robots. Utilizing a robotic fractal approach that starts with a wide view of a promising area, then zooms in to reveal detail at a series of smaller scales, the approach mimics the actions of a scientist in the field. This discussion will examine one such proposal, the "Mother Goose Mission" presented to NASA/JPL as part of the Mars Scout mission, planned for the 2006/7 launch window. Mother Goose makes use of a robotically piloted glider that searches for a suitable location from the air, then lands to release the pilot; a six-legged walking robot named Mother Goose. Mother's onboard sensors provide details to supplement the glider's eye view at a smaller scale. For a closer view of small, hard to access locations, like a cave entrance or shielded crevasses, Mother releases her "goslings" to explore at an even smaller level. The baby bug-bot goslings return to mother to upload data and recharge their batteries. The multiple redundancy allows for the loss of one or more individuals without dramatically jeopardizing the mission. Track 1A 1:30 pm Gamma Ray Spectrometer 2001 Mars Odyssey Heather Enos heather@lpl.arizona.edu The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) is a significant component of NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey Surveyor Orbiter. Odyssey launched on April 7, 2001, with arrival at Mars on October 24, 2001. Odyssey's primary science mission will take place January, 2002 through July, 2004. The GRS is a suite of three instruments (Gamma Sensor Head and two Neutron Detectors) designed to analyze the chemical composition of the Martian surface. GRS also has the capability of detecting water in shallow subsurface depths. The GRS was built in partnership between the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Russia's Space Research Institute. The data provided by GRS will be used to determine the elemental abundance of the major geological regions of Mars. This will include a global map of water deposits, their variation with depth near the surface, and the seasonal changes of the polar ice caps. In addition, GRS will participate in the study of cosmic gamma ray bursts. GRS addresses the following fundamental objectives; to understand the Martian environment and its history, to determine whether this environment supported life (or supports it still), and to assess the resources available on the planet. The gamma ray detector is a large (1.2 kg) high-purity Germanium (Ge) crystal. The crystal is held at a voltage of approximately 3000 volts. Little or no current flows (less than one nanoAmp) unless a high-energy ionizing photon or charged particle strikes it. The electric charge from such a strike is amplified, measured and digitally converted into one of 16,384 (214) channels, or bins. After a specified number of seconds, a histogram is produced, which shows the distribution of events (number of strikes) as a function of energy (channel number). The GRS spectra are typically only 30 seconds in duration, but

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longer accumulation times are achieved by summing spectra over a particular region of the planet. Neutron Spectrometer (NS), built by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM under the direction of Dr. William Feldman, Principal Investigator. The NS will detect thermal and epi-thermal neutrons in the search for Hydrogen. High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND), developed by Space Research Institute (Moscow, Russia). Dr. Igor Mitrofanov is Principal Investigator of this experiment. The HEND will detect epi-thermal, resonance and fast neutrons. This instrument is very sensitive to Hydrogen, therefore it will further increase our knowledge of subsurface water or ice. Track 1A 2:00 pm Mars Meteor Survey R. D. McGown, B. E. Walden, T. L. Billings, C. L. York, A. G. Taylor, and R. D. Frederick Mars Instrument and Science Team (MIST) Oregon L5 Society, Inc. P.O. Box 86, Oregon City, OR 97045 moonbase@home.com. We propose instruments be included on one or more Mars landers to identify and characterize the meteoroid flux at Mars. Mars orbiting spacecraft and ground operations, both manned and unmanned, are vulnerable to meteoroids. There is pure scientific interest in knowing the frequency, intensity, and radiants of Martian meteor showers. Being in a different orbit than Earth and closer to the asteroid belt, Mars has unknown cycles and intensities of meteoroid hazards. Knowledge of these hazards can help us manage risk in future missions, particularly extended and crewed missions. To be most effective, the detectors should be continuously active, day and night, for as long a period as possible. Detectors that rely on energy-intensive transmitters, such as lasers, radio bounce or radar [1], are therefore less desirable. A staring instrument is preferable to one which must rapidly slew to track a meteor (requiring extra mechanical parts and susceptible to failure), and should be able to detect multiple meteors simultaneously. Power supply: In order to obtain representative samples and reliable long-term statistics, a power supply that can maintain function during the Martian night and over the Martian winter is highly desirable. Ideally the power supply should provide several years of service. Camera: A staring full-sky camera can detect meteors directly, at least at night (meteor being the flash of light in the atmosphere caused by an infalling meteoroid). It may be possible to detect them in daylight as well, perhaps using an infrared (IR) camera. Ultra-wide angle 180° lenses are expensive and bulky. A small camera staring down at a lightweight spherical mirror can cover the sky just as well and may be better for dust management. The optics need not be of astronomical quality to gather this statistical data, and the small portions of the sky obscured by the camera and its support are

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relatively insignificant. Spectrograph: Spectrographic capability would give us information about the elemental composition of Mars’ upper atmosphere and the vaporizing meteoroids. Radial velocity can be determined by Doppler shift and combined with transverse velocity to yield a true vector solution of the meteor. Radio: The ionization created by meteoroid energy generates a radio-frequency (RF) signal. It may be possible to detect this emission and derive certain information from it. A radio (or microwave) detector can work day or night. It may also be able to detect smaller magnitude events than an optical/IR detector. In order to localize the signal, at least three receivers and antennas are required. It may be possible to integrate the antennas as part of a splayed landing gear array. Another possibility is to make the optical camera support legs into antennas. In another experiment, a transmitter could be dropped to send signals to create a whistler effect if there is enough atmosphere for ionization. An Earth-based feasibility study of RF interferometry array would be in order. Microphone: If a microphone is included as part of another package, some larger, closer meteoroids could produce a sonic boom or other detectable sound. Being able to associate the sound with a detected meteor would help us characterize the nature of sound transmission and attenuation through the Martian atmosphere. Barometer: If a barometer is included as part of a Martian weather package, it might also record the sonic boom sometimes associated with meteors or perhaps the pressure gradient from a Martian dust devil. Seismometer: If a seismometer is included in a geology package, on this or other landers, coincidence of a seismic signal with a meteor detection could be a confirmation of impact or the study if Mars is a living planet. Further analysis of the seismic signal could help calibrate the meteor detector. Computer: An onboard computer can process the raw data so only a small set of data, consisting of basic meteor identifying parameters and variables, need be included in periodic uploads to Earth. For diagnostic and other scientific purposes, it should be possible to bypass the computer and send broadband raw data to Earth. Perhaps the uploaded signal to Earth could be used as the transmitting RF wave. Infrasound wave detector: The infrasound wave detector would detect long wave sound waves from 20 hertz down to a day or more. On Earth such devices are capable of detecting nuclear explosions continents away. Micro meteorite study: In the same way Apollo missions brought back a piece of Surveyor to study micro meteorite impact and solar wind, a lander/rover could study the Viking landers to record the micro meteorite impacts. Questions: Here are some questions the Mars Meteor Survey might address: When are Martian meteor showers, how big are they, and where do they come from? Which meteors come from the asteroid belt and which from comets? Can we predict meteor showers and storms on Mars? Will Mars surface operations be exposed to periodic “rains of rock”? (Fig. 1) What is the cumulative risk to surface and orbital operations at Mars due to meteoroids? - How small can a meteoroid be and still reach the surface of Mars? - Are meteorite falls on Mars different in characteristics or time frames from those on Earth?

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- Would radio or microwave receivers on Mars be sufficient to detect meteors without a reference transmitter? - Will infrasound detection work in Mars’ atmosphere? - What will meteors look like on Mars? Will they have statistically different characteristics than those seen on Earth? - Are there dust zones or gradients in Mars’ atmosphere? - Can wind-shear zones or jet streams in Mars’ atmosphere affect meteor signals? - How much of atmospheric dust on Mars is endogenic (kicked up from the surface) and how much exogenic (meteoroid)? - Is there a synergy between radio and visible/IR or spectrographic sensors to characterize mass, composition, or other factors of meteoroids or of the Martian atmosphere? - Are there statistical differences in composition of Mars meteoroids vs. Earth meteoroids? - Can the Mars Meteor Survey instruments be used in other studies, such as dust storm analysis, imaging during the landing sequence, etc.? - Does Mars have additional small moons? Track 1A 2:30 pm A Mission Plan for Mars – The Third Way Jim Beyer Ann Arbor, Michigan Yet another Mission Plan is proposed for exploring Mars. Both the NASA original “90 Day Plan” and the Mars Direct plans suffer from the major hurdle of requiring a heavy lift vehicle to be developed (or redeveloped) to send an adequate payload to Mars. Paying the $1 Billion plus needed to get a sizeable habitat to LEO and on to Mars is a significant financial and political roadblock which is keeping us from getting to Mars. The Third Way proposes simply to do as much as possible with existing, lower payload launch vehicles. In particular, each of the 300+ cheaply (former Soviet) SS-18 missiles can put 1+ metric tonnes on the surface of Mars apiece. With some creative (and inexpensive) technology, this payload can be increased to 3-5 metric tonnes. This would be large enough to land most of the major components needed to sustain humans on Mars. The Third Way is integrated with the existing robotic missions to Mars, making them both more productive and cheaper to implement, while at the same time supporting the effort to bring humans to Mars, and keep them there. This can get us onto Mars with minimal cost and minimal additional development.

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Track 1A 3:00 pm Sampling Tools for Mars Dr. T.C. Ng holinser@vol.net In June 2003, European Space Agency will send Mars Express (orbital) and Beagle 2 (lander) to Mars for exobiology purposes. It consists of two kinds of micro sampling tools namely rock corer and rind grinder, and mole sampler. Both are made by Hong Kong Micro End Effectors (MEE) team, and the concepts were conceived from the dental forceps Dr. T.C. Ng invented in 89' for gripping porcelain inlays. Rock corer is the smallest planetary rock-coring device in the world. The drill is an open ended design, and is able to drill, core, grip and grind; consumes only 2 watts of energy; size of a pocket camera; weights 420 gm including the rind grinder. Samples retrieved will be delivered into GCMS for insitu analysis. Rind grinder is incorporated in front of the coring device. It can grind the weathered rind 3mm thick of 25 square mm surface area for APXS examination. Mole sampler is mounted at the tip of the Russian mole for subsoil sampling. The jaws open and close by SMA actuator. MEE team has also developed all kinds of surface/subsoil coring/sampling micro sampling tools (www.hkmars.net). The PIs are TC NG; KLYUNG; CH YU; CC CHAN, manufacture at industrial center HK PolyU. Track 1A 3:30 pm Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on Mars Chris Brown, Ande Boyer, Timothy Weaver University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) chapter of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) SEDS VBRH M-45 University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35805 browncl@email.uah.edu Personnel on a manned Mars base will almost certainly need the capacity to do various sorts of reconnaissance and remote measurements. Often times these needs may not be satisfied by an orbiting satellite or by a ground-based vehicle. It is in this case that an unmanned aerial vehicle will be an invaluable part of a Mars mission. It is both possible and cost effective to transport a vehicle of this type to Mars and use it on the Martian surface. The plane would be very similar to those used by hobbyists and to those being developed by the US Army for overhead battlefield reconnaissance. The primary problem with this approach is the difficulty in generating enough lift to get the plane off

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the ground and keep it in flight due to the thin Martian atmosphere. The first step to this is using a small solid rocket booster to get the plane to the desired altitude. This eliminates the need for a takeoff runway and solves much of the lift problem. Furthermore, by selecting lightweight materials and designing a properly sized propeller and wing surface, a typical engine can generate enough lift to keep the plane in flight. The propeller will be driven by an electric motor rather than the more common combustion engine because the lack of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would preclude the use of a combustion engine, and because of the difficulties of transporting or creating fuel. Thus it is feasible to take a small lightweight remote-controlled plane to Mars, allowing crews to make use of aerial cameras to do surveillance before an off-base mission. Track 1A 4:00 pm Increased Cost Effectiveness of Mars Exploration Using Human-Robotic Synergy Richard L. Sylvan M.D. 923 River Chase Trail Duluth, GA 30096 rlsylvan@aol.com The current model for the exploration of Mars parallels the model used for the moon. Initial probes perform a preliminary exploration. More sophisticated probes then evaluate landing techniques, and landing site topography. Manned exploration then becomes dominant. Mars exploration presents problems not present in the exploration of the moon. The great distance causes signal latency to be many minutes, rather than several seconds. Distance causes loss of signal strength and slowed information transfer rate. The slowed communication limits the speed of Earth controlled Mars probes. The area that can be explored and the percentage of time instruments are actually doing science are small. By reducing latency, Mars based human controllers could increase the science performed by robotic probes by several orders of magnitude. An exploration team at one location on Mars could contribute to the exploration of the entire surface of Mars. To maximize the benefit, workload and control would be divided between the Earth based scientific designer team of each robotic instrument, and the Mars team. A low risk, high reward mission would be added to the manned exploration of Mars. Modifications in the Mars exploration plan necessary to obtain increased data would be required. Technical, monetary and intellectual requirements are considerable. These include development of standard control systems for use by the Mars team, software overseeing division of control of instruments between Earth and Mars based operators, artificial intelligence to facilitate noninterference of the two team's instruction sets, development of minimal and ideal communication satellite systems, and improvements in durability of probes to allow maximal number of probes to be available. Training requirements for astronauts, as well as for the scientific team need defining.

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Communication models to limit friction between Earth and Mars based teams need formulation. Track 1A 4:30 pm The Role of Robotics in the Human Settlement of Mars Michael H. Sims Center for Mars Exploration NASA Ames Michael.Sims@arc.nasa.gov The most adaptive, scientifically important and powerful tools we have for the exploration of Mars are human beings. Increasingly synergistic with Earth-based and Mars-based humans will be a set of more and more useful robotic tools. This talk will trace out uses of those robotic devices from the present until the establishment of permanent human presence on Mars. In addition, the talk will discuss technologies which will be needed for these robotic tools. Track 1A 5:00 pm Mars Ascent Propulsion for Robotic Missions John Whitehead, PhD jcw@llnl.gov Mission planners for near-term Mars Sample Return still face unsolved challenges. One of these is the need for a Mars Ascent Vehicle that is essentially a miniature launch vehicle. This talk will review the latest work toward implementing pump-fed liquid rocket technology on a tiny scale. Typical large stages are characterized by tanks which weigh 1-2% as much as the propellant, and engines which weigh 1-2% of their thrust. Turbo pumps add the required fluid power between low pressure lightweight tanks and the compact high pressure thrust chambers. On the small scale typified by spacecraft, liquid propulsion systems have always been pressure-fed. This mode of operation compromises optimum pressure levels for both tanks and engines, thus making the hardware heavier and limiting maneuvering capability (acceleration and delta-V). The presenter's work on gas-driven reciprocating pumps and associated systems will be reviewed in the context of Mars Ascent Vehicle design. pump-fed engines at the 100-lb thrust level have already been tested, with thrust/weight ratios similar to very large engines. Moreover, at most 50 psi is needed to feed the pump inlet on such miniature engines. If there's time, this presentation will start with an analysis of the Mars ascent problem (delta-V and propellant fraction vs Isp), followed by graphs that show why conventional spacecraft propulsion technology does not meet the need.

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Track 2A 1:00 pm Barriers to Initiating a Human Mars Exploration Program Chris Hirata Office: 317 Downs Caltech MSC # 560 Pasadena, CA 91126-0560 hirata@its.caltech.edu Even though it is within our technical capability to send humans to Mars in the early twenty-first century, many important barriers separate us from the initiation of such a program. Aside from cost, two of which are fears that the program cannot be completed or that technical risks have been severely underestimated, and doubts about the scientific validity of the mission. The validity of these concerns is discussed. We also consider various courses of action for the Mars Society to dispel the myths and unfounded concerns and address real issues. An emphasis will be placed on the Mars Society's interaction with scientists and the general public's view thereof. Track 2A 1:30 pm Legal Implications for an International Space Mission and What Types of Rules Will be Necessary After Initial Success J.J. Hurtak, Ph.D. AFFS Corporation Los Gatos, CA 95031 jjh@affs.org M. Jude Egan University of California, Berkeley Ph.D. Candidate in the Jurisprudence and Social Policy Program, UC Berkeley 3rd Year Law Student, Boalt Hall School of Law, UC Berkeley 646 63rd Street Oakland, CA 94609 mjegan@boalthall.berkeley.edu The turn to space exploration and settlement need not be the beginning of a new cold war but rather a possibility for global cooperation. Space exploration and the continued development of a space infrastructure, resides in a complex environment that crosses technical, political, and philosophical boundaries. For the nations of the Earth to cooperate in the human exploration of the solar system, there will have to be a common vision and shared philosophical understandings, unified in a Law that binds all equally. This requires dialogue between people involved in space related sciences and policymaking and the fostering of mutual respect for larger philosophical considerations of human life.

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We are presented at the outset of our joint journey into space with a bind between secrecy/proprietary “technical intelligence” and the “openness” necessary for international participation in such a venture. To participate in such an international program, each participant must relinquish some of the jealously guarded managerial control and intelligence it normally exercises over its national programs, even to its former enemies. In order to ensure respect between nations, it will be necessary to draft a legal framework, a type of constitutional statement, that sets forth common understandings of participation and is binding to all equally. Such a framework would not only set forth the mission statement but also define and codify the roles and understandings of all of the players as a unified entity. A contract between international participants that will bind all equally will define participation and interests. After the initial missions, the next steps will involve drafting specific legal guidelines pertaining to legal jurisdiction, liability and regulatory control of for-profit multi/extra-national and corporate activities. According to space entrepreneurs and legal experts, legal quandaries of liability, sovereignty, and import/export laws, to name a few, pose greater limitations to space exploration than our technological status. This paper will explore both the primary mission defining statement, how national interests might coalesce into one working whole, and the next steps, which would mean developing a set of international rules that will govern such areas as commerce, trade, transportation, taxation, liability and legal jurisdiction. Track 2A 2:00 pm The Need for a Government for Mars Prior to Human Exploration Gary C. Fisher Independence Chapter P.O. Box 694 Bryn Athyn, PA 19009 gcfisheris@aol.com A proposal is made for establishing a Government for Mars prior to the arrival of humans on the planet. Reasons why this is desirable and what the government's function would be, with particular reference to property rights, are explored. A method for establishing such a government is presented, along with recommendations on how to staff and fund the Government for Mars. Finally a plan for the evolution of the Government for Mars into a Government of Mars is presented considering likely outcomes of a colonization of the planet.

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Track 2A 2:30 pm A Code of Ethics and Standards for Mars and Outer-Space Commerce Dr. David M. Livingston Livingston Business Solutions P.O. Box 95, Tiburon, CA 94920 Office: (415) 435-6018; Fax: (415) 789-5969 E-mail: dlivings@davidlivingston Ethical issues and industry standards have become increasingly important in our business environment. Respected professional organizations, as well as successful companies, have already adopted formalized codes of ethics and standards, which are commonly enforced with fervor among all members and employees. Similar to terrestrial businesses, the commercial outer-space industry must develop its own code of ethics and standards. Although advanced space commercialization may still be a few years away from economic reality, now is the time to establish guidelines for corporate ethics and business practices. This formative period provides a unique opportunity to ensure the adoption of effective standards for future corporate conduct that will improve upon those already accepted and instituted by businesses here on Earth. Adopting effective corporate conduct standards at this time also establishes the foundation for the future economic development of Mars. A successful code should not only be voluntary, it must facilitate the work and expansion of individual businesses, rather than hinder their efforts toward providing products and services. A properly designed code of ethics and set of industry standards ensures the development of space commerce unfettered by government-created barriers. The ethics and standards used in this paper encourage and support businesses oriented toward Mars and outer-space development. Indeed, one of the inherent risks facing expansion of the commercial space industry is that, if the industry does not develop its own effective and supportive professional code of ethics and standards, government imposed regulations or laws will fill the void. Should this occur, the creation of new barriers to Mars and space commerce are likely, making future development far more difficult. The code presented in this paper seeks to avoid the imposition of new barriers to space commerce as well as make new commercial business ventures easier to develop. This paper presents a business code capable of evolving with input from those advocating and planning commercial space and Mars ventures. Consideration of this code should begin the process of critical thinking to move decision makers beyond the “bottom line” or shortsighted technical and engineering concerns. As acceptance and use of this proposed code of ethics and standards grows within the industry, modifications will be necessary to accommodate the variety of businesses entering space commerce. Furthermore, the terminology used in this code is consistent with that which is widely used today within the terrestrial business community. This uniformity will help to assure that the code will not be perceived as foreign in nature, potentially restrictive, or threatening. Companies adopting this code of ethics and industry standards will find less

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resistance to their space development plans, not only in the United States, but also from non-space faring nations. Less resistance means the company can commit more of its resources to implementing its business plans rather than addressing political or regulatory issues. Establishing industry and ethical standards facilitates expanded Mars and space commercialization and business development. Understanding this reality, this paper encourages and supports new space business ventures by reducing the risk of government interference and popular opposition to off-world businesses. Commercial space companies accepting and refining this code demonstrate industry leadership and an understanding that will serve future generations living, working and playing in space. Space business companies following the ethical and industry guidelines suggested here bring the development of an advanced space economy, including the development of Mars, that much closer to reality. Track 2A 3:00 pm Cutting the Umbilical: Why Space Enterprise is Better Off Without NASA Thomas Andrew Olson Vice President, Mars Society of New York techmac@earthlink.net (Part 1) Paul J. Contursi President, Mars Society of New York PCON@pipeline.com (Part 2) Government-funded space programs, past and present, have been fraught with regulatory nightmares, waste, and bureaucratic heavy-handedness. Despite all the talk and activity toward private space enterprise solutions, NASA remains the largest stumbling block to those effort's success. In Part One, the argument will be made, using an historical perspective, that the private space entrepreneurial sector, despite its relative infancy, will be better off in the long term by treating NASA like any other government agency, finding ways to "work around" NASA roadblocks, and resisting the urge to enlist NASA's "help", as a strategic partner. Described will be a scenario of how life COULD be without NASA as the biggest player in the space frontier. In Part Two, the case will be made that, if any lobbying efforts are to be engaged in by space activist groups with limited resources (like the Mars Society), better results would be achieved not by lobbying for extra NASA budget dollars, but for divestiture of NASA assets - the turning over of all Earth orbit activities and facilities to either private contractors, or, in the case of the ISS, an independent civil authority managing its use. Additional lobbying efforts should be directed at encouraging the same sorts for tax incentives to the fledgling space sector that have been used to help foster the

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growth of other industrial sectors in the past. Only by ending NASA's current hegemony in space, will the private space sector have a chance at long-term success. Track 2A 3:30 pm Universities In The Age of Commercial Space Professor Bruce B. Lusignan Stanford University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Packard Electrical Engineering Bldg. 350 Serra Mall, #237 Stanford, CA 94305-9510 lusignan@ee.stanford.edu Dennis Tito's flight to the back door of the International Space Station has broken through government domination of manned space flight begun with the flights of Yuri Gagarin and John Glenn. Universities of the world are beginning to contribute to programs of peaceful conversion. Use of decommissioned ICBM's, the Minuotaur for the US and the Dneper for Russia, to launch fleets of university-built satellites contribute to peace conversion. A new program for "Space Valets", university-built indoor satellites for the space station and its commercial follow-ons is proposed. And finally a preliminary design for a Space Resort is presented. Based on modules launched by single-STEP-toorbit systems, the economic viability for space tourism is high, particularly when spurred by the success of the first space tourist. Mars enthusiasts can benefit by helping to convert space from high tech weapons contests to international commercial and scientific endeavors. Track 2A 4:00 pm To Mars Through Washington David S. Schuman Deputy Chief Counsel NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (301) 286-4288 david.schuman@gsfc.nasa.gov The barriers to a near-term program of human Mars exploration are political and financial in nature, not technological. In order to more quickly and efficiently accomplish its goals, members of the Mars Society should study the legislative and policy process in detail and approach it in the same methodical manner as any scientific or technical problem. The author provides particular insight, having recently completed one year as a Brookings Institution Congressional Fellow in the Office of United States Senator Bob Graham (D-FL). He provided legal and policy advice on space, aviation, and IRS issues, managed legislation including the Spaceport Investment Act, attended Senate Finance and

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Commerce Committee hearings, helped establish the Senate Space Transportation Roundtable, and organized the Florida Space Summit. The latter included participation by Florida’s Governor, U.S. Senators and Representatives, the NASA Administrator, the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, industry executives, and state administration officials. Additional work included organizing an expert breakfast on financing legislation for reusable launch vehicle companies. Recommendations on how best to influence the legislative and policy process will cover the following topics: (1) why Congress pays little attention to space issues, (2) the importance of relationships with key Congressional staffers, (3) the lobbying techniques employed by successful interest groups, (4) the importance of Congressional committees not normally targeted by space advocacy groups, such as the House Committee on Ways and Means, and the Senate Finance Committee, (5) the importance of paying meticulous attention to the procedures necessary to advance particular legislation, and (6) the importance of extra-Congressional activities in passing a space-related bill. Track 2A 4:30 – 6:00 pm Mars Society Political Workshop Chris Carberry ccarberry@masshist.org Members of the Outreach Task Force will be discussing some of the accomplishments of the past year, and what political activities we intend to engage in over the upcoming year. In addition, we will discuss strategies for meeting with members of Congress and other important figures in Washington, D.C. This will include instructions on how to contact Congressional offices; tips for the actual meetings, as well as etiquette issues that are useful to know when meeting with Congress people. One of the major topics that we will discuss will be our efforts to increase pressure on Congress to commit one percent of NASA’s budget for a humans to Mars technology program. The Outreach Task Force intends to make this their number one priority during the upcoming year. Track 3A 1:00 pm Red Planet: Scientific and Cultural Encounters with Mars: Interactive DVD-ROM Technology Robert Markley, West Virginia University Harrison Higgs, Washington State University-Vancouver Michelle Kendrick, Washington State University-Vancouver Helen Burgess, West Virginia University Jeanne Hamming, West Virginia University rmarkley@wvu.edu

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In August 2001, the University of Pennsylvania Press will publish Red Planet: Scientific and Cultural Encounters with Mars, the first DVD-ROM in the Press's series, Mariner 10: Educational Multimedia. In 1998, at the first meeting of the Mars Society in Boulder, Drs. Markley and Burgess presented a demonstration of some of the features of Red Planet, then in its initial stages of development. At 2001 meeting of the Mars Society, we will present both a demonstration of the potential of DVD-ROM technology (storage capacity: 4.38 GB) for educational uses and an analysis of the ways in which this technology substantially advances educational software for college and university students. RP offers in-depth analyses of Mars as both an object of scientific study and a cultural artifact. It includes excerpts of videotaped interviews with Robert Zubrin, President of the Mars Society and author of The Case for Mars; Kim Stanley Robinson, author of Red Mars, Green Mars, and Blue Mars; Richard Zare (Stanford), Carol Stoker, Jeffrey Moore, and Chris McKay (all at NASA-Ames), Martyn Fogg (British Planetary Society), Katherine Hayles (UCLA), Molly Rothenberg (Tulane), Henry Giclas (Lowell Observatory), Philip James (Toledo), and Frederick Turner (University of Texas-Dallas). RP describes the origins and development of comparative planetology from Percival Lowell to Robert Zubrin while allowing users full interactivity to access scientific papers, interviews with experts, biographies, bibliographies, and sites on the World Wide Web which include links to other relevant web sites, updates on recent scientific findings and debates, updates on current and upcoming Mars missions, and Educators' Resources for classroom or independent use. Users may also explore the social, philosophical, and economic values and assumptions which underlie differing views of the future of Mars exploration and colonization. In our presentation, we will demonstrate and discuss major features of RP, including video interviews with important figures in the scientific study of Mars; hotlinks to biographies and key reference works; pop-up screens for scientific definitions; video clips from the movies Rocketship X-M (1950) and Devil Girl from Mars (1954); sound files from the original 1938 radio broadcast of War of the Worlds; and animations that explain the retrograde motion of the planet. The web site for the DVD Series, www.mariner10.com, will be discussed briefly and particular attention will be devoted to those sites that archive additional resources for RP. These sites include 1) a comprehensive Timeline; 2) References (web links and an extensive bibliography on scientific works about Mars, science-fiction novels set on Mars, and cultural criticism); 3) Future Missions; 4) Current Debates on topics ranging from in situ resource utilization to the possible paleofossils in ALH84001; and 5) Educators' Resources.

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Track 3A 1:30 pm Mars Crossing: Mars Technology in Science Fiction Geoffrey A. Landis 893 Grayton Road Berea, OH 44017 geoffrey.landis@sff.net Mars Crossing (Tor, December 2001) is a science fiction novel that features realistic concepts for human Mars exploration, using the in-situ "live off the land" approach for near term, low cost exploration. This paper discusses the novel and the technological basis for some of the exploration concepts showcased in the novel: In-situ propellant production from the Martian atmosphere Zirconia electrolysis for life support Hardshell carapace/piezoelectric contractile fiber Mars suits Fullerine fiber cables Mars airplane using inflatable wings and ISPP-produced LOX/hybrid engines In-situ propellant production using Mars polar resources

Track 3A 2:00 pm Mars in the Cinema: A Comparative Study of Mission to Mars and Red Planet The Cultural Development of Mars: Rethinking the "New World" Hypothesis Dr. Richard L. Poss Associate Professor of Humanities Humanities Program, Harvill 347 University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0076 rposs@u.arizona.edu Will movies about missions to Mars do anything to help us get there? Two recent examples provide evidence of both the richness and the dangers in a form of popular entertainment which portrays, however inaccurately, the very activity to which the Mars Society is dedicated. This paper is a comparative study of the two movies. Mission to Mars and Red Planet. The plot structure, characters, scientific rigor, and the kind of future portrayed in these movies will be analyzed and critiqued. What is the role of science and technology in each film? What kind of feeling does it give us about the planet Mars itself? What is the role of nationality, race, patriotism, the military, computers, the supernatural, in each film? How do we view the dynamics of the interplay between women and gender issues as they intersect with science and technology? After an examination of these themes in each of the films, the paper goes on to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the science fiction genre as a way of projecting our presence

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on Mars, anticipating problems, suggesting solutions, and inspiring hope and faith in the resilience of the human project. Track 3A 2:30 pm Raising the First Children on Mars Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu Audience discussion of raising the first children on Mars: What physical support is needed? What about robotics and remote support from Earth? What is a minimum number of adults and children? Is a nuclear family the best family model? We will discuss ethics of raising children in an (possibly) unsafe environment and the impact on program support and Earth society? Track 3A 3:00 pm Designing the Law of Mars Bryan Erickson Bryan.Erickson@angelfire.com The human exploration and settlement of Mars is well within the grasp of our technology, but is being held back by other concerns, much of which stem from the law. American and international law currently prevents incentives for opening the space frontier and provides no structure for the settlement of other planets. The history of new settlements and colonies is filled with examples of the law trailing behind the facts of settlement and impairing the society's ability to expand. My purpose is to examine how law currently inhibits the exploration and settlement of Mars, and how the law might be re-engineered to achieve those ends. I have teamed with another law student and a law professor with space law experience, and gotten acceptance from Franklin Pierce Law Center to develop these issues into a course on space law over the summer. Our goal includes developing the first textbook on space law, and a comprehensive report on the current state of space law and how it could be re-engineered to encourage expansion into space and settlement of the red planet. I have been invited to give a preliminary report in May at MIT on our research into space law as it relates to settling Mars. I hope to summarize the results of our research over the summer to the International Mars Society Conference in August in the section on "Law and Governance on Mars." Our group also hopes to develop this program into a new annual course in space law at our school, and to provide the textbook and curriculum to other law schools that are interested in offering such a course. Ultimately, we also hope that our study will help change the legal structure from one that inhibits the opening of the Mars frontier to one that encourages it.

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Track 3A 3:30 pm The Cultural Development of Mars: Rethinking the "New World" Hypothesis Dr. Richard L. Poss Associate Professor of Humanities Humanities Program, Harvill 347 University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0076 rposs@u.arizona.edu One of the basic metaphors underlying the discussion of Mars is the idea that the exploration and settlement of space will to some degree parallel the European exploration and settlement of the Americas from the Renaissance to the present, in short that the next 500 years will be like the last 500. While this idea sometimes appears as an explicit assertion, with attention to particular historical events as guidance for the future settlement of Mars, it also functions as a background assumption, taken for granted by both sides of many arguments, with different material gathered for support of opposing positions. This paper examines the "new world hypothesis" with a view toward tracing the dynamics of its use in debate over priorities and programs to be implemented in the exploration of Mars. An attempt will be made to synthesize current scientific, social, artistic, literary, and political thinking to discern which ones will be active in a Martian settlement, and what their character will be. The inevitable habits of thinking which require that we reason about the future based on past experience will be examined to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of a practice in which we are all engaged. Track 3A 4:00 pm The ‘Frontier Thesis’ and its Ideological Repercussions P. Schwennesen Paul.Schwennesen@dm.af.mil The opening of a Martian frontier is imminent. Though a manned mission to the red planet has yet to gain political momentum, such a mission is well within this nation’s technological and economic grasp. The consequences of opening a land area equivalent to all the continents on Earth combined are debatable, but certainly far-reaching. What will be the effects of such a tremendous new frontier? The history of the American frontier contrasted with that of the Russian provides a surprising insight into the potential social outcomes of a Martian frontier. What develops from such an analysis is the fact that a frontier, regardless of the time or place, inspires within its settling population certain defining characteristics. These characteristics tend to create open societies based upon democratic principles. However, if a frontier exhibits a severity beyond a critical

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level, the tendency toward an open society can be reversed, leading ultimately to autocracy and despotism. This paper will utilize the “frontier thesis” of noted historian Frederick Jackson Turner to do a comparative study of the Russian and American frontiers. Obviously, a tremendous difference exists between the political philosophy of 13th century Russia and 19th century America, but this paper supports the idea that the ideological outcome in each nation was due more to differences in their frontier than any other factor. This analysis bears scrutiny as the Martian frontier beckons. Will these new horizons be an arena for the expansion of liberty or will the severity of the Martian environment create the conditions for centralized control and suppression of independence? Track 3A 4:40 pm International Space University Eric Tilenius and Loretta Hidalgo Track 4A 1:00 pm Private Backup for Deep Space Network (Large Number Small Dish Array) Chris Vancil clvancil@aol.com NASA and other nations’ space agencies have an ever increasing number of spacecraft in deep space or heading to planetary orbits and surfaces. Even as NASA increases the abilities of the Deep Space Network there will be times when the demand on the DSN is greater than it's abilities. A backup plan by organizations like the Mars Society can be in place for little money and allow a small revenue stream if companies like SpaceDev do actually began to send probes on commercial missions. A Large Number Small Dish Array made up of free and surplus home satellite dishes seems the most practical system to implement. Track 4A 1:30 pm Very Low Bitrate Video for Mars Missions John F. McGowan, Ph.D. jmcgowan@veriomail.com Neither manned landings nor short-range robotic probes such as Mars Pathfinder can explore the surface of Mars, 144 million square kilometers comprising as much surface area as all the continents and islands on Earth. Complete exploration of Mars to find or conclusively rule out important discoveries such as past or present life will require high speed low-altitude or ground-based probes such as airplanes, balloons, or high speed rovers. These devices will need high frame-rate imaging such as digital video to explore

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the planet and for remote operation either by astronauts on Mars or mission control on Earth. A major limitation for transmission of video both on Mars and especially between Mars and Earth is the limited bandwidths available, currently less than 100 Kilobits/seconds between Mars and Earth when line of sight is available. One solution is to establish a network of communications satellites in Mars orbit. Even with a communications network, bandwidth will be limited, especially between Mars and Earth. A complementary approach is to develop very low bit rate video compression algorithms, e.g. VHS videotape quality at 56 Kilobits/second. Methods that may be able to achieve this such as the H.26L and MPEG-4 video coding standards, contour-based image coding, and object-based image coding are discussed, including applications and special issues on Mars and in deep space such as the high bit error rates of deep space communication links. Track 4A 2:00 pm What About the Data? Ned Chapin, InfoSci Inc. Menlo Park CA 94026-7117 During the time that robotic missions are the sole visitors to Mars from Earth, the data flow is and has been relatively limited. The missions have slowly gathered data and over sometimes years of time have transmitted the data back to Earth, where the data have been received, stored and used. The total data so far amounts to about ten terabytes (i.e., about ten million bytes), with images accounting for the majority of the data. When people are among the visitors to Mars, the data involved will jump dramatically. The people will be generating data passively and actively by their routine living (example: life support), by voluntary choice (example: a diary), by observation (example: automated weather station), by assignment (example: documenting a field trip), by interaction (example: informing, planning or directing), and by operating equipment (example: drilling for water). The data will be captured and communicated in many forms and many ways, and then will have to be stored. The storage will require having security provisions of several types, and backups. To be useful, the wanted stored data will have to be selectively found or located, and then retrieved or accessed and communicated, and be provided in usable forms either to people or equipment or both. Since the human-on-Mars presence will be an effectively paperless presence with non-Earthlike restrictions on communication, how are all these data requirements to be met? On Mars, the cost per kilogram and per cubic meter of equipment is extremely high, and there will be no manufacturing capability, spare parts availability, or sophisticated repair services for a long time. Environmental hazards will be significant, such as gritty dust and hard radiation. Each person on Mars will probably generate indirectly and directly an average of about four terabytes of data per year. How are we going to handle the data effectively? Let us look at some potential ways.

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Track 4A 2:30 pm Automated Equipment and its Software for Mars: Leveraged Approach to Development Justin J. Milliun, Jr. Milliun Technologies, LLC Santa Clara, CA Jmilliun@ieee.org During exploration and settlement of Mars hosts of automated systems will provide the needed materials, life support, and research functions. Physical distance and communication delays will make special demands on automated systems. In addition, there are real unknowns; one cannot foresee all of the conditions equipment will be used. There may certainly be a "creative" use that saves lives of explorers and settlers. This paper considers the software required for such systems, and approaches to development that includes substantial leveraging from existing technology. Programmable equipment will need to be programmed by those who use and depend on it. The equipment must empower the user. This characteristic is shared by some industrial systems used on Earth today. This paper examines standards and practice of automation and communication in the semiconductor manufacturing equipment, where several decades of engineering work has provided a useful model for how many similar problems might be approached for equipment for Mars. General engineering principles for embedded software for Mars will be discussed. Borrowing from the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry, this paper examines: - Generic Equipment Models - Equipment communications, - Generation of “process programs” on site By starting with, and leveraging from excellent existing technology, it will be possible to develop equipment destined for Mars that will exceed user expectations and even save development costs.

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Track 4A 3:00 pm Mathematical Analysis Risk of NASA and DoD launches: Are We Missing Something? Richard L. Sylvan M.D. 923 River Chase Trail Duluth, GA 30096 rlsylvan@aol.com Published analyses have evaluated the relationship between estimated risks of both DoD and NASA missions using a linear regression model to evaluate the relationship between risk of launch and either time or monetary inputs. The NASA and DoD launches were evaluated together as a single group. Reanalysis suggests that the NASA launches may be a distinct group with a nonlinear (and higher) risk ratio when compared with the DoD missions. The higher risk observed has several possible explanations, including NASA not evaluating all potential risks when setting time and monetary budgets, underestimating the true size of risks found, or not using risk mitigating procedures being utilized by the DoD, possibly because they could not be used. The non-linearity suggests some of the risk factors that are being incompletely evaluated are not simply additive, but synergistic. In their reevaluation of the overall planetary program in general, and the Mars program in particular, NASA has come to the same conclusions, and added both time and money to the Mars program, but in an imperic manner. Using a model may allow one to determine whether the time and money added are inadequate, and the excessive risk still exists, or are they excessive. Track 4A 3:30 pm Successful Landing Probabilities for Mars Wolfgang J. Sauer, Ph.D. Director of Colorado Space Grant Consortium at the University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo, CO, 81001, USA sauer@uscolo.edu Hüseyin Sarper, Ph.D., P.E. Faculty Coordinator of Colorado Space Grant Consortium at the University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo, CO, 81001, USA sarper@uscolo.edu This presentation follows up on several presentations in last year's conference. It was stated that if one of the engines fails while landing, the opposite engine would have to be shut-off to maintain vehicle balance. The need to shut-off the opposite engine presents a unique probability or reliability problem, not readily found in any of the references. Two engine configurations are considered: Four-engine (FE) vehicle and a larger, six-engine

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(SE) vehicle. Both vehicles can land as long as each experiences at most one engine pair failure (one fails, the other one is shut-off). The problem, at first, appears to be that of classic k-out-of-n reliability structure. It is shown that the problem is different than this classic problem and the new problem can be solved using order statistics. Monte-Carlo simulation is used to verify that the analytically derived formulas are accurate. Results will be presented for both discrete and continuous random variables (exponential, uniform, and normal) that may be governing the behavior (or life) of the engine during its operation. The discrete case is applicable if one wants to model whether the engines work or not during an implied descent period. The continuous case is applicable if one is also concerned how long each engine (and the vehicle) should be operating. Some interesting results will be reported. For example, the mean landing engine system operation life of the FE vehicle is equal to 75% of the life an individual engine if the exponential distribution is a good representation of each engine's life. Additional results, analytical and simulation, are presented when the engine operations are dependent or correlated due to various manufacturing and/or environmental conditions. Extensions will be suggested to incorporate throttling into the models to be presented. Track 4A 4:00 pm A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Risk-Adjusted Mission Value for Mars Exploration Ralph F. Miles, Jr. 3608 Canon Blvd Altadena, CA 91001 rmiles2@earthlink.net This paper develops a decision-theoretic approach to risk-adjusted mission value (RAMV) for selecting between alternative Mars missions in the presence of uncertainty in the outcomes of the missions. The approach, in its complete implementation, is consistent with the decision theory known as expected utility theory. The approach is also consistent with the elementary management concepts that decisions selecting among alternatives incorporating risk aversion should be made by those with the requisite responsibility and organizational values, that value judgments of outcomes should be made by those with expertise in the appropriate knowledge domain, and that probabilities of the outcomes should be made by those with expertise in the events leading to the outcomes and in the technology for assessing the probabilities. Mission Alternative x of a mission alternative set is embedded in a gamble between a successful outcome x and a failure outcome. The successful outcome x with mission value v(x) is obtained with probability s(x). More complex missions can be addressed

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within the framework of the approach presented here, including missions with various degrees of success and degraded modes of failure. The risk-adjusted mission values for the alternative missions are a function of the value judgments of the participating scientists, the probabilities of success as determined by the technology experts, and the risk aversion r (0 < r < 1) of the project management. The application of expected utility theory yields the equation for the risk-adjusted mission value of Mission Alternative x: RAMV(x) = s(x)[(1 – r) v(x) + r] . Examples are given: Selecting between four landing sites on Mars, and selecting between four landing sites on Mars with differing designs. Track 5A 1:00 pm The Mineralogy of the Martian Surface and its Importance to the Search for Life on Mars Janice L. Bishop NASA-Ames Research Center Mail Stop 239-4 Moffett Field, CA 94035 jbishop@mail.arc.nasa.gov Searching for life on Mars usually requires looking for evidence of water. Minerals also contain important clues about whether or not life may have formed, and if so, where and under what conditions. Minerals form under specific chemical and physical conditions and can therefore provide information about past environments during the time of mineral formation. Determining the mineralogies of the Martian surface rocks, soils, layered terrains, channels and craters provide information about the past and present environments across the surface of Mars. For example, mineral identification could tell us if layered deposits are associated with banded-iron formations (BIFs), if crater basins were once paleolakes, or if some volcanic features included hydrothermal processes. BIFs are linked on the Earth with many early organisms and were common during the time that photosynthesis arose. Ice-covered lakes in Antarctica contain abundant active life forms, as do hydrothermal systems at Yellowstone and elsewhere. Characterizing the minerals that form in these environments on the Earth enables us to develop means of associating minerals identified on Mars with past environmental conditions there, and also to assess if and where conditions may have been favorable for life on Mars. Chemical and mineralogical analyses have been performed on a variety of terrestrial analog samples including altered volcanic tephra, hydrothermal springs material and Antarctic sediments in order to interpret data expected from Mars. Visible and infrared spectra are measured and lab experiments are performed in order to identify specific minerals remotely using these spectra. These lab and field data are then used for interpretation of the Martian spectra. Spectra acquired from orbiters can be used for selection of promising sites for more detailed lander or rover studies. Identification of

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certain minerals on Mars may indicate the presence of water, hydrothermal activity, chemical alteration and sites of interest to Astrobiology. Track 5A 1:30 pm On The Existence and Stability of Liquid Water on the Surface of Mars Today Lawrence Kuznetz N2Mars@aol.com David Gan DCGan@worldnet.att.net

As the debate rages on about past or present life on Mars, the prevailing assumption has been that the liquid water essential for its existence is absent because pressures and temperatures are too low. This study presents data, anecdotal and experimental evidence to challenge that assumption.

Track 5A 2:00 pm Biogenicity of Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Derek M. Shannon dms@caltech.edu D.C. Golden of Hernandez Engineering in Houston and researchers at Johnson Space Center claim to have found “A simple inorganic process for formation of carbonates, magnetite, and sulfides in Martian meteorite ALH84001”. Of particular interest to the Golden, et al. team’s claim is the exact nature of the magnetite crystals produced by the their inorganic method. This is because the previous work of Joe Kirschvink and others with known magnetofossils and magnetite crystals has established at least six characteristics associated with biogenic magnetite crystals but generally not with crystals formed by previously known inorganic processes. Thomas-Keprta, et al. further argue that “no known population of inorganic magnetite crystals, produced either naturally or synthetically, has met one or two criteria without violating the remaining criteria.” In what may be the strongest supporting evidence of a biogenic origin for possible fossils within the Allan Hills meteorite, Thomas-Keprta, et al. demonstrate that the elongated prismatic magnetite particles within the meteorite, which comprise 27% of those studied, are “indistinguishable” from crystal populations taken from terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria according to at least five of the six criteria. In determining whether Golden, et al.’s inorganic process is a potential explanation for ALH84001's possible magnetofossils, it is necessary to determine whether the magnetite crystals produced by the inorganic process can similarly satisfy the criteria outlined by

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Thomas-Keprta, et al. Offered here is the latest work from the paleomagnetism lab of Joe Kirschvink, analyzing magnetite crystals created by Golden, et al.’s inorganic process using the criteria established by Thomas-Keprta, et al., with major implications for the biogenicity of the ALH84001 magnetite crystals. Track 5A 2:30 pm Halobacteria: a Candidate for Present Day Life on Mars Geoffrey A. Landis NASA John Glenn Research Center, mailstop 302-1 Cleveland, OH 44135 e-mail: geoffrey.landis@grc.nasa.gov On Earth, life has adapted to extreme environments, ranging from frozen valleys of Antarctica to the interior of rocks and the high-pressure, high-temperature environment of deep-sea thermal vents. The only criteria that is required without exception is that every ecological niche which supports life has, at least briefly, the presence of water in liquid form for some portion of the year. The strategy for Mars, then, is to search for environmental conditions that feature liquid water. Mars is a salt-rich environment. Any present-day water would likely be a saturated salt solution, with a lower vapor pressure and a lower melt temperature than pure water. A saturated solution of K2CO3, for example, will depress the freezing point of water to below 236 K. Multicomponent aqueous salt solutions can have freezing temperatures as low as 210 K, and water in micron-scale pores between grains of regolith would have even lower freezing point due to capillary-pore effects. If life can adapt to the transient presence of liquid water in the form of highlyconcentrated brine, and if such a form of life can find ways to adapt to the other adverse conditions on Mars, then present-day Mars could yet harbor life. A candidate form of life which could exist in Martian brine is the family of "salt-loving," or halophile bacteria, such as Halobacterium halobium. Halobacteria, a form of extremophile archaeobacteria, are adapted to surviving in saturated salt solutions. These halobacteria are amazingly robust organisms, able to survive being desiccated into a crust of solid salt, returning to active life when water returns. They are capable of traveling distances of hundreds or even thousands of miles in the form of dry, windblown dust and salt, and by this means colonize transient small pools of saturated brine. The combination of a salt crust and the UV-blocking pigment will serve as barriers to mitigate the destructive effect of the ultraviolet environment of Mars. According to a recent report, living microbes have been successfully cultured from inclusions in salt deposits that are 250 million years old. In many ways, the environment of Mars is far more conducive to preserving salt deposits than the surface of Earth, and the lower average temperatures of Mars make it more likely that inclusions within the salt would be preserved, as long as the salt is buried at a low enough stratum to be shielded

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from cosmic ray damage. Even if conditions for life do not exist on present-day Mars, it may be possible that halobacteria may still be preserved in salt deposits on Mars. Even if no life exists on Mars in the present day, it is still possible that encapsulated life may be retrieved from salt deposits and brought back to life on Earth. Such retrieval of ancient life from Mars would answer many questions about the origin of life, and the relationship or independence of Mars and Earth biology. Track 5A 3:00 pm Interstellar Panspermia and Life on Mars Dr. Robert Zubrin President, The Mars Society Inc. zubrin@aol.com In this paper I will discuss the evidence that bacteria’s first appearance on Earth may have been the result not of local evolution from prebiotic chemistry, but of transport from extraterrestrial sources, either from within or outside the solar system. Calculations will be given which show that transport of bacteria from interstellar sources is possible in principle, and highly probable if life exists in other solar systems. These results recast the issues in the search for life on Mars. The question is not whether Mars life had a separate origin from Earth life. Given the ease of bacterial transport between the planets, that is virtually impossible. The key question is whether Mars life had a prior origin to Earth life, i.e. whether or not we can find evidence showing development from chemistry to prebacterial organisms on Mars. If we can, then we will have gained a much better understanding of the steps required to develop life from chemistry. If we cannot, if the earliest life on Mars is found to be complex bacteria similar to the Earth’s earliest inhabitants, then we must conclude that both Earth and Mars were seeded by extra solar sources. If this is the case, it would imply that interstellar panspermia is a reality, and that therefore life is ubiquitous in the universe Track 5A 3:30 pm Lunar and Martian Paleontology Douglas D. Shull/7 Jun 2001 gatordelt5@aol.com The discovery in 1996 of organic material imbedded in the Martian Meteorite AH84001 changed science. Many people now consider the possibility that microbial life existed on or may still exist on the planet Mars. NASA, JPL, and the ESA are considering packages and experiments for future Mars robotic missions to detect the presence of microbial life near the surface of Mars. We should pursue these worthy experiments. However, the surfaces of Mars and the Moon may very well hold evidence of life from Earth’s past.

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A meteor impact on Mars sent AH84001 into solar orbit, and eventually to the Antarctic. Due to the lower gravity and reduced or nonexistent atmosphere on Mars and the Moon, meteors striking these bodies with sufficient force will eject some debris into solar orbit. Due to the Earth’s higher gravity and relatively thick atmosphere, large stony iron or metallic meteors are required to eject material from the Earth into Earth orbit, where it may end up on the Moon, or into solar orbit, where it may end up on Mars. We know the Earth’s geologic past is punctuated with periods of mass extinction, and a lot of evidence shows large meteor impacts were responsible. Although no solid evidence exists at this time, I intend to work with a few scientists and engineers to model the effects of a meteor strike, to see if the possibility exists that significant amounts of plant and animal matter were blasted into space during these events. To illustrate my theory, I will take it to the “personal” level. The setting is a beach on the Yucatan peninsula 65 million years ago. A group of dinosaurs looks up to see the searing white light of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) Meteor streak to the ground. Within seconds, a massive underground explosion, combined with a supersonic atmospheric shock wave kills these animals and ejects them with countless tons of water, rock and atmosphere out into deep space at an orbital or higher velocity. Although their bodies are torn apart, many discernable pieces freeze-dry in the vacuum of space. After orbiting the Earth or the Sun for an unknown period of time some of these freeze-dried chunks of dinosaur impact the surface of the Moon or Mars. There they wait for a future robot or astronaut to discover, no longer subject to Earth-bound decomposition. Once discovered, organic debris from dinosaurs, other animals, and plant life could revolutionize the field of Paleontology as we know it. No longer would these scientists be relegated to the “bone-yard” of pre-history! With freeze-dried prehistoric material in their hands, these scientists could make discoveries as Earth-shattering as the KT Meteor of 65 million years ago! Track 5A 4:00 pm Design and Construction of the MDRS Frank Schubert Therub9@aol.com The design of the Flashline Station on Devon Island and the Desert Research Stations are different in many ways. The role of the stations is that of a test bed for the architecture of the first human Mars Mission. The idea is to test different floor plans and determine the best configuration for the mission. The station’s criteria for design included a six person mission, space for two airlocks, an EVA room, hygiene areas, communication areas, lab areas, common space and private staterooms along with several other requirements. A key factor in designing the Devon Island Station was its location. Materials were limited to what was available, size

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limitations, ease of handling and weather considerations. With building costs for an average, run of the mill, nothing fancy house in Resolute of $250 per square foot, the unusual Mars Habitat presented a cost problem too. The materials and floor plan are specific for the Devon Station and are suited to the location as well as the needs of the researchers. The Devon Station design is a mix of available materials and practical needs of the crew. All in all, the location makes up for any lack of fidelity The Desert Research Station posed a problem in that it is also an exhibit. It is currently displayed at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. During the exhibit phase, the upper level is not accessible and the lower floor must meet all the exhibit display codes and requirements as well as ADA standards and Class A fireproofing. Although the demand for function is low, the requirement for the look and feel of the habitat is very high. After the exhibit is over at Kennedy Space Center, it will be dismantled and sent to the American Southwest for the research phase of its life. The Flashline Arctic Research Station and the Mars Desert Research Station are different from each other but they have the same purpose. They represent the first forms of architecture for Mars. Track 5A 4:30 pm Scouting the Southwest: A Team Approach Stacy Sklar sklarmars@yahoo.com Jean Legarde jlagarde@bigfoot.com Track 5A 5:00 pm Mars Desert Research Station at Kennedy Space Center Maggie Zubrin Executive Director, The Mars Society Inc. mzubrin@aol.com Matt Colgan, Volunteer Docent at KSC

After long months of haggling with another venue over a Mars analog display, we were thrilled to receive an invitation from Kennedy Space Center to bring our Mars Desert Research Station to Florida for the summer. Although construction of the second hab had already begun by the time the invitation was confirmed, no other planning for the display had begun and we had only two months in which to plan the display, erect the hab on-site and deploy a team of volunteer tour guides stationed in Cocoa Beach, Florida.

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The process of preparing the exhibit was both exhilarating and exasperating. The tour guides’ job turned out to be extremely inspiring and completely exhausting. Ms Zubrin will detail some of the steps required to prepare and install the Mars Society exhibit at Kennedy Space Center. Matt Colgan, who served a two-week stint as captain of the volunteer crew, will give an overview of how the exhibit functioned at Kennedy Space Center and a feeling for public reaction to The Mars Society presence there. Lastly, we will talk about possible deployment of the MDRS as an outreach vehicle during future off-season periods and the value of utilizing the hab in this context. Track 6A 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm Organizing and Managing a Mars Society Chapter Chris Vancil CLVancil@aol.com It is of no small interest to the Mars Society and it's membership how to organize and manage a chapter. This presentation will focus on the formation and organization of a USA chapter. How to get nonprofit status, why to do so and if you really need to at all. How to best manage members needs and how to include and encourage as many people as possible in the chapter environment. We will go over the Chapters Council's start up kit and take feedback from members to improve future additions Track 6A 4:00 pm – 6:00 pm Chapter Projects Roundtable Gary Fisher GCFisheris@aol.com The Chapters Council will lead a roundtable discussion of projects that chapters can work on. People should bring their best ideas or experiences with chapter projects. While the emphasis will be on distributed (multi-chapter) projects, projects that an individual chapter can undertake will also be considered. This will be a session to explore ideas not covered by the Chapter Projects Workshop. Those attending will discuss the ideas from the point of view of feasibility, cost, manpower requirements, time requirements, how interesting, and usefulness. At the end of the session a vote will be held to rank the ideas. The Chapters Council will then publish on the web a list with description of each of the suggestions and their ranking.

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Thursday Evening Panel Discussion 8:00 pm Building An Ecosystem – Healing the Earth by Means of a Martian Genesis Moderator: Maggie Zubrin Dr. Robert Zubrin, Dr. Chris McKay, Sam Burbank, Kim Stanley Robinson, Gus Frederick In this panel discussion, we will explore one of the key reasons for a human presence on Mars: the science and art of terraforming as it applies to environmental management. With diminishing prospects of reaching global accord on the control of pollutants and increased public awareness regarding the risks to our planet of unchecked environmental exploitation, it becomes increasingly imperative that we understand the delicate balance required to sustain our ecosystem. Much of the knowledge we now possess about the earth’s atmosphere and the damaging effects of pollution was garnered as a direct result of research done while orbiting the earth. In other words, we had to get outside of the earth to view it accurately. A human presence on Mars will give us an even broader perspective on how Earth’s biosphere operates. Through the science of terraforming, we can learn how to engineer a breathable atmosphere, how to establish first flora and later fauna on a barren planet, and how to nurture the newly created and fragile ecosystem so that it will continue to sustain life for eons to come. What we learn on Mars will enable us to care for the Earth, to heal her present injuries and keep her alive and vital for the generations to follow. Friday August 24, 2001 Friday Plenary Session 9:00 am The Mars Exploration Rover Project Albert F. C. Haldemann, Joy Crisp, John Callas Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Dr. Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 albert@shannon.jpl.nasa.gov Steven Squyres Cornell University Ithaca, NY 44853 In mid-2003 NASA will launch two identical rovers to Mars. The Mars Exploration Rovers will be enclosed in Mars Pathfinder heritage cruise and entry stages. After landing

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in January and February 2004, the rovers will use their sophisticated set of instruments -the Athena Science Payload -- to search for and characterize geologic evidence of liquid water in the planet's past. These missions aim to test hypotheses for the presence of past water at two separate sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The landing sites will be selected on the basis of a community-wide intensive study of orbital data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and other missions. Possibilities might include former lakebeds or hydrothermal deposits. The instrument suite includes mast-mounted remote-sensing instruments: a color stereo imager (Pancam) and a thermal emission infra-red point spectrometer (Mini-TES). Mounted on the end of a robotic arm are four in-situ instruments: an Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), a Mössbauer spectrometer, a Microscopic imager, and a Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). With far greater mobility than the 1997 Mars Pathfinder rover, these identical robotic explorers will each be able to trek up to 100 meters per day across the Martian surface, and characterize the landscape they encounter. The rovers' scientific instruments will be used to read the geologic record at each site, to investigate the role of past water, and to determine how suitable the conditions would have been for life. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Friday Plenary Session 10:00 am Fossil Traces of Life in the Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Dr. Imre Friedmann Friday Plenary Session 11:00 am TBA Kim Stanley Robinson Track 1B 1:00 pm Mars Cameras on Devon Island Brent J. Bos and Peter H. Smith University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory In order to better understand the capabilities and limitations of our Mars spacecraft instruments outside of the laboratory, the Mars Atmospheric and Geologic Imaging (MAGI) team at the University of Arizona will be testing Mars lander cameras in the Martian analog environment of Devon Island during the summer of 2001. The primary activity of the MAGI team during their work in the Canadian high Arctic will be to support, through high resolution imaging, the geologic exploration of Devon Island being conducted by the Mars Society's Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station and the NASA Haughton-Mars Project. The cameras for this fieldwork are duplicates of the various Mars lander imagers the MAGI team has developed. They have been constructed from

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flight-spare components of the instruments themselves. This report will present the initial results and findings of the Devon Island camera field test activity. Track 1B 1:30 pm Remote Sensing as a Resource for Human Exploration Katy Quinn MIT, Rm 54-616 77 Massachusetts Ave Cambridge, MA 02139 katyq@chandler.mit.edu Future human explorers on Mars will undoubtedly avail themselves of the wealth of remotely sensed data collected by previous and on-going robotic missions. Unmanned missions being planned right now are already incorporating elements that specifically support human Mars exploration, in terms of site selection, identifying hazards to human explorers, testing technologies for human missions, etc. Using remotely sensed data in conjunction with a field research program is a naturally integrated process. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are complimentary, rendering the old humans-versusrobots controversy obsolete. Indeed, Mike Malin, who studies the Mars Global Surveyor images, has agreed that many questions that arise from these images could be answered "if we could just walk around on the planet for a few days." (National Geographic interview). But how would we even know which questions to ask without the stimulus of the MGS images in the first place? This paper will focus on how humans in the field may best incorporate remotely sensed data into their fieldwork. Field research programs on Earth in Antarctica and on Devon Island will be used as analogs to how field research may be conducted on Mars. The ways in which remotely sensed data are used, which data is most useful, and tools for utilizing the data will be investigated. Track 1B 2:00 pm Mars Analog Habitats In An Impact Crater – Lessons From The Haughton Impact Crater Charles S. Cockell British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge. CB3 0ET Pascal Lee NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 Much of the surface of Mars is an impact-processed surface. The examination of its surface for signs of extant or extinct life may depend upon our understanding of habitats for life in impact-processed environments. We have examined the Haughton Impact

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Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic as an analog for habitats for life on Mars. Numerous microbial habitats for life are made available by impact events; these include impact crater lakes, impact shocked rocks and ejecta blocks. At Haughton, the microorganisms that inhabit these impact-processed habitats are dominated by cyanobacteria such as Chroococcidiopsis and filamentous forms. Here examples of these environments in the Haughton Impact Structure are described and the nature of microbial life in these habitats is reviewed. Preliminary observations from the 2000 and 2001 field seasons are described. The constraints imposed upon these studies by operation from a simulated Mars base are described with special reference to possible protocols for the human exobiological exploration of Mars. Track 1B 2:30 pm Impact-induced Hydrothermal Activity Within the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Arctic Canada: Implications for Mars G. R. Osinski, P. Lee, C. Cockell and J. G. Spray Planetary and Space Science Centre, Geology Dept. University of New Brunswick NB, E3B 5A3, Canada NASA Ames Research Center Moffet Field, CA 94035-1000, USA British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. It is well known that hydrothermal systems will develop anywhere in the Earth’s crust where water coexists with a heat source, with magmatic or volcanic heat sources being predominant on Earth today. However, during the last two field seasons of the NASA Haughton-Mars Project, we have found definitive evidence for the existence of a hydrothermal system formed by the interaction of water with hot, impact-generated rocks at the Haughton impact structure on Devon Island. Hydrothermal alteration is recognised in two settings: within polymict impact breccias overlying the central portion of the structure, and within localised pipes in impact-generated concentric fault systems. The fault-related hydrothermal alteration occurs in 1-7 m diameter subvertical pipe structures that are exposed for lengths of up 20 m. The pipes are characterised by quartz-carbonatecemented breccias showing pronounced Fe-hydroxide alteration. The intra-breccia alteration comprises three varieties of cavity and fracture filling: (a) sulfide with carbonate, (b) sulfate, and (c) carbonate. Our work adds to a growing body of evidence which suggests that hydrothermal activity is commonplace after the impact of an asteroid or comet into a wet planetary target. This may have important implications for the search for life on Mars. The interaction of impact-heated rocks with ground-ice may produce liquid water even under present climatic conditions on Mars. Impact-induced and volcanogenic hydrothermal systems are often believed to have acted as cradles for the emergence of life and the development of the early biosphere. Impact-induced hydrothermal sites may represent oases for

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prebiotic and biotic processes involving the growth of thermophilic organisms, either as sites where such organisms might have evolved or as sites that were transiently colonized by pre-existing thermophiles. Ongoing work at Haughton suggests that in sterilized postimpact environments, impact-induced hydrothermal sites may represent favored sites for post-impact colonization. Haughton provides a valuable case-study for understanding how impact-generated hydrothermal systems may provide warm, wet habitats for life on wet planetary bodies. Track 1B 3:00 pm Exploration vs. Problem Solving: Cognition in an Analog Mars Habitat William J. Clancey, PhD Chief Scientist, Human-Centered Computing NASA/Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 bclancey@mail.arc.nasa.gov Most studies of work and cognition are formulated in terms of problem-solving goals and knowledge. Early research began in the 1950s and 1960s with formal problems, such as games, arithmetic, and physics, often following textbook formulations of problems and solution methods (e.g., manipulating equations). By the 1970s, research in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology had moved on to consider the nature of expertise in broader "real world" domains, such as medical diagnosis and engineering design. By the 1980s, social scientists showed how these formulations left out the broader aspects of how work actually was done, involving collaboration, circumstantial interactions of people and tools, plus learning on the job (e.g., work arounds). Such broader consideration reveals that problem solving is just one kind of human activity. Goals and attention in everyday life are not so narrowly focused on problems as cognitive science has emphasized. For example, in expedition settings, such as on Devon Island, we find a broad range of activities and concerns. The formulation of "scientific discovery" as merely equation manipulation appears impoverished indeed. In this paper I present a taxonomy of human activities that I have observed during the Haughton-Mars expeditions since 1998. I show how a simulation model of "A Day in the Life of a Mars Analog Habitat" may be constructed using the Brahms multi-agent simulation tool. This model will be coupled to other simulations (including life support, rovers, and agent software). A browser-based virtual reality display will show the interactions of the crew, facilities, geography, vehicles, data gathering tools, communication devices, documents, etc. The resulting simulation may be useful for scheduling crew activities, designing a habitat, and instructing new crews, as well as providing a research workbench for relating different perspectives on human behavior.

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Track 1B 3:30 pm High Arctic Lake Sediments - a Tool for Understanding Our Past, Predicting Our Future, and Planning for Mars Exploration Darlene Lim Darlene.lim@geology.utoronto.ca The High Arctic is extremely vulnerable to environmental changes, such as climate warming, and is distinct in the way that is responds to shifts in the climate and affects the environments of the rest of the globe. Therefore, it is an extremely critical area to understand ecologically and to monitor on a long-term basis. High Arctic ecological data are, however, sparse and relatively little baseline and historical aquatic environmental data exist. These data are necessary to the process of formulating predictions about the future environmental changes in the High Arctic. Physical, biological and chemical limnological and paleolimnological information from the lakes and ponds that dot the High Arctic tundra in such regions as Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Nunavat can provide a means of acquiring these data. These water bodies are both sensitive and vulnerable to such environmental influences as global warming (Smol et al. 1991), increased UB-B penetration (Vincent & Pienitz 1966) and local pollution inputs (Douglas & Smol 1999). Moreover, lake sediment records hold a wealth of otherwise unattainable climate records that allow us to understand past environmental and climate trends, and forecast into our future. In addition to earth sciences applications, high arctic lake sediments are also of interest to Mars analog studies. For example, the ancient lake deposits from Haughton Crater, Devon Island may act as a potential analog for sediments expected to be found in extinct impact crater lake beds on Mars. A comprehensive study involving diatom analysis, amongst many other chemical and biological investigations, of the post-impact crater-fill lacustrine sedimentary deposits from Haughton Crater will help to reconstruct the past aquatic environment of the crater, as well as build upon previous paleoinvestigations by Hickey et al. (1988) and Whitlock and Dawson (1990) by providing a direct aquatic environmental record.

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Track 1B 4:00 pm Exercising Martian Resource Utilization Technologies at Analog Sites George James, ETM Inc, Houston, TX. Donald Barker, MAXD, Inc. Gregory Chamitoff, NASA, Houston, TX. The identification and utilization of In-situ Martian natural resources are the key to enabling cost-effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars as well as providing an essential safety net/cost reduction for the initial missions. The incident radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface deposits, polar caps, and frozen volatiles represent planetary resources, which can provide breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Presently, much work is underway to develop technologies to utilize the planets resources (primarily atmosphere) to enhance a manned Mars outpost. However, successful utilization of a wide variety of Martian resources (including atmospheric) will require experience and operational testing before implementation. The operational aspects of Martian resource utilization includes: determining operational needs; prospecting for local sources; converting local sources into useful materials/energy; and determining operational constraints on local resource utilization. This presentation will cover the initial attempt to detail how terrestrial Mars analog sites can be used to help develop and exercise these operational issues. Specific information from the 1st full field season at the FMARS station on Devon Island will be presented. Also, suggestions for future efforts at the FMARS station as well as other sites will also be presented.

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Track 1B 4:30 pm Initial Human Spatial Awareness Studies for Robot Assisted Mars Exploration John G. Blitch LTC, USA Blitchj@aol.com

Launching a manned expedition to Mars is an inherently risk intensive endeavor. It has nonetheless been presented as an inevitable course of human evolution that not only appeals to the youthful adventurist, but compels one to consider an entire range of scientific exploration initiatives that drive headlong into the heart of mankind’s natural curiosity, if not our entire raison d’etre. Is the cure for cancer on Mars? Are we alone? In the disappointing aftermath of the 20th century’s bold lunar exploration programs, however, humanity appears to have shed its adventurous tendencies for a risk adverse approach to space exploration that focuses almost exclusively on robotic survey and mapping activities in lieu of the daring yet intuitive search and investigate paradigm which dominated mankind’s previous sojourns into the unknown. This paper presents an alternative view of robotic technology exploitation in the context of portable platforms that form the basis of a collaborative and deeply integrated human-robot inspection and sample collection team for Mars exploration. An operational perspective of portable and marsupial platform employment is introduced first in a comparison of human vs. unmanned mission profiles. This is followed by a discussion of tele-operator cognitive loading issues with emphasis on multi-robot control and spatial awareness. Initial experimental data collected during the 2001 NASA HMP / Mars Flashline project is then presented which suggests a strong correlation between human spatial ability scoring and robot control effectiveness. The paper closes with a case for the development of human dominated Robot Assisted Sample Collection and Inspection Teams (RASCAIT) as a means to actually reduce risk while simultaneously increasing operational capability, reliability and cost effectiveness. The conclusion drawn from literature review, experimental data, and personal experience is that human robot teaming represents critical enabling technology thrust for Mars exploration - one which calls for greatly expanded research into human-robot interaction on both a physical interface and cognitive processing basis.

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Track 2B 1:00 pm Martian Light Levels, From a Photographer's View Gus Frederik gus@norwebster.com It is a fact that at best, Mars receives about half the sunlight that Earth does. It has been said that this amount seen at Martian noon would be similar to twilight on Earth. Others have pointed out that this would necessitate the use of artificial light for all but a few low-light ornamental house plants in future Martian greenhouse. But then, if this was true, how could we ever hope to terraform such a dark place? In reality, the half-light figure relates to the light reaching the top of the respective planetary atmospheres. Earth's absorbs around 30% on the clearest day, but usually much more. Close to 50% in most cases. Mars' thinner atmosphere absorbs only between 5 and 10% most of the time, but can dip to 30% during dust storms. So in reality, the spread is smaller, in fact to 65% of Earth normal levels although the spectral distribution is quite different. Half the amount of light does seem like a lot. But in photography, we deal with halves and doubles in relation to light all the time. For example, half the light of a cloudless noon at the Earth's equator on an equinox, (where the sun is coming in perpendicular to the Earth's surface) would be like the same day on Earth with a light haze. In photography, we use f-stops and shutter speeds to control exposure of photosensitive materials. Both of these controls are set up in halves and doubles. This discussion will illustrate why Martian light levels, while less than Earth's, should still be ample for the growth of plants, even considering light absorption from greenhouse glazing materials.

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Track 2B 1:30 pm A Mathematical Model of Terraforming Mars Martyn J. Fogg Probability Research Group c/o 44 Hogarth Court Fountain Drive, London SE19 1UY, United Kingdom mfogg@globalnet.co.uk If Mars is to support widespread life its environment must first be raised to a temperature similar to that of the Earth. Global warming on Mars will therefore be an essential element in any initial terraforming strategy. To examine this problem, a simple climate model is presented that permits the user to alter the insolation and albedo of Mars and to introduce greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ammonia and perfluorocarbons. The model is based on the grey greenhouse approximation with the grey opacities of greenhouse gases calculated from functions derived from the results of previous detailed climate models. The exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, polar caps and regolith is also included along with a discussion of the timescale required for engineered climate changes to take effect. Exploration of the model's results suggests that perfluoro gases may be one of the most efficient climate-forcing tools, and that by combining their warming effect with those of other warming methods, hospitable surface temperatures can be achieved. The dense ~ 1 bar CO2 atmospheres studied in previous terraforming models are considered unlikely and shown not to be a necessity for planetary habitability. Track 2B 2:00 pm Human Impact on the Environment: Applications to Astrobiology & Mars Kimberley Warren-Rhodes NASA-Ames Research Center and Stanford University, Dept. of Environmental Engineering & Science Kim_lamma@yahoo.com A fundamental goal of NASA’s Astrobiology Program is the investigation of ecosystem response to rapid environmental change on Earth. In recent years, mankind’s ability to alter ecosystem function at the local, regional and global levels has been demonstrated through anthropogenic effects such as global warming, rapid urbanization, human domination of the nitrogen cycle, desertification, deforestation, and toxic contamination and overexploitation of the world’s oceans. Extrapolating our terrestrial experiences to those beyond Earth, it may be assumed that human exploration and development of Mars and other planets will engender predictable as well as unanticipated environmental consequences. By examining human impacts on the Earth’s environment over time and

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across scale, it is possible to understand (albeit not fully) and prevent many of the negative environmental impacts resulting from potential human activities on Mars. This paper provides a review of these issues and proposes prescriptions for extra-planetary stewardship and sustainable exploration and development of Mars. Track 2B 2:30 pm Volatile Inventories on a Frozen "White Mars" Dr. Nick Hoffman Victorian Institute of Earth and Planetary Science Department of Earth Science La Trobe University Victoria 3086 Australia n.hoffman@latrobe.edu.au Recent work on the evolution of volatiles on a frozen "White" Mars shows that it is a most un-Earthlike planet. It has probably never had liquid water flowing at its surface, at least since the Noachian - some 4 billion years ago. Instead, much of the surface features that are often cited as evidence for rivers, lakes, and oceans were produced by violent outbursts of subsurface liquid carbon dioxide. Energetic debris-laden flows supported by CO2 gas have eroded channels, transported material and infilled the northern plains. Modern day Mars is still frozen to great depths and liquid water is going to be hard to find. Faced with these difficulties, what can be done in the way of human survival on Mars? Surprisingly, this new view of Mars has few adverse impacts on plans to visit the planet. The state of Modern Mars is unchanged by this new view of its evolution, except that pockets of liquid CO2 may still persist at moderate depths (500m to 5 km) in the regolith. A short-term visit to the planet that does not plan deep drilling will be totally unaffected. For longer-term plans such as colonization, more significant impacts result. Liquid water is going to be scarcer and deeper than previously expected (typically 4 km depth at the equator rather then 1 km), and drilling for water will require safety protection against blowouts of liquid CO2. Plans to terraform Mars must recognize that there was no former "warm and wet" state to which we can "return" the planet. Instead, an atmosphere and hydrosphere must be created de novo. This will clearly require a significantly larger engineering feat than currently envisaged. Nonetheless, White Mars predicts that much larger volatile inventories are available than in a conventional model and the ultimate future state of a terraformed Mars can be significantly warm and wet.

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Track 2B 3:00pm Dust Streaks or Water Stains, a Martian Enigma Efrain Palermo Palermo@qwest.net Dark streaks which flow down the slopes of Mars and fan out just like water but which NASA states are just dust streaks intrigued me enough to make a full fledged study of this geologic anomaly which spanned many months and thousands of MOC images and has led me (and others) to the conclusion that these may well be the action of water stains and not just dusty avalanches. The impact of this discovery is that water may well be much more available on Mars than previously postulated by the scientists at NASA and JPL. Though there are many instances on Mars where there are dark streaks that are obviously dust related (like the dark curlicues exposed by dust devils), the streaks I have been investigating fall well outside this ground phenomenon. The stains I have been studying, for one thing, fall below 30 degrees latitude north and above 30 degrees latitude south, in other words, with the equatorial zones. None of these stains (or seepages) fall above 40 degrees north or south of the equator. There is dust all over Mars, so why aren’t these stain features outside of this range? These seepages also have uncanny water like morphology, i.e., they start at a point source uphill, than fan out and “flow” over and around obstacles and finally end in dendritic patterns. The stains also appear to turn a lighter gray over time, which would not be consistent with the dust avalanche theory. What is even more startling as proof is that none of the seepages show any lateral wind streaking which would be apparent if they were dust slides. This research has been written up in an eight-page research paper which is coauthored by a geologist at SPSR. The paper is available online in a .pdf file at: http://www.users.qwest.net/~vtwild/webpage/SeepsPaper.pdf Track 2B 3:30 pm Design and Construction of Analog Suits for FMARS 2001 Dewey Anderson dewey@csn.org Beginning immediately after the 2000 Mars Society Conference in Toronto, members of the Rocky Mountain Mars Society FMARS Mission Support formed a committee to decide on a design concept for analog Mars suits to be worn by the FMARS field team on EVA during the 2001 season. Ideas ranged from ski suits with motorcycle helmets to

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spacesuit costumes provided by a Hollywood special effects company. The requirements for the suit were 1) that it provide the basic inconveniences of a real spacesuit so that field team members would gain experience in dealing with wearing a suit, 2) that it be survivable so that field team members could wear it for hours at a time while on EVA and 3) that it be cosmetically appealing, i.e., LOOK like what the public has come to expect a spacesuit looks like. The original budget for the suit was on the order of $500 per suit which took us out of the industrial realm. Eventually a design concept was arrived at that involved a canvas “jumpsuit” to serve as the actual suit with a helmet and backpack worn over it. A professional seamstress was hired to sew the jumpsuits. The backpack and helmet were cobbled together by Mars Society members from a variety of objects hijacked from a wide range of mundane applications. The result was a Mars suit that looked surprisingly authentic and served the crew well through the 2001 field season on Devon Island. Track 2B 4:00 pm The Mars Suit External Audio System Donald C. Barker Gregory T. Delory Ph.D. George H. James Ph.D. donald.c.barker1@jsc.nasa.gov A prototype external audio sensor system that will provide an ambient surround sound acoustic interface for future Mars Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits is currently under development. The system outlined herein has been conceptually derived as a tool used to enhance human interaction within the Martian surface environment. It has been found that the Martian surface environment is acoustically equivalent to the terrestrial stratosphere (~30 km altitude) resulting in a reduction in sound power levels of only 20 dB, which can easily be compensated for by using standard microphone sensors and amplification electronics. Exploration of the surface of Mars will require crews to routinely work within the confined spaces of environmental pressure suits during missions lasting as much as 150 days. Contemporary “space suit” designs were established for operations in near vacuum environments and were designed to provide life support for EVA crews with a minimum physiological or psychological interaction with the external environment. Human sensory interaction is currently mainly supported in the visual domain. In taking the next step towards working in environments on other worlds that contain atmospheres, it is possible to regain the use of some of our innate sensory infrastructure even while working in the confines of environmental suits. Enhancing human environment interactions and capabilities will provide crews with the proper cues and feedback to work more efficiently and safely during the long and frequent excursions expected on Mars missions. Crews will be able to audibly judge actions, environmental conditions, and equipment operations while enhancing scientific observations. The prototype under development utilizes recent advances in sound processing technology to produce an EVA suit communications system that would give the occupant a high fidelity aural-perceptual connection to the external Martian

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environment. Derived from Mars Polar Lander flight hardware, the proposed system incorporates low power, low cost, off-the-shelf components including a sound processing chip, small, rugged electret microphones, and miniaturized speakers. The audio portion of the system contains externally mounted suit microphones which record acoustic signals that are then digitally processed. Currently, the feasibility to yield instant directional information of the external sound source to the suit occupant is being studied. In addition, an externally mounted speaker has been integrated into the design to provide a redundant means of communication between EVA crewmembers equipped with the audio sensors and the added ability to interact with other voice activated equipment. This system is the first to provide a human operator with direct acoustic information of a surrounding non-Terrestrial atmosphere. Derivative commercial systems could potentially be integrated into any confined human occupied environment or remotely operated vehicle applications, including environmental isolation suits, fire fighting, and underwater or Mars surface ROVs. Track 2B 4:30 pm Berkeley Space Suit Design Team Camron Gorguinpour Email: camronghia@hotmail.com Raven LeClair 2533 Durant Ave. #31 Berkeley, CA 94704 Email: ravenl@uclink4.berkeley.edu The Advanced Space Suit design team at the University of California, Berkeley is currently conducting research to develop a prototype that employs a two-system pressurization. Separating and isolating the oxygen used for respiration from the torso pressurization will also substantially reduce the risk of an explosive decompression. Current Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU’s) utilize 100% O2 for full body pressurization placing the suit at great risk of micrometeorite puncture and explosive decompression. This paper presents the results of our preliminary research into the development of a neck dam system. In addition, we present the results of our research and testing of mechanical counter pressure as a means of torso pressurization. Dr. Paul Webb first demonstrated the concept of mechanical counter pressure in 1968. Alternative methods of torso pressurization are also investigated. Further development is expected, leading to the implementation of the concept design.

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Track 2B 5:00 pm Mars Extreme Gear Design Ms. Susmita Mohanty MoonFront, LLC One Embarcadero Center, Suite 500 San Francisco, CA 94111 As the human race constantly explores new frontiers, Mars is the next logical choice. Both, NASA and the Russian Space Agency are talking about a manned mission to Mars within the next 20 years. One of the critical elements of a successful Mars mission will be the Mars Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suit. Led by MoonFront – a San Francisco based space consulting firm, a team of graduate and undergraduate students at the Art Center College of Design will be engaged over the summer and fall of 2001, researching and designing a new kind of Mars suit code named “Mars Extreme Gear”. The aim of this project is to visualize, produce and test alternative design solutions for a Mars suit. The project will follow a systems design approach. It will involve consultations with space suit experts and astronauts. A broad breakdown of the design tasks includes: Study past, present and future space suit designs; study space suit life cycles Study Mars environment and mission scenarios Identify EVA requirements for Mars exploration Develop design concepts for the astronaut-suit interface Develop design concepts for subsystems such as the headgear, life-support backpack etc. - Detailed 3D computer visualizations - High fidelity mock-ups - Suit prototype The Mars Extreme Gear Project’s “design” outcome will be integrated with the “engineering” aspects resulting from the research and development underway at the Engineering departments of Caltech, Stanford and UC Berkeley. A working prototype of the integrated suit will be built in collaboration with NASA and a Hollywood based company called Global Effects. The suit prototype will then be tested at Mars analog sites such as Mars Society’s Mars Arctic Research Station or NASA’s Haughton Crater station in the Canada Arctic.

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Track 3B 1:00 pm Tethered Experiment for Mars Interplanetary Operations (TEMPO) Tom Hill Aerospace Engineer hillkid@earthlink.net The long travel times associated with a trip to and from Mars can expose a crew to over 6 months of zero gravity conditions, which would render them very weak upon their arrival at their destination. The Mars Direct mission plan detailed a method using a spent upper stage as a counterbalance for generating significant artificial gravity, but such a scheme has not been tested practically. The TEMPO mission will fly as a secondary payload, taking advantage of unused payload mass on a larger launch and will test the viability of a rotating artificial gravity generation system. The mission may take place either in low Earth orbit or in a geosynchronous transfer orbit. Designed as a payload bus consisting of thrusters, an integrated circuit based inertial reference system, and a counterweight with no active components, the spacecraft mass goal is under 50 kg. After separating from its boost stage, the craft will split into two parts, connected by a tether. Using thrusters, the craft will start spinning to verify the dynamic interactions of a two-part vehicle, and the on board electronics will relay the accelerations and shocks the vehicle experiences throughout. Once stable, TEMPO will conduct changes in velocity along three axes, verifying methods and effects. Also during this time, communications tests are possible to determine the minimal complexity for a high data rate link back to Earth. When all other mission objectives are met, the primary bus will separate from the counterweight, verifying that such an action can take place with acceptable dynamics. Using off-the-shelf components, the spacecraft can be built for under $1M and launched for a cost on the order of $2M (if no launch agency is willing to donate the flight). Track 3B 1:30 pm A Model For Minimizing The Risk Of Sudden Death During Exercise In LongTerm Space Flight George D. Swanson Ph. D Enloe Hospital Behavioral Health Center Department of Physical Education and Exercise Physiology California State University Chico, CA 95929-0330 dswanson@csuchico.edu Crewmembers in long-term space flight may be relatively sedentary for months. An exercise program will be necessary to maintain health and physical capacity. However, vigorous exercise stresses the heart and can trigger sudden death. This risk increases for those relatively sedentary individuals who occasionally attempt vigorous exercise. Alternatively, the risk is also high for those who exercise regularly for longer periods of

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time. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model that characterizes the risk of sudden death during exercise and to use that model to determine an optimal amount of regular vigorous exercise that minimizes that risk. The Physicians Health Study (Albert et al., N Engl J Med 343: 1353-1361, 2000) followed 21,481 physicians for 12 years during which 122 died of sudden death. These physicians were free of cardiovascular disease at the beginning of the study and will form the reference group for our analysis (Swanson, N Engl J Med 344: 854-855, 2001). Nested case-crossover methods were used to lay out contingency tables in terms of sudden death and person hours of exercise or sedentary time. Combining these tables yields an odds ratio for sudden death during exercise compared to rest: OR = {Fx / (1-Fx)] [(1-Px) / Px] where Fx is the fraction of sudden deaths that occur during exercise and is Px is the proportion of time that exercise could trigger sudden death. As in the Physicians Health Study, Fx is linearly related to Px: Fx = α + β Px. Combining these two equations yields a quadratic equation for the minimum risk: β(β-1) Px2 + 2αβ Px + α(α-1) = 0. The solution characterizes the optimal amount of exercise. For the Physicians Health Study, this was about 30 min per day six days a week. The implications of this model will be explored for a Mars mission. Track 3B 2:00 pm Medical Emergencies on a Mars Mission Marsh Cuttino, MD Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals Department of Emergency Medicine Main Hospital, G-503 401 North 12th Street P.O. Box 980401 Richmond, Virginia 23298-0401 Marshcuttino@Mindspring.com Emergency medical problems could be disastrous to operations on a manned mission to Mars. Crew illness or injury could stop exploration, and cause early termination of a manned mission. Proper management can allow completion of mission objectives, and save the lives of the crew. Proper planning for a manned mission to Mars must include planning for traumatic and medical emergencies. A partial list of injury types is discussed, as well as basic techniques for treatment. Traumatic and hypobaric injuries are likely to be seen. Psychological emergencies and techniques to handle them are discussed. To identify risks I reviewed the analogous populations of astronauts, submariners, and arctic researchers. Literature on groups such as mountain climbers, saturation divers, and wilderness explorers was used to identify further risks. An algorithmic approach to space flight emergency treatment is proposed. Similar algorithms are successfully utilized in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. This approach will simplify training for the Mars crewmembers. Additional methods of training for medical emergencies, such as human patient

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simulators will allow high fidelity training prior to the mission. The inclusion of a physician on the crew would be beneficial. Track 3B 2:30 pm Tooth Loss- Is it an Unavoidable Occupational Health Risk in Long-term Space Flight? William Stenberg, DDS Commander, US Public Health Service WW Hastings Indian Hospital 100 South Bliss Avenue Tahlequah, OK 74464 (918) 453-1332 Home (918) 458-3150 Work wmstenberg@aol.com It has been many years since man first set foot on the moon. The next logical step in the sequence of space exploration is a manned mission to Mars. Although the Martian surface has been explored by unmanned spacecraft, human interplanetary travel presents some unusual difficulties, the most salient of which is the lack of gravity. In a zero gravity situation the human body is not able to maintain bone mass resulting in a type of osteoporosis. It is estimated that a human being loses approximately 1% of bone mass for each month in space. A typical Mars mission of thirty months could therefore result in 30% bone loss, which is considered severe osteoporosis. This could result in a high risk of fracture upon return to Earth’s gravitational field. This is considered one of the major biomedical showstoppers of long duration human space flight. Various protocols have been developed in an attempt to minimize the bone loss in zero gravity. These include vigorous exercise programs, which may last several hours each day, and weightlifting using elastic cords as a substitute for weights. There is some evidence that these measures may compensate for lack of gravity and reduce the severity of the bone loss. Loss of bone mass in the long bones of the skeleton may not be the only problem. Recent research in periodontolgy has shown that osteoporotic periodontal bone is more susceptible to breakdown than healthy bone, and that tooth loss is more frequent in subjects with osteoporosis. The strategies which may prove useful in the long bones, exercise, etc., are not adaptable to the oral bone. The bone surrounding the teeth is very susceptible to damage from the type of overloading that this would cause. Strategies to preserve the oral bone may include dietary and pharmacologic measures.

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Track 3B 3:00 pm Dental Maintenance and Emergency Protocol System Dr. Craig Savin 650 Vernon Glencoe, IL. 60022 chidoc5@email.msn.com Dental emergencies as well as Dental maintenance will be an issue in space since men and women will be living there for several months to years at a time. What if someone has an abscess or fractures a tooth? What if a preexisting filling fractures? What affect does microgravity have on periodontal disease? Since teeth are housed in bone, what effect will weightlessness have on the strength and therefore the support of the teeth, and what type of "exercise" will maintain proper bone density? My research and experimentation goals are to discover which Dental procedures will work in this environment, then train a selected flight crewmember from each space shuttle mission or a crew member aboard the ISS, these procedures necessary to stabilize an injured astronaut. In addition to helping the space program, the knowledge gained from these proven procedures will help those who need immediate dental care in remote areas around the world. The creation of a "Dental Maintenance and Emergency Protocol System" would address the appropriate treatment modalities of dental emergencies that could occur in space, which no matter how significant, can produce incapacitating results, thus hindering, even "scrubbing" the mission entirely. Additionally, the creation of a microgravity dental program would maximize and enhance the scientific application of Dentistry as we know it, potentially rendering significant benefits that would enhance medical science worldwide as the program evaluates the orbital affect of weightlessness on (dental) bone metabolism, which, in space, becomes more fragile and subject to demineralization. Track 3B 3:30 pm The New Human Being Derrick L. Coles, Sr. Owner/Director Of Research Dragon Rose dragonroseinc@yahoo.com Seventy-two hours after a human being enters the micro/zero gravity environment we begin to undergo physiological changes that to date, NASA has termed ”physiological de-conditioning". Upon returning to Earth we know that recovery time is directly related to time spent in space. So in regards to long duration exposure to the micro/zero gravity environment, I know these physiological changes are a process of "re-conditioning" the human being to allow for our continued existence in this new environment.

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Track 4B 1:00 pm Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery as a Model For Mars Exploration Donald M. Scott NASA Educator for Montana, NV dscott@aesp.nasa.okstate.edu In 2003, two rovers will be sent to Mars. This in preparation for the coming human exploration of Mars. 2003 is also the Bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. By examining this expedition, called the best expedition of exploration ever undertaken, we can find ideas for the exploration of Mars. As importantly, we can find ideas about how to educate today's students to prepare them to travel to Mars. Track 4B 1:30 pm Involving Non-Traditional Customers In The Grand Adventure: The NASA Means Business Student Competition H. Mandell NASA has recognized for many years that a successful human Mars exploration initiative must have a broader base of public support than it currently has. An examination of NASA outreach revealed that most university programs were directed toward the science and engineering student bodies, which constitute a minority of the total student population. To broaden the base of its key university outreach, a program has been developed to involve non-traditional students in this grand adventure. Targeted are students of government, communications, public administration, marketing, and business administration who are even more likely to become involved in national policy formulation than are scientists and engineers. NASA has chosen to perform this outreach as a series of student competitions, entitled “NASA Means Business,” a program administered by the Texas Space Grant Consortium. There are three primary purposes of the competitions. The first is to involve the nontraditional constituencies, themselves new customers, in the actual work of NASA, using as a mechanism the development of business and customer engagement plans for a Mars mission. The second purpose is to involve future policy makers in the planning process, to demonstrate to them the excitement of such ventures. And the final purpose is to provide access to expertise which does not exist within NASA itself. Five or six teams are chosen each year. There have been a number of successes in the first three years. These include the “Think Mars” and “Mars Week” of MIT, teamed with Harvard, and a number of other successful outreach programs at Texas, Colorado, Texas A&M, Maryland, Illinois, Purdue, Stanford, and Georgia Tech/Emory/Georgia State.

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To perform basic research, a “Customer Engagement Laboratory” has been created, with fellowships awarded to students in the Department of Communications at The University of Texas at Austin. Track 4B 2:00 pm Teaching Space in a Public School Classroom Ned (Edward J.) Dodds P.O. Box 1382 Martinez, CA 94553-7382 ejdodds@home.com After over ten years working as a teacher in public school classrooms while researching what it will take to revitalize Americans interest in their own space program I've learned a few things. However, it must be said at the outset that this research is far from complete, that there are many people "out there" working on same the goal whose work I'm not conversant with. So this paper is a status report of a kind. Much of this paper focuses on the conclusions I've come to through personal experience and observation. Some of it isn't new, it's only my personal corroboration of ideas published elsewhere. My main conclusion is that we can do something about the lack of penetration of NASA's and other's materials in the classrooms where they need to be, the fourth through eighth grades. That something is to help elementary teachers who majored in the humanities to develop lessons they feel comfortable using to teach math and science with space flight as a delivery theme. There are a few integrated programs I've come across which are discussed as examples of using aviation and space themes as vehicles for teaching just math and science. There are a couple using those themes to teach the entire curriculum. There need to be more. And there need to be small, self-contained units a humanities major, non-technologist can use comfortably for a few days lessons. Track 4B 2:30 pm Martians in the Arctic Maryse Sari Lycee de la Borde-Basse 81100 Castres-France sari@worldnet.fr After the very successful impact of last year’s educational project named “Mars and robots: from exploration to colonization”, the 10th and 11th grade students asked for a follow-up project in 2000/2001. “Martians in the Arctic” was designed and implemented

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with the help of the Robotic and Artificial group at LAAS-CNRS in collaboration with the French Ministry of Education and the French chapter of the Mars Society. This program highlighted the importance of the Arctic as a preliminary laboratory anticipating the next base on Mars and was achieved with the implementation of modern educational tools. On the one hand, Mars was an incentive that stimulated the students’ interest in the English language and in Technology, on the other hand Mars satisfied their craving for space. In order to improve their skills the French students used the Internet to communicate with specialists, scientists and students worldwide. They prepared the exhibition of their final work and built a “Robomars”. Close to the educational requirements, the scientific content was defined by the LAAS scientists. The project focused on 3 major themes: - The Arctic environment: Haughton crater, wildlife, pollution, northern lights, the Inuit, history. - The Mars Arctic Station: description, connections with a Martian base, men in a confined space, selection criteria of a team for Mars. - Planetary robotics: Setting up the site, robots for exploration, building , maintaining a base on Mars, the radiation. Taking advantage of last year’s contacts, the French students exchanged messages with the scientists who helped them understand the scientific content. Several schools in foreign countries were also involved in the project at the communication level which fine-tuned the students’ ability to use the English language. Keeping in mind this project was designed not only to arouse the students’ interest and curiosity but also to promote the Martian exploration, its detailed description will give a wider range of information about the scientific issues and the methodology implemented at school. The students’ deep involvement was awarded a series of national and international awards. Track 4B 3:00 pm More than Mars … Much More Lawrence H.. Kuznetz N2Mars@aol.com The dangerous decline in math/science education poses a greater threat to US National Security than any potential war. So says a study commissioned by the government to study national security over the next quarter century. This sobering outlook would appear to relegate a big-ticket project like a human Mars mission to the junk heap. Even if this were not the case, as Dr. Neil Tyson, Director of the Hayden Planetarium observed recently, massive projects like Mars or the Pyramids have historical precedent for only of 3 reasons: war, money or the ego of heads of state. But Dr. Tyson overlooked a fourth reason, one with no historical precedent – education. For the past 5 years, we at UC Berkeley have been conducting a pilot project aimed at developing the technology for a human mission to Mars while improving science literacy. Targeting undergraduates, high school students and minorities, the Mars by 2012 project here used design projects

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centered on Mars to show that science can be fun and choosing a career in it can be rewarding. Many of the projects have real world applications, such as bone loss experiments that may help osteoporosis; space suit designs that can influence extreme weather gear and radiation studies that could influence protection standards. This talk will outline how such a program can be expanded to the national level through a web based venue with the aim of improving science literacy, teaching the team approach and setting the stage for a real mission to Mars at a fraction of the cost one might think. Track 4B 3:30 pm Welcome to Pele Base Gus Frederick gus@norwebster.com Imagine yourself in the year 2030. You are visiting a colony of 100 of your fellow humans, on the planet Mars. How would you describe this community? These are questions posed by NASA and others as part of the Mars Millennium Project, (MMP). The author, an Instructional Technologist for the Oregon Public Education Network, (OPEN), has created a specialized Web resource around this topic, in partnership with Oregon chapters of The Mars Society and the National Space Society. The OPEN MMP Web site hosts a variety of different interdisciplinary resources, tasks, lesson plans and links to assist Oregon students, educators and others in this endeavor. A major tool for this site will be the "Storyline Method," a learning technique developed in Scotland, and promoted in the U.S. by several Oregon public school teachers. The Storyline Method (known as "Topic Studies" in Scotland) started as a means of moving various subject areas into a common project. For example, with the OPEN MMP, the students become journalists, leaving home on Earth to visit "Pele Base", a colony constructed within a Martian lava tube cave located on the North flank of Olympus Mons. Carefully planned episodes engage students in actual practice and application of basic skills within the context of the storyline. Another unique aspect of this method is that it instills the value of the very human tradition of story telling. The other major focus will be a subsection geared towards High School vocational agriculture students, called "ET Agriculture." In partnership with the Stewart-Peterson Group, OPEN is modifying a number SPG's "AgEdNET" online vocational agriculture lessons, to apply towards Extraterrestrial use. A host of lessons covering such topics as hydroponics, agriculture technology, food science and more, will provide a unique "Martian" slant to this Vo Ag resource.

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Track 4B 4:00 pm Mars Latin Rover: Educational Program and Perspectives Jésica Estefán, Vanina Tapia, Gonzalo Caballero, Alejandro Zalazar, Pablo Flores. Lavalle 348, 5º Piso, C1047AAH, Bs. As. Argentina. (www.marslatinrover.com) astroboy@supernet.com.ar Mars Latin Rover (M.L.R.) is an educational, scientific and technological project being carried out in Latin America. Its main objective is the design and development of a sixwheeled rover, a vehicle able to move on the surface of Mars. The aim of the educational program is to approach students from primary and high school to the space sciences and encourage them, as well as their instructors, to explore and participate in this fascinating area. Fifty groups will be chosen among the interested ones, which will imply about 1500 children and adolescents taking part of the project. Each group, according to its characteristics, will be given a specific task and it will be coordinated by its teachers or professors and guided by university assistants and professionals. Obtaining optimal results requires getting information about the terrain, distribution of rocks, mechanical properties, teleoperation techniques, etc. Once finished, the rover will be tested in different places such as a mine and a volcano. M.L.R. is endorsed by official institutions and supported by private sectors. This education project is very ambitious in light that space initiatives are poorly developed in Latin America, and in fact, it is the first planetary robotics project completely developed in Latin America. Track 4B 4:30 pm Marsbase: An Educational Simulation Game Marc Salotti 10 Rue de Russie 50100 Cherbourg, France marc.salotti@wanadoo.fr With the help of Benoit Boulant, David Prieur, Eli Cali and Bertrand Spitz We present an educational game simulating the first developments of a Martian base. It is the next version of the software presented at the Mars Convention in Toronto last year. In the first stage, the user can choose the objects to be carried by the rocket for a flight to the red planet. Oxygen, water, the number of astronauts, the power systems, the rovers and the habitat are important objects, but many others are proposed, like fertiliser, various chemical elements, a greenhouse, a chemical unit, a factory, and so on. The number of days in space and on the planet, and the maximum payload are important parameters of this initial stage. Once the choice is made, a new screen is proposed, the user faces a

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high-resolution satellite image of Mars and the buildings imported from the Earth. There is also a fix panel devoted to the interface with the user, like in many other simulation games such as Age of Empires or Red Alert. This panel is divided into four main parts, a small image of the entire region, the information panel, the astronaut selection area and the action panel: - The simulation area is bigger than the screen. A small image of the entire region is displayed at the top of the panel to facilitate the localisation. Ores and ice are roughly indicated on this image. - The second one provides information to the user, in particular the amount of ores, chemical elements and industrial objects that are available in a base or a rover. Life support system information is also given and a blackboard is proposed to inform the user of a particular event. - The astronaut selection area enables the user to select an astronaut at the base, in a rover or in EVA (extravehicular activity), provided that the corresponding building or vehicle has been previously selected. A double click on the astronaut makes him go out in EVA. - All actions are embedded in the action panel. A selected astronaut can carry or put down an object, start or stop a transformation (chemical or industrial or farming) or start the construction of a new building. The purpose of this simulation game is to show the basic principles that will make it possible to achieve self-sufficiency during a long stay on the surface of Mars. For instance, carbon dioxide can be combined with hydrogen to produce a specific propellant based on methane combustion. Water can be produced from ice that probably exists deep under the surface or it can also be extracted from the soil (in small amounts) using wellknown heating and then condensation techniques. Farming is possible under a greenhouse. We also propose the extraction of interesting chemical elements from ores (for instance Fe from hematite or Si from silicates), provided that a chemical unit and a solar furnace have been imported from the Earth. All transformations are defined in declaration files in order to make them independent from the programmer and to allow a flexible management. We have been working on the simulator for fourteen months. Most features have already been implemented but many details and some improvements remain to be considered. Track 4B 5:00 pm The NASA Academy Daniar Hussain 2001 NASA Academy hussaind@rattler.gsfc.nasa.gov The NASA Academy was conceived in 1993 by the late Dr. Gerry Soffen, Project Scientist on the Viking Mars Mission, to train the future leaders of the space program. This year, there are academies at two NASA centers -- an Astrobiology Academy at

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Ames Research Center (CA), and a Space Flight Academy at Goddard Space Flight Center (MD). In the past, there have been academies at Marshal and Dryden Research Centers, and we are working hard to institutionalize the Academy at all NASA Centers next year. The Academy introduces participants to the work of NASA, and the collaboration between government, academia, and industry in space-related projects. Students spend about 50% of their time working in the labs with a Principal Investigator on an individual research project. They spend the rest of their time meeting with and hearing speakers, going on field trips to other NASA Centers and related locations, and are involved in leadership training. Every year, the Academy also produces a group project; this year's group project is called Bacterium 1, and the mission is to send a small, golf-ball sized spacecraft carrying a small biological payload to the Moon, and record and signal its reproduction back to Earth. Some of the people in the Academy this year may be the first astronauts on Mars! Track 5B 1:00 pm The Mars Environment Observer Scout Mission Mark Allen Earth and Planetary Atmospheres Research Element Earth and Space Sciences Division Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Mail Stop 183-401 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109 Mark.Allen@jpl.nasa.gov The Mars Environmental Observer (MEO) Scout mission concept addresses the key Mars Exploration Program goals of Life, Climate, Geology, and Human Exploration (MEPAG goals I-IV). The unique approach of MEO greatly extends what has been or can be achieved towards these goals by past and presently planned missions. MEO will achieve its objectives through a series of unprecedented and detailed measurements of Mars atmospheric physics and composition. Three instruments (an IR occultation spectrometer and millimeter and submillimeter spectrometers) have never been flown around a planet other than the Earth. A PMIRR MkII sounder is intended for flight on the MRO orbiter for '05, but its inclusion here adds a new capability to solve for the atmospheric dust profile and extends the atmospheric sounding data for another Martian year. The overall instrument complement provides the capability for observations throughout the year (during dust storms and in polar darkness), over an extended altitude range (up to 100+ km), and for direct measurements of atmospheric winds, dust, and a broad survey of atmospheric composition. A low polar orbit allows comprehensive global mapping of water, temperature, dust, and trace constituents. In all, these capabilities greatly extend those planned for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable entirely new objectives to be pursued.

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Track 5B 1:30 pm Robotics Dr. Carol Stoker Cstoker@mail.arc.nasa.gov Track 5B 2:00 pm AMEBA Scout Concept Dr. Chris McKay mckay@galileo.arc.nasa.gov Track 5B 2:30 pm The Translife Mission Dr. Robert Zubrin President, The Mars Society Inc. zubrin@aol.com Track 5B 3:00 pm Mars Airplanes Dr. Larry Lemke llemke@mail.arc.nasa.gov Track 5B 3:30 pm Networks on the Edge of Forever: A Networked Tapestry of Self-Determining Interplanetary Robots Utilizing In-Situ Communication Utilization (ISCU) A.C. Charania SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) Atlanta, GA ac@spaceworkseng.com This report examines a concept for a breakthrough, low cost communications architecture to support robotic planetary exploration. “Networks On the Edge of Forever” integrates new knowledge being advanced in analog robotics, atmospheric physics, and terrestrial network topologies. These networks: exist outside near-Earth space, use analog (continuous) versus digital robots, use near continuous transmission between clients and servers, and use brief atmospheric meteor bursts to communicate between nodes. BEAM, self-determining, analog robotics is coupled in network topologies using In-Situ

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Communication Utilization (ISCU) in the form of Meteor Burst (MB) communication to explore bodies in the solar system. BEAM (Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics, Mechanics) robots forgo traditional reliance on digital electronics, using analog devices to mimic specific tendencies. MB communications are based upon the fact that every day millions of meteors come into Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionize gas molecules suitable to reflect telecommunication radio waves. The approach presented here does not require costly network topologies as in current approaches to interplanetary network architectures. “Behavior replicating” hardware dependent robots and nature itself (through meteor bursts) are used in place of human-compliant software, dependant robots and massive orbital telecommunication constellations. This proposed network leaps the gulf of execution imposed by stark space exploration budgets. This examination seeks to assess whether self-determining robots can be networked together utilizing Meteor Burst (MB) communication and evaluates specific mission extensions. An interplanetary application of the networks included here is coverage of the Mars surface using a clientserver/ultra-wide broadcast architecture. Given the envisioned future of increased software complexity and the need for continuous operating robotic outposts/networks on other worlds, these are transactional networks (continuous with numerous nodes) that offer transformational capabilities. Track 5B 4:00 pm Sun-Mars Libration Points and Mars Mission Simulations Jon D. Strizzi, Joshua M. Kutrieb, Paul E. Damphousse, and John P. Carrico The equilibrium points of the Sun-Mars system bring some unique characteristics to the discussion of future inner solar system exploration missions, particularly an expedition to Mars itself. Existing research has identified potential utility and data for Sun-Mars libration point missions, particularly for satellites orbiting the L1 and L2 points serving as Earth-Mars communication relays. Regarding these Lissajous orbits, we address questions of “Why go there?” “How to get there?” and “How to stay there?” Namely, we address utility and usefulness, transfer and injection, and station keeping. The restricted 3-body problem involving a spacecraft in that system is reviewed; and past and present research and proposals involving the use of these orbits are summarized and discussed. Baseline historical station keeping concepts (ISEE-3, SOHO, ACE) are reviewed and applied to the Sun-Mars system. We use Satellite Tool Kit (STK)/Astrogator for simulation and analysis of Earth-Mars transfers, Lissajous orbit insertions, and station keeping. The resulting data provides confirmation and insight for existing research and proposals, as well as new information on Mars transfer and Lissajous orbit insertion strategies to save DV, mission orbit amplitude dependencies on insertion method, and station keeping sensitivities. These data should prove useful to mission planners and concept developers for future Mars investigations.

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Friday Evening Plenary Panel Presentation 7:00-8:00 pm 2001 Field Season at the FMARS, a Video Journal by Sam Burbank

Friday Evening Panel Discussion 8:00-10:00 pm A Novel Approach – Mars Novelists Read From and Discuss Their Works (book signing by authors) Greg Benford, Geoff Landis, Kim Stanley Robinson, Robert Zubrin Saturday, August 25, 2001 Saturday Plenary Session 9:00 am TBA Shuttle Commander and Astronaut Eileen Collins Saturday Plenary Session 9:45 am Mars Analog Research on Devon Island Dr. Pascal Lee PCLee@best.com Saturday Plenary Session 10:45 am Panel Discussion Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Crew Saturday Plenary Session 11:45 am The Michigan Mars Society Rover Project Author: Anna Paulson Michigan Mars Rover Project Manager apaulson@umich.edu The Michigan Mars Rover Team has built their first manned Mars rover prototype, called Everest. The vehicle is based on an army LMTV (Light-Medium Tactical Vehicle), an off-road vehicle suited for this application. Building the vehicle required the expertise of corporate sponsors and students from a wide variety of fields. Several sub-teams worked in parallel to produce each component and the team worked together to integrate all components into the finished vehicle. Everest will be deployed this fall to the Mars

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Desert Research Station for field operations testing. The team is now working on research and design for a second prototype, called Olympus. Olympus will be a more advanced vehicle, with a hybrid-electric power system and computerized control. The design of Olympus will be refined, based on operations testing of the Everest Rover. The Michigan Mars Rover Project has produced a research platform for human factors and extra-terrestrial vehicle engineering research. We have demonstrated the successful collaboration between volunteer students and sponsor corporations in advancing research necessary for human space exploration. Track 1C 1:00 pm The Project Marsupial HOP: a Mars-Analogue Rover Ben Cairns Project Manager, Project Marsupial Mars Society Australia einre@uq.net.au The Mars Society's Analogue Rover Initiative calls for the construction of Mars-analogue rovers, in support of its wider Mars-analogue research program. Such rovers would provide platforms to test various human factors and technical aspects of pressurized rover design for human missions to Mars. Project Marsupial is the Mars Society Australia's response to the Analogue Rover Initiative. The first step for the project will be the design, construction and testing of the HOP (Human Operations Prototype). This paper will describe the design and construction of the HOP, and plans for the vehicle in 2001 and beyond. The HOP provides an achievable analogue rover platform, focused on the human factors, rather than the technical aspects of rover design. As the first rover built by Project Marsupial, it is intended that the HOP will assist with the human factors design of more ambitious and technically oriented iterations of the project. To achieve these goals, the HOP is based on an existing four-wheel drive chassis (a modified Mitsubishi L300 Express van), with modifications to support the requirements of an analogue rover. As per the Analogue Rover Initiative specifications, the HOP is a rover platform capable of allowing at least two crewmembers to engage in scientific and exploration activities on sorties of up to one week. In conjunction with a number of other technical projects, the HOP will be tested in central Australia. This region is popularly known as the 'Red Centre', and includes a number of Mars-analogue environments.

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Track 1C 1:30 pm COMPAQ ARES – A Mars Analog Rover Vesna Nikolic - University of Toronto Mechanical/Mechatronics Engineering Student vesna@pdwe.com Anthony Cutrona - Queen’s University Physics/Engineering Student 9ajc@qlink.queensu.ca Joseph McGinty - Videographer mcgintyj7@hotmail.com COMPAQ ARES is a product of the Mars Society’s 2000 Analog Rover Competition. A joint team from the University of Toronto, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Queen’s University and the Royal Military College is building the rover. ARES is a Mars analog rover in the simplest sense. Using a production model GMC cube van as a chassis, ARES will concentrate on simulating the laboratory and living space for Mars Society "astronauts". Laboratory equipment will include a computer network, robot manipulator arm and glove boxes. The living space will make use of HVAC, a recycling toilet, washing and cooking facilities and efficient space design for all the furnishings. This presentation will detail many aspects of design and construction in a multimedia format that will include video footage, 3-D animation and a scale model. The COMPAQ ARES team would like to thank our generous sponsors: The Mars Society COMPAQ Canada Queen’s University University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) Toronto Aerospace Museum Hong Kong Polytechnic University The Led Light.com Track 1C 2:00 pm Report from the Polish Rover Team

Krzysztof Biernacki Marek Zawisza

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Track 1C 2:30 pm Cruising With Bighorns: The Latest in Extreme Four-Wheel-Drive Technology, Including Considerations and Applications for Manned Mars Travel Jeremy Burns Burnsy825@hotmail.com A presentation and discussion of the latest and greatest radical technology for conquering different kinds of inclement terrain on Earth. Some different examples include tubeframe buggies with long-travel suspension and deep gearing for crawling rocks; swamp boggers with tractor tires and high horsepower nitrous-enhanced engines for crossing deep gumbo mud; and sand dune prerunners with large paddle tires, incredible power-toweight ratios, and compliant suspensions for soaking up multi-story launches. Descriptions of the engineering designs for each style of vehicle and the corresponding terrain they are meant to tackle will be included. Also, an overview of many of the simple pitfalls to avoid when building four-wheel-drives will highlight how these vehicles differ from any normal SUV. Finally we blend the best features from these designs to make less specialized, more multipurpose vehicles that are still very capable over a range of landscapes. Specifically, which terrains are likely to be encountered on Mars, a potential blend of features that are suitable for effective manned Mars travel, and how we are incorporating some of those features into the current Everest rover and future Olympus rover at the University of Michigan. Track 1C 3:00 pm Volunteers and Corporations Cooperate to Build a Manned Mars Rover Anna Paulson Michigan Mars Rover Team apaulson@umich.edu The Michigan Mars Rover Team raised funds and acquired materials for the construction of their Mars Rover by contacting many local and national corporations. The students on each sub-team researched various components needed for the vehicle, and found companies that made suitable products. The business team contacted each company and sent information about the project, asking for sponsorship in the form of a specific product. The business team also contacted many large corporations for cash sponsorship, totaling several hundred companies. The sponsors who are participating in the project are enthusiastic about furthering space exploration. They are also interested in the publicity we've received, and in establishing contacts with engineering students at the University of Michigan.

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Track 1C 3:30 pm A Review of Power Source Options Chad Ohlandt chadjo@umich.edu The power requirements for a manned rover (crew 2-3) that has long-range capability (14 day, 1000 km) are significant. The results of a systems analysis on various power options including batteries, combustion engines, fuel cells, solar and nuclear systems will be presented. The study is part of the Michigan Mars Rover Project. Track 1C 4:00 pm Digital and Voice Communication Systems For An Analog Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu The obstacles in creating a communication system for an analog Mars rover are many. Most off-the-shelf systems are inadequate, and at the same time, the existing solutions for space systems are complex, expensive and often low-performance. A compromise of custom, space-hardened solutions and cheap, off-the-shelf equipment must be reached. This talk will outline the difficulties at hand, and the creative engineering that was required to enable the voice and digital communication systems on the Michigan Mars Rover. Computerization of a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu A manned Mars Rover is very much like traditional SUVs and RVs on Earth, except for one vital difference: computerization. Manned Mars Rovers will see the ubiquity of computers unlike any other vehicle or system. From digital video cameras and digital communication systems to computerized control of the vehicle and science computers, manned Mars Rover design is more computer engineering than anything else. State-ofthe-art technologies from many fields come together in a manned Mars Rover to enable a vehicle that can be completely tele-operated, and even autonomously commanded from Earth to perform long, complex missions. This talk will go in-depth on the eight topics of computerization being investigated by the Michigan Mars Rover Team as well as their findings and future work.

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Real-time Networking and Computing for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu The systems on the manned Mars Rover are a life-or-death matter. The split-second delay of a critical system can cause a vehicle collision or rollover, life support system failure or power system breakdowns. To ensure minimum latency in the computer controlled architecture of the manned Mars Rover, real-time, or deterministic, computing and networking must be used. This talk will focus on the research and development efforts of the Michigan Mars Rover Team, and the use of real time Linux and sophisticated networking architectures to ensure command execution.

Track 1C 4:30 pm Mechanism Design for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu As with any space system, the volume available on a manned Mars Rover is limited. At the same time, the needs of the crew cabin are many. It must function as a work area, a kitchen and dining room, sleeping quarters and provide enough support to endure long, off-road traverses. In order to provide all of these needs in a small space, creative mechanism design is required. Systems such as the beds, tables, workstations and chairs have many requirements. This talk will focus on the mechanical engineering and mechanism design and construction done by the Michigan Mars Rover Team, and will detail the progression from requirements to ideas to prototype to vehicle hardware. Track 1C 5:00 pm Telemetry for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu As the most capable research platform on the red planet, a manned Mars Rover must be able to completely sense and process its surroundings and the environment. From advanced digital video cameras and positioning systems, to meteorology equipment and

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scanning laser obstacle detection systems, a manned Mars Rover bristles with telemetry equipment. This talk will focus on the many types of telemetry, storing immense amount of data, integrating the information, and the analog systems designed and used by the Michigan Mars Rover. Drive-by-Wire for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu Current mission architectures call for the manned Mars Rover to spend 2 years on the red planet without human accompaniment. To take full advantage of such an advanced vehicle, full tele-operation and autonomous capability must exist. Essential to this is drive-by-wire, the process of driving the vehicle by computer. Building upon years of existing research into this topic, a distributed network control system over Ethernet is being used to enable this state-of-the-art technology. This talk will focus on the flexibility and advantages of the system, a discussion about the implementation, as well as a discussion of performance from the Michigan Mars Rover. Track 1C 5:30 pm Articulated Triad Martian Roving Vehicle Bogdan T. Fijalkowski Automotive Mechatronics Institution Institute of Electrotechnics & Industrial Electronics Department of Electrical & Industrial Electronics Thaddeus Kosciuszko Memorial Krakow University of Technology Poland pmfijalk@cyf-kr.edu.pl The articulated triad Martian roving vehicle (MRV) "Bekker" type will be designed for the usage of maneuverability in overriding mounds of narrow ridges and anti-overturn stability on steep slopes. This MRV will be the train of two or three vehicle-units propelled electro-mechanically and coupled articulately with the aid of the mechatronically neural network (NN) fuzzy-logic (FL), that is, neuro-fuzzy (NF) controlled articulation inter-unit electro-mechanical couplers (coupling joints) and/or steering mechanisms. They permit rapid vehicle-units coupling without external assistance and with substantial inter-unit misalignment as well as triad MRV steering without detracting from the propulsion or dispulsion effort. Besides, NF control of the pitch attitude between vehicle-units will be added for superior obstacle crossing capability. The drive-by-wire (DBW) four-wheel drive (4WD) middle-unit will operate as single one, that is, like a lunar roving vehicle (LRV) "Bekker" type, as far as its mobility permits. The added DBW two-wheel drive (2WD) front- and/or rear-unit should not impair normal operation. The two or three vehicle units will be coupled when the

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human- and/or telerobotic-driver (H&TD) anticipates that the single 4WD middle-unit cannot handle a certain terrain or obstacle, or failing that judgment, after a 4WD middleunit becomes immobilized. The electromechanical actuators will position and latch the mating parts of the coupler and/or steering mechanism. Nobody is needed outside the triad MRV for the coupling process. An on-board artificial intelligence (AI) single-chip microcomputer-based NF controller, that is an AI NF micro controller, will be also added to coordinate the energy source (fuel-cell and/or storage battery) and electro-mechanical mono-drive very advanced propulsion and/or dispulsion (VAP&D) sphere operations and to optimize and simplify the AI NF control of the electromechanical mono-drive VAP&D spheres and both articulation joints (couplers and/or steering mechanisms). Track 2C 1:00 pm Synthesis of Low-Hydrogen Aromatic Fuels for Mars Dr. Anthony C. Muscatello tony.muscatello@pioneerastro.com Dr. Robert Zubrin zubrin@aol.com

Conversion of methane into aromatic fuels, such as benzene and toluene, is a highly desirable process, both for replacement of petroleum on Earth and for use on Mars for return to Earth and mobility on Mars. Besides being liquid fuels which are denser and easier to store than methane, aromatic fuels contain only one hydrogen per carbon vs. four hydrogens per carbon for methane. Thus, the amount of hydrogen taken to Mars would be reduced by a factor of four, greatly reducing costs. We have successfully scaled up catalytic processes reported in the chemical literature by a factor of one hundred and demonstrated the production of aromatic rocket fuel. Production rates for a process to convert methane into benzene, toluene, and naphthalene are approaching the ~280 g/day range needed to obtain 1 kg/day of bipropellant, including the liquid oxygen oxidizer. The whole process would include conversion of hydrogen into methane by the Sabatier process; electrolysis of the water by-product into oxygen and recyclable hydrogen; and conversion of the methane into liquid aromatic products and more recyclable hydrogen. In fact, the huge leverage of the process (over 40) makes it possible to ship the hydrogen to Mars in the form of methane or water, greatly simplifying hydrogen storage issues, but still providing leverage for fuel production. This presentation will summarize our experimental results and expand upon these possibilities.

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Track 2C 1:30 pm Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Space Propulsion using Advanced Fusion Fuels Chad Ohlandt Michigan Mars Rover Team chadjo@umich.edu Fusion space propulsion systems are extremely efficient high specific impulse (5000500,000 seconds) and high thrust engines which can significantly increase payload and decrease travel times to Mars (2 months one way). This presentation will review the basic gasdynamic mirror concept and explore the use of advanced fusion fuels such as deuterium-He3, He3-He3, and p-B11. Using these fuels, the gross weight of the system can be reduced to a realistic level. Additionally, a nuclear electric assist configuration can reduce the technological demands to within reach of current capabilities. These configurations of the gasdynamic mirror provide a clear development path for feasible fusion space propulsion systems. Track 2C 2:00 pm The GBG Heavy Lift Orbital Launch System George W. Onik CEO Rock Solid Buildings Inc. Technology Hub: Whittier, North Carolina Georgeonik@att.net There is only one thing stopping mankind’s exploration of space and that one thing is the price per pound to orbit or (3PTO). Using our current launch system the cost of a single pound of payload is about $10,000.00. The shuttle system is the most complex machine ever built and should be a source of intense pride to all of those responsible for such an engineering accomplishment. The shuttle system costs a billion dollars each time we light the fuse. In the long run it is not an economical solution for continued space exploration and certainly not a viable means of supporting any sort of colonization attempt. Those who are concerned with the exploration of space must face up to the fact that the American people need to see more for their money and those who are responsible must consider all options, including some very old ideas, if we expect to garner the support of the taxpaying public. Look no further than our current land system and you will see a transportation system where freight is shipped in trucks with far less complexity than a modern passenger vehicle, which has the human safety factor to consider. Herein lies the essence of the problem: how do we make space affordable? The days of the shuttle will soon end and we have no practical way to put large amounts of material into orbit. Even the use of large, relatively simple boosters is still expensive

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and once we reach a level of payload capacity that could support a large scale space effort the ecological impact and safety concerns could be so severe that we would again reach an impasse preventing our generation from realizing the dream of space travel for the masses. Jules Verne knew of a solution, Gerald Bull proved that a projectile could be launched over a hundred miles into space, and the fragments of Mars we find here on Earth were impact projectiles ejected from Mars’ surface, eventually finding the way here, to another planet. The initials GBG mean “Great Big Gun”. The specifications speak for themselves. Bore diameter of 50 feet (5000 caliber). Barrel length: 5,000 to 10,000 feet. Fuel: Hydrogen gas and Oxygen, possibly technology from rail gun research. Azimuth capability: 360 degrees. Elevation capability: 0-90 degrees. Payload per launch: 50 tons. Launch site: a giant floating platform kept on station in the western pacific with thousands of miles of uninhabited ocean as a launch range. Surplus ballistic missile submarines would be converted to giant platform thrusters and power plants to provide energy for hydrogen gas production. Using the GBG could provide a simple solution to the problem of 3PTO. This system could reduce the 3PTO by an order of magnitude, reversing the normal cost to a goal of less than $100.00 per pound and the payload ratio to 10% vehicle weight/90% payload and do it in an ecologically friendly way. If this system were to prove safe and reliable, it could be used to solve our most critical waste problem, nuclear waste. Imagine if we combined both budgets so that spent nuclear materials could be safely launched into orbit rafted together like a river barge and sent into a long shallow orbit towards the ultimate nuclear incinerator: the sun. Once the technology to launch safely is perfected, the incredible nuclear arsenal built in the cold war could be repurposed so that bombs once intended for death and destruction could be converted into nuclear drilling charges capable of penetrating the Martian planetary crust to release trapped gasses that could replenish the Martian atmosphere and provide unlimited geothermal energy for the colonization of Mars. If we could resolve the engineering challenges of such a system, which I believe we can do, not only could we open the greatest frontier (space) to significant exploration and colonization, but we could as well have a practical solution to the elimination of nuclear waste, allowing the nuclear power industry to realize the dream of clean, safe, affordable energy, at a time when the demand for clean energy is becoming a worldwide crisis. The connection between global warming, health, and ecological issues is becoming clear. Those who wish to turn Mars into the second inhabited planet of our solar system could actually help save our own planet and be the generation that actually made space exploration and colonization practical instead of the generation who wanted to do it, but could not.

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Track 2C 2:30 pm Outline of An Integrated Space Program Martin Dowd martdowd@aol.com A necessary step to the improvement of the U.S. (and a fortiori, at this point, International) space program is the retirement of the space shuttle. It is a costly behemoth, continuing to eat up the U.S. space dollar with little achievement. We will present an alternative program, including a manned Mars mission, within an integrated program using vastly more efficient (but not greatly unconventional) primary Earth launch vehicles. A twenty-year length is quite realistic. Track 2C 3:00 pm Self-Launching Payloads: A Novel Approach to Launching Large Payloads into Low Earth Orbit Janyce S. Wynter janycewynter@mail.cnwl.igs.net It has become evident to many observers that there are shortcomings with existing launchers, especially in the context of orbiting very large structures. As a result, the International Space Station requires many dozens of launches and a drawn out and complex assembly process. This adds tremendously to the cost of establishing permanent, manned outposts in space. Both Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) and reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are often touted as the solution to the high cost of launching large structures. Re-usable vehicles are fine for missions that need to return people and materials back to Earth. But most missions being flown today and in the near future are essentially one-way trips to transport hardware to orbit. In this context, reusability minimizes the amount of payload that can be delivered to orbit. In contrast, expendable launch vehicles are capable of delivering more, much larger mass fractions to orbit, but very few are capable of placing large payloads into orbit. A HLLV would allow very large payloads to be delivered to orbit, but the weak demand for very heavy launches has stunted the development of HLLVs. Numerous researchers have proposed to use the Space Shuttle to deliver spent External Tanks to orbit. But this approach can be improved upon by leaving the Space Shuttle Orbiter on the ground, and by launching just the modified propellant tank to orbit - thereby creating a single-stage-to-orbit, selflaunching payload. This novel approach makes possible the launching of large, otherwise impractical payloads.

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Track 2C 3:30 pm Access to Mars by Rotating Tethers G. Nordley gdnordley@aol.com Using existing materials, large rotating tethers in Earth orbit can be constructed to throw substantial payloads to Mars. The hyperbolic excess velocity with which a payload departs Earth’s field of influence depends on tether tip speed, initial orbit, length, mass and other parameters which can be traded to achieve specific mission results. For a given tip speed, short period tether orbits can help reduce Earth-to-orbit delta v requirements to less than 6 km/s. Long orbital periods give long trans-Mars insertion windows and the shortest trip times. A 3 km/s tip speed and 3-day initial orbital period yields a hyperbolic excess velocity of 8/25 km/s and an 84 day trip time during a favorable apparition. In a most favorable opposition, trip times can be as little as 68 days, and, for trip time equal to or less than 135 days, windows are as long as 110 days. Long period orbits allow a tether system with a 100:1 system-to-payload mass ration to throw as many as forty payloads to Mars during a favorable apparition., each payload going slightly slower than the next as the orbital energy of the tether is incrementally expended. The mass of such a system may be less than the mass of fuel needed to move a similar mass to Mars by chemical propulsion in one apparition, and the tether system can be reboosted without propellant to be used again in subsequent apparitions. Once in place, such a system can continue to throw payloads to Mars, almost indefinitely, without additional propellant mass. Track 2C 4:00 pm Non-propulsive Access to the Martian Surface Michael Pelizzari Virtual Galactonautics nextgalaxy@aol.com When humans begin to systematically explore and settle Mars, the addition of rocket exhaust gases to the thin Martian atmosphere will irreversibly alter its composition, and its reactivity with exposed surfaces. Scientists on Mars will then be hampered by the challenge of distinguishing anthropogenic from pristine features of their objects of study, a fact that will erode the value of their contributions to comparative planetology. The problem can be avoided, or at least mitigated, by conducting as much activity as possible using emission-free vehicles and power sources. Transportation between ground and space can be accomplished without rocket propellants by transferring momentum through ultralong cables. A Cable Transportation System (CTS), consisting of space tethers, space elevators, and other cable-based elements, would be easier to deploy at Mars than at Earth, due to the smaller size and lower gravity of Mars.

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Track 2C 4:30 pm The Pianeta Marte Affordable Mars Mission Giorgio and Elisabetta Gaviraghi giogavir@yahoo.it In order to minimize transportation costs to and from Mars, utilizing existing high cost propulsion technology, new solutions must be proposed which could help reduce such costs by several orders of magnitude. The Pianeta Marte alternative consists in maximizing the utilization of resources already in space and through proper mission profiles takes the best advantage of such resources. In particular we propose to utilize a small (100.000 ton mass) existing asteroid in NEO water rich, such as the recently discovered 1998KY26, rendezvous and land with an unmanned spacecraft on its surface, and, with the proper power and equipment, deflect it from the current orbit to a cyclical Earth-Mars trajectory. Once in the right orbital path and on its closest approach to Earth, such asteroid on its closest Earth approach would be joined by three SPACEHUT modules, one manned and two unmanned. The SPACEHUT modules being designed and developed by Pianeta Marte organization would allow the construction of a space station on the asteroid , utilizing local materials and would function as spacecraft for future utilization. Once on Mars vicinity, with the station-spacecraft fully operational, the second manned, and the third unmanned SPACEHUT units will rendezvous and land respectively on Phobos and on Mars on the selected location for the first landing. While the asteroid-spacecraft will go back to Earth on its cyclical trajectory, the astronauts will build a supporting base on Phobos, similar to the one already built on the asteroid. As soon as the base on Phobos is completed, with a landing module the crew will land on Mars at the selected site where the third SPACEHUT module would be expecting them and already operational for minimal life-support functions. At Mars the astronauts will assemble the third space station and perform all their planned activities. In the meanwhile the spacecraft asteroid at Earth vicinity will pick up another crew who will reach Mars utilizing the already built asteroid station, land on Phobos and reach the Martian landing site in complete safety while the original crew will rendezvous with the Phobos station first, wait for the asteroid station to rendezvous and take the trip back to Earth. In this paper we want to analyze in detail all such operations including the transportation assembly and functionality of the SPACEHUT concept.

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Track 2C 5:00 pm Single STEP To Orbit, the Only Way to Mars Professor Bruce B. Lusignan Stanford University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Packard Electrical Engineering Bldg. 350 Serra Mall, #237 Stanford, CA 94305-9510 lusignan@ee.stanford.edu Now that Lockheed-Martin and NASA have spent over a $ Billion to prove that a singlestage rocket will not make it to orbit, something Verner Von Braun knew in the 40's, we are faced with a serious transportation problem. To get to Mars we need to resurrect the Saturn or Energia, persuade Congress to pop for a Magnum, or allow a modern replacement of expendable vehicles to be developed. The SSTO fiasco could be a signal to the international community to start serious work on the configurations, developed by Kelly, Black Horse and Hot, that can in fact deliver payload to orbit. They use a large cargo plane to tow, carry or fuel a rocket plane to make the flight from 35,000 feet to orbit. Since the rocket plane and cargo plane return to Earth to refuel and go again, the cost is much less than expendable rockets, making Earth satellites, space tourism. and Mars exploration economically viable. Two students, part of an international study team will present the latest development on the Stanford single-STEP-to-orbit, based on the Antonov cargo plane. They will also present the preliminary design of an Earth-Mars crew transport vehicle, based on SSTO launches, that will serve the Mars Direct, NASA Reference or Stanford-Russian Mars mission architectures. Track 2C 5:30 pm Progress in Mars Exploration Technologies Robert Zubrin, Brian Birnbaum, K. Mark Caviezel and Gary Snyder Pioneer Astronautics 11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A Lakewood, CO 80215 Zubrin@aol.com In this paper we will present the results of the latest work on Mars exploration technologies performed at Pioneer Astronautics. This work includes development of a protoflight Reverse Water Gas Shift system for producing oxygen on Mars on the scale required for the Mars sample return mission, development of systems for converting methane to benzene, thereby reducing hydrogen importation requirements for Sabatier Electrolysis systems by a factor of four, development of gashopper mobility systems which use hot pellet beds to heat raw CO2 to enable repeated flights of tens to hundreds of kilometers on Mars, the development of rocket engines that can burn fuels using CO2 as an oxidizer, and the successful demonstration of methods to autonomously inflate solar

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heated Mars balloons under dynamic conditions. The potential value of all these technologies to future Mars exploration is explained. Track 3C 1:00 pm Shared Mental Model Theory and the Group Dynamics of Teams in Extreme Environments Stephen M. Fiore, Ph.D. Adjunct Faculty -- Department of Psychology University of Central Florida 12424 Research Parkway - Suite 301 Orlando, FL 32826 Joined by Jason P. Kring, Florian Jentsch, and Eduardo Salas University of Central Florida The focus of this talk will be on how to best understand and investigate team performance in extreme environments. Evidence from space and ground-based space analogs indicates that multiple factors in isolated and confined settings hinder higherorder cognitive functions necessary for team decision-making and problem solving. Factors include environmental characteristics and stressors, time limitations, restricted availability of communications and information, as well as heterogeneous team composition, particularly among teams with high cultural and occupational diversity. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for the development of a systematic program of research from which principles for team training in similar environments can be empirically derived. The presentation will focus on outlining the theoretical drivers associated with such a program in order to elucidate what we need to know in order to understand the socio-cognitive factors affecting team performance in extreme and isolated environments. Specifically, given the criticality of problem solving in long-term space flight (e.g., an increased need for trouble-shooting in isolated environments), a fuller understanding of group- and individual-level cognition is necessary. We suggest that the consideration of how inter- and intra-individual processes impact team problem solving can best be investigated through shared mental model theory. This approach aligns with the needs outlined in the NASA Space Human Factors Plan which states that crew members "must be fully aware of their own and their colleagues' functions, limits, and capabilities. And understanding how the space environments affects group dynamics is an equally important human factors consideration." Thus, to the degree we understand the behaviors of those engaged in group and team problem solving in extreme environments, the better able we will be able to gauge the impact of extreme environments on socio-cognitive functioning. We will focus on theories of shared mental models, on the tools available to measure mental models, and on the research data available to date covering shared mental models in teams.

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Track 3C 1:30 pm Early Polar Exploration and its Implications for Crew Selection Dr. Erik Seedhouse elseedho@sfu.ca Environmental & Aerospace Laboratory School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby British Columbia, V3J 1E2, Canada The paper examines circumstances faced by early polar explorers and how this information can be used when deciding on a crew profile for a journey to Mars. Much has been written about the psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for a mission to Mars. Our intuition tells us that surely the experience of such a mission will be so different from life on Earth that unearthly changes will manifest themselves in the crew, hence the need for extensive research. We know that there are physiological changes during extended space flight and believe that there must be some comparable psychological changes. We search for analogs for the space environment and see in those analogs only the examples of human frailty (so much for scientists being upbeat!). Often, we do not see the far more prevalent examples of human greatness. We read that the incidence of psychiatric cases in the Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines is 4/1000 but conveniently overlook the fact that the rate of reported psychiatric illness is lower in the submarines than it is in the surface Navy. History provides us with many examples of how people have performed admirably in stressful circumstances. The crew of Nansen’s Fram left home on 24 June 1893, and did not return for over three years. More than 2 years of that absence were spent frozen in the polar ice with no outside contact. That expedition was a far more arduous experience than a mission to Mars, yet the crew still managed to bring back a wealth of valuable information. When discussing who should go to Mars it is perhaps more insightful to examine the problems faced by polar explorers during the “Heroic Age of Exploration,” and how those crews survived their ordeals. We must accept the fact there will be differences of opinion and personality on a mission to Mars but we must not assume they will be any more disastrous than similar problems that arise when humans are confined together in small groups.

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Track 3C 2:00 pm Crew Composition for Mars Missions: Marines, Nuns, Singles of the Nice Couple Next Door? Jim Funaro jafunaro@cabrillo.cc.ca.us Comparative studies of human and primate societies suggest that evolution has crafted “special purpose groups” to perform the particular functions necessary to all communities. These groups are organized primarily on a sexual division of labor and based originally on biological differences between males and females. In both composition and function, these groups can be demonstrated by cross-cultural comparison to have considerable consistency in human time and space. In this paper, I propose to consider, in cross-cultural perspective, the biological and social properties of single-sex and mixed-sex special purpose groups. My goal is to urge the utilization of ethnographic and historical data to make sure we consider the widest possible range of options within humanity’s biosocial resources as our species expands into space. Track 3C 2:30pm What’s New in Choosing Who: Recent Technology for Team Assessment and Selection Sally D. Stabb, Ph.D., Laura Gately Micheal Gately Dan Smith Following up on a previous presentation to the Mars Society and after an additional two years of work in the field, the authors have developed a computer program that can track and display team interactions over time. Team compatibility and composition have been identified as critical areas of application for long duration space missions. These processes are currently being investigated by NASA and others; the group assessment tool developed by the authors offers a potentially powerful way to assist in this process. The authors have worked with an international team of field biologists in order to develop the tool. Such a team was chosen because it closely resembles the kind of people who will go to Mars: highly specialized scientists who will need to work together over an extended period of time. The team has members from three different countries and is has a mixed gender composition. The team members were videotaped conducting fieldwork and laboratory meetings. Following this, the digital video was transferred to computer memory and a program was developed in order to track their interactions over time. Interactions are coded on screen and all coded data goes into a database that can then be

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queried in multiple ways to search for patterns within the team dynamics. There is also a graphics component of the program that allows us to see each team member as a point on a circle, and then watch interactions unfold over time. We have examined how interpersonal and content level conflicts disrupt group functioning, and how specific team members either escalate or repair these disruptions. The authors will provide an actual demonstration of the program at the convention, in addition to discussing the numerous potential applications of the program for assessment, evaluation, and selection of astronaut teams. Track 3C 3:00 pm EEG Biofeedback and Maintaining Functional Integrity on Long Duration Space Missions John A. Putman JPutman905@aol.com When human beings are placed in a strange environment where the workload is extreme and the threat of destruction is omnipresent, the level of arousal in the human nervous system tends to remain above a certain threshold. It is, essentially, a milder version of what happens with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder where situational events or conditions reset the physiological set point for the alarm response in the brain. A prolonged state of overarousal leads, ultimately, to a state of exhaustion in the brain that has distinct features in the EEG (or brainwave activity). Typical symptoms that accompany this state of cortical exhaustion are: depression, insomnia, attentional deficits, mood instabilities and, ultimately, immune system irregularities and physical illness. Brain waves are reflected micro changes in electrical potential taking place in the cortex (measured at the scalp's surface). They represent synchronous firings of neurons located in specific areas of the brain. Although the EEG contains no useful information about the specific "content" of cognitive processes or of thoughts in general, it does register changes in states of physiological arousal, attention, and even of mood. Over the past 30 years or so, researchers have demonstrated that teaching a person to deliberately alter their EEG, through such techniques as operant conditioning via EEG biofeedback, can be very effective in treating problems involving disregulation in the dimensions of arousal, attention and mood. With the beginning of operations aboard the ISS, we begin a transition towards long duration space missions where maintaining functional integrity will become a crucial issue. If lessons aboard the MIR are any indication, long term flights will tend to tease out and expose our weakest links as the ability to endure extended periods of isolation under heavy work load conditions in microgravity is stretched to the limit.

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Track 3C 3:30 pm Psychological Suitability for Long-Duration Space Flight: the View From History Deborah Ames Watkins Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology The Professional School of Psychology San Francisco, CA 1992 WatkinsD PhD@aol.com

The present study explores the relationship between individual personality factors and small group dynamics anticipated to be relevant for long-duration space flight. The focus of this investigation is on the hypothesis that androgyny and noncompetitive work motivation are beneficial personality dispositions for an isolated and confined environment. Very few individuals have flown in space for months on end. The Russian cosmonauts have by far the most experience. Actual psychological assessment of this population was not feasible. In order to expand the available data, a thematic analysis based on experiences in analogous environments and drawn from archival material was planned. An in-depth study of three subjects in terms of androgyny and noncompetitive work motivation was conducted. The diary of Russian cosmonaut Valentin Lebedev's experience of seven months in space was fortunately available. The other subjects were Amelia Earhart, long-distance recordsetting aviator, and Robert Scott, Antarctic explorer. The findings support the findings in general. Particularly strong evidence emerged that enjoying work because it is pleasurable and needing social approval are important personality factors related to ability to adapt to the situation of long-duration space flight. Evidence also showed that, beyond a reasonable point, a "neediness factor" became detrimental. It is suggested that research be continued by comparing the findings of the present study to contemporary analogous situations such as Biosphere II, in order to better understand the relationship between personality and small group dynamics for space flight.

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Track 4C 1:00 pm From the Red Centre to the Red Planet - Australians Contribute to the Journey to Mars Guy Murphy & Jason Hoogland, Mars Society Australia Australia is a nation of 20 million people, occupying Earth's only island continent. A significant proportion of it is remote arid desert, with many Mars-like features, and Australia manages a large portion of Antarctica. Australians enjoy a high standard of living and education, and are enthusiastic adopters of technology. Australia has a history of exploration and innovation and has become a major exporting nation. However despite importing more than US$300 million in space services annually Australia has no national space programme. Yet public interest in space exploration is widespread. Within only a few years, the Mars Society Australia (MSA) has become the third ranked behind only the United States and Canada in terms of Mars Society members per capita, ahead of many other Mars Society branches in countries with vibrant space programmes. MSA believes Australians can make a significant contribution to Mars mission planning and has embarked on an ambitious Technical Programme consisting of 5 major projects: Mars-Oz, Marsupial, Mars Skin, SAFMARS and Jarntimarra, the first four of which are developing analogue hardware for simulated Mars mission field activities. In the northern hemisphere fall of 2002, these programme elements will be integrated in a major field exercise, Operation Red Centre 2002 (ORC02), similar to those undertaken on Devon Island and planned for the proposed US research station. Later this year a scouting expedition will head into central Australia to finalise a location for ORC02 and catalogue other sites of interest. Major outreach initiatives will include the second Australian Mars Exploration Conference and participation in a year-long touring space exhibition commencing in Canberra in November 2001 where we expect MSA exposure to up to 1 million Australians, and this presentation will elaborate on progress being made toward this vision in Australia, and be an opportunity to invite international participation in MSA activities. Track 4C 1:30 pm Listening to Earthlings Talk About Mars Marvin Hilton 689 Winbaugh Lane Fayetteville, Arkansas 72703, USA skymar@tcac.net What would Martians hear if they were to listen to Earthlings debate about whether or not to explore Mars? The most outspoken opponents of Mars exploration, who respond with

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disparaging little smiles and scornful remarks, can tell us what we most need to know, in order to go on to Mars. It is the great mass of apathy and opposition that keeps us anchored to the Earth. Listening to the hopes, needs and fears behind the wall of apathy and scorn will tell us how to connect with others and gain their support. We need to forget all of our great reasons for going to Mars and listen closely and gently to the reasons for not going. Then we will know how Mars exploration can help fulfill the opposition’s hopes, and needs and alleviate some of their fears and gain some supporting friends. For example, some say space exploration will increase military tension with powerful rockets and armed space stations. We might reply with, “Exploring Mars will place the human drama before the back drop of the solar system and the universe of stars and galaxies. This will emphasize the feeling of unity of the human family alone in the universe.” What words of opposition to Mars exploration have you heard? What are your own words of opposition? What are the hopes, needs and fears and thoughts of apathy behind the words? How can Mars exploration help fulfill some of these needs and hopes and alleviate some of the fears and apathy? Let’s meet in a circle and listen closely and with understanding to the knowledge that will boost us on to Mars. Track4C 2:00 pm Yuri’s Night Loretta Hidalgo Loretta@yurisnight.net On 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin made his historic 108-minute flight and became the first human to travel into space and also became a national and international hero. 12 April 2001 marks the 40th anniversary of this momentous event and the 20th anniversary of the first Space Shuttle flight. Under the banner of “Yuri’s Night,” a global grassroots celebration of this anniversary has been organized. Yuri’s Night is taking the form of a worldwide effort designed to simultaneously celebrate humankind’s exploration of space and to reach out to the general public, particularly young people. Mars Society was a supporter of the event and the Mars Society Caltech Chapter was very active in the global website, web casting and LA specific events. An archive of the live LA web cast with interviews of space personalities and entertainment personalities alike is available at www.yurinight.net. Sixty-five events in twenty-four countries around the world aim to ensure that knowledge of Yuri Gagarin’s achievement and its implications are carried forward to a new generation. These events, varying in size, style and content are being organized by space enthusiasts around the world, each seeking to celebrate in the means most appropriate for their culture. Examples include club nights, poetry readings, space art events and

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meetings with astronauts. The lager events will be web-linked and web cast so participants can follow the celebrations as they travel around the globe. This paper describes how the idea for Yuri’s Night first arose, grew to include events on all seven continents and came to be publicized globally on CNN, space.com, MTV, BBC and NPR. It then outlines the different international events and the ways in which they were organized and identifies lessons learned and good practice to be shared with the wider space education community. We think it is important to describe this successful space event and to inform people of ways to get involved in next year’s event Track 4C 2:30 pm Mars Simulation Project: Simulating Martian Settlement on a Computer Scott Davis Project Administrator Mars Simulation Project http://mars-sim.sourceforge.net scud1@users.sourceforge.net The Mars Simulation Project is an open source software project to create a simulation of future human settlement of the planet Mars. The project uses an object-oriented architecture to represent a virtual world and the structures and people who populate it. Settlements, complete with internal facilities such as greenhouses, maintenance garages and living quarters, are randomly located about the surface of planet. Virtual people inhabit the settlements, eating, sleeping and going about their daily work there. Longrange rovers are often used for research excursions and for people to travel between settlements. The orbit and rotation of the virtual Mars is tracked, along with the day/night cycle. Surface terrain elevation is also represented from NASA data. The project's user interface shows generated surface and terrain maps of the virtual planet, based on NASA data. Information windows can be brought up for each person, settlement and rover in the simulation, updating in real time as information changes. A Martian clock/calendar tool displays the passing of time in the simulation. This presentation will cover the history, current status and future plans for the Mars Simulation Project. Track 4C 3:00 pm Bringing Mars to Children and Other Audiences Brian Jacobson stree@redshift.com This is an overview for how to prepare for a Mars Presentation. A sample Mars Presentation is outlined. This information will help you to be more confident and
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prepared when presenting to the public. Specific information will be presented on: Getting a Venue: contacting teachers, museums, astronomy clubs, scouting groups, churches. Questions to Anticipate: different degrees of interest will result in different types of questions. Custom Fitting your Presentation to Your Audience: If presenting at a grade school, check with teacher to determine what the class has learned already. Also, it is important how you dress. Equipment and Resources: getting your own projection equipment and images, where to get them and what to bring. Improving your Public Speaking Skills: Join a Toastmasters group. How to get rid of the “ahs” and “ums” and other cluttering sounds. Keep improving and updating your material so it is fresh and up to date. Track 4C 3:30 pm Getting Local Media and Political Attention Carl Carlsson caycarl@structurex.net The Louisiana Mars Society (LAMS) has learned a few lessons about getting local media and government attention for the Mars Society. This presentation will go over the steps LAMS took to get published in the newspaper, interviewed by a television station, and scheduled appointments with local Congressional leaders' associates. Track 4C 4:00pm A Child Once Dreamt of Space F. Becker Mach25@inow.com As a boy, Fred Becker was intrigued by the Apollo missions to study space and Mars in particular. He spent long hours designing a space ship and mission architecture for getting humans to Mars. His design ultimately won science fair awards and garnered positive feedback from some of his heroes. Fred discusses how this childhood fascination with space inspired him to continue his studies in science and engineering and ultimately, to forge a career in the field of aerospace.

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Track 4C 4:30 pm Prototype Permanent Base / Research & Education Center Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu Proposal for a Research and Education Center addressing use of in-situ building techniques, food and clothing production, and support of an early permanent Mars base. At a single site, we would collect all technology needed for a permanent base, and test the feasibility of alternative methods. Major portions of the funding could come from individual research projects, public programs, volunteer construction, and local nonaerospace corporations. It could be a follow-up on to the Mars Society Hab program that is investigating early mission operation. Track 4C 5:00 – 6:00 pm Chapter Projects Workshop Lorraine Bell lmbell@earthlink.net An hour-long workshop to discuss projects individual or groups of chapters can undertake to support Mars Society activities. This would include educational projects, fundraising projects, and technical projects such as further development of the analog spacesuits and Mission Support activities for the analog stations.

Track 5C 1:00 pm Dry Reforming: A Unique Flowsheet for Fuel Production on Mars Brian Frankie brianf5070@aol.com A new conceptual flowsheet is presented for Martian in situ fuel production. The dry reforming flowsheet incorporates the well-known Sabatier-Electrolysis process with a carbon dioxide/methane reforming step to consume some of the Sabatier methane. By varying the ratio of effluent to reformed methane, any desired methane/oxygen ratio can be produced by the dry reforming process. Such a machine will enable utilization of all imported hydrogen into an optimal methane/oxygen fuel mixture, with copious quantities of surplus oxygen produced for crew consumables. The reforming process is highly endothermic and requires temperatures above 650 centigrade on precious metal catalysts. Appropriate feed/effluent heat exchange reduces

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the reformer power requirements, but an increased oxygen/methane ratio increases the power requirements. In addition, the complexity introduced by the reformer and its interactions with the Sabatier system make the system relatively difficult to automate or control remotely. The energy usage and complexity imply that a dry reforming process will not be useful in the early stages of Mars exploration. However, the increased material usage efficiency and oxygen generation capability of the dry reforming technique will make it an attractive technology to consider for second generation ISRU systems. In addition, the potential ease of retrofitting Sabatier/Electrolysis units with a dry reformer provide an important advantage for early adoption of the technology. Minor preinvestment in the Sabatier system – essentially just provision for interconnections will allow the addition of a reformer, thus extending the useful lifetime of the Sabatier system, instead of replacing early Sabatier systems with entirely new second generation systems. Thus, dry reforming will be an important technology to allow cost effective expansion of early Martian exploration and base building efforts. Track 5C 1:30 pm Identification, Display, and Optimization of Martian Resource Locations Gregory Chamitoff, NASA, Houston, TX. George James, ETM Inc., Houston, TX. Donald Barker, MAXD, Inc., Houston, TX. The identification and utilization of In-situ Martian natural resources are the keys to enabling cost-effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. Local resources provide the essential safety net and cost reduction required for initial missions as well as permanent habitation. The incident solar radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface deposits, polar caps, and frozen volatiles represent a subset of planetary resources, which can provide consumable materials such as breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Although the current information on the location, extent, purity, and ease of extraction of these resources is limited at best, the knowledge base expands with each additional mission to the planet. The scientific community that drives the collection of this information maintains extensive databases designed to further the understanding of the planet. This work, however, presents an approach for collecting and utilizing this information for the collocation of planetary resources to enhance and enable, human self-sufficiency on Mars. There are three parts to this effort. First, the production and updating of a database of resource information from the planet is underway. The Mariner, Viking, Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor programs (as well as terrestrial observations and Martian meteorite studies) have created a significant basis from which to build. Over the next few years, other missions will provide even more information. Second, this work is preparing an interactive display medium to convey the best location information-to-date as well as the collocation of multiple resources. The ability to overlay potential reservoirs of useful materials with topography and regions of scientific interest allows for a thought process with self-sufficiency treated as a design variable. Closely coupled to this is the third

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effort that seeks to develop optimization strategies that will more closely couple resource utilization, self-sufficiency, manufacturing, and off-nominal survivability with more traditional mission design and operation parameters. The ability to estimate and optimize the importance and viability of a collection of resources can drive technology developments, precursor studies, analog simulations, and ultimately support efficient and effective mission planning. Track 5C 2:00 pm Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption in a Zeolite Molecular Sieve under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions M.A. Schneider† and A.P. Bruckner* Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Astrobiology Program University of Washington, Box 352400 Seattle, WA 98195 mschneid@aa.washington.edu In order to enhance or enable future missions to Mars, the utilization of native resources will be necessary to produce consumables such as rocket propellants for the return trip and/or oxygen and water for life support. A critical component for the production of these mission consumables is water, which can be electrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen or used directly. Even though the Martian atmosphere is extremely dry by Earth standards (typical water vapor concentrations on Mars are of the order of 1/10,000 of those on Earth), extracting the water is likely to be more feasible than extracting it from the regolith or polar caps, because atmospheric water vapor is globally distributed and is the best characterized source of water on the planet. In the department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the University of Washington a concept to extract water from the Martian atmosphere has been the subject of several mission design studies. In these studies, the adsorbent selected to extract water vapor was zeolite 3A, a synthetic molecular sieve. Zeolite 3A is a potassium aluminosilicate that has a cage-like microstructure with an effective aperture of 3Å. This allows water molecules to enter but excludes the larger carbon dioxide molecules, which comprise 95% of the Martian atmosphere. Although zeolite 3A has been characterized extensively at Earth-ambient conditions, it has not heretofore been tested at the low temperatures, pressures, and humidities characteristic of Mars. It is this lack of data at the desired conditions that motivated the current experimental study, i.e., to study the behavior of zeolite 3A experimentally at Mars ambient conditions. To perform adsorption characterization experiments on zeolite 3A under appropriate conditions, a continuous flow Mars atmospheric simulation chamber was built. The
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chamber simulates the pressure (4–6 torr), temperature (185–230 K), composition, and humidity (vapor pressure ~10-4–10-2 torr) on Mars. Of these four quantities, simulation of the characteristically low humidities on Mars proved to be extremely challenging, due to the difficulties presented by the generation, management, and measurement of very low water vapor concentrations. The simulation facility was recently completed and successfully tested. Initial results of experiments with zeolite 3A have confirmed its ability to effectively extract water from a simulated Martian atmosphere. Ongoing studies are aimed at fully characterizing the adsorption properties of this molecular sieve at Mars-like conditions.

Track 5C 2:30 pm Mars Kites for Human Habitation William Byron (Joe) Poston , Ph.D. joeposton@ij.net Utilizing the most recent advances in communications (Parabolic Reflectors) and space explorations (Mars Odyssey) it is conceivable to conclude that the feasibility of this concept can become a reality. The reality of Earthlings on Mars is now a very distinct possibility within our foreseeable future. This concept is easily proven with collage math (separate publication) and this dissertation is presented to familiarize the scientific (& political) communities to the feasibility of this concept and give credence for its implementation. This concept utilizes a well-known paradigm (man on Mars) but which had no practicality except to send someone there in a clumsy space suit. This abstract, utilizing modern day accomplishments, illustrates a different methodology. The sun shines daily on Mars and this enormous energy, while less than Earth, could be utilized to a great extent in many other applications, over a period of time. Additionally, localized KITES could be installed on Command Huts to give them steam generated electrical energy for the astronauts. This study provides an empirical observation of the concepts that could be implemented in the near future, utilizing the applications of present day technology, as noted below: - Determine the “exact” temperatures of the surface of MARS at this present time (Mars Odyssey). - Establish the “exact” orbital path for the Mars Kites. This would be the plan view (symmetrical about equator) (Mars Odyssey). - Establish the “exact” orbital path for the Mars Kites, this would the right side view (symmetrical a 45 degrees inclination), in this manner the suns energy would strike the Mars KITES uniformly, 24-days, 7-days, none would be in a shadow (Mars Odyssey). - Design & develop the “exact” specifications for the parabolic reflectors that are used for the KITE (separate publication). - Completely test all of these concepts on Earth (Space Shuttle). - Send Mars Odyssey II with one model (KITE) to orbit Mars for feasibility, and total confirmation of this methodology.

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- Prepare Mars Odyssey III with the test results of Mars Odyssey II for the implementation of three (3) more KITES. These four (4) Kites will give significant energy from the SUN to re-warm the surface for habitation. - Utilizing the aforementioned concepts and the practical implementations recommended. This should provide Human Habitation for a Chicago “environment” within 100 years. Only a small oxygen re-breather tank would be required for daily existence, on the surface. - Utilizing localized KITES, astronauts could generate their own electrical energy for many different experiments. - In the future, astronauts could use steam generators for propulsion, in the return-toEarth vehicle. Track 5C 3:00 pm One Way to Mars / An Early Permanent Mars Settlement Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu Since a major reason to go to Mars is to establish a second home for humanity and life why insist on bringing the crews back to Earth? About half the total cost of a 500-day Mars surface stay is the return spacecraft, fuel processing equipment, and supplies for the return trip. Also, the return trip can be more dangerous than the outbound trip or remaining on Mars. It may be cost effective to establish a permanent base with the first mission. This requires extra supplies, a complete machine shop, plastics shop, greenhouses, and significant Earth based testing. The settlement can receive more support from 'back home', than was ever possible in the past. For example, new equipment can be designed on Earth, and then the designs are transmitted to Mars where the equipment is constructed using 'rapid prototyping' machines. There would be tremendous cost savings if the return craft for later crews are not launched. When the base is well established after several years, we could produce paper, felt, pressed-board, ethylene based plastics, glass, fiberglass, and brick with very little equipment. These would be used for habitats and household furnishings for additional people, further reducing the cost per person. The scientific results from a permanent base would be greater than for a series of short missions, even if much of the time was spent growing food and housekeeping. Most importantly, there is only limited public support for roundtrip scientific missions. While "Opening a New World" will inspire many entrepreneurs, universities, voters, politicians, and the next generation.

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Track 5C 3:30 pm Infrastructures for the First Base on Mars Frank Schubert Therub9@aol.com This talk assumes that we don’t make the same mistake in going to Mars as we made on the moon. In other words, once we get there, we should stay there. The first astronauts that land on Mars will be there for a minimum of 18 months and in that time they can start building the systems that will be a part of the permanent base. Much like a home in a remote area, the Mars Base will need to start using the resources that surround it. The proposed systems in this talk will address the special needs and constrictions of building on Mars. It will look at building structures for living, working, storing materials and systems housing. The first building system proposed here will be that of rock structures with a pressurized membrane. This system could be built with existing materials and a binding compound made from the Martian atmosphere. Plumbing systems will have to be self contained and recyclable. These systems can have a central processing much like a city sewage plant. Special considerations will have to be made due to the low temperature and low gravity. Heating and ventilation systems will also require special filtering and distribution. The air will be cleaned and filtered under pressure much like the International Space Station. The moisture will be extracted from the air and be recycled into the water system. Co2 extracted from the air will be recycled also. The aim of these systems will be to make the Mars Base as comfortable and livable as possible. The comfort level of the crew will have a direct relation to moral and should be considered a high priority on every mission. Track 5C 4:00 pm The Costs of Settling the Red Planet James Brown jimbrown88@hotmail.com All of the technologies for starting a Martian settlement inexpensively, if thirty billion dollars can be considered inexpensive, are available and could net millions of trillions of dollars in the process. It is little more than the cost of sending forty people to Mars for a few years. We would start with just a few people so the initial cost wouldn’t be that high. Establishing a settlement can be accomplished almost entirely using readily available

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Martian resources. Mars has all the resources we need to start heavy industry, construction, and agriculture using mostly rapid prototyping techniques. Once the Mars settlement is established and can support a crew, work can be started to develop SPS’s (reflective solar thermal is most practical here) on one of Mars’ moons. A catapult can then be constructed and used to send some simple parts and raw resources back to Earth orbits and quickly assemble SPS’s there. Before the resources can be sent back they need to be mined from the materials available on the moon and simple automatic manufacturing equipment will need to be built. This will enable heavy industry on the moons of Mars and in Earth orbits. This can also supply the fluids to travel around the solar system inexpensively. Mars is the system to start real outer space industry that will fill the solar system. The first decade should send to Earth's orbits enough parts to construct terawatts of power beaming down to receivers on Earth. Thirty billion dollars spread over a ten-year period. Then get profits of that every month. I fear if NASA has its way we will go to Mars spending lots of money. Get a flag, footprint, and a little exploration-bloated program when we could instead start heavy industry and agriculture. After this we can explore very much more for far less. Track 5C 4:30 – 6:00 pm Technical Task Force Workshop Rocky Persaud, Moderator rocky.persaud@utoronto.ca A one and a half hour long session to examine all technical projects necessary to prepare the way for a human Mars mission, including technology to develop and test at the analog stations. Sunday, August 26, 2001 Sunday Plenary Session 9:00 am The Mars Society Balloon Mission: A Low-cost Mars Super-Pressure Balloon Mission Hannes Griebel, Michael Bosch, Kristian Pauly, Felix Kalkum, Markus Landgraf, Raimund Scheucher, Hanfried Schlingloff, Harry O. Ruppe, Sven Knuth A Martian super-pressure has been discussed since the first successful deployment of such a system in the atmosphere of Venus. A balloon on Mars could provide enormous scientific return while keeping total mass and costs extremely low. A lot of different scientific instruments could be used. A high-resolution camera (resolution approximately 0.2m/pixel), ground penetrating radar, imaging infrared spectrometer, magnetometer, and atmospheric tools seem to be appropriate. These instruments are placed in a gondola

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carried by a super-pressure balloon. The balloon’s volume is kept constant, so that a nearly constant altitude can be expected. The gondola provides energy supply, data processing and communication to an orbiter, too. Considerable development efforts by CNES and NASA, the later in recent times, have made such a mission much more realistic than some years ago. Especially it was demonstrated an in-flight inflation mechanism. New lightweight balloon skin composite materials were developed. We show that it is possible to conduct such a mission with an injected mass lower than 300 kg. The entry mass is 120 kg. The radius of the spherical balloon would be 18.8m. It could carry an 8 kg gondola with 2 kg of scientific instruments. The balloon is designed for a constant altitude of about 7 km. This mission would cost no more than approximately 50 Mio. Euro. The probe would be launched in a cost effective manner as a piggy-pack mission with a commercial satellite on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle. The Mars Society Germany proposed this mission to German Space Agency DLR in February. Sunday Plenary Session 10:00 am Life on Mars: Past, Present and Future Dr. Chris McKay mckay@galileo.arc.nasa.gov Sunday Plenary Session 11:00 am Flashline Station Mission Support Operations Anthony C. Muscatello, Dewey Anderson, Lorraine Bell, Robert Zubrin tony.muscatello@pioneerastro.com A dedicated team of volunteers has performed a tremendous service to the Mars Society by providing Mission Support Operations for the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station over the past year. Our primary task for most of that time has been the development and production of nine analog space suits and backpacks for FMARS analog astronauts to use during this summer's field season. (This activity is detailed in a separate presentation by Dewey Anderson.) During the 50-day field season, volunteers staffed the Mission Support office in Lakewood, CO every day from 3 pm to 8 pm or later. Science support was provided by NASA/Ames. The Mission Support team provided both practical logistical support in obtaining equipment and supplies for FMARS and simulated a Mission Support aspect by regular interactions with the FMARS crew. We received FMARS daily reports, commented on them, answered engineering/operations questions, forwarded personal messages to and from the crew, forwarded press inquiries (including Sports Illustrated, of all things), and updated the crew on world news. This presentation will cover the Summer 2001 FMARS field season from the Mission Support point of

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view and summarize issues, both resolved and unresolved, that might arise during a real human Mars mission. Track 1D 1:00 pm Life on The High Deserts of Earth and Dry Valleys of Mars Professor Bruce B. Lusignan Stanford University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Packard Electrical Engineering Bldg. 350 Serra Mall, #237 Stanford, CA 94305-9510 lusignan@ee.stanford.edu International cooperation, public support, and scientific data will be derived by promoting multiple Mars Analog sites to prepare for the human exploration of Mars. The real Mars crew will be made up of six explorers, men and women from the world's nations, isolated for 18 months on the surface. They will land at a site, possibly Candor Chasma in the bottom of Valis Marinaris. and search for traces of life that began 3.5 billion years ago, when Mars and Earth both had fairly dense atmospheres and abundant water. Stanford's Mars analog contest suggests that The US Mars Society Devon Island site be used to isolate a crew for 18 months to use Rover, drill and micro sampler to search for microbial life deep beneath the surface. A similar crew will conduct an isolation experiment in the Antarctic supported by the European Space interests. A third crew will conduct an isolation experiment in Siberia supported by the Russian Space Agency. A fourth will explore the Gobi Desert in China supported by the Chinese Space agency. And a fifth would be supported by the Japanese Space Agency, isolated perhaps in the Anaconda Desert in Chile. The crew at each site would be international. They will be isolated, confined and challenged to simulate the stress a real crew must learn to overcome. A Russian-built drill and Chinese-built micro sampler will be used at each site to gather ancient microbes for evaluation of genetic heritage at the isolated Earth sites. Panels of microbiologists and geologists will evaluate the samples, hopefully leading to fresh results on the evolution of Earth life forms in the high desert areas. The performance of the crews will be studied and rated to gain data on crew isolation dynamics. The performance will be compared and publicized to build enthusiasm for support of Mars exploration in each site and to build pride in the national institutions supporting each site. The Stanford report will provide detail of each site its national program support and a proposed sequence of crew challenges.

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Track 1D 1:30 pm Operational Research on a Manned Mars Rover Jeremy Burns, Michigan Mars Rover Team Burnsy825@hotmail.com An overview of the goals and methods we are putting together in order to do successful operational and human factors research with an Analog Rover. We will cover some of the design aspects that were influenced by human factors needs, and how they will contribute to good research in the field. Several "typical" operation missions will be covered, along with the key elements we will be looking for during these missions. Many different issues will be covered; from performing daily tasks correctly to evaluating crew efficiency to studying psychological impacts in these particularly close quarters. The tools of data collection will be another topic of importance, as we will have internal video cameras along with other feedback methods such as scheduled crew reports. Finally, the results of data collection and analysis will be put to practical use both in the short term and long term. It will influence the design of our next rover "Olympus," a more advanced and refined version of the first rover "Everest." It will also serve as a long-term bank of information housed at the University of Michigan, for consultation and study by other future rover builders. Track 1D 2:00 pm Prototype for Next Generation Mobile Access to Satellite Data, On Earth and on Mars Daniar Hussain dhussain@mit.edu http://www.insanemath.com The next generation of Earth and Mars explorers will need immediate, seamless, and roaming access to satellite data resources. Field scientists and explorers working on the surface of Mars or remote and dangerous locations on the Earth can not rely on conventional and bulky computing systems for access to the information resources they need to carry out their complex tasks. In order to explore the use-scenarios of such a future system, we are developing an end-to-end prototype of a wireless client-server environment for earth science data resources. We have established a wireless LAN testbed and a mobile GIS prototype at NASA GSFC with which to explore OGC standards for location-based services, efficient image data communication, and various use cases. By exploring simulated field uses of next generation mobile technologies at environments like the FMARS in the Canadian Arctic, we gain experience for future applications in science, events management, and exploration.

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Track 1D 2:30 – 4:30 pm Analog Studies Workshop Chris McKay, Moderator mckay@galileo.arc.nasa.gov A two-hour long panel of the professional scientists within the Mars Society to discuss scientific research goals that might be fulfilled at the analog stations. Track 2 D 1:00 – 2:00 pm Panel Discussion: The Planetary Society's Mars Outposts Proposal: Bridging the Gap between Robotic and Human Exploration. Bruce Betts bruce.betts@planetary.org A panel discussion including Bruce Betts (The Planetary Society), Chris McKay (Ames Research Center), and Pascal Lee (SETI Inst.) Until now, space exploration has involved either robotic or human expeditions. We launch probes to distant worlds to collect scientific data. Closer to home, humans regularly travel to Earth orbit and have ventured to the Moon. Mars beckons for exploration-robotic or human. Rather than argue about which approach is preferable, a third way bridges the gap. The Planetary Society has dubbed this approach Mars Outposts. Mars Outposts would consist of specially designated research sites on the Red Planet, equipped with permanent communications, navigational systems, and other technologies to support intensive robotic missions and, most important, vicarious public participation. At the sites, rovers, balloons, and other probes would comprehensively investigate the surrounding terrain. Thanks to continuous signals broadcast to Earth and distributed through the Internet, humans worldwide would be able to participate in the exploration of the planet. Furthermore, the Mars Outposts approach incrementally establishes the infrastructure needed for human expeditions and thus greatly reduces costs and increases safety. Also, the outposts could become future landing sites. The same communications and navigational systems used for the robotic probes could later support a human mission. The robotic infrastructure, for instance, could facilitate the production and storage of propellant and also breathable oxygen. To begin the process, outposts would be selected on Mars' surface, then promising sites would be expanded at an affordable level. Over time, these areas would become familiar places, focusing scientific research and inspiring a generation. The outposts may

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therefore offer a clear vision of the future as well as a new way of exploration-the raison d'être of our nation's civil space program. Track 2D 2:00 pm Mars SCHEME IV: The Mars Society/Caltech Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor Nathan Brown, Chris Hirata, and Derek Shannon Office: 317 Downs Caltech MSC # 560 Pasadena, CA 91126-0560 hirata@its.caltech.edu Mars SCHEME IV is the fourth version of the Caltech-JPL Mars Society's effort to design a safer, cheaper, and more effective early human Mars mission concept. Mars SCHEME IV includes the use of reusable, electrically propelled interplanetary spacecraft with artificial gravity, with smaller vehicles to shuttle crews up and down when the mothership is near Earth or Mars. The Mars SCHEME IV spacecraft are designed with increased redundancy and more conservative mass estimates than previous versions of the plan, and will follow an innovative trajectory to reduce transit times and mission Delta-V. Track 2D 2:30 pm Junkyard Mars - Your Goal is to get Humans to Mars Using the Clarke Orbit Junkyard Steve Mickler 4413 Bradley Dr. Snellville, GA 30039 What you have: Several hundred used satellites weighing in at nearly a million pounds, mostly communication satellites, in various states of disrepair. These satellites contain aluminum, efficiency challenged solar cells, microwave communications gear, antennas, thrusters, tanks, etc. Also: The Sun - a fusion power plant already in operation and on location. What you need: Some form of active telepresence by which you can use what you've got to build and propel a manned spacecraft to Mars. A possible solution: A Solar Thermal Rocket Telerobotic Orbital Transfer Vehicle. Solar Thermal Rockets use a concentrator mirror to focus the Sun's energy to heat and exhaust a propellant gas and are currently being pursued by Boeing. Aluminum is not usually thought of as a propellant, but as concerns trans Mars aluminum has the advantage of being storable as a liquid to over 4000 deg F with the concentrator supplying only the heat of vaporization to create hot exhaust gas. This means that it becomes practical to use the concentrator mirror to liquefy and heat aluminum harvested from satellites and then heat it to gas at perigee. This greatly increases thrust and makes practical sized payloads feasible. If the

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STRTROTV's are designed for mass production and are modestly sized, many can be used together for different tasks and they would have the added advantage of being able to repair each other. The satellites in and around GEO unlike those in lower orbits are not separated by high delta-V making it practical for an aluminum-propelled vehicle to efficiently accumulate a large mass. Harvesting a satellite may seem daunting at the 4 frames a second caused by time delay, but with proper tools and the willing labor of society members "virtually" in orbit, power (by making new mirrors out of harvested aluminum), propellant, communications and even structural members of a Mars vehicle could be made. We could start "cutting metal" for the cost of a Discovery mission and minimize what has to be made on or launched from Earth. Also: At your destination you have two moons that likely have solar wind deposited volatiles easily baked out by a solar concentrator. From orbit the concentrator enhanced solar cells broadcast power to the manned base, so no reactor is needed. Money: Unlike other Mars plans, this one is capable of generating a profit from the start by comsat repair, refueling, and orbital transfer from LEO to GEO. Use of NEO derived volatiles becomes highly desirable early on if orbital transfer predominates. So on your mark, start small, use what you have for as much as you can, build a space transportation/mining and manufacturing infrastructure, establish regular trips to Mars and make money doing it. This paper describes a solar thermal telerobotic orbital transfer vehicle as first proposed by the author in paper presented at the 1985 Space Congress and since refined. Track 2D 3:00 pm Solaris MET: Low Cost Human Mars Mission J. E. Brandenburg Aerospace Corp. Chantilly, VA John F. Kline Research Support Instruments Princeton, NJ Ronald Cohen and Kevin Diamant Aerospace Corporation El Segundo, CA The Solaris-MET is an architecture for a human Mars mission that utilizes the MET (Microwave Electro-Thermal) thruster (Brandenburg and Micci, 1995) with water as a propellant, for interplanetary propulsion and production of RP1 (kerosene) and LOX from the Martian atmosphere, plus aero braking to reduce mass in Earth orbit. Since the MET propulsion system is water based, a landing site on the former shoreline of the Martian Paleo-Ocean (Brandenburg 1986) could create a natural synergism if a fossil water table is present. Space Station Alpha is used as an assembly point for the spacecraft and storage of water fuel. The MET thruster system because of its high efficiency and high Isp (800-900 sec) can propel large spacecraft to Mars using large solar arrays for power, making the environmentally problematic space nuclear reactor unnecessary. The use of water as fuel for the interplanetary stage allows accumulation

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and transfer of fuel with minimal hardware or safety concerns and later utilization of space resources. This architecture allows the use of Martian water and so the system can form the basis for an eventual Mars-Earth transportation infrastructure by using a waterrich Mars base location and the Space station. For this reason, the recommended landing site is on the former shoreline of the Paleo-Ocean of Mars. This paleo-ocean, first hypothesized by the author, is of enough reality and utility at this point to be given a proposed name of “Malacandrian Ocean.” Track 2D 3:30 pm Fast-track for Manned Missions to Mars; The Promise of the Theta-Pinch Thruster Concept Dr. Erik Seedhouse elseedho@sfu.ca Environmental & Aerospace Laboratory School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby British Columbia, V3J 1E2, Canada Chemical rockets are well suited for Earth orbit and long-duration space probes but advanced propulsion technologies must be developed to enable more complex mission such as those planned for Mars. To maximize payloads for such a mission, the propellant exhaust velocity should be comparable to the required mission velocity. The theta pinch thruster concept is derived from the experimental theta pinch devices investigated during the early years of fusion research. It uses a pulsed magnetic field in narrow chamber to create plasma and thrust. By continuously repeating the process the plasma is brought to higher pressures and temperatures. Program elements in NASA’s (Institute for Advanced Concepts) theta pinch research have been aimed at resolving the key issues that determine whether such a thruster can be effective. The modeling of plasma temperatures and densities required to produce the necessary combinations of thrust and specific impulse have been established as part of the general feasibility of the thruster concept. Encouraging results of the Phase 1 program conducted by NASA suggest that a scaled theta pinch thruster operated with an upstream magnetic mirror can be an enabling propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars. Research suggests that such a system is capable of providing high average thrust at specific impulse values comparable to current electric propulsion engines.

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Track 2D 4:00 pm The Mars SCHEME IV Trajectory Analysis Nathan Brown and Chris Hirata Office: 317 Downs Caltech MSC # 560 Pasadena, CA 91126-0560 hirata@its.caltech.edu The Caltech-JPL Mars Society's human Mars mission design efforts have recently required the calculation of trajectories for low-thrust electrically propelled interplanetary vehicles. The optimization techniques we used for interplanetary missions and their results are reviewed. We also discuss the use of lunar flybys in the Mars SCHEME IV trajectory to yield significant transit time and Delta-V reductions and to eliminate the need for close Earth flybys, which is desirable if the vehicle is to carry a nuclear power source. Track 3D 1:00 pm Inflatable Tumbleweeds For Mars Jack A. Jones Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California, 91109 NASA is presently considering a number of inflatable vehicles for Mars mobility. Two of these were reported at the 1999 Mars Society Conference. One is the Inflatable Rover, which is a lightweight (25 kg) inflatable vehicle with three large spherical tires (1.5 m diameter) that can easily traverse over almost all of the rocky Martian terrain with very little power (20 Watts at 5 km/hr). Another is a solar-heated hot gas balloon, or Montgolfiere, that is filled with ambient Martian atmosphere as it falls during atmospheric entry, and is quickly heated by the sun, thus providing buoyancy. A more recent inflatable robotics concept being explored for Mars is known as a “Tumbleweed Ball.” This is a large beach-ball-like device that holds a central payload by means of a series of tension cords. On Mars, a 6-meter diameter ball could be used for descent (replacing the parachute), landing (replacing the airbag) and mobility (winddriven on surface). The ball could be stopped by partial deflation and restarted with full inflation during windy periods. On Mars, a 20-kg ball could carry a central 20-kg

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payload and be propelled at speeds of about up to 10 m/sec during typical afternoon winds of 20 m/sec. The ball could easily climb 20° hills, with moderate winds (20 m/sec) and 45° hills with stronger winds (30 m/sec.). Tests using this type of ball as an impacter sphere were successfully conducted in the 1960s at JPL. Impact speeds of as high as 60 m/sec were tested with payload fractions of as high as 75%. By comparison, the nominal Tumbleweed Ball of Figure 1 would have a vertical terminal impact speed of 30 m/sec with a payload fraction of about 50%. Preliminary tests at JPL are presently being conducted with a ¼ scale model (1.5-meter diameter) inflatable Tumbleweed Ball. The ball has a very low coefficient of rolling friction when fully inflated, and easily traverses over various sandy and rocky terrains. A number of means to stop the ball, including deflation and shape change methods, are also presently being evaluated. On Mars, the ball would likely perform magnetometry and subsurface water-sounding measurements, which cannot be done accurately from Mars orbit. The ball may also carry imaging equipment as well as a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) along with a 1-2 meter subsurface drill. Track 3D 1:30 pm Long Day's Drive: Long range Rover Exploration of the Martian Arctic Michael H. Sims, Chris McKay & Pascal Lee (SETI Inst.), Center for Mars Exploration, NASA Ames Michael.Sims@arc.nasa.gov Long Day=B9s Drive (LDD) is a proposed long distance rover traverse mission that will explore the northern circumpolar region, polar layered deposits, and residual ice cap of Mars. Science investigations will focus on determining the nature of the northern polar layered deposits (PLDs), the nature and distribution of ground-ice in the northern circumpolar region, the diversity of polar geologic features and terrains, the mineralogy and geochemistry of polar surface materials, and the nature and abundance of possible organics in these materials. The northern polar region of Mars holds many keys to the understanding of Mars and represents a high priority for scientific investigation. The proposed long distance exploration rover mission is an ideal reconnaissance mission to the northern polar region of Mars since LDD will produce a detailed understanding of the geology and astrobiological potential of this environment. In addition to yielding direct scientific return, LDD will help identify optimal sites and exploration strategies for future stationary polar landers and for human exploration in the polar region.

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Track 3D 2:00 pm Mars “Hopper” for Robotic Mars Exploration Geoffrey A. Landis and Diane L. Linne NASA John Glenn Research Center mailstop 302-1 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH 44135 geoffrey.landis@grc.nasa.gov The Mars In-situ Propellants Rocket is a small vehicle proposed to fly autonomously on Mars, using in-situ propellant production to manufacture rocket propellant directly out of the Martian atmosphere, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using local resources to “live off the land.” It is proposed as a payload on a Mars Surveyor class lander as a reusable “hopper” vehicle. The vehicle explores the Martian surface under rocket power and can repeatedly takeoff and land, carrying a suite of science instruments over a range of hundreds of meters to several kilometers per hop. An enabling technology for the human exploration of the planet Mars is in-situ propellant production (ISPP). ISPP involves the manufacturing of propellants on Mars using indigenous resources as feedstock in the chemical processes. The primary resource on Mars available for ISPP is the atmosphere, which can be converted directly into oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO), or, with some hydrogen brought from Earth, into O2 and methane (CH4). The proposed MIPR vehicle will demonstrate the use of the ISPP technology in a small vehicle designed to fly on a Mars Surveyor class mission. It will also demonstrate a cryogenic propulsion system for Mars ascent vehicles, lightweight space engine technology, and other innovative technologies for both Mars and Earth-based missions. Mobility on Mars has a high science value. Invariably, wherever a lander may touch down, we will always want to know what is beyond the next ridge, on top of the nearby hill, or just over the horizon. Surface rovers are limited by terrain, and cannot explore many of the most interesting territory on Mars. If a vehicle were to rise above the surface, it could traverse “impassible” chasms and hop over “uncrossable” cliffs. The "hopper" vehicle is able to take off and land repeatedly, carrying a suite of science instruments over hundreds of meters per hop. The rocket-powered hopper: - refuels itself autonomously for multiple hops by using solar power to react atmospheric CO2 into oxidizer and fuel; - achieves an altitude of several hundreds of meters and traverses a distance of several hundreds of meters during each hop; and - carries a suite of scientific instruments to a soft landing at the conclusion of each hop. The flight demonstration will accomplish a range of technology objectives important to both unmanned probes and to future human missions, including: demonstration of a sub-

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orbital Mars launch vehicle; demonstrating storage of cryogenic propellants on the Mars surface; demonstration of a pressure-fed cryogenic propulsion system for Mars ascent vehicles; demonstration of a lightweight space engine; and use for the first time of propellants manufactured in-situ on another planetary body. Track 3D 2:30 pm Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts David File davefile@pacific-works.com The history of early Martian aircraft developments is reviewed and recent studies are evaluated resulting in several proposed Delta II launched concepts. Mars's atmospheric and global surface investigations can benefit greatly from the aerial mobility of flying platforms. Advances in autonomous guidance and navigation create new missions by enabling these concepts to accurately target specific terrain features. Three concepts were developed and are evaluated in this report: an improved mid-weight version of the early large-span JPL/DSI flyer (1978), a "minimum mission" winged concept and a parasail-equipped lander delivery system. The parasail flyer achieves accurate, terminal targeting for its payload reducing the risks associated with landing site selection for roving explorers. In addition to concept design and feature descriptions a systems engineering, risk reduction approach is developed which delineates the necessary technology program to achieve performance goals and mission success. Track 3D 3:00 pm Mountaineering on Mars Thomas Joslyn joslyn@writeme.com Many of the locations on Mars that are of primary interest for study are not easily accessible by rover or walking. To explore canyon walls, caves, and caldera interiors, explorers will need to ascend and descent steep terrain. Mountaineering equipment such as nylon ropes and aluminum rappel devices now used on Earth can be adapted for use on Mars and need not be heavy, complex, or even expensive. The environment on mars, while much less extreme than the Moon, is more severe than that faced by climbers in the Himalayas. Still, weighing a third of their normal body weight should allow astronauts to safely explore some of the most important locations on Mars using Earth-based mountaineering techniques. If EVA is only conducted during the daytime, space suit thermal protection weight will be minimal and astronaut performance enhanced. To safely rappel and climb, astronauts will need to see the front and sides of their waist to locate and operate equipment. Gear can be secured to the suit with carabiners and rigid nylon/plastic gear loops located at the hips and chest. The Mars climbing suit should

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incorporate gloves with better dexterity than Shuttle EVA gloves and should allow leg range of motion for high stepping to at least mid thigh height. Rigid soled boots with sticky rubber and at least some foot dexterity are preferred, and the outer layer of the suit must resist tearing, especially at the knees, shoulders, and elbows. Initially, conservative climbing techniques with fixed ropes at the top of mountain or cliff will be employed. Astronauts will rappel from their rope anchor down to the site and then ascend the terrain and feeds the rope through an auto-locking belay device. Once safety is demonstrated and confidence is gained Mars walkers may venture up the steep terrain of Mars without fixed ropes, using traditional leading techniques. Track 3D 3:30 pm Martian Polar Expeditions Charles S. Cockell British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge. CB3 0ET csco@pcmail.nerc-bas.ac.uk The Martian polar ice caps are regions of substantial scientific interest, being the most dynamic regions of Mars. They are volatile sinks and thus closely linked to Martian climatic conditions. Because of their scale and the precedent set by the past history of polar exploration on Earth, it is likely that an age of polar exploration will emerge on the surface of Mars after the establishment of a capable support structure at lower latitudes. Expeditions might be launched either from a lower latitude base camp or from a humantended polar base. Based on previously presented expeditionary routes to the Martian poles, here a 'spiral in-spiral out' unsupported transpolar assault on the Martian north geographical pole is used as a Reference expedition to propose new types of equipment for the human polar exploration of Mars. Martian polar 'ball' tents and 'hover' modifications to the Nansen sledge for sledging on CO2-containing water ice substrates under low atmospheric pressures are suggested as elements for the success of these endeavors. Other challenges faced by these expeditions are quantitatively and qualitatively addressed. Track 4D 1:00 pm Space Tourism After Dennis Tito: Mars and the Space Tourism Industry Dr. David M. Livingston Livingston Business Solutions P.O. Box 95, Tiburon, CA 94920 dlivings@davidlivingston

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Dennis Tito’s May, 2001 trip to the International Space Station brought space tourism and sending humans to Mars closer to reality. Tito showed the world and especially NASA that a non-government astronaut could easily handle space travel, and, at the same time, confirmed the findings of credible space tourism market research. These studies show that a valid space tourist market exists, even at the price of $20 million per person. Just as important, Tito’s adventure struck a deathblow to the giggle factor, which has plagued the space tourism industry since its inception. However, neither the success of the Tito trip or the market research showing a strong likelihood for space tourism profitability is sufficient on its own to propel the space tourism industry into reality. This paper, therefore, examines the full scope of the Tito effect on the space tourism industry as well as efforts to undertake a manned Mars mission. While Tito demonstrated the viability of commercial space travel, it is still to be determined whether the space tourism industry itself can now develop into a profitable economic entity. Proponents of developing space travel businesses have often been their own worst enemies by making their case while relying too much upon dramatic rhetoric and unsupported assumptions rather than proven business tools and methodologies. With an understanding and appreciation of how this industry has promoted its cause, this paper discusses ways of using market research, financial analysis, and strategic business planning to facilitate commercial space travel and support the manned Mars mission. The space tourism industry’s true potential will be realized when there is a growing market consisting of millions of passengers paying a few thousand dollars instead of a handful of people paying millions to visit low Earth orbit. A major problem preventing affordable space access from happening is that space tourist proponents, while claiming the need for a passenger-certified, cost-effective reusable launch vehicle (RLV), have not fully integrated RLVs into their business plans. For example, space tourism advocates usually only mention that an RLV as the vehicle of choice. At the same time, people in the RLV industry distanced themselves from the space tourism market and focused on the satellite launch market instead. Fortunately, this is finally changing with the realization of space tourism’s potential economic prowess when compared to the limited economic market represented by launching satellites. For the space tourism market's potential to be realized, not only does building a cost-effective passenger carrying RLV need to be a priority, there also needs to be a strategy for cooperation between the RLV and space tourism industries to build and operate a fleet of RLVs. Tito is more than just a symbol to the space tourism industry and Mars proponents. As a business and financial expert, he can provide much needed industry leadership and energy. While Dennis Tito’s contribution to the space tourism industry is important, the space tourism industry must now do its share to ensure its own successful development. The discussion points and strategies put forth in this paper can help the space tourism industry meet this challenge. They can also be useful helping to further develop plans for sending people to Mars at the earliest possible date.

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Track 4D 1:30 pm Staying Aloft: Fundraising for Mars Society Projects Maggie Zubrin Executive Director, The Mars Society mzubrin@aol.com This presentation will answer key questions for understanding the financial mechanisms of The Mars Society. Where do we get our funding? How do we identify potential sources of funding? What are we doing to secure new sources of funding? How can members help with this process? Although membership dues are vital to maintaining our everyday operations, large infusions of money are required to carry on an aggressive program of analog research. To date, The Mars Society has raised over $900,000 for our program of analog research. This figure represents donations of at least $100,000 each that were earmarked specifically as sponsorships for either the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station or the Mars Desert Research Station. All donations to The Mars Society, whether for specific projects or general operating expenses, have come from the private sector. But The Mars Society has consistently invested donations in active programs of research and outreach. A concerted effort to raise additional funding will be required to continue to expand our operations and achieve our goals. The fundraising task force has spent the last several months doing research on foundations and potential individual donors. Countless letters of inquiry have been sent, dozens of forms filled out and filed. An analysis of these efforts helps pinpoint the most effective way to approach our fundraising needs. The next step is to engage chapters and individual members in the fundraising process, utilizing those methods which have been identified as most effective.

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Track 4D 2:00 pm 3 COM MARS Joel Pioneer pioneer@thinker.colorado.edu More important than soil samples or mineral deposits, more significant than what it might teach us about our own past, present, or place in the universe, what we can, what we will, what we must learn from a Mission to Mars is how to fund a Mission to Mars ultimately, how to fund 21st Century space exploration itself. The economic challenges of space demand a creativity and ingenuity little found in the businessman of today, and remain under-explored by the technologically oriented minds of the members of the Society. To wit: Advertising. When Neil Armstrong uttered his first words from the Moon, hundreds of millions of people listened. When he chose not to mention Coca-Cola, hundreds of millions of dollars vanished. Future generations of scientists paid dearly for the conspicuous absence of the Nike Swoosh(tm) from his suit. Now is the hour of a copywritten genome, pay-per-view data and the land lording of intellectual property. Royalty-based access to information gathered on the mission: an idea that funds itself. The first words spoken on Mars: "Buy a Coke!" MTV's The Real World: Mars. One egomaniac paying 10 million dollars to orbit the Earth is only 99 egomaniacs short of a billion dollars. The bones of tax-fed, government backed, megaprojects lie in dusty heaps where nubile, VC-funded mammals keep warm in logo covered fur. We stand at the dawn of the next Dark Age; that familiar time in the cycle of human history when, surrounded by sorcerers and quantum-alchemists, we recall, only with senility, the greatness of our past, and embrace our one last chance to sink a few treasurefilled galleons in the deep sea of space, somewhere off the coast of Mars. Track 4D 2:30 pm Mars Balloon Group Abstract Chris Vancil clvancil@aol.com To thrive an organizations like the Mars Society need to provide an atmosphere of innovation and exploration. Yet, any volunteer organization has trouble motivating it's members to perform in a timely manor major projects. This paper will show how the Mars Society can emulated AMSAT the creators of the forty some OSCAR radio amateur satellites and design, test and build a small hitchhiker payload. It is the intention of the author to show how the simplest flying machine a Solar Montgolfiere hot air balloon

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could be the prefect project to pursue using AMSAT as a model for these pioneering volunteers. Track 4D 3:00 pm The Mars Society Measure of Readiness Gary C. Fisher Independence Chapter P.O. Box 694 Bryn Athyn, PA 19009. gcfisheris@aol.com The Founding Declaration of The Mars Society declares: "The time has come for humanity to journey to Mars. We're ready." But are we ready? While the signers of the Founding Declaration may be psychologically and emotionally ready where does humanity really stand from a technical standpoint to undertake the first mission to Mars? I propose that The Mars Society annually generate a single number between 0 and 100 representing the percentage of complete technical readiness. This metric, which I call the Measure of Readiness (MOR), would be distilled from an analysis of a vast compilation of data undertaken by Mars Society volunteers and reviewed by panels of experts. Its publication each year should be choreographed to provide a media event that raises the public's awareness of how close, in a practical sense, Mars is, and a realistic assessment of what difficulties remain to be overcome. From a practical standpoint the analysis required to generate the MOR will help direct Mars Society research and lobbying. This paper discusses how the Measure of Readiness can be generated. Track 4D 3:30 pm Discussion on Mars Society Steering Committee & Member Input Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu What is the role of the Steering Committee within the Mars Society? Audience discussion on what Mars Society members expect of the committee, how to give your input, and suggestions for those who want to be on the committee. Discussion may drift off to how to get support for your favorite projects within the Mars Society.

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Track 5D 1:00 pm A Methanogen-based Bio-regenerative Life Support System John C. Crocker Dept. of Applied Physics California Institute of Technology Mail Code 128-95 Pasadena, CA 91125 jcrocker@caltech.edu The use of green plants to produce a closed-loop regenerative life support system is hindered by large energy, infrastructure and labor requirements. This paper proposes to achieve the same end though a combination of an anaerobic culture of methanogenic archea and simple physico-chemical methods. Such a system can achieve air revitalization and food production with energy, mass and volume requirements nearly two orders of magnitude lower than corresponding photosynthetic systems. This technology will at least enable the cultivation of small livestock, and at most greatly facilitate the early self-sufficiency of Mars outposts. Track 5D 1:30 pm Distributive Life Support Testing Sherwin J. Gormly Tech EM Inc. 1325 Airmotive Way Suite 200 Reno, NV 89502 gormlys@ttemi.com Presently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research indicates that Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) cannot achieve a payback on a mass basis until after 15 years mission length, based on current technology (Flynn and Borchers)1. There are well-documented reasons to expect that this number (15 years) can be reduced by investigation of specific hardware problems. However, because of NASA’s mission profile based priorities this result may deny CELSS the research funding required to develop the science behind “go to stay” scenarios. This would make a “flags and footprints” based life support system the inevitable NASA research priority. Also, this means that if truly long-term life support (go to stay) is to be competitively developed past the theoretical phase, then organizations like the Mars Society may play a key role. Three areas where this is particularly true are: - Development of a broad and flexible body of knowledge (database) in the use of appropriate hardware and techniques related to long term life support systems that are likely to be overlooked or receive insufficient funding at NASA.

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- Develop a broad interdisciplinary group of knowledgeable and competent researchers on the model of the backyard astronomers involved in Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) research. - Develop an open-ended forum organization (coop or working group) among Mars Society members to act as a working group and information point of contact for independent researchers in CELSS. There are four specific areas of CELSS related research in which any committed Mars Society member could make real and valuable contributions to the state of the art. These areas are: Advanced water treatment technology process validation Composting and digestor technology process validation Applied greenhouse and hydroponic controls and CELSS integration Extremeophile (lichen and microorganism) culture

This paper is primarily dedicated to the serious examination of and meaningful garage and backyard science opportunities in the above four areas, and ends with an encouragement for Mars Society members that are interested in these areas to come together. Track 5D 2:00 pm Algal Turf Scrubbers on Mars Dave Blersch, Dean Calahan, Dr. Patrick Kangas dean@baloney.com (Dean Calahan) The algal turf scrubber (ATS) is an ecologically engineered technology developed for use in wastewater treatment. An ATS consists of benthic algae growing in a shallow chamber through which nutrient laden water is passed. Nutrients are removed from the water stream through uptake by the algae during growth. Harvesting the algae removes nutrients from the system and provides a source of biomass. The system can be engineered to maximize biomass production by varying factors such as light input, flow rate, and degree of turbulence. A number of functions and products provided by ATSs work within the context of many Mars exploration, settlement, and terraforming scenarios. These include wastewater treatment, CO2 removal, nutrient recycling, and production of biomass (for soil amendment or as food for animals or humans), oxygen, methane and perhaps hydrogen. We present some preliminary mission designs, showing how ATSs can provide necessary functions and products, including performance curves and basic engineering diagrams. Ecologically engineered technology, such as the ATS, offers an alternative to mainstream technological solutions that have been favored in current mission scenarios.

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Track 5D 2:30 pm Controlled Ecological Mouse Support System Gus Frederick gus@norwebster.com How best to effectively demonstrate basic Advanced Life Support Systems in an educational setting? Requirements of space, mass, and logistical factors for many remote research facilities severely limit any sort of full-sized human CELSS/ALS setup. Likewise, building such a full-sized system for educational use could be quite costly. Enter the CEMSS Module. This is a self-contained experimental package, designed to demonstrate many of the basic functions of a full-sized Advanced Life Support System, but with a fraction of the mass and no ecological impact. Likewise, it will provide a unique educational opportunity to observe the basic workings of a bio-regenerative system. The CEMSS Module will be composed of two main elements: a "minigreenhouse" Plant Growth Chamber and a Mouse Habitat. Assuming 1 to 2 week 'Mouse Missions,' the plants would be germinated in advance, so that the vegetable matter will be up and growing when the mice are introduced. The mice, likewise, will be pre-adapted in the Rodent Hab prior to arrival. Both chambers will be linked to one another via a series of fittings, vents, and fans to allow for the CO2/Oxygen exchange cycle, as well as a water recycling system. Otherwise, it will be sealed for the duration. The system's sensor web will monitor variables such as CO2/O2 levels, temperature, humidity, pH levels, etc. Power for the system will be provided by 12 vdc storage batteries, kept charged with a photovoltaic system. Plants for the experiment will include "Apogee" seeds, a strain of quick-growing, high-yield dwarf wheat developed by Utah State University's Crop Physiology Lab, under a grant from NASA. A suite of High School curriculum is being developed in tandem with the CEMSS module, covering a multi-curricular unit involving the construction of the actual system, pre-flight tests, data acquisition and analysis techniques. Track 5D 3:00 pm Detection of P-Cymene by Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor Edward L Worthington tiwaz_rune@hotmail.com This project tested procedures for design of a biosensor using a bioluminescent bioreporter suspended in a permeable bead. The preponderance of the project was spent working with a bioreporter defective for the recombinant gene of interest. The work with the defective strain served to improve contamination control. Strain 2 provided immediate success but wasn’t available until just before the end of the project. Further work will be done with this strain to develop a working biosensor.

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Track 5D 3:30 pm Astro Farming Derrick L. Coles Sr. Owner/Director of Research Dragon Rose dragonroseinc@yahoo.com Although there won't be any nutrient rich soil and very small quantities of water available, it is possible to grow nutritionally adequate food crops in the Martian environment, by methods other than the conventionally thought process of hydroponics, or the use of commonly know crops such as "corn, wheat etc." With hydroponic solutions weighing in excess of ten pounds per gallon and the cost of payload space aboard the shuttle in excess of $10,000.00 per pound hydroponics is neither cost effective nor an effective use of payload space. By using alternative food producing crop plants we can employ the method of aeroponics, allowing us to dramatically reduce payload cost, increase payload available space for other uses while still providing for the on site growth of food producing crops. Track 5D 4:00 pm Fire Safety System Based on Phenomenon of Ignition Suppression and Flame Extinction in Normobaric Environment of Breathable Hypoxic Air Kotliar I, Prokopov A. Hypoxico Inc., New York. Extremely reliable systems that can completely eliminate the threat of onboard fire designed for long-duration human operations in deep space and on the Mars surface. A phenomenon of the complete suppression of ignition in a normobaric environment of breathable hypoxic air is discovered, investigated and discussed. A fire safety system, FirePASSTM, is being developed based on this phenomenon (patent pending). The application of the FirePASSTM in human-inhabited space objects provides the following benefits: - Inhabited space ships and surface habitats (on the Moon, asteroids or on Mars) will be completely safe from the threat of fire, using a normobaric hypoxic atmosphere as a life-supporting environment. - Adaptation to hypoxia in humans results in the significant enhancement of general stress tolerance and improves general health, which can increase the operational reliability of a crew. - Adaptation to hypoxia economizes the oxidative metabolism, which is followed by a significant reduction of both, oxygen and food consumption, without a decline in operational productivity or risking a health hazard. It can have a special value in a

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long-term interplanetary space missions and in emergency situations, where lifesupporting resources are limited. - The use of a moderately hypobaric hypoxic environment in a spacecraft would require less mechanical resistance to inner barometric pressure, which can lead to substantial weight reduction of orbiting structures. Track 5D 4:30 pm Benefits of Hypoxic Artificial Atmosphere for Spacecraft and Planetary Habitats Kotliar I, Prokopov A. Hypoxico Inc., New York Residents of high altitudes demonstrate normal physiological characteristics and show increased vitality and lesser morbidity. Subjects acclimatized to a low O2 (hypoxic) environment (corresponding to 14.5 - 11 % O2 at sea level) exhibit enhanced physical endurance and increased resistance to stress-inducing and damaging factors and accelerated recovery in a variety of conditions. Hypoxic stimulation reactivates the O2saving genetic program, which is active in all mammalian cells during embryonic development, when O2 partial pressure in the uterus is comparable to that in high mountains. CO2 deficiency (hypocapnia) is a regular component of general stress reaction and is extremely harmful for normal physiological functions. The positive effects of moderately increased CO2 (physiological hypercapnia) are well documented. CO2 has direct antioxidative action, suppressing the production of superoxide-anion radicals in the mitochondria and neutralizing a highly – aggressive radical--peroxynitrit. The application of a moderately hypoxic-hypercapnic normobaric environment in space habitats has following biological benefits: - Inhalation of air with 8.5-10% O2 concentration has been proven to induce radioprotective effect against X- rays and γ- rays. This effect finds an application in cancer radiotherapy for protection of healthy tissue and can be used by astronauts for short - time radioprotection in urgent situations. - Adaptation to hypoxia results in the significant enhancement of general stress-tolerance and improves general health, which enhances the operational reliability of crew. - Adaptation to hypoxia economizes oxidative metabolism, with significant reduction both of O2 and food consumption and without productivity decline or health threat. It can have special value in emergency and in long-term interplanetary space missions, where life-supporting resources are limited. - Hypercapnic atmosphere in the greenhouse results in significant increase of plant productivity.

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Track 6D 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm Planning Chapter Outreach and Communications Lyle Kelly lhkelly@aol.com An open discussion of the following issues: organizing an event, finding opportunities, finding and making materials, building a web site, building relationships with schools and local business, promoting events, what to do with your newly-started chapter (i.e. what activities will keep the people coming back for more), using Majordomo lists, and how to form collaborations with other local space groups. This session will also include remarks by the moderator about experience in Ohio, opportunity for attendees to share their experiences and ideas, and encouragement for further collaboration after the session. Ohio has been involved in Mars Direct presentations to local clubs, college classes and public meetings at libraries; discussions on talk radio; Humans to Mars displays in public squares, in movie theatres, at astronomy club events, and on college campuses; and some limited contacts with congressional representatives. Closing Plenary Session 5:00 pm Dr. Robert Zubrin

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The Mars Society would like to thank all of those who have generously donated funds, services and materials to help make our daily operation and research projects possible.

Major Sponsors
The Discovery Channel Flashline.com/The Longview Foundation F.I.N.D.S./The Space Frontier Foundation International Training Institute for the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Industry The Kirsch Foundation The Musk Foundation Eric Tilenius and the Tilenius Fund United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters

Corporate Sponsors
Aterra Technologies The Bushnell Corp The Boulder Center for Science and Policy Fisher Space Pen Global Effects Robert Godwin/C.G. Publishing Inc. Imagineering Incinolet Inc. KFW Canada Lightstorm Entertainment The Longview Foundation The National Space Society The Planetary Society Pioneer Astronautics SpaceRef.com Tethers Unlimited United Societies in Space

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Individual Donors
Explorer Level - $5000
Lorraine Bell Robert Bigelow James Cameron Gregg T Smith Trust George McNamee Trust Elon Musk Declan O'Donnell Charles Stack

Benefactor Level - $2000
Michael Bresolin Paul Contursi Gary Fisher Waldemar Horwat Charles Stack George Onik Steve Perlman Rob Stanley Richard Wagner Robert and Maggie Zubrin

Supporter Level - $1000
Jason Andringa Walt Baldwin Kristin Boekhoff Amy Bouska Bruce Boxleitner Richard Brodeur & Company Ron Brys Brian Chapel William Clancey Nicholas Cross Tamarack Czarnik Martin Eberhard Mark Evenson Daniel Geraci George Harrison Andrew Hoppin Jean LeGarde Fumio Mizoguchi Thomas Olson Geoff Peterson John Roesch Gregg Smith Gregory Staple Carol Stoker Joel Weder

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Individual Donors (continued)
Enthusiast Level - $500
Bruce Anderson Michael Atkinson Josuah Bell Jim Beyer Eugene Butcher Frank Crossman John Happel Glenn Morrison Anthony Muscatello Eric Orrill James Partan Simon Plant Al Reinert Randy Rumley James Sachs Craig Snapp Rick Starr Ed Streeter

Friend Level - $200
Paul Allen Richard Allen Algirdas Avizienis Georges Ballini Patrick Banks Jim Benson Dallas Bienhoff John Blitch Jocelyn Boily Bruce Bury Doug Caswell Ned Chapin Betty Coleman Tim Cook Peter Diamandis Edward Dodds James Early Noah Falstein Charles Fox Steven Glenfield Andrew Harmsworth Rev. James Heiser Willard Hess Marvin Hilton Derek Hinspater Michael Hsu Shelly Hynes Matt Iwaskow John Jameson Terry Jones Lyle Kelly Beatriz Kelly-Serrato Mike Kretsch Ralph LaBarge Morris Levine Steve Lindsay Robert Meigs Harold Miller Justin Milliun Michitaka Onizuka John Oss Elizabeth Otillar Emmanuel Petrakakis Emil Petrinc Jim Plaxco Shawn Plunket Katy Quinn John Roesch Shannon Roy William Ryder Eric Scosberg Richard Shannahan, George Smith Steven Smoliar Chris and Leanne Struble Joe Trela Nancy & Bob Unferth Chris Vancil William Vartorello Peter Waller Waylon Webbon Joseph Webster Timothy Weisser William White Virginia Winter Robert Woolley David Yeoman

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Individual Donors (continued)
Additional Donors
Michael Alaux Eric Anderson James Antifaev Penelope Ashcroft Daniel Auclair Jane Barton Gregory Beat Howard Beim Steven Belasco Kirk Berry Joe Betz Nick Blackwell Elmo Blubaugh Gerry Bogue Benoit Boulant Stephen Boydston Peter Boyes Jason Braverman Stewart Brekke Pierre Brisson Colin Bulthaup Tobias Cabral Justin Callison Chris Carberry Erik Carlstrom Russell Castagnaro Mr & Mrs Caulder Stephanie Charles Rodney Clark Don Clewell Scott Clingenpeel Ben Coblentz The Stuckey Coles Daniel Constantinescu Amy Cooprider Mike Cordova Dennis Creamer Scott Davis Richard de Revere David Deaville Steven DelVaille Jim Dempsey Edward Dinnen Thomas Dubois Jon Eckberg Robert Ede Sara Edwards Brian Enke Mert Eyuboglu Seth Fearry Edmund Fisher Arthur Fleisher Matt Fleishman Terry Fravel David Frey Sawyer Fuller Jan T. Galkowski Roger Garst Francis Gastellu Robert Gissing Shawn Goldman Ned Goldreyer Chris Grossaint Stephen Hall Frederick S. Hall John B. Hansen C. Craig Harbuch David O. Harrington Charles Hengley IV Michael Hill Tom Hill Christopher Hirata Richard Hirata Dennis Hoey Jason Hope Patrick Howlett Douglas Hubbard Johnson Ices Brian Jacobson Marcus Janietz Roger Jones Eric Kanagy Michael Kaufhold Robert Kelley James Kelly Edward Kiker Richard Kleinberger Wojciech Klimkiewicz Greg Kooistra Robert Kopp Michael Krause Miriam Krause Arnie Krepel Indy Krummins Kurt Lancaster Bryan Laubscher Peter Levin David Livingston Robert Lowe Matthew Lowry The Manning Thomas Mansell Morwena Marshall Andrew Martin Robert Martin Mike Masters Cecilia Matthew Jaret Matthews Lincoln Mayer Alfred Mayle William McCabe John McGowan Leo Metcalfe Norman Morris Mike Moshitto Carlos Munoz Madeline Mutch New York chapter Paul Oakley Aaron Oesterle Sherri O'Grady Tony Pace Suzanne Paine Gregory Peisert Peter Perrine Robert Pfammatter

126

Individual Donors (continued)
Additional Donors

Philadelphia Chapter Robert Pohling Joel Porter Richard Poss Patrick Purcell Victor Radjuko Frank Ramsay Steven Riggs David Rodger David Roggenkamp Robert Roy Alan Rubin Shannon Russell Will Sadler Edgar Salazar-Grueso John Samouce Keith Savage Richard Schiavi Adam Schiffman Mike Schilling Thomas Schneider Thomas Schneider Don Scott The Seurig Jeremy Sevareid Philip Sharpe

Mike Shaw M.S. Sherrard Douglas Shull Daniel Silver Elizabeth Sims Stacy Sklar Ken Sloan Jamie Smith Kim Smith Wesley Smith David Snelgrove Jamie South Francis Stabler Edward Stanton Kurt Stengl Michael Stickel John Strickland, Jr. Maggie Stringfellow David Stuart Mary Ellen Symanski Mike Symond Marc Tarpenning Taras Tataryn Larry Thorbjornson The Toronto Chapter Edward Travers

Joseph Turner The Landis Turzillos Gabriel van den Berg Lari Jo Vickrey Sebastian Vincent Chris Ward Tim Weaver Daniel Weber Bill Weinberg William Weitze Robert Wells John Westerhoff R. Lee Wheless Glenn Whiteside R. Whitley Charles Williams Christopher Williams Bill Willis Robert Willis Tim Wilson Gerald Wolfe Douglas Wooster Gregory & Pat Wright Steve Wyburn August Yonker

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The Mars Society Inc.
Presents

The Fourth International Mars Society Convention
at

Stanford University, Stanford, California

August 23 – 26th, 2001

The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Wednesday, August 22 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. Early registration and Dormitory Check-in Governor's Corner Dormitory Area Music of Mars (free concert) Thursday, August 23 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby Plenary Sessions A Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m.- Dr. Robert Zubrin - The Next Step for The Mars Society 10:00 a.m. - Elon Musk - to be announced 11:00 a.m. - Dr. Mike Griffin - to be announced Track Sessions 1:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Track 1A – Robotic Exploration on Mars Track 2A – Public Policy and Political Action Track 3A – Martian Culture, Government, Literature and Art Track 4A – Comp and Comm Systems/ Risk Assessment Track 5A – Can Life Exist on Mars/ The Other Hab – MDRS Track 6A – Chapter Council Workshop Sessions Special Events 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. Reception - Lagunita Courtyard 8:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. Panel Discussion - Building an Ecosystem - Healing the Earth by Means of a Martian Genesis Dr. Robert Zubrin, Dr. Chris McKay, Sam Burbank, Kim Stanley Robinson, Gus Frederick Moderator: Maggie Zubrin Free and Open to the Public - Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297 Bldg 300, Room 300, Capacity 100

2

Thursday, August 23, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 A Robotic Exploration on Mars Track 2 A Public Policy and Political Action Track 3 A A World of its Own: Martian Culture, Government, Literature and Art Markley et al Red Planet: Scientific and Cultural Encounters Landis, G. - Mars Crossing: Technology in Science Fiction Poss, R. – Mars in the Cinema, a Comparative Study Track 4 A Comp and Comm Systems ------------Risk Assessment Milliun, J. A Leveraged Approach to Development McGowan, J.F. Very Low Bit Rate Video Track 5 A Can Life Exist on Mars? ------------The Other Hab MDRS Bishop, J. The Mineralogy of Mars and the Search for Life Kuznetz, Gan On the Existence and Stability of Liquid Water Shannon, D. - Is an Inorganic Process responsible for Formations in Mars Meteorite Landis, G. Halobacteria, a Candidate for Life on Mars Zubrin, R. Interstellar Panspermia and Life on Mars Shull, D. - Lunar and Martian Paleontology Track 6A Chapter Council Workshop Sessions Vancil, C. Organizing and Managing a Chapter Workshop continues

1:00 p.m.

G. Frederick Invasion of the Speleobots

1:30 p.m.

Enos, H. Gamma Ray Spectrometer

2:00 p.m.

McGown, R.D. and A.I. - Mars Meteor Survey

Hirata, C. Barriers to a Human Exploration Mission Hurtak and Egan, Legal Implications for an International Mission Fisher, G. - The Need for Government prior to going to Mars Livingston, D. - a Code of Ethics and Standards Olson and Contursi Cutting the NASA Umbilical Lusignan, B. Universities in the Age of Commercial Space Schuman, D. - To Mars through Washington

Chapin, N. What about the Data?

Open

2:30 p.m.

Beyer, J. - A Mission Plan for Mars NG, T.C. Sampling Tools for Mars

Mackenzie, B. Raising the First Children on Mars Erickson, B. Designing the Laws of Mars

3:00 p.m.

3:30 p.m.

4:00 p.m.

4:30 p.m.

5:00 p.m.

5:30 p.m.

Brown, Boyer and Weaver Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on Mars Sylvan, R. – Increased Cost Effectiveness of Human-Robotic Synergy Sims, M. - Role of Robotics in Human Settlement Whitehead, J. Mars Ascent Propulsion for Robotic Missions Open

Poss, R. – Rethinking the “New World” Hypothesis Schwennesen, P. The Frontier Thesis and Ideology Tilenius, E. and Hidalgo, L. – International Space University ISU continues

Vancil, C. Private Backup for Deep Space Network ------------Sylvan, R. Mathematical Analysis Risk of NASA and DOD Sauer, Sarper Successful Landing Probabilities Miles, R. Risk-Adjusted Mission Value

Carberry, C. Mars Society Political Workshop Political Workshop continues

Open

Open

Political Workshop continues

Open

Open

-------------Schubert, F. Design and Construction of the MDRS Sklar and Legarde Scouting the Southwest Zubrin, M.and Colgan, M. - the MDRS at Kennedy Space Center Open

Fisher, G. – Chapter Projects Workshop Workshop continues

Workshop continues

Workshop continues

3

The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Friday, August 24 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby Plenary Sessions B Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m. - Albert Haldemann - The Mars Exploration Rover Project 10:00 a.m. - Dr. Imre Friedmann – Fossil Traces of Life in the Martian Meteorite ALH84001 11:00 a.m. - Kim Stanley Robinson - to be announced
Track Sessions

1:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m. Track 1B – FMARS Second Field Season Track 2B – Terraforming/Spacesuit Design Track 3B – Biomedical Issues affecting Mars Exploration Track 4B – Mars and Education Track 5B – Innovative Technologies for Mars Exploration Special Events

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297

7:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. Plenary Panel Presentation - 2001 Field Season at the FMARS, a Video Journal by Sam Burbank 8:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. - Panel Discussion - A Novel Approach - Mars Novelists Read from and Discuss their Works (book signing by authors) Greg Benford, Geoff Landis, Kim Stanley Robinson, Robert Zubrin Dinkelspiel Auditorium, capacity 700

4

Friday, August 24, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 B FMARS Second Field Season Track 2 B Terraforming Creating an Ecosystem on Mars -----------------Spacesuit Design Frederick, G. Martian Light Levels Track 3 B Biomedical Issues Affecting Mars Exploration Track 4 B Mars and Education Track 5 B Notes from the Underground – Innovative Technologies for Mars Exploration Allen, M. The Mars Environment Observer Scout Mission Stoker, C. Robotics

1:00 p.m.

Smith, P. - Mars Cameras on Devon Island

Hill, T. - Tethered Experiment for Mars Operations

1:30 p.m.

Quinn, K. Remote Sensing for Human Exploration Cockell, C. and Lee, P. – Mars Analog Habitats in an Impact Crater Osinski, Lee, et al Impact-induced Hydrothermal Activity Clancey, W. Exploration vs Problem-Solving Lim, D. - High Arctic Lake Sediments, a Tool for Planning for Mars Exploration James et al Exercising Martian Resource Utilization Technologies at Analog Sites Blitch, J. – Studies for Robot Assisted Exploration Open Open

Fogg, M. - A Mathematical Model of Terraforming Mars

2:00 p.m.

Warren-Rhodes, K. Human Impact on the Environment: Applications to Mars Hoffman, N. Volatile Inventories on a Frozen "White Mars" Palermo, E. - Dust Steaks or Water Stains, a Martian Enigma --------------Anderson, D. Design and Construction of Analog Suits for FMARS 2001 Barker et al - The Mars Suit External Audio System

Swanson, G. - A Model for Minimizing Risk of Sudden Death during Exercise Cuttino, M. Medical Emergencies on Mars Stenberg, W. Tooth Loss: an Unavoidable Occupational Health Risk? Savin, C. - Dental Maintenance and Emergency Protocol Coles, D. The New Human Being

Scott, D. - Lewis and Clark's Corp of Discovery as a Model for Mars Exploration Mandell, H. Involving NonTraditional Customers in the Grand Adventure Dodds, E. Teaching Space in a Public School Classroom Sari, M. Martians in the Arctic

McKay, C. AMEBA Scout Concept

2:30 p.m.

Zubrin, R. – The Translife Mission

3:00 p.m.

Kuznetz, L. More than Mars...Much More Frederick, G. Welcome to Pele Base

Lemke, L. – Mars Exploration Airplanes Charania, A.C. Networks on the Edge of Forever

3:30 p.m.

4:00 p.m.

Open

Estefan, J. et al Mars Latin Rover: Educational Program

Strizi et al – Sun Mars Libration Points and Mission Simulations

4:30 p.m.

5:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m.

Gorguinpour and LeClaire - Berkeley Space Suit Design Team Mohanty, S. - Mars Extreme Gear Design Open

Open

Open Open

Salotti, M. Marsbase, an Educational Simulation Game Hussain, D. - The NASA Academy Open

Open

Open Open

5

The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Saturday, August 25 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby Plenary Sessions C Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m. - Shuttle Commander and Astronaut Eileen Collins 9:45 a.m. - Dr. Pascal Lee – Mars Analog Research on Devon Island 10:45 a.m. - Panel Discussion with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Crew 11:45 a.m. (to 12:30 p.m.) - Anna Paulson - The Michigan Mars Society Rover Project Track Sessions 1:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Track 1C – Mars Analog Rover Design Track 2C– Advanced Concepts in Propulsion and Launch Options Track 3C – Human Factors and Crew Selection Track 4C – Methods of Public Outreach Track 5C – Power Production, In-Situ Utilization, and Mars Base Concepts Special Events 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Space Camp Goes to Mars - a Youth Discovery Day Free and Open to kids ages 8 - 18 Memorial Auditorium 1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Mars Society Steering Committee Meeting Open to Conference Attendees Bldg 300, Room 300, Capacity 100 6:30 p.m. - 9:00 p.m. Annual Mars Society Banquet 9:00 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. Mars Society Open-microphone Membership Meeting Lagunita Courtyard, seating limited to 500

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297

6

Saturday, August 25, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 C Mars Analog Rover Design Track 2 C Advanced Concepts in Propulsion and Launch Options Muscatello, A. Synthesis of Lowhydrogen Aromatic Fuels for Mars Ohlandt, C. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Space Propulsion using Advanced Fuels Onik, G. - The GBG Heavy Lift Orbital Launch System Dowd, M. - Outline of an Integrated Space Program Track 3 C Human Factors and Crew Selection Track 4 C Methods of Public Outreach Track 5 C Power Production, In-situ Utilization, and Mars Base Concepts Frankie, B. - Dry Reforming: A Unique Flow sheet for Fuel Production

1:00 p.m.

Cairns, B. - The Project Marsupial HOP (Australia)

1:30 p.m.

Vesna, N. et al – Compaq Mars, A Mars Analog Rover (Toronto) Biernacki and Zawisza – Report from the Polish Rover Team Burns, J. - Cruising with Big Horns

2:00 p.m.

Fiore, S. et al Shared Mental Model Theory and Group Dynamics in Extreme Environs Seedhouse, E. Early Polar Exploration and its Implications for Crew Selection Funaro, J. - Crew Composition for Mars Missions

Murphy, G. - From the Red Centre to the Red Planet

Hilton, M. Listening to Earthlings Talk about Mars Hidalgo, L. - Yuri's Night

2:30 p.m.

3:00 p.m.

3:30 p.m.

Paulson, A. Volunteers and Corporations Cooperate Ohlandt, C. - A review of Power Source Options

Wynter, J. - SelfLaunching Payloads: a Novel Approach to LEO Nordley, G. Access to Mars by Rotating Tethers

4:00 p.m.

4:30 p.m.

Strong, W. Communications and Computer Systems Strong, W. Maximizing Living Space

Pelizzari, M. - Nonpropulsive Access to the Martian Surface Gaviraghi - The Pianeta Marte Affordable Mars Mission Lusignan, B. Single STEP to Orbit, the only way to Mars Zubrin et al Progress in Mars Exploration Technologies

Stabb, S. et al What's New in Choosing Who: Team Assessment and Selection Putman, J. - EEG Biofeedback and Maintaining Functional Integrity Watkins, D. – Psychological Suitability for Long Duration Space Flight: the View from History Open

Davis, S. Simulating a Martian Settlement on a Computer Jacobson, B. Bringing Mars to Children and Other Audiences Carlsson, C. – Getting Local Media and Political Attention

Chamitoff, G. et al - Identification, Display and Optimization of Resources Schneider and Bruckner - Water Vapor Absorption in a Zeolite Molecular Sieve Poston, B. - Mars Kites for Human Habitation

Mackenzie, B. One Way to Mars, an Early Permanent Settlement Schubert, F. Infrastructures for the First Base on Mars

Becker, F. - A Child Once Dreamt of Space Mackenzie, B. Mars Analog Settlement, Research and Education Center Bell, L. - Chapter Projects Workshop

Open

Brown, J. Technologies to Settle Mars this Decade Braham, S. Technical Task Force Workshop

5:00 p.m.

5:30 p.m.

Strong, W. Telemetry and Remote Teleoperation Fijalkowski, B., Articulated Triad Martian Roving Vehicle Open

Open

Technical Task Force Workshop continued Technical Task Force Workshop continued

Open

Chapter Projects Workshop continued

7

The Mars Society Inc. Fourth International Convention Stanford California, August 23 -26th, 2001

Sunday, August 26 8:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m. Registration - Dinkelspiel Auditorium Lobby 12:00 noon - dormitory checkout deadline Plenary Sessions D Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 9:00 a.m. - Hannes Griebel, Dr. Michael Bosch and others - The Mars Society Balloon Mission: a Lowcost Mars Super-Pressure Balloon Mission 10:00 a.m. - Dr. Chris McKay – Life on Mars: Past, Present and Future 11:00 a.m. - A Panel Discussion with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Mission Support Team Track Sessions 1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Track 1D – Analog Studies Relevant to Mars Exploration Track 2D – Human Missions to Mars and Robotic Synergy Track 3D – The Long Haul – Mobility on Mars Track 4D – Financing Options/Mars Society Planning Track 5D – Life Support Technology Track 6D – Chapter’s Council Workshop Sessions Special Events 5:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Closing Plenary - Dr. Robert Zubrin Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700

Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Capacity 700 Annenberg Auditorium, Capacity 350 Cubberly Auditorium, Capacity 400 Bldg 320, Room 105, Capacity 242 Bldg 420, Room 040, Capacity 297 Bldg 300, Room 300, Capacity 100

Everyday – Vendors and Displays, Annenberg Auditorium Foyer

8

Sunday, August 26, 2001 Afternoon Track Sessions
Track 1 D Analog Studies and Their Relevance to Mars Exploration 1:00 p.m. Lusignan, B. Life on the High Deserts of Earth and Dry Valleys of Mars Track 2 D Human Missions to Mars and Robotic Synergy Betts, B. et al Planetary Society's Mars Outposts Proposal Panel Discussion Planetary Society Panel Discussion continued Brown et al Mars Scheme IV:TMS/Caltech Human Exploration Endeavor Mickler, S. Junkyard Mars: Humans to Mars using the Clarke Orbit Junkyard Brandenburg et al - Solaris MET: Low Cost Human Mission Track 3 D The Long Haul - Mobility on Mars Track 4 D Financing Options for Mars Missions -------------Mars Society Planning Livingston, D. Space Tourism after Dennis Tito: Mars and Space Tourism Track 5 D Life Support Technology Track 6 D Chapter’s Council Workshop Sessions

Jones, J. Inflatable Tumbleweeds for Mars

Crocker, J. - A Methanogen Based BioRegenerative Life Support System Gormly, S. Distributive Life Support Testing

Kelly, L. – Planning Chapter Outreach and Communications

1:30 p.m.

Burns, J. Operational Research on a Manned Mars Rover Hussein, D. – Next Generation Mobile Access to Satellite Data McKay, C. Analog Studies Workshop

2:00 p.m.

Sims et al Long Day's Drive: Long Range Rover Exploration Martian Arctic Landis and Linne - Mars Hopper for Robotic Exploration File, D. Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts Joslyn, T. Mountaineering on Mars

Zubrin, M. Staying Aloft: Fundraising for Mars Society Projects Pioneer, J. 3 COM Mars a Coca Cola Bottling Company Vancil, C. Mars Balloon Group

Workshop Continues

Calahan, D. Algal Turf Scrubbers for Mars

Open

2:30 p.m.

3:00 p.m.

Analog Studies Workshop continued

Fisher, G. - The Mars Society Measure of Readiness

3:30 p.m.

Analog Studies Workshop continued Analog Studies Workshop continued

4:00 p.m.

Seedhouse, E. Fast-Track using the ThetaPinch Thruster Brown & Hirata - Mars Scheme IV: Trajectory Analysis

Cockell, C. – Martian Polar Expeditions Open

Mackenzie, B. Steering Committee and Member Input Open

Frederick, G. Controlled Ecological Mouse Support System Worthington, E. - Detection of P-Cymene by Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor Coles, D. Astro Farming

4:30 p.m.

Open

Open

Open

Open

Kotliar and Prokopov Fire Safety based on Ignition Suppression Kotliar and Prokopov Hypoxic Artificial Atmosphere for Spaceships

9

The Hakluyt Prize Essay
Bridget Gallaway bgal13@juno.com May 24, 2001

I am an 18-year old college student and I am writing to you because I need your help with a goal to which I am dedicating the rest of my life. It is an endeavor that will catapult the human race into an era of discovery, excitement, and achievement - a manned mission to Mars. Mars is the new frontier, with the potential to reawaken human hopes, dreams, and opportunities. The exploration of our solar system can tell us much about who we are, where we come from, and the innumerable possibilities of where we might go. Our first humble steps in that direction have already taken place, and I have no doubt that conditions on our planet will, in the future, demand that we go further. We should begin the journey now. A mission to Mars need not be a dream for future generations. We have the necessary technology within our grasp. We can be safely on Mars within ten years, without exorbitant cost. All it will take is a group of determined people with a vision for the future. There are natural offshoots of Martian exploration that will revolutionize life right here on Earth and help create better living conditions for billions of people. Better propulsion systems will be developed, with cleaner forms of energy. As we begin to colonize Mars, methods of extracting water from the desert will be required. These technological achievements will help poor nations on Earth become prosperous, as deserts become open to irrigation and the food surplus increases. Other, less tangible benefits of space exploration also exist. In the future, Martian colonies will not be only for scientists and engineers. Colonies will attract entrepreneurs, doctors, artists, musicians, and even tourists. It is not just a scientific endeavor; it is one that will benefit everyone. The new "space culture" will be a time of great creative and artistic achievement. It is part of the human psyche to learn, explore, create a better life…and to survive. It is only through the colonization of Mars that these needs will be fulfilled. I cannot imagine anything more noble than helping to ensure the survival of the human race. I firmly believe that the development of Mars and beyond will be the greatest undertaking in human history. I am excited about my own personal involvement. However, one more aerospace engineer will not take us to Mars. I sincerely hope you will join with me and others in this quest. Please be an advocate for future generations by leading your nation in joining this effort. Our world is old and tired. The human spirit is stagnating under the burden of an existence without

10

direction. But within each of us is the ancient spirit that drove us to tame the natural elements, conquer the seven seas, and settle every continent. That same spirit will, with your help, take us to the stars.

Sincerely,

Bridget Gallaway 1542 NE 159th Ct. Portland, OR 97230 United States of America 503.254.9620

LIST OF LEADERS TO WHOM THIS LETTER WAS SENT: World Leaders: President George W. Bush -- USA Vice President Dick Cheney -- USA Prime Minister Jean Chrétien - Canada President Mary McAleese -- Ireland Prime Minister John Howard -- Australia Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel -Austria Prime Minister Guy Verbofstadt - Belgium President Li Teng-hui - Republic of China on Taiwan Prime Minister Paul Nyrup Rasmussen -Denmark Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen -- Finland President Jacques Chirac -- France Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder -Germany Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi -- Italy Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi -- Japan Prime Minister Willem Kok - The Netherlands Prime Minister Helen Elizabeth Clark - New Zealand Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg -- Norway Prime Minister José Maria Aznar Lopez -Spain Prime Minister Göran Persson -- Sweden Chancellor Francois Couchepin - Switzerland Prime Minister Tony Blair - United Kingdom Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan President Vladimir Putin -- Russia Prime Minister Ariel Sharon -- Israel Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee -- India President Fernando Henrique Cardoso - Brazil President Fernando de la Rua Bruno -Argentina Pope John Paul II

Members of the US House of Representatives Committee on Science: Rep. Constance A. Morella (8th, MD) Rep. Christopher Shays (4th, CT) Rep .Curt Weldon (7th, PA) Rep. Lynn Woolsey (6th, CA) Rep. Nick Smith (7th, MI) Rep. Vernon Ehlers (3rd, MI) Rep. Gil Gutknecht (1st, MN) Rep. Judy Biggert (13th, IL) Rep. Todd Akin (2nd, MO)
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Rep. Timothy V. Johnson (15th, IL) Rep. Felix J. Grucci, Jr. (1st, NY) Rep. Melissa Hart (4th, PA) Rep. James A. Barcia (5th, MI) Rep. Jerry F. Costello (12th, IL) Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson (30th, TX) Rep. Brian Baird (3rd, WA) Rep. Joe Baca (42nd, CA) Rep. Joseph M. Hoeffel (13th, PA)

Rep. Steve Israel (2nd, NY) Rep. Jim Matheson (2nd, UT) Rep. Lynn N. Rivers (13th, MI) Rep. Joe Barton (6th, TX) Rep. Roscoe G. Bartlett (6th, MD) Rep. Ken Calvert (43rd, CA) Rep. Chris Cannon (3rd, UT) Rep. John Culberson (7th, TX) Rep. Sherwood L. Boehlert (23rd, NY) Rep. Bob Etheridge (2nd, NC) Rep. Lamar Smith (21st, TX) Rep. Dave Weldon (15th, FL) Rep. Anthony D. Weiner (9th, NY) Rep. David Wu (1st, OR)

Rep. Frank D. Lucas (6th, OK) Rep. George R. Nethercutt (5th, WA) Rep. Gary G. Miller (41st, CA) Rep. Mike Pence (2nd, IN) Rep. Bart Gordon (6th, TN) Rep. Nick Lampson (9th, TX) Rep. John B. Larson (1st, CT) Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (18th, TX) Rep. Dennis Moore (3rd, KS) Rep. Ralph M. Hall (4th, TX) Rep. Mark Udall (2nd, CO) Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (45th, CA) Rep. Earl Blumenauer (3rd, OR)

Members of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation: Sen. George Allen (VA) Sen. Conrad Burns (MT) Sen. John Breaux (LA) Sen. Sam Brownback (KS) Sen. Barbara Boxer (CA) Sen. Max Cleland (GA) Sen. Jean Carnahan (MO) Sen. Byron Dorgan (ND) Sen. John Ensign (NV) Sen. John Edwards (NC) Sen. Peter Fitzgerald (IL) Sen. Fritz Hollings (SC) Sen. Daniel Inouye (HI) Sen. John Kerry (MA) Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison (TX) Sen. Trent Lott (MS) Sen. John McCain (AZ) Sen. Jay Rockefeller IV (WV) Sen. Gordon Smith (OR) Sen. Olympia J. Snowe (ME) Sen. Ted Stevens (AK) Sen. Ron Wyden (OR)

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Thursday, August 23, 2001 Thursday Plenary Session 9:00 am The Next Step for the Mars Society Dr. Robert Zubrin President, The Mars Society zubrin@aol.com In this session I will report on our current situation, and describe the Mars Society’s plan to build a movement capable of getting humans to Mars. The plan relies upon using our success with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station program to establish our public presence and credibility so as to enable us to launch greater projects and ever more powerful political initiatives. These new and greater projects include not only a radical expansion of our Mars analog field research program, but the initiation of the Mars Society’s first space flight mission. This low cost mission, currently called “Translife” will undertake dramatic and critically necessary research that is outside the intellectual framework of the existing NASA robotic and manned space flight programs, and, if successful, will position the Mars Society to undertake ever more complex and expensive missions, as our technical and financial resources progressively expand. Thursday Plenary Session 10:00 am TBA Elon Musk Thursday Plenary Session 11:00 am TBA Dr. Mike Griffin Track 1A 1:00 pm Invasion of the SpeleoBots Gus Frederick with Dr. Penelope Boston gus@norwebster.com Terrestrial lava tube caves are natural receptacles for accumulations of water. Often, due to lower temperatures coupled with the insulation properties of the surrounding rock, these accumulations are in the form of ice. Locating and cataloging similar features on Mars could be of value for the search for life and in helping to determine past climatic conditions on the Red Planet. Such features may also prove useful in future colonization efforts for shelter and as a potential source of water. But how to explore them? One unique approach recently proposed employs specialized swarms of insect-like mini-

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robots accompanying one or more flexible rover/relay station robots. Utilizing a robotic fractal approach that starts with a wide view of a promising area, then zooms in to reveal detail at a series of smaller scales, the approach mimics the actions of a scientist in the field. This discussion will examine one such proposal, the "Mother Goose Mission" presented to NASA/JPL as part of the Mars Scout mission, planned for the 2006/7 launch window. Mother Goose makes use of a robotically piloted glider that searches for a suitable location from the air, then lands to release the pilot; a six-legged walking robot named Mother Goose. Mother's onboard sensors provide details to supplement the glider's eye view at a smaller scale. For a closer view of small, hard to access locations, like a cave entrance or shielded crevasses, Mother releases her "goslings" to explore at an even smaller level. The baby bug-bot goslings return to mother to upload data and recharge their batteries. The multiple redundancy allows for the loss of one or more individuals without dramatically jeopardizing the mission. Track 1A 1:30 pm Gamma Ray Spectrometer 2001 Mars Odyssey Heather Enos heather@lpl.arizona.edu The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) is a significant component of NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey Surveyor Orbiter. Odyssey launched on April 7, 2001, with arrival at Mars on October 24, 2001. Odyssey's primary science mission will take place January, 2002 through July, 2004. The GRS is a suite of three instruments (Gamma Sensor Head and two Neutron Detectors) designed to analyze the chemical composition of the Martian surface. GRS also has the capability of detecting water in shallow subsurface depths. The GRS was built in partnership between the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Russia's Space Research Institute. The data provided by GRS will be used to determine the elemental abundance of the major geological regions of Mars. This will include a global map of water deposits, their variation with depth near the surface, and the seasonal changes of the polar ice caps. In addition, GRS will participate in the study of cosmic gamma ray bursts. GRS addresses the following fundamental objectives; to understand the Martian environment and its history, to determine whether this environment supported life (or supports it still), and to assess the resources available on the planet. The gamma ray detector is a large (1.2 kg) high-purity Germanium (Ge) crystal. The crystal is held at a voltage of approximately 3000 volts. Little or no current flows (less than one nanoAmp) unless a high-energy ionizing photon or charged particle strikes it. The electric charge from such a strike is amplified, measured and digitally converted into one of 16,384 (214) channels, or bins. After a specified number of seconds, a histogram is produced, which shows the distribution of events (number of strikes) as a function of energy (channel number). The GRS spectra are typically only 30 seconds in duration, but

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longer accumulation times are achieved by summing spectra over a particular region of the planet. Neutron Spectrometer (NS), built by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM under the direction of Dr. William Feldman, Principal Investigator. The NS will detect thermal and epi-thermal neutrons in the search for Hydrogen. High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND), developed by Space Research Institute (Moscow, Russia). Dr. Igor Mitrofanov is Principal Investigator of this experiment. The HEND will detect epi-thermal, resonance and fast neutrons. This instrument is very sensitive to Hydrogen, therefore it will further increase our knowledge of subsurface water or ice. Track 1A 2:00 pm Mars Meteor Survey R. D. McGown, B. E. Walden, T. L. Billings, C. L. York, A. G. Taylor, and R. D. Frederick Mars Instrument and Science Team (MIST) Oregon L5 Society, Inc. P.O. Box 86, Oregon City, OR 97045 moonbase@home.com. We propose instruments be included on one or more Mars landers to identify and characterize the meteoroid flux at Mars. Mars orbiting spacecraft and ground operations, both manned and unmanned, are vulnerable to meteoroids. There is pure scientific interest in knowing the frequency, intensity, and radiants of Martian meteor showers. Being in a different orbit than Earth and closer to the asteroid belt, Mars has unknown cycles and intensities of meteoroid hazards. Knowledge of these hazards can help us manage risk in future missions, particularly extended and crewed missions. To be most effective, the detectors should be continuously active, day and night, for as long a period as possible. Detectors that rely on energy-intensive transmitters, such as lasers, radio bounce or radar [1], are therefore less desirable. A staring instrument is preferable to one which must rapidly slew to track a meteor (requiring extra mechanical parts and susceptible to failure), and should be able to detect multiple meteors simultaneously. Power supply: In order to obtain representative samples and reliable long-term statistics, a power supply that can maintain function during the Martian night and over the Martian winter is highly desirable. Ideally the power supply should provide several years of service. Camera: A staring full-sky camera can detect meteors directly, at least at night (meteor being the flash of light in the atmosphere caused by an infalling meteoroid). It may be possible to detect them in daylight as well, perhaps using an infrared (IR) camera. Ultra-wide angle 180° lenses are expensive and bulky. A small camera staring down at a lightweight spherical mirror can cover the sky just as well and may be better for dust management. The optics need not be of astronomical quality to gather this statistical data, and the small portions of the sky obscured by the camera and its support are

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relatively insignificant. Spectrograph: Spectrographic capability would give us information about the elemental composition of Mars’ upper atmosphere and the vaporizing meteoroids. Radial velocity can be determined by Doppler shift and combined with transverse velocity to yield a true vector solution of the meteor. Radio: The ionization created by meteoroid energy generates a radio-frequency (RF) signal. It may be possible to detect this emission and derive certain information from it. A radio (or microwave) detector can work day or night. It may also be able to detect smaller magnitude events than an optical/IR detector. In order to localize the signal, at least three receivers and antennas are required. It may be possible to integrate the antennas as part of a splayed landing gear array. Another possibility is to make the optical camera support legs into antennas. In another experiment, a transmitter could be dropped to send signals to create a whistler effect if there is enough atmosphere for ionization. An Earth-based feasibility study of RF interferometry array would be in order. Microphone: If a microphone is included as part of another package, some larger, closer meteoroids could produce a sonic boom or other detectable sound. Being able to associate the sound with a detected meteor would help us characterize the nature of sound transmission and attenuation through the Martian atmosphere. Barometer: If a barometer is included as part of a Martian weather package, it might also record the sonic boom sometimes associated with meteors or perhaps the pressure gradient from a Martian dust devil. Seismometer: If a seismometer is included in a geology package, on this or other landers, coincidence of a seismic signal with a meteor detection could be a confirmation of impact or the study if Mars is a living planet. Further analysis of the seismic signal could help calibrate the meteor detector. Computer: An onboard computer can process the raw data so only a small set of data, consisting of basic meteor identifying parameters and variables, need be included in periodic uploads to Earth. For diagnostic and other scientific purposes, it should be possible to bypass the computer and send broadband raw data to Earth. Perhaps the uploaded signal to Earth could be used as the transmitting RF wave. Infrasound wave detector: The infrasound wave detector would detect long wave sound waves from 20 hertz down to a day or more. On Earth such devices are capable of detecting nuclear explosions continents away. Micro meteorite study: In the same way Apollo missions brought back a piece of Surveyor to study micro meteorite impact and solar wind, a lander/rover could study the Viking landers to record the micro meteorite impacts. Questions: Here are some questions the Mars Meteor Survey might address: When are Martian meteor showers, how big are they, and where do they come from? Which meteors come from the asteroid belt and which from comets? Can we predict meteor showers and storms on Mars? Will Mars surface operations be exposed to periodic “rains of rock”? (Fig. 1) What is the cumulative risk to surface and orbital operations at Mars due to meteoroids? - How small can a meteoroid be and still reach the surface of Mars? - Are meteorite falls on Mars different in characteristics or time frames from those on Earth?

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- Would radio or microwave receivers on Mars be sufficient to detect meteors without a reference transmitter? - Will infrasound detection work in Mars’ atmosphere? - What will meteors look like on Mars? Will they have statistically different characteristics than those seen on Earth? - Are there dust zones or gradients in Mars’ atmosphere? - Can wind-shear zones or jet streams in Mars’ atmosphere affect meteor signals? - How much of atmospheric dust on Mars is endogenic (kicked up from the surface) and how much exogenic (meteoroid)? - Is there a synergy between radio and visible/IR or spectrographic sensors to characterize mass, composition, or other factors of meteoroids or of the Martian atmosphere? - Are there statistical differences in composition of Mars meteoroids vs. Earth meteoroids? - Can the Mars Meteor Survey instruments be used in other studies, such as dust storm analysis, imaging during the landing sequence, etc.? - Does Mars have additional small moons? Track 1A 2:30 pm A Mission Plan for Mars – The Third Way Jim Beyer Ann Arbor, Michigan Yet another Mission Plan is proposed for exploring Mars. Both the NASA original “90 Day Plan” and the Mars Direct plans suffer from the major hurdle of requiring a heavy lift vehicle to be developed (or redeveloped) to send an adequate payload to Mars. Paying the $1 Billion plus needed to get a sizeable habitat to LEO and on to Mars is a significant financial and political roadblock which is keeping us from getting to Mars. The Third Way proposes simply to do as much as possible with existing, lower payload launch vehicles. In particular, each of the 300+ cheaply (former Soviet) SS-18 missiles can put 1+ metric tonnes on the surface of Mars apiece. With some creative (and inexpensive) technology, this payload can be increased to 3-5 metric tonnes. This would be large enough to land most of the major components needed to sustain humans on Mars. The Third Way is integrated with the existing robotic missions to Mars, making them both more productive and cheaper to implement, while at the same time supporting the effort to bring humans to Mars, and keep them there. This can get us onto Mars with minimal cost and minimal additional development.

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Track 1A 3:00 pm Sampling Tools for Mars Dr. T.C. Ng holinser@vol.net In June 2003, European Space Agency will send Mars Express (orbital) and Beagle 2 (lander) to Mars for exobiology purposes. It consists of two kinds of micro sampling tools namely rock corer and rind grinder, and mole sampler. Both are made by Hong Kong Micro End Effectors (MEE) team, and the concepts were conceived from the dental forceps Dr. T.C. Ng invented in 89' for gripping porcelain inlays. Rock corer is the smallest planetary rock-coring device in the world. The drill is an open ended design, and is able to drill, core, grip and grind; consumes only 2 watts of energy; size of a pocket camera; weights 420 gm including the rind grinder. Samples retrieved will be delivered into GCMS for insitu analysis. Rind grinder is incorporated in front of the coring device. It can grind the weathered rind 3mm thick of 25 square mm surface area for APXS examination. Mole sampler is mounted at the tip of the Russian mole for subsoil sampling. The jaws open and close by SMA actuator. MEE team has also developed all kinds of surface/subsoil coring/sampling micro sampling tools (www.hkmars.net). The PIs are TC NG; KLYUNG; CH YU; CC CHAN, manufacture at industrial center HK PolyU. Track 1A 3:30 pm Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on Mars Chris Brown, Ande Boyer, Timothy Weaver University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) chapter of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) SEDS VBRH M-45 University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35805 browncl@email.uah.edu Personnel on a manned Mars base will almost certainly need the capacity to do various sorts of reconnaissance and remote measurements. Often times these needs may not be satisfied by an orbiting satellite or by a ground-based vehicle. It is in this case that an unmanned aerial vehicle will be an invaluable part of a Mars mission. It is both possible and cost effective to transport a vehicle of this type to Mars and use it on the Martian surface. The plane would be very similar to those used by hobbyists and to those being developed by the US Army for overhead battlefield reconnaissance. The primary problem with this approach is the difficulty in generating enough lift to get the plane off

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the ground and keep it in flight due to the thin Martian atmosphere. The first step to this is using a small solid rocket booster to get the plane to the desired altitude. This eliminates the need for a takeoff runway and solves much of the lift problem. Furthermore, by selecting lightweight materials and designing a properly sized propeller and wing surface, a typical engine can generate enough lift to keep the plane in flight. The propeller will be driven by an electric motor rather than the more common combustion engine because the lack of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would preclude the use of a combustion engine, and because of the difficulties of transporting or creating fuel. Thus it is feasible to take a small lightweight remote-controlled plane to Mars, allowing crews to make use of aerial cameras to do surveillance before an off-base mission. Track 1A 4:00 pm Increased Cost Effectiveness of Mars Exploration Using Human-Robotic Synergy Richard L. Sylvan M.D. 923 River Chase Trail Duluth, GA 30096 rlsylvan@aol.com The current model for the exploration of Mars parallels the model used for the moon. Initial probes perform a preliminary exploration. More sophisticated probes then evaluate landing techniques, and landing site topography. Manned exploration then becomes dominant. Mars exploration presents problems not present in the exploration of the moon. The great distance causes signal latency to be many minutes, rather than several seconds. Distance causes loss of signal strength and slowed information transfer rate. The slowed communication limits the speed of Earth controlled Mars probes. The area that can be explored and the percentage of time instruments are actually doing science are small. By reducing latency, Mars based human controllers could increase the science performed by robotic probes by several orders of magnitude. An exploration team at one location on Mars could contribute to the exploration of the entire surface of Mars. To maximize the benefit, workload and control would be divided between the Earth based scientific designer team of each robotic instrument, and the Mars team. A low risk, high reward mission would be added to the manned exploration of Mars. Modifications in the Mars exploration plan necessary to obtain increased data would be required. Technical, monetary and intellectual requirements are considerable. These include development of standard control systems for use by the Mars team, software overseeing division of control of instruments between Earth and Mars based operators, artificial intelligence to facilitate noninterference of the two team's instruction sets, development of minimal and ideal communication satellite systems, and improvements in durability of probes to allow maximal number of probes to be available. Training requirements for astronauts, as well as for the scientific team need defining.

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Communication models to limit friction between Earth and Mars based teams need formulation. Track 1A 4:30 pm The Role of Robotics in the Human Settlement of Mars Michael H. Sims Center for Mars Exploration NASA Ames Michael.Sims@arc.nasa.gov The most adaptive, scientifically important and powerful tools we have for the exploration of Mars are human beings. Increasingly synergistic with Earth-based and Mars-based humans will be a set of more and more useful robotic tools. This talk will trace out uses of those robotic devices from the present until the establishment of permanent human presence on Mars. In addition, the talk will discuss technologies which will be needed for these robotic tools. Track 1A 5:00 pm Mars Ascent Propulsion for Robotic Missions John Whitehead, PhD jcw@llnl.gov Mission planners for near-term Mars Sample Return still face unsolved challenges. One of these is the need for a Mars Ascent Vehicle that is essentially a miniature launch vehicle. This talk will review the latest work toward implementing pump-fed liquid rocket technology on a tiny scale. Typical large stages are characterized by tanks which weigh 1-2% as much as the propellant, and engines which weigh 1-2% of their thrust. Turbo pumps add the required fluid power between low pressure lightweight tanks and the compact high pressure thrust chambers. On the small scale typified by spacecraft, liquid propulsion systems have always been pressure-fed. This mode of operation compromises optimum pressure levels for both tanks and engines, thus making the hardware heavier and limiting maneuvering capability (acceleration and delta-V). The presenter's work on gas-driven reciprocating pumps and associated systems will be reviewed in the context of Mars Ascent Vehicle design. pump-fed engines at the 100-lb thrust level have already been tested, with thrust/weight ratios similar to very large engines. Moreover, at most 50 psi is needed to feed the pump inlet on such miniature engines. If there's time, this presentation will start with an analysis of the Mars ascent problem (delta-V and propellant fraction vs Isp), followed by graphs that show why conventional spacecraft propulsion technology does not meet the need.

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Track 2A 1:00 pm Barriers to Initiating a Human Mars Exploration Program Chris Hirata Office: 317 Downs Caltech MSC # 560 Pasadena, CA 91126-0560 hirata@its.caltech.edu Even though it is within our technical capability to send humans to Mars in the early twenty-first century, many important barriers separate us from the initiation of such a program. Aside from cost, two of which are fears that the program cannot be completed or that technical risks have been severely underestimated, and doubts about the scientific validity of the mission. The validity of these concerns is discussed. We also consider various courses of action for the Mars Society to dispel the myths and unfounded concerns and address real issues. An emphasis will be placed on the Mars Society's interaction with scientists and the general public's view thereof. Track 2A 1:30 pm Legal Implications for an International Space Mission and What Types of Rules Will be Necessary After Initial Success J.J. Hurtak, Ph.D. AFFS Corporation Los Gatos, CA 95031 jjh@affs.org M. Jude Egan University of California, Berkeley Ph.D. Candidate in the Jurisprudence and Social Policy Program, UC Berkeley 3rd Year Law Student, Boalt Hall School of Law, UC Berkeley 646 63rd Street Oakland, CA 94609 mjegan@boalthall.berkeley.edu The turn to space exploration and settlement need not be the beginning of a new cold war but rather a possibility for global cooperation. Space exploration and the continued development of a space infrastructure, resides in a complex environment that crosses technical, political, and philosophical boundaries. For the nations of the Earth to cooperate in the human exploration of the solar system, there will have to be a common vision and shared philosophical understandings, unified in a Law that binds all equally. This requires dialogue between people involved in space related sciences and policymaking and the fostering of mutual respect for larger philosophical considerations of human life.

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We are presented at the outset of our joint journey into space with a bind between secrecy/proprietary “technical intelligence” and the “openness” necessary for international participation in such a venture. To participate in such an international program, each participant must relinquish some of the jealously guarded managerial control and intelligence it normally exercises over its national programs, even to its former enemies. In order to ensure respect between nations, it will be necessary to draft a legal framework, a type of constitutional statement, that sets forth common understandings of participation and is binding to all equally. Such a framework would not only set forth the mission statement but also define and codify the roles and understandings of all of the players as a unified entity. A contract between international participants that will bind all equally will define participation and interests. After the initial missions, the next steps will involve drafting specific legal guidelines pertaining to legal jurisdiction, liability and regulatory control of for-profit multi/extra-national and corporate activities. According to space entrepreneurs and legal experts, legal quandaries of liability, sovereignty, and import/export laws, to name a few, pose greater limitations to space exploration than our technological status. This paper will explore both the primary mission defining statement, how national interests might coalesce into one working whole, and the next steps, which would mean developing a set of international rules that will govern such areas as commerce, trade, transportation, taxation, liability and legal jurisdiction. Track 2A 2:00 pm The Need for a Government for Mars Prior to Human Exploration Gary C. Fisher Independence Chapter P.O. Box 694 Bryn Athyn, PA 19009 gcfisheris@aol.com A proposal is made for establishing a Government for Mars prior to the arrival of humans on the planet. Reasons why this is desirable and what the government's function would be, with particular reference to property rights, are explored. A method for establishing such a government is presented, along with recommendations on how to staff and fund the Government for Mars. Finally a plan for the evolution of the Government for Mars into a Government of Mars is presented considering likely outcomes of a colonization of the planet.

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Track 2A 2:30 pm A Code of Ethics and Standards for Mars and Outer-Space Commerce Dr. David M. Livingston Livingston Business Solutions P.O. Box 95, Tiburon, CA 94920 Office: (415) 435-6018; Fax: (415) 789-5969 E-mail: dlivings@davidlivingston Ethical issues and industry standards have become increasingly important in our business environment. Respected professional organizations, as well as successful companies, have already adopted formalized codes of ethics and standards, which are commonly enforced with fervor among all members and employees. Similar to terrestrial businesses, the commercial outer-space industry must develop its own code of ethics and standards. Although advanced space commercialization may still be a few years away from economic reality, now is the time to establish guidelines for corporate ethics and business practices. This formative period provides a unique opportunity to ensure the adoption of effective standards for future corporate conduct that will improve upon those already accepted and instituted by businesses here on Earth. Adopting effective corporate conduct standards at this time also establishes the foundation for the future economic development of Mars. A successful code should not only be voluntary, it must facilitate the work and expansion of individual businesses, rather than hinder their efforts toward providing products and services. A properly designed code of ethics and set of industry standards ensures the development of space commerce unfettered by government-created barriers. The ethics and standards used in this paper encourage and support businesses oriented toward Mars and outer-space development. Indeed, one of the inherent risks facing expansion of the commercial space industry is that, if the industry does not develop its own effective and supportive professional code of ethics and standards, government imposed regulations or laws will fill the void. Should this occur, the creation of new barriers to Mars and space commerce are likely, making future development far more difficult. The code presented in this paper seeks to avoid the imposition of new barriers to space commerce as well as make new commercial business ventures easier to develop. This paper presents a business code capable of evolving with input from those advocating and planning commercial space and Mars ventures. Consideration of this code should begin the process of critical thinking to move decision makers beyond the “bottom line” or shortsighted technical and engineering concerns. As acceptance and use of this proposed code of ethics and standards grows within the industry, modifications will be necessary to accommodate the variety of businesses entering space commerce. Furthermore, the terminology used in this code is consistent with that which is widely used today within the terrestrial business community. This uniformity will help to assure that the code will not be perceived as foreign in nature, potentially restrictive, or threatening. Companies adopting this code of ethics and industry standards will find less

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resistance to their space development plans, not only in the United States, but also from non-space faring nations. Less resistance means the company can commit more of its resources to implementing its business plans rather than addressing political or regulatory issues. Establishing industry and ethical standards facilitates expanded Mars and space commercialization and business development. Understanding this reality, this paper encourages and supports new space business ventures by reducing the risk of government interference and popular opposition to off-world businesses. Commercial space companies accepting and refining this code demonstrate industry leadership and an understanding that will serve future generations living, working and playing in space. Space business companies following the ethical and industry guidelines suggested here bring the development of an advanced space economy, including the development of Mars, that much closer to reality. Track 2A 3:00 pm Cutting the Umbilical: Why Space Enterprise is Better Off Without NASA Thomas Andrew Olson Vice President, Mars Society of New York techmac@earthlink.net (Part 1) Paul J. Contursi President, Mars Society of New York PCON@pipeline.com (Part 2) Government-funded space programs, past and present, have been fraught with regulatory nightmares, waste, and bureaucratic heavy-handedness. Despite all the talk and activity toward private space enterprise solutions, NASA remains the largest stumbling block to those effort's success. In Part One, the argument will be made, using an historical perspective, that the private space entrepreneurial sector, despite its relative infancy, will be better off in the long term by treating NASA like any other government agency, finding ways to "work around" NASA roadblocks, and resisting the urge to enlist NASA's "help", as a strategic partner. Described will be a scenario of how life COULD be without NASA as the biggest player in the space frontier. In Part Two, the case will be made that, if any lobbying efforts are to be engaged in by space activist groups with limited resources (like the Mars Society), better results would be achieved not by lobbying for extra NASA budget dollars, but for divestiture of NASA assets - the turning over of all Earth orbit activities and facilities to either private contractors, or, in the case of the ISS, an independent civil authority managing its use. Additional lobbying efforts should be directed at encouraging the same sorts for tax incentives to the fledgling space sector that have been used to help foster the

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growth of other industrial sectors in the past. Only by ending NASA's current hegemony in space, will the private space sector have a chance at long-term success. Track 2A 3:30 pm Universities In The Age of Commercial Space Professor Bruce B. Lusignan Stanford University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Packard Electrical Engineering Bldg. 350 Serra Mall, #237 Stanford, CA 94305-9510 lusignan@ee.stanford.edu Dennis Tito's flight to the back door of the International Space Station has broken through government domination of manned space flight begun with the flights of Yuri Gagarin and John Glenn. Universities of the world are beginning to contribute to programs of peaceful conversion. Use of decommissioned ICBM's, the Minuotaur for the US and the Dneper for Russia, to launch fleets of university-built satellites contribute to peace conversion. A new program for "Space Valets", university-built indoor satellites for the space station and its commercial follow-ons is proposed. And finally a preliminary design for a Space Resort is presented. Based on modules launched by single-STEP-toorbit systems, the economic viability for space tourism is high, particularly when spurred by the success of the first space tourist. Mars enthusiasts can benefit by helping to convert space from high tech weapons contests to international commercial and scientific endeavors. Track 2A 4:00 pm To Mars Through Washington David S. Schuman Deputy Chief Counsel NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (301) 286-4288 david.schuman@gsfc.nasa.gov The barriers to a near-term program of human Mars exploration are political and financial in nature, not technological. In order to more quickly and efficiently accomplish its goals, members of the Mars Society should study the legislative and policy process in detail and approach it in the same methodical manner as any scientific or technical problem. The author provides particular insight, having recently completed one year as a Brookings Institution Congressional Fellow in the Office of United States Senator Bob Graham (D-FL). He provided legal and policy advice on space, aviation, and IRS issues, managed legislation including the Spaceport Investment Act, attended Senate Finance and

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Commerce Committee hearings, helped establish the Senate Space Transportation Roundtable, and organized the Florida Space Summit. The latter included participation by Florida’s Governor, U.S. Senators and Representatives, the NASA Administrator, the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, industry executives, and state administration officials. Additional work included organizing an expert breakfast on financing legislation for reusable launch vehicle companies. Recommendations on how best to influence the legislative and policy process will cover the following topics: (1) why Congress pays little attention to space issues, (2) the importance of relationships with key Congressional staffers, (3) the lobbying techniques employed by successful interest groups, (4) the importance of Congressional committees not normally targeted by space advocacy groups, such as the House Committee on Ways and Means, and the Senate Finance Committee, (5) the importance of paying meticulous attention to the procedures necessary to advance particular legislation, and (6) the importance of extra-Congressional activities in passing a space-related bill. Track 2A 4:30 – 6:00 pm Mars Society Political Workshop Chris Carberry ccarberry@masshist.org Members of the Outreach Task Force will be discussing some of the accomplishments of the past year, and what political activities we intend to engage in over the upcoming year. In addition, we will discuss strategies for meeting with members of Congress and other important figures in Washington, D.C. This will include instructions on how to contact Congressional offices; tips for the actual meetings, as well as etiquette issues that are useful to know when meeting with Congress people. One of the major topics that we will discuss will be our efforts to increase pressure on Congress to commit one percent of NASA’s budget for a humans to Mars technology program. The Outreach Task Force intends to make this their number one priority during the upcoming year. Track 3A 1:00 pm Red Planet: Scientific and Cultural Encounters with Mars: Interactive DVD-ROM Technology Robert Markley, West Virginia University Harrison Higgs, Washington State University-Vancouver Michelle Kendrick, Washington State University-Vancouver Helen Burgess, West Virginia University Jeanne Hamming, West Virginia University rmarkley@wvu.edu

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In August 2001, the University of Pennsylvania Press will publish Red Planet: Scientific and Cultural Encounters with Mars, the first DVD-ROM in the Press's series, Mariner 10: Educational Multimedia. In 1998, at the first meeting of the Mars Society in Boulder, Drs. Markley and Burgess presented a demonstration of some of the features of Red Planet, then in its initial stages of development. At 2001 meeting of the Mars Society, we will present both a demonstration of the potential of DVD-ROM technology (storage capacity: 4.38 GB) for educational uses and an analysis of the ways in which this technology substantially advances educational software for college and university students. RP offers in-depth analyses of Mars as both an object of scientific study and a cultural artifact. It includes excerpts of videotaped interviews with Robert Zubrin, President of the Mars Society and author of The Case for Mars; Kim Stanley Robinson, author of Red Mars, Green Mars, and Blue Mars; Richard Zare (Stanford), Carol Stoker, Jeffrey Moore, and Chris McKay (all at NASA-Ames), Martyn Fogg (British Planetary Society), Katherine Hayles (UCLA), Molly Rothenberg (Tulane), Henry Giclas (Lowell Observatory), Philip James (Toledo), and Frederick Turner (University of Texas-Dallas). RP describes the origins and development of comparative planetology from Percival Lowell to Robert Zubrin while allowing users full interactivity to access scientific papers, interviews with experts, biographies, bibliographies, and sites on the World Wide Web which include links to other relevant web sites, updates on recent scientific findings and debates, updates on current and upcoming Mars missions, and Educators' Resources for classroom or independent use. Users may also explore the social, philosophical, and economic values and assumptions which underlie differing views of the future of Mars exploration and colonization. In our presentation, we will demonstrate and discuss major features of RP, including video interviews with important figures in the scientific study of Mars; hotlinks to biographies and key reference works; pop-up screens for scientific definitions; video clips from the movies Rocketship X-M (1950) and Devil Girl from Mars (1954); sound files from the original 1938 radio broadcast of War of the Worlds; and animations that explain the retrograde motion of the planet. The web site for the DVD Series, www.mariner10.com, will be discussed briefly and particular attention will be devoted to those sites that archive additional resources for RP. These sites include 1) a comprehensive Timeline; 2) References (web links and an extensive bibliography on scientific works about Mars, science-fiction novels set on Mars, and cultural criticism); 3) Future Missions; 4) Current Debates on topics ranging from in situ resource utilization to the possible paleofossils in ALH84001; and 5) Educators' Resources.

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Track 3A 1:30 pm Mars Crossing: Mars Technology in Science Fiction Geoffrey A. Landis 893 Grayton Road Berea, OH 44017 geoffrey.landis@sff.net Mars Crossing (Tor, December 2001) is a science fiction novel that features realistic concepts for human Mars exploration, using the in-situ "live off the land" approach for near term, low cost exploration. This paper discusses the novel and the technological basis for some of the exploration concepts showcased in the novel: In-situ propellant production from the Martian atmosphere Zirconia electrolysis for life support Hardshell carapace/piezoelectric contractile fiber Mars suits Fullerine fiber cables Mars airplane using inflatable wings and ISPP-produced LOX/hybrid engines In-situ propellant production using Mars polar resources

Track 3A 2:00 pm Mars in the Cinema: A Comparative Study of Mission to Mars and Red Planet The Cultural Development of Mars: Rethinking the "New World" Hypothesis Dr. Richard L. Poss Associate Professor of Humanities Humanities Program, Harvill 347 University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0076 rposs@u.arizona.edu Will movies about missions to Mars do anything to help us get there? Two recent examples provide evidence of both the richness and the dangers in a form of popular entertainment which portrays, however inaccurately, the very activity to which the Mars Society is dedicated. This paper is a comparative study of the two movies. Mission to Mars and Red Planet. The plot structure, characters, scientific rigor, and the kind of future portrayed in these movies will be analyzed and critiqued. What is the role of science and technology in each film? What kind of feeling does it give us about the planet Mars itself? What is the role of nationality, race, patriotism, the military, computers, the supernatural, in each film? How do we view the dynamics of the interplay between women and gender issues as they intersect with science and technology? After an examination of these themes in each of the films, the paper goes on to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the science fiction genre as a way of projecting our presence

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on Mars, anticipating problems, suggesting solutions, and inspiring hope and faith in the resilience of the human project. Track 3A 2:30 pm Raising the First Children on Mars Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu Audience discussion of raising the first children on Mars: What physical support is needed? What about robotics and remote support from Earth? What is a minimum number of adults and children? Is a nuclear family the best family model? We will discuss ethics of raising children in an (possibly) unsafe environment and the impact on program support and Earth society? Track 3A 3:00 pm Designing the Law of Mars Bryan Erickson Bryan.Erickson@angelfire.com The human exploration and settlement of Mars is well within the grasp of our technology, but is being held back by other concerns, much of which stem from the law. American and international law currently prevents incentives for opening the space frontier and provides no structure for the settlement of other planets. The history of new settlements and colonies is filled with examples of the law trailing behind the facts of settlement and impairing the society's ability to expand. My purpose is to examine how law currently inhibits the exploration and settlement of Mars, and how the law might be re-engineered to achieve those ends. I have teamed with another law student and a law professor with space law experience, and gotten acceptance from Franklin Pierce Law Center to develop these issues into a course on space law over the summer. Our goal includes developing the first textbook on space law, and a comprehensive report on the current state of space law and how it could be re-engineered to encourage expansion into space and settlement of the red planet. I have been invited to give a preliminary report in May at MIT on our research into space law as it relates to settling Mars. I hope to summarize the results of our research over the summer to the International Mars Society Conference in August in the section on "Law and Governance on Mars." Our group also hopes to develop this program into a new annual course in space law at our school, and to provide the textbook and curriculum to other law schools that are interested in offering such a course. Ultimately, we also hope that our study will help change the legal structure from one that inhibits the opening of the Mars frontier to one that encourages it.

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Track 3A 3:30 pm The Cultural Development of Mars: Rethinking the "New World" Hypothesis Dr. Richard L. Poss Associate Professor of Humanities Humanities Program, Harvill 347 University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0076 rposs@u.arizona.edu One of the basic metaphors underlying the discussion of Mars is the idea that the exploration and settlement of space will to some degree parallel the European exploration and settlement of the Americas from the Renaissance to the present, in short that the next 500 years will be like the last 500. While this idea sometimes appears as an explicit assertion, with attention to particular historical events as guidance for the future settlement of Mars, it also functions as a background assumption, taken for granted by both sides of many arguments, with different material gathered for support of opposing positions. This paper examines the "new world hypothesis" with a view toward tracing the dynamics of its use in debate over priorities and programs to be implemented in the exploration of Mars. An attempt will be made to synthesize current scientific, social, artistic, literary, and political thinking to discern which ones will be active in a Martian settlement, and what their character will be. The inevitable habits of thinking which require that we reason about the future based on past experience will be examined to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of a practice in which we are all engaged. Track 3A 4:00 pm The ‘Frontier Thesis’ and its Ideological Repercussions P. Schwennesen Paul.Schwennesen@dm.af.mil The opening of a Martian frontier is imminent. Though a manned mission to the red planet has yet to gain political momentum, such a mission is well within this nation’s technological and economic grasp. The consequences of opening a land area equivalent to all the continents on Earth combined are debatable, but certainly far-reaching. What will be the effects of such a tremendous new frontier? The history of the American frontier contrasted with that of the Russian provides a surprising insight into the potential social outcomes of a Martian frontier. What develops from such an analysis is the fact that a frontier, regardless of the time or place, inspires within its settling population certain defining characteristics. These characteristics tend to create open societies based upon democratic principles. However, if a frontier exhibits a severity beyond a critical

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level, the tendency toward an open society can be reversed, leading ultimately to autocracy and despotism. This paper will utilize the “frontier thesis” of noted historian Frederick Jackson Turner to do a comparative study of the Russian and American frontiers. Obviously, a tremendous difference exists between the political philosophy of 13th century Russia and 19th century America, but this paper supports the idea that the ideological outcome in each nation was due more to differences in their frontier than any other factor. This analysis bears scrutiny as the Martian frontier beckons. Will these new horizons be an arena for the expansion of liberty or will the severity of the Martian environment create the conditions for centralized control and suppression of independence? Track 3A 4:40 pm International Space University Eric Tilenius and Loretta Hidalgo Track 4A 1:00 pm Private Backup for Deep Space Network (Large Number Small Dish Array) Chris Vancil clvancil@aol.com NASA and other nations’ space agencies have an ever increasing number of spacecraft in deep space or heading to planetary orbits and surfaces. Even as NASA increases the abilities of the Deep Space Network there will be times when the demand on the DSN is greater than it's abilities. A backup plan by organizations like the Mars Society can be in place for little money and allow a small revenue stream if companies like SpaceDev do actually began to send probes on commercial missions. A Large Number Small Dish Array made up of free and surplus home satellite dishes seems the most practical system to implement. Track 4A 1:30 pm Very Low Bitrate Video for Mars Missions John F. McGowan, Ph.D. jmcgowan@veriomail.com Neither manned landings nor short-range robotic probes such as Mars Pathfinder can explore the surface of Mars, 144 million square kilometers comprising as much surface area as all the continents and islands on Earth. Complete exploration of Mars to find or conclusively rule out important discoveries such as past or present life will require high speed low-altitude or ground-based probes such as airplanes, balloons, or high speed rovers. These devices will need high frame-rate imaging such as digital video to explore

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the planet and for remote operation either by astronauts on Mars or mission control on Earth. A major limitation for transmission of video both on Mars and especially between Mars and Earth is the limited bandwidths available, currently less than 100 Kilobits/seconds between Mars and Earth when line of sight is available. One solution is to establish a network of communications satellites in Mars orbit. Even with a communications network, bandwidth will be limited, especially between Mars and Earth. A complementary approach is to develop very low bit rate video compression algorithms, e.g. VHS videotape quality at 56 Kilobits/second. Methods that may be able to achieve this such as the H.26L and MPEG-4 video coding standards, contour-based image coding, and object-based image coding are discussed, including applications and special issues on Mars and in deep space such as the high bit error rates of deep space communication links. Track 4A 2:00 pm What About the Data? Ned Chapin, InfoSci Inc. Menlo Park CA 94026-7117 During the time that robotic missions are the sole visitors to Mars from Earth, the data flow is and has been relatively limited. The missions have slowly gathered data and over sometimes years of time have transmitted the data back to Earth, where the data have been received, stored and used. The total data so far amounts to about ten terabytes (i.e., about ten million bytes), with images accounting for the majority of the data. When people are among the visitors to Mars, the data involved will jump dramatically. The people will be generating data passively and actively by their routine living (example: life support), by voluntary choice (example: a diary), by observation (example: automated weather station), by assignment (example: documenting a field trip), by interaction (example: informing, planning or directing), and by operating equipment (example: drilling for water). The data will be captured and communicated in many forms and many ways, and then will have to be stored. The storage will require having security provisions of several types, and backups. To be useful, the wanted stored data will have to be selectively found or located, and then retrieved or accessed and communicated, and be provided in usable forms either to people or equipment or both. Since the human-on-Mars presence will be an effectively paperless presence with non-Earthlike restrictions on communication, how are all these data requirements to be met? On Mars, the cost per kilogram and per cubic meter of equipment is extremely high, and there will be no manufacturing capability, spare parts availability, or sophisticated repair services for a long time. Environmental hazards will be significant, such as gritty dust and hard radiation. Each person on Mars will probably generate indirectly and directly an average of about four terabytes of data per year. How are we going to handle the data effectively? Let us look at some potential ways.

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Track 4A 2:30 pm Automated Equipment and its Software for Mars: Leveraged Approach to Development Justin J. Milliun, Jr. Milliun Technologies, LLC Santa Clara, CA Jmilliun@ieee.org During exploration and settlement of Mars hosts of automated systems will provide the needed materials, life support, and research functions. Physical distance and communication delays will make special demands on automated systems. In addition, there are real unknowns; one cannot foresee all of the conditions equipment will be used. There may certainly be a "creative" use that saves lives of explorers and settlers. This paper considers the software required for such systems, and approaches to development that includes substantial leveraging from existing technology. Programmable equipment will need to be programmed by those who use and depend on it. The equipment must empower the user. This characteristic is shared by some industrial systems used on Earth today. This paper examines standards and practice of automation and communication in the semiconductor manufacturing equipment, where several decades of engineering work has provided a useful model for how many similar problems might be approached for equipment for Mars. General engineering principles for embedded software for Mars will be discussed. Borrowing from the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry, this paper examines: - Generic Equipment Models - Equipment communications, - Generation of “process programs” on site By starting with, and leveraging from excellent existing technology, it will be possible to develop equipment destined for Mars that will exceed user expectations and even save development costs.

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Track 4A 3:00 pm Mathematical Analysis Risk of NASA and DoD launches: Are We Missing Something? Richard L. Sylvan M.D. 923 River Chase Trail Duluth, GA 30096 rlsylvan@aol.com Published analyses have evaluated the relationship between estimated risks of both DoD and NASA missions using a linear regression model to evaluate the relationship between risk of launch and either time or monetary inputs. The NASA and DoD launches were evaluated together as a single group. Reanalysis suggests that the NASA launches may be a distinct group with a nonlinear (and higher) risk ratio when compared with the DoD missions. The higher risk observed has several possible explanations, including NASA not evaluating all potential risks when setting time and monetary budgets, underestimating the true size of risks found, or not using risk mitigating procedures being utilized by the DoD, possibly because they could not be used. The non-linearity suggests some of the risk factors that are being incompletely evaluated are not simply additive, but synergistic. In their reevaluation of the overall planetary program in general, and the Mars program in particular, NASA has come to the same conclusions, and added both time and money to the Mars program, but in an imperic manner. Using a model may allow one to determine whether the time and money added are inadequate, and the excessive risk still exists, or are they excessive. Track 4A 3:30 pm Successful Landing Probabilities for Mars Wolfgang J. Sauer, Ph.D. Director of Colorado Space Grant Consortium at the University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo, CO, 81001, USA sauer@uscolo.edu Hüseyin Sarper, Ph.D., P.E. Faculty Coordinator of Colorado Space Grant Consortium at the University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo, CO, 81001, USA sarper@uscolo.edu This presentation follows up on several presentations in last year's conference. It was stated that if one of the engines fails while landing, the opposite engine would have to be shut-off to maintain vehicle balance. The need to shut-off the opposite engine presents a unique probability or reliability problem, not readily found in any of the references. Two engine configurations are considered: Four-engine (FE) vehicle and a larger, six-engine

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(SE) vehicle. Both vehicles can land as long as each experiences at most one engine pair failure (one fails, the other one is shut-off). The problem, at first, appears to be that of classic k-out-of-n reliability structure. It is shown that the problem is different than this classic problem and the new problem can be solved using order statistics. Monte-Carlo simulation is used to verify that the analytically derived formulas are accurate. Results will be presented for both discrete and continuous random variables (exponential, uniform, and normal) that may be governing the behavior (or life) of the engine during its operation. The discrete case is applicable if one wants to model whether the engines work or not during an implied descent period. The continuous case is applicable if one is also concerned how long each engine (and the vehicle) should be operating. Some interesting results will be reported. For example, the mean landing engine system operation life of the FE vehicle is equal to 75% of the life an individual engine if the exponential distribution is a good representation of each engine's life. Additional results, analytical and simulation, are presented when the engine operations are dependent or correlated due to various manufacturing and/or environmental conditions. Extensions will be suggested to incorporate throttling into the models to be presented. Track 4A 4:00 pm A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Risk-Adjusted Mission Value for Mars Exploration Ralph F. Miles, Jr. 3608 Canon Blvd Altadena, CA 91001 rmiles2@earthlink.net This paper develops a decision-theoretic approach to risk-adjusted mission value (RAMV) for selecting between alternative Mars missions in the presence of uncertainty in the outcomes of the missions. The approach, in its complete implementation, is consistent with the decision theory known as expected utility theory. The approach is also consistent with the elementary management concepts that decisions selecting among alternatives incorporating risk aversion should be made by those with the requisite responsibility and organizational values, that value judgments of outcomes should be made by those with expertise in the appropriate knowledge domain, and that probabilities of the outcomes should be made by those with expertise in the events leading to the outcomes and in the technology for assessing the probabilities. Mission Alternative x of a mission alternative set is embedded in a gamble between a successful outcome x and a failure outcome. The successful outcome x with mission value v(x) is obtained with probability s(x). More complex missions can be addressed

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within the framework of the approach presented here, including missions with various degrees of success and degraded modes of failure. The risk-adjusted mission values for the alternative missions are a function of the value judgments of the participating scientists, the probabilities of success as determined by the technology experts, and the risk aversion r (0 < r < 1) of the project management. The application of expected utility theory yields the equation for the risk-adjusted mission value of Mission Alternative x: RAMV(x) = s(x)[(1 – r) v(x) + r] . Examples are given: Selecting between four landing sites on Mars, and selecting between four landing sites on Mars with differing designs. Track 5A 1:00 pm The Mineralogy of the Martian Surface and its Importance to the Search for Life on Mars Janice L. Bishop NASA-Ames Research Center Mail Stop 239-4 Moffett Field, CA 94035 jbishop@mail.arc.nasa.gov Searching for life on Mars usually requires looking for evidence of water. Minerals also contain important clues about whether or not life may have formed, and if so, where and under what conditions. Minerals form under specific chemical and physical conditions and can therefore provide information about past environments during the time of mineral formation. Determining the mineralogies of the Martian surface rocks, soils, layered terrains, channels and craters provide information about the past and present environments across the surface of Mars. For example, mineral identification could tell us if layered deposits are associated with banded-iron formations (BIFs), if crater basins were once paleolakes, or if some volcanic features included hydrothermal processes. BIFs are linked on the Earth with many early organisms and were common during the time that photosynthesis arose. Ice-covered lakes in Antarctica contain abundant active life forms, as do hydrothermal systems at Yellowstone and elsewhere. Characterizing the minerals that form in these environments on the Earth enables us to develop means of associating minerals identified on Mars with past environmental conditions there, and also to assess if and where conditions may have been favorable for life on Mars. Chemical and mineralogical analyses have been performed on a variety of terrestrial analog samples including altered volcanic tephra, hydrothermal springs material and Antarctic sediments in order to interpret data expected from Mars. Visible and infrared spectra are measured and lab experiments are performed in order to identify specific minerals remotely using these spectra. These lab and field data are then used for interpretation of the Martian spectra. Spectra acquired from orbiters can be used for selection of promising sites for more detailed lander or rover studies. Identification of

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certain minerals on Mars may indicate the presence of water, hydrothermal activity, chemical alteration and sites of interest to Astrobiology. Track 5A 1:30 pm On The Existence and Stability of Liquid Water on the Surface of Mars Today Lawrence Kuznetz N2Mars@aol.com David Gan DCGan@worldnet.att.net

As the debate rages on about past or present life on Mars, the prevailing assumption has been that the liquid water essential for its existence is absent because pressures and temperatures are too low. This study presents data, anecdotal and experimental evidence to challenge that assumption.

Track 5A 2:00 pm Biogenicity of Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Derek M. Shannon dms@caltech.edu D.C. Golden of Hernandez Engineering in Houston and researchers at Johnson Space Center claim to have found “A simple inorganic process for formation of carbonates, magnetite, and sulfides in Martian meteorite ALH84001”. Of particular interest to the Golden, et al. team’s claim is the exact nature of the magnetite crystals produced by the their inorganic method. This is because the previous work of Joe Kirschvink and others with known magnetofossils and magnetite crystals has established at least six characteristics associated with biogenic magnetite crystals but generally not with crystals formed by previously known inorganic processes. Thomas-Keprta, et al. further argue that “no known population of inorganic magnetite crystals, produced either naturally or synthetically, has met one or two criteria without violating the remaining criteria.” In what may be the strongest supporting evidence of a biogenic origin for possible fossils within the Allan Hills meteorite, Thomas-Keprta, et al. demonstrate that the elongated prismatic magnetite particles within the meteorite, which comprise 27% of those studied, are “indistinguishable” from crystal populations taken from terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria according to at least five of the six criteria. In determining whether Golden, et al.’s inorganic process is a potential explanation for ALH84001's possible magnetofossils, it is necessary to determine whether the magnetite crystals produced by the inorganic process can similarly satisfy the criteria outlined by

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Thomas-Keprta, et al. Offered here is the latest work from the paleomagnetism lab of Joe Kirschvink, analyzing magnetite crystals created by Golden, et al.’s inorganic process using the criteria established by Thomas-Keprta, et al., with major implications for the biogenicity of the ALH84001 magnetite crystals. Track 5A 2:30 pm Halobacteria: a Candidate for Present Day Life on Mars Geoffrey A. Landis NASA John Glenn Research Center, mailstop 302-1 Cleveland, OH 44135 e-mail: geoffrey.landis@grc.nasa.gov On Earth, life has adapted to extreme environments, ranging from frozen valleys of Antarctica to the interior of rocks and the high-pressure, high-temperature environment of deep-sea thermal vents. The only criteria that is required without exception is that every ecological niche which supports life has, at least briefly, the presence of water in liquid form for some portion of the year. The strategy for Mars, then, is to search for environmental conditions that feature liquid water. Mars is a salt-rich environment. Any present-day water would likely be a saturated salt solution, with a lower vapor pressure and a lower melt temperature than pure water. A saturated solution of K2CO3, for example, will depress the freezing point of water to below 236 K. Multicomponent aqueous salt solutions can have freezing temperatures as low as 210 K, and water in micron-scale pores between grains of regolith would have even lower freezing point due to capillary-pore effects. If life can adapt to the transient presence of liquid water in the form of highlyconcentrated brine, and if such a form of life can find ways to adapt to the other adverse conditions on Mars, then present-day Mars could yet harbor life. A candidate form of life which could exist in Martian brine is the family of "salt-loving," or halophile bacteria, such as Halobacterium halobium. Halobacteria, a form of extremophile archaeobacteria, are adapted to surviving in saturated salt solutions. These halobacteria are amazingly robust organisms, able to survive being desiccated into a crust of solid salt, returning to active life when water returns. They are capable of traveling distances of hundreds or even thousands of miles in the form of dry, windblown dust and salt, and by this means colonize transient small pools of saturated brine. The combination of a salt crust and the UV-blocking pigment will serve as barriers to mitigate the destructive effect of the ultraviolet environment of Mars. According to a recent report, living microbes have been successfully cultured from inclusions in salt deposits that are 250 million years old. In many ways, the environment of Mars is far more conducive to preserving salt deposits than the surface of Earth, and the lower average temperatures of Mars make it more likely that inclusions within the salt would be preserved, as long as the salt is buried at a low enough stratum to be shielded

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from cosmic ray damage. Even if conditions for life do not exist on present-day Mars, it may be possible that halobacteria may still be preserved in salt deposits on Mars. Even if no life exists on Mars in the present day, it is still possible that encapsulated life may be retrieved from salt deposits and brought back to life on Earth. Such retrieval of ancient life from Mars would answer many questions about the origin of life, and the relationship or independence of Mars and Earth biology. Track 5A 3:00 pm Interstellar Panspermia and Life on Mars Dr. Robert Zubrin President, The Mars Society Inc. zubrin@aol.com In this paper I will discuss the evidence that bacteria’s first appearance on Earth may have been the result not of local evolution from prebiotic chemistry, but of transport from extraterrestrial sources, either from within or outside the solar system. Calculations will be given which show that transport of bacteria from interstellar sources is possible in principle, and highly probable if life exists in other solar systems. These results recast the issues in the search for life on Mars. The question is not whether Mars life had a separate origin from Earth life. Given the ease of bacterial transport between the planets, that is virtually impossible. The key question is whether Mars life had a prior origin to Earth life, i.e. whether or not we can find evidence showing development from chemistry to prebacterial organisms on Mars. If we can, then we will have gained a much better understanding of the steps required to develop life from chemistry. If we cannot, if the earliest life on Mars is found to be complex bacteria similar to the Earth’s earliest inhabitants, then we must conclude that both Earth and Mars were seeded by extra solar sources. If this is the case, it would imply that interstellar panspermia is a reality, and that therefore life is ubiquitous in the universe Track 5A 3:30 pm Lunar and Martian Paleontology Douglas D. Shull/7 Jun 2001 gatordelt5@aol.com The discovery in 1996 of organic material imbedded in the Martian Meteorite AH84001 changed science. Many people now consider the possibility that microbial life existed on or may still exist on the planet Mars. NASA, JPL, and the ESA are considering packages and experiments for future Mars robotic missions to detect the presence of microbial life near the surface of Mars. We should pursue these worthy experiments. However, the surfaces of Mars and the Moon may very well hold evidence of life from Earth’s past.

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A meteor impact on Mars sent AH84001 into solar orbit, and eventually to the Antarctic. Due to the lower gravity and reduced or nonexistent atmosphere on Mars and the Moon, meteors striking these bodies with sufficient force will eject some debris into solar orbit. Due to the Earth’s higher gravity and relatively thick atmosphere, large stony iron or metallic meteors are required to eject material from the Earth into Earth orbit, where it may end up on the Moon, or into solar orbit, where it may end up on Mars. We know the Earth’s geologic past is punctuated with periods of mass extinction, and a lot of evidence shows large meteor impacts were responsible. Although no solid evidence exists at this time, I intend to work with a few scientists and engineers to model the effects of a meteor strike, to see if the possibility exists that significant amounts of plant and animal matter were blasted into space during these events. To illustrate my theory, I will take it to the “personal” level. The setting is a beach on the Yucatan peninsula 65 million years ago. A group of dinosaurs looks up to see the searing white light of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) Meteor streak to the ground. Within seconds, a massive underground explosion, combined with a supersonic atmospheric shock wave kills these animals and ejects them with countless tons of water, rock and atmosphere out into deep space at an orbital or higher velocity. Although their bodies are torn apart, many discernable pieces freeze-dry in the vacuum of space. After orbiting the Earth or the Sun for an unknown period of time some of these freeze-dried chunks of dinosaur impact the surface of the Moon or Mars. There they wait for a future robot or astronaut to discover, no longer subject to Earth-bound decomposition. Once discovered, organic debris from dinosaurs, other animals, and plant life could revolutionize the field of Paleontology as we know it. No longer would these scientists be relegated to the “bone-yard” of pre-history! With freeze-dried prehistoric material in their hands, these scientists could make discoveries as Earth-shattering as the KT Meteor of 65 million years ago! Track 5A 4:00 pm Design and Construction of the MDRS Frank Schubert Therub9@aol.com The design of the Flashline Station on Devon Island and the Desert Research Stations are different in many ways. The role of the stations is that of a test bed for the architecture of the first human Mars Mission. The idea is to test different floor plans and determine the best configuration for the mission. The station’s criteria for design included a six person mission, space for two airlocks, an EVA room, hygiene areas, communication areas, lab areas, common space and private staterooms along with several other requirements. A key factor in designing the Devon Island Station was its location. Materials were limited to what was available, size

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limitations, ease of handling and weather considerations. With building costs for an average, run of the mill, nothing fancy house in Resolute of $250 per square foot, the unusual Mars Habitat presented a cost problem too. The materials and floor plan are specific for the Devon Station and are suited to the location as well as the needs of the researchers. The Devon Station design is a mix of available materials and practical needs of the crew. All in all, the location makes up for any lack of fidelity The Desert Research Station posed a problem in that it is also an exhibit. It is currently displayed at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. During the exhibit phase, the upper level is not accessible and the lower floor must meet all the exhibit display codes and requirements as well as ADA standards and Class A fireproofing. Although the demand for function is low, the requirement for the look and feel of the habitat is very high. After the exhibit is over at Kennedy Space Center, it will be dismantled and sent to the American Southwest for the research phase of its life. The Flashline Arctic Research Station and the Mars Desert Research Station are different from each other but they have the same purpose. They represent the first forms of architecture for Mars. Track 5A 4:30 pm Scouting the Southwest: A Team Approach Stacy Sklar sklarmars@yahoo.com Jean Legarde jlagarde@bigfoot.com Track 5A 5:00 pm Mars Desert Research Station at Kennedy Space Center Maggie Zubrin Executive Director, The Mars Society Inc. mzubrin@aol.com Matt Colgan, Volunteer Docent at KSC

After long months of haggling with another venue over a Mars analog display, we were thrilled to receive an invitation from Kennedy Space Center to bring our Mars Desert Research Station to Florida for the summer. Although construction of the second hab had already begun by the time the invitation was confirmed, no other planning for the display had begun and we had only two months in which to plan the display, erect the hab on-site and deploy a team of volunteer tour guides stationed in Cocoa Beach, Florida.

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The process of preparing the exhibit was both exhilarating and exasperating. The tour guides’ job turned out to be extremely inspiring and completely exhausting. Ms Zubrin will detail some of the steps required to prepare and install the Mars Society exhibit at Kennedy Space Center. Matt Colgan, who served a two-week stint as captain of the volunteer crew, will give an overview of how the exhibit functioned at Kennedy Space Center and a feeling for public reaction to The Mars Society presence there. Lastly, we will talk about possible deployment of the MDRS as an outreach vehicle during future off-season periods and the value of utilizing the hab in this context. Track 6A 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm Organizing and Managing a Mars Society Chapter Chris Vancil CLVancil@aol.com It is of no small interest to the Mars Society and it's membership how to organize and manage a chapter. This presentation will focus on the formation and organization of a USA chapter. How to get nonprofit status, why to do so and if you really need to at all. How to best manage members needs and how to include and encourage as many people as possible in the chapter environment. We will go over the Chapters Council's start up kit and take feedback from members to improve future additions Track 6A 4:00 pm – 6:00 pm Chapter Projects Roundtable Gary Fisher GCFisheris@aol.com The Chapters Council will lead a roundtable discussion of projects that chapters can work on. People should bring their best ideas or experiences with chapter projects. While the emphasis will be on distributed (multi-chapter) projects, projects that an individual chapter can undertake will also be considered. This will be a session to explore ideas not covered by the Chapter Projects Workshop. Those attending will discuss the ideas from the point of view of feasibility, cost, manpower requirements, time requirements, how interesting, and usefulness. At the end of the session a vote will be held to rank the ideas. The Chapters Council will then publish on the web a list with description of each of the suggestions and their ranking.

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Thursday Evening Panel Discussion 8:00 pm Building An Ecosystem – Healing the Earth by Means of a Martian Genesis Moderator: Maggie Zubrin Dr. Robert Zubrin, Dr. Chris McKay, Sam Burbank, Kim Stanley Robinson, Gus Frederick In this panel discussion, we will explore one of the key reasons for a human presence on Mars: the science and art of terraforming as it applies to environmental management. With diminishing prospects of reaching global accord on the control of pollutants and increased public awareness regarding the risks to our planet of unchecked environmental exploitation, it becomes increasingly imperative that we understand the delicate balance required to sustain our ecosystem. Much of the knowledge we now possess about the earth’s atmosphere and the damaging effects of pollution was garnered as a direct result of research done while orbiting the earth. In other words, we had to get outside of the earth to view it accurately. A human presence on Mars will give us an even broader perspective on how Earth’s biosphere operates. Through the science of terraforming, we can learn how to engineer a breathable atmosphere, how to establish first flora and later fauna on a barren planet, and how to nurture the newly created and fragile ecosystem so that it will continue to sustain life for eons to come. What we learn on Mars will enable us to care for the Earth, to heal her present injuries and keep her alive and vital for the generations to follow. Friday August 24, 2001 Friday Plenary Session 9:00 am The Mars Exploration Rover Project Albert F. C. Haldemann, Joy Crisp, John Callas Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Dr. Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 albert@shannon.jpl.nasa.gov Steven Squyres Cornell University Ithaca, NY 44853 In mid-2003 NASA will launch two identical rovers to Mars. The Mars Exploration Rovers will be enclosed in Mars Pathfinder heritage cruise and entry stages. After landing

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in January and February 2004, the rovers will use their sophisticated set of instruments -the Athena Science Payload -- to search for and characterize geologic evidence of liquid water in the planet's past. These missions aim to test hypotheses for the presence of past water at two separate sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The landing sites will be selected on the basis of a community-wide intensive study of orbital data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and other missions. Possibilities might include former lakebeds or hydrothermal deposits. The instrument suite includes mast-mounted remote-sensing instruments: a color stereo imager (Pancam) and a thermal emission infra-red point spectrometer (Mini-TES). Mounted on the end of a robotic arm are four in-situ instruments: an Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), a Mössbauer spectrometer, a Microscopic imager, and a Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). With far greater mobility than the 1997 Mars Pathfinder rover, these identical robotic explorers will each be able to trek up to 100 meters per day across the Martian surface, and characterize the landscape they encounter. The rovers' scientific instruments will be used to read the geologic record at each site, to investigate the role of past water, and to determine how suitable the conditions would have been for life. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Friday Plenary Session 10:00 am Fossil Traces of Life in the Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Dr. Imre Friedmann Friday Plenary Session 11:00 am TBA Kim Stanley Robinson Track 1B 1:00 pm Mars Cameras on Devon Island Brent J. Bos and Peter H. Smith University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory In order to better understand the capabilities and limitations of our Mars spacecraft instruments outside of the laboratory, the Mars Atmospheric and Geologic Imaging (MAGI) team at the University of Arizona will be testing Mars lander cameras in the Martian analog environment of Devon Island during the summer of 2001. The primary activity of the MAGI team during their work in the Canadian high Arctic will be to support, through high resolution imaging, the geologic exploration of Devon Island being conducted by the Mars Society's Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station and the NASA Haughton-Mars Project. The cameras for this fieldwork are duplicates of the various Mars lander imagers the MAGI team has developed. They have been constructed from

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flight-spare components of the instruments themselves. This report will present the initial results and findings of the Devon Island camera field test activity. Track 1B 1:30 pm Remote Sensing as a Resource for Human Exploration Katy Quinn MIT, Rm 54-616 77 Massachusetts Ave Cambridge, MA 02139 katyq@chandler.mit.edu Future human explorers on Mars will undoubtedly avail themselves of the wealth of remotely sensed data collected by previous and on-going robotic missions. Unmanned missions being planned right now are already incorporating elements that specifically support human Mars exploration, in terms of site selection, identifying hazards to human explorers, testing technologies for human missions, etc. Using remotely sensed data in conjunction with a field research program is a naturally integrated process. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are complimentary, rendering the old humans-versusrobots controversy obsolete. Indeed, Mike Malin, who studies the Mars Global Surveyor images, has agreed that many questions that arise from these images could be answered "if we could just walk around on the planet for a few days." (National Geographic interview). But how would we even know which questions to ask without the stimulus of the MGS images in the first place? This paper will focus on how humans in the field may best incorporate remotely sensed data into their fieldwork. Field research programs on Earth in Antarctica and on Devon Island will be used as analogs to how field research may be conducted on Mars. The ways in which remotely sensed data are used, which data is most useful, and tools for utilizing the data will be investigated. Track 1B 2:00 pm Mars Analog Habitats In An Impact Crater – Lessons From The Haughton Impact Crater Charles S. Cockell British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge. CB3 0ET Pascal Lee NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 Much of the surface of Mars is an impact-processed surface. The examination of its surface for signs of extant or extinct life may depend upon our understanding of habitats for life in impact-processed environments. We have examined the Haughton Impact

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Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic as an analog for habitats for life on Mars. Numerous microbial habitats for life are made available by impact events; these include impact crater lakes, impact shocked rocks and ejecta blocks. At Haughton, the microorganisms that inhabit these impact-processed habitats are dominated by cyanobacteria such as Chroococcidiopsis and filamentous forms. Here examples of these environments in the Haughton Impact Structure are described and the nature of microbial life in these habitats is reviewed. Preliminary observations from the 2000 and 2001 field seasons are described. The constraints imposed upon these studies by operation from a simulated Mars base are described with special reference to possible protocols for the human exobiological exploration of Mars. Track 1B 2:30 pm Impact-induced Hydrothermal Activity Within the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Arctic Canada: Implications for Mars G. R. Osinski, P. Lee, C. Cockell and J. G. Spray Planetary and Space Science Centre, Geology Dept. University of New Brunswick NB, E3B 5A3, Canada NASA Ames Research Center Moffet Field, CA 94035-1000, USA British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. It is well known that hydrothermal systems will develop anywhere in the Earth’s crust where water coexists with a heat source, with magmatic or volcanic heat sources being predominant on Earth today. However, during the last two field seasons of the NASA Haughton-Mars Project, we have found definitive evidence for the existence of a hydrothermal system formed by the interaction of water with hot, impact-generated rocks at the Haughton impact structure on Devon Island. Hydrothermal alteration is recognised in two settings: within polymict impact breccias overlying the central portion of the structure, and within localised pipes in impact-generated concentric fault systems. The fault-related hydrothermal alteration occurs in 1-7 m diameter subvertical pipe structures that are exposed for lengths of up 20 m. The pipes are characterised by quartz-carbonatecemented breccias showing pronounced Fe-hydroxide alteration. The intra-breccia alteration comprises three varieties of cavity and fracture filling: (a) sulfide with carbonate, (b) sulfate, and (c) carbonate. Our work adds to a growing body of evidence which suggests that hydrothermal activity is commonplace after the impact of an asteroid or comet into a wet planetary target. This may have important implications for the search for life on Mars. The interaction of impact-heated rocks with ground-ice may produce liquid water even under present climatic conditions on Mars. Impact-induced and volcanogenic hydrothermal systems are often believed to have acted as cradles for the emergence of life and the development of the early biosphere. Impact-induced hydrothermal sites may represent oases for

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prebiotic and biotic processes involving the growth of thermophilic organisms, either as sites where such organisms might have evolved or as sites that were transiently colonized by pre-existing thermophiles. Ongoing work at Haughton suggests that in sterilized postimpact environments, impact-induced hydrothermal sites may represent favored sites for post-impact colonization. Haughton provides a valuable case-study for understanding how impact-generated hydrothermal systems may provide warm, wet habitats for life on wet planetary bodies. Track 1B 3:00 pm Exploration vs. Problem Solving: Cognition in an Analog Mars Habitat William J. Clancey, PhD Chief Scientist, Human-Centered Computing NASA/Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 bclancey@mail.arc.nasa.gov Most studies of work and cognition are formulated in terms of problem-solving goals and knowledge. Early research began in the 1950s and 1960s with formal problems, such as games, arithmetic, and physics, often following textbook formulations of problems and solution methods (e.g., manipulating equations). By the 1970s, research in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology had moved on to consider the nature of expertise in broader "real world" domains, such as medical diagnosis and engineering design. By the 1980s, social scientists showed how these formulations left out the broader aspects of how work actually was done, involving collaboration, circumstantial interactions of people and tools, plus learning on the job (e.g., work arounds). Such broader consideration reveals that problem solving is just one kind of human activity. Goals and attention in everyday life are not so narrowly focused on problems as cognitive science has emphasized. For example, in expedition settings, such as on Devon Island, we find a broad range of activities and concerns. The formulation of "scientific discovery" as merely equation manipulation appears impoverished indeed. In this paper I present a taxonomy of human activities that I have observed during the Haughton-Mars expeditions since 1998. I show how a simulation model of "A Day in the Life of a Mars Analog Habitat" may be constructed using the Brahms multi-agent simulation tool. This model will be coupled to other simulations (including life support, rovers, and agent software). A browser-based virtual reality display will show the interactions of the crew, facilities, geography, vehicles, data gathering tools, communication devices, documents, etc. The resulting simulation may be useful for scheduling crew activities, designing a habitat, and instructing new crews, as well as providing a research workbench for relating different perspectives on human behavior.

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Track 1B 3:30 pm High Arctic Lake Sediments - a Tool for Understanding Our Past, Predicting Our Future, and Planning for Mars Exploration Darlene Lim Darlene.lim@geology.utoronto.ca The High Arctic is extremely vulnerable to environmental changes, such as climate warming, and is distinct in the way that is responds to shifts in the climate and affects the environments of the rest of the globe. Therefore, it is an extremely critical area to understand ecologically and to monitor on a long-term basis. High Arctic ecological data are, however, sparse and relatively little baseline and historical aquatic environmental data exist. These data are necessary to the process of formulating predictions about the future environmental changes in the High Arctic. Physical, biological and chemical limnological and paleolimnological information from the lakes and ponds that dot the High Arctic tundra in such regions as Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Nunavat can provide a means of acquiring these data. These water bodies are both sensitive and vulnerable to such environmental influences as global warming (Smol et al. 1991), increased UB-B penetration (Vincent & Pienitz 1966) and local pollution inputs (Douglas & Smol 1999). Moreover, lake sediment records hold a wealth of otherwise unattainable climate records that allow us to understand past environmental and climate trends, and forecast into our future. In addition to earth sciences applications, high arctic lake sediments are also of interest to Mars analog studies. For example, the ancient lake deposits from Haughton Crater, Devon Island may act as a potential analog for sediments expected to be found in extinct impact crater lake beds on Mars. A comprehensive study involving diatom analysis, amongst many other chemical and biological investigations, of the post-impact crater-fill lacustrine sedimentary deposits from Haughton Crater will help to reconstruct the past aquatic environment of the crater, as well as build upon previous paleoinvestigations by Hickey et al. (1988) and Whitlock and Dawson (1990) by providing a direct aquatic environmental record.

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Track 1B 4:00 pm Exercising Martian Resource Utilization Technologies at Analog Sites George James, ETM Inc, Houston, TX. Donald Barker, MAXD, Inc. Gregory Chamitoff, NASA, Houston, TX. The identification and utilization of In-situ Martian natural resources are the key to enabling cost-effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars as well as providing an essential safety net/cost reduction for the initial missions. The incident radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface deposits, polar caps, and frozen volatiles represent planetary resources, which can provide breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Presently, much work is underway to develop technologies to utilize the planets resources (primarily atmosphere) to enhance a manned Mars outpost. However, successful utilization of a wide variety of Martian resources (including atmospheric) will require experience and operational testing before implementation. The operational aspects of Martian resource utilization includes: determining operational needs; prospecting for local sources; converting local sources into useful materials/energy; and determining operational constraints on local resource utilization. This presentation will cover the initial attempt to detail how terrestrial Mars analog sites can be used to help develop and exercise these operational issues. Specific information from the 1st full field season at the FMARS station on Devon Island will be presented. Also, suggestions for future efforts at the FMARS station as well as other sites will also be presented.

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Track 1B 4:30 pm Initial Human Spatial Awareness Studies for Robot Assisted Mars Exploration John G. Blitch LTC, USA Blitchj@aol.com

Launching a manned expedition to Mars is an inherently risk intensive endeavor. It has nonetheless been presented as an inevitable course of human evolution that not only appeals to the youthful adventurist, but compels one to consider an entire range of scientific exploration initiatives that drive headlong into the heart of mankind’s natural curiosity, if not our entire raison d’etre. Is the cure for cancer on Mars? Are we alone? In the disappointing aftermath of the 20th century’s bold lunar exploration programs, however, humanity appears to have shed its adventurous tendencies for a risk adverse approach to space exploration that focuses almost exclusively on robotic survey and mapping activities in lieu of the daring yet intuitive search and investigate paradigm which dominated mankind’s previous sojourns into the unknown. This paper presents an alternative view of robotic technology exploitation in the context of portable platforms that form the basis of a collaborative and deeply integrated human-robot inspection and sample collection team for Mars exploration. An operational perspective of portable and marsupial platform employment is introduced first in a comparison of human vs. unmanned mission profiles. This is followed by a discussion of tele-operator cognitive loading issues with emphasis on multi-robot control and spatial awareness. Initial experimental data collected during the 2001 NASA HMP / Mars Flashline project is then presented which suggests a strong correlation between human spatial ability scoring and robot control effectiveness. The paper closes with a case for the development of human dominated Robot Assisted Sample Collection and Inspection Teams (RASCAIT) as a means to actually reduce risk while simultaneously increasing operational capability, reliability and cost effectiveness. The conclusion drawn from literature review, experimental data, and personal experience is that human robot teaming represents critical enabling technology thrust for Mars exploration - one which calls for greatly expanded research into human-robot interaction on both a physical interface and cognitive processing basis.

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Track 2B 1:00 pm Martian Light Levels, From a Photographer's View Gus Frederik gus@norwebster.com It is a fact that at best, Mars receives about half the sunlight that Earth does. It has been said that this amount seen at Martian noon would be similar to twilight on Earth. Others have pointed out that this would necessitate the use of artificial light for all but a few low-light ornamental house plants in future Martian greenhouse. But then, if this was true, how could we ever hope to terraform such a dark place? In reality, the half-light figure relates to the light reaching the top of the respective planetary atmospheres. Earth's absorbs around 30% on the clearest day, but usually much more. Close to 50% in most cases. Mars' thinner atmosphere absorbs only between 5 and 10% most of the time, but can dip to 30% during dust storms. So in reality, the spread is smaller, in fact to 65% of Earth normal levels although the spectral distribution is quite different. Half the amount of light does seem like a lot. But in photography, we deal with halves and doubles in relation to light all the time. For example, half the light of a cloudless noon at the Earth's equator on an equinox, (where the sun is coming in perpendicular to the Earth's surface) would be like the same day on Earth with a light haze. In photography, we use f-stops and shutter speeds to control exposure of photosensitive materials. Both of these controls are set up in halves and doubles. This discussion will illustrate why Martian light levels, while less than Earth's, should still be ample for the growth of plants, even considering light absorption from greenhouse glazing materials.

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Track 2B 1:30 pm A Mathematical Model of Terraforming Mars Martyn J. Fogg Probability Research Group c/o 44 Hogarth Court Fountain Drive, London SE19 1UY, United Kingdom mfogg@globalnet.co.uk If Mars is to support widespread life its environment must first be raised to a temperature similar to that of the Earth. Global warming on Mars will therefore be an essential element in any initial terraforming strategy. To examine this problem, a simple climate model is presented that permits the user to alter the insolation and albedo of Mars and to introduce greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ammonia and perfluorocarbons. The model is based on the grey greenhouse approximation with the grey opacities of greenhouse gases calculated from functions derived from the results of previous detailed climate models. The exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, polar caps and regolith is also included along with a discussion of the timescale required for engineered climate changes to take effect. Exploration of the model's results suggests that perfluoro gases may be one of the most efficient climate-forcing tools, and that by combining their warming effect with those of other warming methods, hospitable surface temperatures can be achieved. The dense ~ 1 bar CO2 atmospheres studied in previous terraforming models are considered unlikely and shown not to be a necessity for planetary habitability. Track 2B 2:00 pm Human Impact on the Environment: Applications to Astrobiology & Mars Kimberley Warren-Rhodes NASA-Ames Research Center and Stanford University, Dept. of Environmental Engineering & Science Kim_lamma@yahoo.com A fundamental goal of NASA’s Astrobiology Program is the investigation of ecosystem response to rapid environmental change on Earth. In recent years, mankind’s ability to alter ecosystem function at the local, regional and global levels has been demonstrated through anthropogenic effects such as global warming, rapid urbanization, human domination of the nitrogen cycle, desertification, deforestation, and toxic contamination and overexploitation of the world’s oceans. Extrapolating our terrestrial experiences to those beyond Earth, it may be assumed that human exploration and development of Mars and other planets will engender predictable as well as unanticipated environmental consequences. By examining human impacts on the Earth’s environment over time and

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across scale, it is possible to understand (albeit not fully) and prevent many of the negative environmental impacts resulting from potential human activities on Mars. This paper provides a review of these issues and proposes prescriptions for extra-planetary stewardship and sustainable exploration and development of Mars. Track 2B 2:30 pm Volatile Inventories on a Frozen "White Mars" Dr. Nick Hoffman Victorian Institute of Earth and Planetary Science Department of Earth Science La Trobe University Victoria 3086 Australia n.hoffman@latrobe.edu.au Recent work on the evolution of volatiles on a frozen "White" Mars shows that it is a most un-Earthlike planet. It has probably never had liquid water flowing at its surface, at least since the Noachian - some 4 billion years ago. Instead, much of the surface features that are often cited as evidence for rivers, lakes, and oceans were produced by violent outbursts of subsurface liquid carbon dioxide. Energetic debris-laden flows supported by CO2 gas have eroded channels, transported material and infilled the northern plains. Modern day Mars is still frozen to great depths and liquid water is going to be hard to find. Faced with these difficulties, what can be done in the way of human survival on Mars? Surprisingly, this new view of Mars has few adverse impacts on plans to visit the planet. The state of Modern Mars is unchanged by this new view of its evolution, except that pockets of liquid CO2 may still persist at moderate depths (500m to 5 km) in the regolith. A short-term visit to the planet that does not plan deep drilling will be totally unaffected. For longer-term plans such as colonization, more significant impacts result. Liquid water is going to be scarcer and deeper than previously expected (typically 4 km depth at the equator rather then 1 km), and drilling for water will require safety protection against blowouts of liquid CO2. Plans to terraform Mars must recognize that there was no former "warm and wet" state to which we can "return" the planet. Instead, an atmosphere and hydrosphere must be created de novo. This will clearly require a significantly larger engineering feat than currently envisaged. Nonetheless, White Mars predicts that much larger volatile inventories are available than in a conventional model and the ultimate future state of a terraformed Mars can be significantly warm and wet.

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Track 2B 3:00pm Dust Streaks or Water Stains, a Martian Enigma Efrain Palermo Palermo@qwest.net Dark streaks which flow down the slopes of Mars and fan out just like water but which NASA states are just dust streaks intrigued me enough to make a full fledged study of this geologic anomaly which spanned many months and thousands of MOC images and has led me (and others) to the conclusion that these may well be the action of water stains and not just dusty avalanches. The impact of this discovery is that water may well be much more available on Mars than previously postulated by the scientists at NASA and JPL. Though there are many instances on Mars where there are dark streaks that are obviously dust related (like the dark curlicues exposed by dust devils), the streaks I have been investigating fall well outside this ground phenomenon. The stains I have been studying, for one thing, fall below 30 degrees latitude north and above 30 degrees latitude south, in other words, with the equatorial zones. None of these stains (or seepages) fall above 40 degrees north or south of the equator. There is dust all over Mars, so why aren’t these stain features outside of this range? These seepages also have uncanny water like morphology, i.e., they start at a point source uphill, than fan out and “flow” over and around obstacles and finally end in dendritic patterns. The stains also appear to turn a lighter gray over time, which would not be consistent with the dust avalanche theory. What is even more startling as proof is that none of the seepages show any lateral wind streaking which would be apparent if they were dust slides. This research has been written up in an eight-page research paper which is coauthored by a geologist at SPSR. The paper is available online in a .pdf file at: http://www.users.qwest.net/~vtwild/webpage/SeepsPaper.pdf Track 2B 3:30 pm Design and Construction of Analog Suits for FMARS 2001 Dewey Anderson dewey@csn.org Beginning immediately after the 2000 Mars Society Conference in Toronto, members of the Rocky Mountain Mars Society FMARS Mission Support formed a committee to decide on a design concept for analog Mars suits to be worn by the FMARS field team on EVA during the 2001 season. Ideas ranged from ski suits with motorcycle helmets to

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spacesuit costumes provided by a Hollywood special effects company. The requirements for the suit were 1) that it provide the basic inconveniences of a real spacesuit so that field team members would gain experience in dealing with wearing a suit, 2) that it be survivable so that field team members could wear it for hours at a time while on EVA and 3) that it be cosmetically appealing, i.e., LOOK like what the public has come to expect a spacesuit looks like. The original budget for the suit was on the order of $500 per suit which took us out of the industrial realm. Eventually a design concept was arrived at that involved a canvas “jumpsuit” to serve as the actual suit with a helmet and backpack worn over it. A professional seamstress was hired to sew the jumpsuits. The backpack and helmet were cobbled together by Mars Society members from a variety of objects hijacked from a wide range of mundane applications. The result was a Mars suit that looked surprisingly authentic and served the crew well through the 2001 field season on Devon Island. Track 2B 4:00 pm The Mars Suit External Audio System Donald C. Barker Gregory T. Delory Ph.D. George H. James Ph.D. donald.c.barker1@jsc.nasa.gov A prototype external audio sensor system that will provide an ambient surround sound acoustic interface for future Mars Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits is currently under development. The system outlined herein has been conceptually derived as a tool used to enhance human interaction within the Martian surface environment. It has been found that the Martian surface environment is acoustically equivalent to the terrestrial stratosphere (~30 km altitude) resulting in a reduction in sound power levels of only 20 dB, which can easily be compensated for by using standard microphone sensors and amplification electronics. Exploration of the surface of Mars will require crews to routinely work within the confined spaces of environmental pressure suits during missions lasting as much as 150 days. Contemporary “space suit” designs were established for operations in near vacuum environments and were designed to provide life support for EVA crews with a minimum physiological or psychological interaction with the external environment. Human sensory interaction is currently mainly supported in the visual domain. In taking the next step towards working in environments on other worlds that contain atmospheres, it is possible to regain the use of some of our innate sensory infrastructure even while working in the confines of environmental suits. Enhancing human environment interactions and capabilities will provide crews with the proper cues and feedback to work more efficiently and safely during the long and frequent excursions expected on Mars missions. Crews will be able to audibly judge actions, environmental conditions, and equipment operations while enhancing scientific observations. The prototype under development utilizes recent advances in sound processing technology to produce an EVA suit communications system that would give the occupant a high fidelity aural-perceptual connection to the external Martian

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environment. Derived from Mars Polar Lander flight hardware, the proposed system incorporates low power, low cost, off-the-shelf components including a sound processing chip, small, rugged electret microphones, and miniaturized speakers. The audio portion of the system contains externally mounted suit microphones which record acoustic signals that are then digitally processed. Currently, the feasibility to yield instant directional information of the external sound source to the suit occupant is being studied. In addition, an externally mounted speaker has been integrated into the design to provide a redundant means of communication between EVA crewmembers equipped with the audio sensors and the added ability to interact with other voice activated equipment. This system is the first to provide a human operator with direct acoustic information of a surrounding non-Terrestrial atmosphere. Derivative commercial systems could potentially be integrated into any confined human occupied environment or remotely operated vehicle applications, including environmental isolation suits, fire fighting, and underwater or Mars surface ROVs. Track 2B 4:30 pm Berkeley Space Suit Design Team Camron Gorguinpour Email: camronghia@hotmail.com Raven LeClair 2533 Durant Ave. #31 Berkeley, CA 94704 Email: ravenl@uclink4.berkeley.edu The Advanced Space Suit design team at the University of California, Berkeley is currently conducting research to develop a prototype that employs a two-system pressurization. Separating and isolating the oxygen used for respiration from the torso pressurization will also substantially reduce the risk of an explosive decompression. Current Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU’s) utilize 100% O2 for full body pressurization placing the suit at great risk of micrometeorite puncture and explosive decompression. This paper presents the results of our preliminary research into the development of a neck dam system. In addition, we present the results of our research and testing of mechanical counter pressure as a means of torso pressurization. Dr. Paul Webb first demonstrated the concept of mechanical counter pressure in 1968. Alternative methods of torso pressurization are also investigated. Further development is expected, leading to the implementation of the concept design.

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Track 2B 5:00 pm Mars Extreme Gear Design Ms. Susmita Mohanty MoonFront, LLC One Embarcadero Center, Suite 500 San Francisco, CA 94111 As the human race constantly explores new frontiers, Mars is the next logical choice. Both, NASA and the Russian Space Agency are talking about a manned mission to Mars within the next 20 years. One of the critical elements of a successful Mars mission will be the Mars Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suit. Led by MoonFront – a San Francisco based space consulting firm, a team of graduate and undergraduate students at the Art Center College of Design will be engaged over the summer and fall of 2001, researching and designing a new kind of Mars suit code named “Mars Extreme Gear”. The aim of this project is to visualize, produce and test alternative design solutions for a Mars suit. The project will follow a systems design approach. It will involve consultations with space suit experts and astronauts. A broad breakdown of the design tasks includes: Study past, present and future space suit designs; study space suit life cycles Study Mars environment and mission scenarios Identify EVA requirements for Mars exploration Develop design concepts for the astronaut-suit interface Develop design concepts for subsystems such as the headgear, life-support backpack etc. - Detailed 3D computer visualizations - High fidelity mock-ups - Suit prototype The Mars Extreme Gear Project’s “design” outcome will be integrated with the “engineering” aspects resulting from the research and development underway at the Engineering departments of Caltech, Stanford and UC Berkeley. A working prototype of the integrated suit will be built in collaboration with NASA and a Hollywood based company called Global Effects. The suit prototype will then be tested at Mars analog sites such as Mars Society’s Mars Arctic Research Station or NASA’s Haughton Crater station in the Canada Arctic.

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Track 3B 1:00 pm Tethered Experiment for Mars Interplanetary Operations (TEMPO) Tom Hill Aerospace Engineer hillkid@earthlink.net The long travel times associated with a trip to and from Mars can expose a crew to over 6 months of zero gravity conditions, which would render them very weak upon their arrival at their destination. The Mars Direct mission plan detailed a method using a spent upper stage as a counterbalance for generating significant artificial gravity, but such a scheme has not been tested practically. The TEMPO mission will fly as a secondary payload, taking advantage of unused payload mass on a larger launch and will test the viability of a rotating artificial gravity generation system. The mission may take place either in low Earth orbit or in a geosynchronous transfer orbit. Designed as a payload bus consisting of thrusters, an integrated circuit based inertial reference system, and a counterweight with no active components, the spacecraft mass goal is under 50 kg. After separating from its boost stage, the craft will split into two parts, connected by a tether. Using thrusters, the craft will start spinning to verify the dynamic interactions of a two-part vehicle, and the on board electronics will relay the accelerations and shocks the vehicle experiences throughout. Once stable, TEMPO will conduct changes in velocity along three axes, verifying methods and effects. Also during this time, communications tests are possible to determine the minimal complexity for a high data rate link back to Earth. When all other mission objectives are met, the primary bus will separate from the counterweight, verifying that such an action can take place with acceptable dynamics. Using off-the-shelf components, the spacecraft can be built for under $1M and launched for a cost on the order of $2M (if no launch agency is willing to donate the flight). Track 3B 1:30 pm A Model For Minimizing The Risk Of Sudden Death During Exercise In LongTerm Space Flight George D. Swanson Ph. D Enloe Hospital Behavioral Health Center Department of Physical Education and Exercise Physiology California State University Chico, CA 95929-0330 dswanson@csuchico.edu Crewmembers in long-term space flight may be relatively sedentary for months. An exercise program will be necessary to maintain health and physical capacity. However, vigorous exercise stresses the heart and can trigger sudden death. This risk increases for those relatively sedentary individuals who occasionally attempt vigorous exercise. Alternatively, the risk is also high for those who exercise regularly for longer periods of

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time. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model that characterizes the risk of sudden death during exercise and to use that model to determine an optimal amount of regular vigorous exercise that minimizes that risk. The Physicians Health Study (Albert et al., N Engl J Med 343: 1353-1361, 2000) followed 21,481 physicians for 12 years during which 122 died of sudden death. These physicians were free of cardiovascular disease at the beginning of the study and will form the reference group for our analysis (Swanson, N Engl J Med 344: 854-855, 2001). Nested case-crossover methods were used to lay out contingency tables in terms of sudden death and person hours of exercise or sedentary time. Combining these tables yields an odds ratio for sudden death during exercise compared to rest: OR = {Fx / (1-Fx)] [(1-Px) / Px] where Fx is the fraction of sudden deaths that occur during exercise and is Px is the proportion of time that exercise could trigger sudden death. As in the Physicians Health Study, Fx is linearly related to Px: Fx = α + β Px. Combining these two equations yields a quadratic equation for the minimum risk: β(β-1) Px2 + 2αβ Px + α(α-1) = 0. The solution characterizes the optimal amount of exercise. For the Physicians Health Study, this was about 30 min per day six days a week. The implications of this model will be explored for a Mars mission. Track 3B 2:00 pm Medical Emergencies on a Mars Mission Marsh Cuttino, MD Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals Department of Emergency Medicine Main Hospital, G-503 401 North 12th Street P.O. Box 980401 Richmond, Virginia 23298-0401 Marshcuttino@Mindspring.com Emergency medical problems could be disastrous to operations on a manned mission to Mars. Crew illness or injury could stop exploration, and cause early termination of a manned mission. Proper management can allow completion of mission objectives, and save the lives of the crew. Proper planning for a manned mission to Mars must include planning for traumatic and medical emergencies. A partial list of injury types is discussed, as well as basic techniques for treatment. Traumatic and hypobaric injuries are likely to be seen. Psychological emergencies and techniques to handle them are discussed. To identify risks I reviewed the analogous populations of astronauts, submariners, and arctic researchers. Literature on groups such as mountain climbers, saturation divers, and wilderness explorers was used to identify further risks. An algorithmic approach to space flight emergency treatment is proposed. Similar algorithms are successfully utilized in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. This approach will simplify training for the Mars crewmembers. Additional methods of training for medical emergencies, such as human patient

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simulators will allow high fidelity training prior to the mission. The inclusion of a physician on the crew would be beneficial. Track 3B 2:30 pm Tooth Loss- Is it an Unavoidable Occupational Health Risk in Long-term Space Flight? William Stenberg, DDS Commander, US Public Health Service WW Hastings Indian Hospital 100 South Bliss Avenue Tahlequah, OK 74464 (918) 453-1332 Home (918) 458-3150 Work wmstenberg@aol.com It has been many years since man first set foot on the moon. The next logical step in the sequence of space exploration is a manned mission to Mars. Although the Martian surface has been explored by unmanned spacecraft, human interplanetary travel presents some unusual difficulties, the most salient of which is the lack of gravity. In a zero gravity situation the human body is not able to maintain bone mass resulting in a type of osteoporosis. It is estimated that a human being loses approximately 1% of bone mass for each month in space. A typical Mars mission of thirty months could therefore result in 30% bone loss, which is considered severe osteoporosis. This could result in a high risk of fracture upon return to Earth’s gravitational field. This is considered one of the major biomedical showstoppers of long duration human space flight. Various protocols have been developed in an attempt to minimize the bone loss in zero gravity. These include vigorous exercise programs, which may last several hours each day, and weightlifting using elastic cords as a substitute for weights. There is some evidence that these measures may compensate for lack of gravity and reduce the severity of the bone loss. Loss of bone mass in the long bones of the skeleton may not be the only problem. Recent research in periodontolgy has shown that osteoporotic periodontal bone is more susceptible to breakdown than healthy bone, and that tooth loss is more frequent in subjects with osteoporosis. The strategies which may prove useful in the long bones, exercise, etc., are not adaptable to the oral bone. The bone surrounding the teeth is very susceptible to damage from the type of overloading that this would cause. Strategies to preserve the oral bone may include dietary and pharmacologic measures.

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Track 3B 3:00 pm Dental Maintenance and Emergency Protocol System Dr. Craig Savin 650 Vernon Glencoe, IL. 60022 chidoc5@email.msn.com Dental emergencies as well as Dental maintenance will be an issue in space since men and women will be living there for several months to years at a time. What if someone has an abscess or fractures a tooth? What if a preexisting filling fractures? What affect does microgravity have on periodontal disease? Since teeth are housed in bone, what effect will weightlessness have on the strength and therefore the support of the teeth, and what type of "exercise" will maintain proper bone density? My research and experimentation goals are to discover which Dental procedures will work in this environment, then train a selected flight crewmember from each space shuttle mission or a crew member aboard the ISS, these procedures necessary to stabilize an injured astronaut. In addition to helping the space program, the knowledge gained from these proven procedures will help those who need immediate dental care in remote areas around the world. The creation of a "Dental Maintenance and Emergency Protocol System" would address the appropriate treatment modalities of dental emergencies that could occur in space, which no matter how significant, can produce incapacitating results, thus hindering, even "scrubbing" the mission entirely. Additionally, the creation of a microgravity dental program would maximize and enhance the scientific application of Dentistry as we know it, potentially rendering significant benefits that would enhance medical science worldwide as the program evaluates the orbital affect of weightlessness on (dental) bone metabolism, which, in space, becomes more fragile and subject to demineralization. Track 3B 3:30 pm The New Human Being Derrick L. Coles, Sr. Owner/Director Of Research Dragon Rose dragonroseinc@yahoo.com Seventy-two hours after a human being enters the micro/zero gravity environment we begin to undergo physiological changes that to date, NASA has termed ”physiological de-conditioning". Upon returning to Earth we know that recovery time is directly related to time spent in space. So in regards to long duration exposure to the micro/zero gravity environment, I know these physiological changes are a process of "re-conditioning" the human being to allow for our continued existence in this new environment.

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Track 4B 1:00 pm Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery as a Model For Mars Exploration Donald M. Scott NASA Educator for Montana, NV dscott@aesp.nasa.okstate.edu In 2003, two rovers will be sent to Mars. This in preparation for the coming human exploration of Mars. 2003 is also the Bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. By examining this expedition, called the best expedition of exploration ever undertaken, we can find ideas for the exploration of Mars. As importantly, we can find ideas about how to educate today's students to prepare them to travel to Mars. Track 4B 1:30 pm Involving Non-Traditional Customers In The Grand Adventure: The NASA Means Business Student Competition H. Mandell NASA has recognized for many years that a successful human Mars exploration initiative must have a broader base of public support than it currently has. An examination of NASA outreach revealed that most university programs were directed toward the science and engineering student bodies, which constitute a minority of the total student population. To broaden the base of its key university outreach, a program has been developed to involve non-traditional students in this grand adventure. Targeted are students of government, communications, public administration, marketing, and business administration who are even more likely to become involved in national policy formulation than are scientists and engineers. NASA has chosen to perform this outreach as a series of student competitions, entitled “NASA Means Business,” a program administered by the Texas Space Grant Consortium. There are three primary purposes of the competitions. The first is to involve the nontraditional constituencies, themselves new customers, in the actual work of NASA, using as a mechanism the development of business and customer engagement plans for a Mars mission. The second purpose is to involve future policy makers in the planning process, to demonstrate to them the excitement of such ventures. And the final purpose is to provide access to expertise which does not exist within NASA itself. Five or six teams are chosen each year. There have been a number of successes in the first three years. These include the “Think Mars” and “Mars Week” of MIT, teamed with Harvard, and a number of other successful outreach programs at Texas, Colorado, Texas A&M, Maryland, Illinois, Purdue, Stanford, and Georgia Tech/Emory/Georgia State.

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To perform basic research, a “Customer Engagement Laboratory” has been created, with fellowships awarded to students in the Department of Communications at The University of Texas at Austin. Track 4B 2:00 pm Teaching Space in a Public School Classroom Ned (Edward J.) Dodds P.O. Box 1382 Martinez, CA 94553-7382 ejdodds@home.com After over ten years working as a teacher in public school classrooms while researching what it will take to revitalize Americans interest in their own space program I've learned a few things. However, it must be said at the outset that this research is far from complete, that there are many people "out there" working on same the goal whose work I'm not conversant with. So this paper is a status report of a kind. Much of this paper focuses on the conclusions I've come to through personal experience and observation. Some of it isn't new, it's only my personal corroboration of ideas published elsewhere. My main conclusion is that we can do something about the lack of penetration of NASA's and other's materials in the classrooms where they need to be, the fourth through eighth grades. That something is to help elementary teachers who majored in the humanities to develop lessons they feel comfortable using to teach math and science with space flight as a delivery theme. There are a few integrated programs I've come across which are discussed as examples of using aviation and space themes as vehicles for teaching just math and science. There are a couple using those themes to teach the entire curriculum. There need to be more. And there need to be small, self-contained units a humanities major, non-technologist can use comfortably for a few days lessons. Track 4B 2:30 pm Martians in the Arctic Maryse Sari Lycee de la Borde-Basse 81100 Castres-France sari@worldnet.fr After the very successful impact of last year’s educational project named “Mars and robots: from exploration to colonization”, the 10th and 11th grade students asked for a follow-up project in 2000/2001. “Martians in the Arctic” was designed and implemented

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with the help of the Robotic and Artificial group at LAAS-CNRS in collaboration with the French Ministry of Education and the French chapter of the Mars Society. This program highlighted the importance of the Arctic as a preliminary laboratory anticipating the next base on Mars and was achieved with the implementation of modern educational tools. On the one hand, Mars was an incentive that stimulated the students’ interest in the English language and in Technology, on the other hand Mars satisfied their craving for space. In order to improve their skills the French students used the Internet to communicate with specialists, scientists and students worldwide. They prepared the exhibition of their final work and built a “Robomars”. Close to the educational requirements, the scientific content was defined by the LAAS scientists. The project focused on 3 major themes: - The Arctic environment: Haughton crater, wildlife, pollution, northern lights, the Inuit, history. - The Mars Arctic Station: description, connections with a Martian base, men in a confined space, selection criteria of a team for Mars. - Planetary robotics: Setting up the site, robots for exploration, building , maintaining a base on Mars, the radiation. Taking advantage of last year’s contacts, the French students exchanged messages with the scientists who helped them understand the scientific content. Several schools in foreign countries were also involved in the project at the communication level which fine-tuned the students’ ability to use the English language. Keeping in mind this project was designed not only to arouse the students’ interest and curiosity but also to promote the Martian exploration, its detailed description will give a wider range of information about the scientific issues and the methodology implemented at school. The students’ deep involvement was awarded a series of national and international awards. Track 4B 3:00 pm More than Mars … Much More Lawrence H.. Kuznetz N2Mars@aol.com The dangerous decline in math/science education poses a greater threat to US National Security than any potential war. So says a study commissioned by the government to study national security over the next quarter century. This sobering outlook would appear to relegate a big-ticket project like a human Mars mission to the junk heap. Even if this were not the case, as Dr. Neil Tyson, Director of the Hayden Planetarium observed recently, massive projects like Mars or the Pyramids have historical precedent for only of 3 reasons: war, money or the ego of heads of state. But Dr. Tyson overlooked a fourth reason, one with no historical precedent – education. For the past 5 years, we at UC Berkeley have been conducting a pilot project aimed at developing the technology for a human mission to Mars while improving science literacy. Targeting undergraduates, high school students and minorities, the Mars by 2012 project here used design projects

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centered on Mars to show that science can be fun and choosing a career in it can be rewarding. Many of the projects have real world applications, such as bone loss experiments that may help osteoporosis; space suit designs that can influence extreme weather gear and radiation studies that could influence protection standards. This talk will outline how such a program can be expanded to the national level through a web based venue with the aim of improving science literacy, teaching the team approach and setting the stage for a real mission to Mars at a fraction of the cost one might think. Track 4B 3:30 pm Welcome to Pele Base Gus Frederick gus@norwebster.com Imagine yourself in the year 2030. You are visiting a colony of 100 of your fellow humans, on the planet Mars. How would you describe this community? These are questions posed by NASA and others as part of the Mars Millennium Project, (MMP). The author, an Instructional Technologist for the Oregon Public Education Network, (OPEN), has created a specialized Web resource around this topic, in partnership with Oregon chapters of The Mars Society and the National Space Society. The OPEN MMP Web site hosts a variety of different interdisciplinary resources, tasks, lesson plans and links to assist Oregon students, educators and others in this endeavor. A major tool for this site will be the "Storyline Method," a learning technique developed in Scotland, and promoted in the U.S. by several Oregon public school teachers. The Storyline Method (known as "Topic Studies" in Scotland) started as a means of moving various subject areas into a common project. For example, with the OPEN MMP, the students become journalists, leaving home on Earth to visit "Pele Base", a colony constructed within a Martian lava tube cave located on the North flank of Olympus Mons. Carefully planned episodes engage students in actual practice and application of basic skills within the context of the storyline. Another unique aspect of this method is that it instills the value of the very human tradition of story telling. The other major focus will be a subsection geared towards High School vocational agriculture students, called "ET Agriculture." In partnership with the Stewart-Peterson Group, OPEN is modifying a number SPG's "AgEdNET" online vocational agriculture lessons, to apply towards Extraterrestrial use. A host of lessons covering such topics as hydroponics, agriculture technology, food science and more, will provide a unique "Martian" slant to this Vo Ag resource.

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Track 4B 4:00 pm Mars Latin Rover: Educational Program and Perspectives Jésica Estefán, Vanina Tapia, Gonzalo Caballero, Alejandro Zalazar, Pablo Flores. Lavalle 348, 5º Piso, C1047AAH, Bs. As. Argentina. (www.marslatinrover.com) astroboy@supernet.com.ar Mars Latin Rover (M.L.R.) is an educational, scientific and technological project being carried out in Latin America. Its main objective is the design and development of a sixwheeled rover, a vehicle able to move on the surface of Mars. The aim of the educational program is to approach students from primary and high school to the space sciences and encourage them, as well as their instructors, to explore and participate in this fascinating area. Fifty groups will be chosen among the interested ones, which will imply about 1500 children and adolescents taking part of the project. Each group, according to its characteristics, will be given a specific task and it will be coordinated by its teachers or professors and guided by university assistants and professionals. Obtaining optimal results requires getting information about the terrain, distribution of rocks, mechanical properties, teleoperation techniques, etc. Once finished, the rover will be tested in different places such as a mine and a volcano. M.L.R. is endorsed by official institutions and supported by private sectors. This education project is very ambitious in light that space initiatives are poorly developed in Latin America, and in fact, it is the first planetary robotics project completely developed in Latin America. Track 4B 4:30 pm Marsbase: An Educational Simulation Game Marc Salotti 10 Rue de Russie 50100 Cherbourg, France marc.salotti@wanadoo.fr With the help of Benoit Boulant, David Prieur, Eli Cali and Bertrand Spitz We present an educational game simulating the first developments of a Martian base. It is the next version of the software presented at the Mars Convention in Toronto last year. In the first stage, the user can choose the objects to be carried by the rocket for a flight to the red planet. Oxygen, water, the number of astronauts, the power systems, the rovers and the habitat are important objects, but many others are proposed, like fertiliser, various chemical elements, a greenhouse, a chemical unit, a factory, and so on. The number of days in space and on the planet, and the maximum payload are important parameters of this initial stage. Once the choice is made, a new screen is proposed, the user faces a

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high-resolution satellite image of Mars and the buildings imported from the Earth. There is also a fix panel devoted to the interface with the user, like in many other simulation games such as Age of Empires or Red Alert. This panel is divided into four main parts, a small image of the entire region, the information panel, the astronaut selection area and the action panel: - The simulation area is bigger than the screen. A small image of the entire region is displayed at the top of the panel to facilitate the localisation. Ores and ice are roughly indicated on this image. - The second one provides information to the user, in particular the amount of ores, chemical elements and industrial objects that are available in a base or a rover. Life support system information is also given and a blackboard is proposed to inform the user of a particular event. - The astronaut selection area enables the user to select an astronaut at the base, in a rover or in EVA (extravehicular activity), provided that the corresponding building or vehicle has been previously selected. A double click on the astronaut makes him go out in EVA. - All actions are embedded in the action panel. A selected astronaut can carry or put down an object, start or stop a transformation (chemical or industrial or farming) or start the construction of a new building. The purpose of this simulation game is to show the basic principles that will make it possible to achieve self-sufficiency during a long stay on the surface of Mars. For instance, carbon dioxide can be combined with hydrogen to produce a specific propellant based on methane combustion. Water can be produced from ice that probably exists deep under the surface or it can also be extracted from the soil (in small amounts) using wellknown heating and then condensation techniques. Farming is possible under a greenhouse. We also propose the extraction of interesting chemical elements from ores (for instance Fe from hematite or Si from silicates), provided that a chemical unit and a solar furnace have been imported from the Earth. All transformations are defined in declaration files in order to make them independent from the programmer and to allow a flexible management. We have been working on the simulator for fourteen months. Most features have already been implemented but many details and some improvements remain to be considered. Track 4B 5:00 pm The NASA Academy Daniar Hussain 2001 NASA Academy hussaind@rattler.gsfc.nasa.gov The NASA Academy was conceived in 1993 by the late Dr. Gerry Soffen, Project Scientist on the Viking Mars Mission, to train the future leaders of the space program. This year, there are academies at two NASA centers -- an Astrobiology Academy at

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Ames Research Center (CA), and a Space Flight Academy at Goddard Space Flight Center (MD). In the past, there have been academies at Marshal and Dryden Research Centers, and we are working hard to institutionalize the Academy at all NASA Centers next year. The Academy introduces participants to the work of NASA, and the collaboration between government, academia, and industry in space-related projects. Students spend about 50% of their time working in the labs with a Principal Investigator on an individual research project. They spend the rest of their time meeting with and hearing speakers, going on field trips to other NASA Centers and related locations, and are involved in leadership training. Every year, the Academy also produces a group project; this year's group project is called Bacterium 1, and the mission is to send a small, golf-ball sized spacecraft carrying a small biological payload to the Moon, and record and signal its reproduction back to Earth. Some of the people in the Academy this year may be the first astronauts on Mars! Track 5B 1:00 pm The Mars Environment Observer Scout Mission Mark Allen Earth and Planetary Atmospheres Research Element Earth and Space Sciences Division Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Mail Stop 183-401 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109 Mark.Allen@jpl.nasa.gov The Mars Environmental Observer (MEO) Scout mission concept addresses the key Mars Exploration Program goals of Life, Climate, Geology, and Human Exploration (MEPAG goals I-IV). The unique approach of MEO greatly extends what has been or can be achieved towards these goals by past and presently planned missions. MEO will achieve its objectives through a series of unprecedented and detailed measurements of Mars atmospheric physics and composition. Three instruments (an IR occultation spectrometer and millimeter and submillimeter spectrometers) have never been flown around a planet other than the Earth. A PMIRR MkII sounder is intended for flight on the MRO orbiter for '05, but its inclusion here adds a new capability to solve for the atmospheric dust profile and extends the atmospheric sounding data for another Martian year. The overall instrument complement provides the capability for observations throughout the year (during dust storms and in polar darkness), over an extended altitude range (up to 100+ km), and for direct measurements of atmospheric winds, dust, and a broad survey of atmospheric composition. A low polar orbit allows comprehensive global mapping of water, temperature, dust, and trace constituents. In all, these capabilities greatly extend those planned for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable entirely new objectives to be pursued.

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Track 5B 1:30 pm Robotics Dr. Carol Stoker Cstoker@mail.arc.nasa.gov Track 5B 2:00 pm AMEBA Scout Concept Dr. Chris McKay mckay@galileo.arc.nasa.gov Track 5B 2:30 pm The Translife Mission Dr. Robert Zubrin President, The Mars Society Inc. zubrin@aol.com Track 5B 3:00 pm Mars Airplanes Dr. Larry Lemke llemke@mail.arc.nasa.gov Track 5B 3:30 pm Networks on the Edge of Forever: A Networked Tapestry of Self-Determining Interplanetary Robots Utilizing In-Situ Communication Utilization (ISCU) A.C. Charania SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) Atlanta, GA ac@spaceworkseng.com This report examines a concept for a breakthrough, low cost communications architecture to support robotic planetary exploration. “Networks On the Edge of Forever” integrates new knowledge being advanced in analog robotics, atmospheric physics, and terrestrial network topologies. These networks: exist outside near-Earth space, use analog (continuous) versus digital robots, use near continuous transmission between clients and servers, and use brief atmospheric meteor bursts to communicate between nodes. BEAM, self-determining, analog robotics is coupled in network topologies using In-Situ

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Communication Utilization (ISCU) in the form of Meteor Burst (MB) communication to explore bodies in the solar system. BEAM (Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics, Mechanics) robots forgo traditional reliance on digital electronics, using analog devices to mimic specific tendencies. MB communications are based upon the fact that every day millions of meteors come into Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionize gas molecules suitable to reflect telecommunication radio waves. The approach presented here does not require costly network topologies as in current approaches to interplanetary network architectures. “Behavior replicating” hardware dependent robots and nature itself (through meteor bursts) are used in place of human-compliant software, dependant robots and massive orbital telecommunication constellations. This proposed network leaps the gulf of execution imposed by stark space exploration budgets. This examination seeks to assess whether self-determining robots can be networked together utilizing Meteor Burst (MB) communication and evaluates specific mission extensions. An interplanetary application of the networks included here is coverage of the Mars surface using a clientserver/ultra-wide broadcast architecture. Given the envisioned future of increased software complexity and the need for continuous operating robotic outposts/networks on other worlds, these are transactional networks (continuous with numerous nodes) that offer transformational capabilities. Track 5B 4:00 pm Sun-Mars Libration Points and Mars Mission Simulations Jon D. Strizzi, Joshua M. Kutrieb, Paul E. Damphousse, and John P. Carrico The equilibrium points of the Sun-Mars system bring some unique characteristics to the discussion of future inner solar system exploration missions, particularly an expedition to Mars itself. Existing research has identified potential utility and data for Sun-Mars libration point missions, particularly for satellites orbiting the L1 and L2 points serving as Earth-Mars communication relays. Regarding these Lissajous orbits, we address questions of “Why go there?” “How to get there?” and “How to stay there?” Namely, we address utility and usefulness, transfer and injection, and station keeping. The restricted 3-body problem involving a spacecraft in that system is reviewed; and past and present research and proposals involving the use of these orbits are summarized and discussed. Baseline historical station keeping concepts (ISEE-3, SOHO, ACE) are reviewed and applied to the Sun-Mars system. We use Satellite Tool Kit (STK)/Astrogator for simulation and analysis of Earth-Mars transfers, Lissajous orbit insertions, and station keeping. The resulting data provides confirmation and insight for existing research and proposals, as well as new information on Mars transfer and Lissajous orbit insertion strategies to save DV, mission orbit amplitude dependencies on insertion method, and station keeping sensitivities. These data should prove useful to mission planners and concept developers for future Mars investigations.

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Friday Evening Plenary Panel Presentation 7:00-8:00 pm 2001 Field Season at the FMARS, a Video Journal by Sam Burbank

Friday Evening Panel Discussion 8:00-10:00 pm A Novel Approach – Mars Novelists Read From and Discuss Their Works (book signing by authors) Greg Benford, Geoff Landis, Kim Stanley Robinson, Robert Zubrin Saturday, August 25, 2001 Saturday Plenary Session 9:00 am TBA Shuttle Commander and Astronaut Eileen Collins Saturday Plenary Session 9:45 am Mars Analog Research on Devon Island Dr. Pascal Lee PCLee@best.com Saturday Plenary Session 10:45 am Panel Discussion Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Crew Saturday Plenary Session 11:45 am The Michigan Mars Society Rover Project Author: Anna Paulson Michigan Mars Rover Project Manager apaulson@umich.edu The Michigan Mars Rover Team has built their first manned Mars rover prototype, called Everest. The vehicle is based on an army LMTV (Light-Medium Tactical Vehicle), an off-road vehicle suited for this application. Building the vehicle required the expertise of corporate sponsors and students from a wide variety of fields. Several sub-teams worked in parallel to produce each component and the team worked together to integrate all components into the finished vehicle. Everest will be deployed this fall to the Mars

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Desert Research Station for field operations testing. The team is now working on research and design for a second prototype, called Olympus. Olympus will be a more advanced vehicle, with a hybrid-electric power system and computerized control. The design of Olympus will be refined, based on operations testing of the Everest Rover. The Michigan Mars Rover Project has produced a research platform for human factors and extra-terrestrial vehicle engineering research. We have demonstrated the successful collaboration between volunteer students and sponsor corporations in advancing research necessary for human space exploration. Track 1C 1:00 pm The Project Marsupial HOP: a Mars-Analogue Rover Ben Cairns Project Manager, Project Marsupial Mars Society Australia einre@uq.net.au The Mars Society's Analogue Rover Initiative calls for the construction of Mars-analogue rovers, in support of its wider Mars-analogue research program. Such rovers would provide platforms to test various human factors and technical aspects of pressurized rover design for human missions to Mars. Project Marsupial is the Mars Society Australia's response to the Analogue Rover Initiative. The first step for the project will be the design, construction and testing of the HOP (Human Operations Prototype). This paper will describe the design and construction of the HOP, and plans for the vehicle in 2001 and beyond. The HOP provides an achievable analogue rover platform, focused on the human factors, rather than the technical aspects of rover design. As the first rover built by Project Marsupial, it is intended that the HOP will assist with the human factors design of more ambitious and technically oriented iterations of the project. To achieve these goals, the HOP is based on an existing four-wheel drive chassis (a modified Mitsubishi L300 Express van), with modifications to support the requirements of an analogue rover. As per the Analogue Rover Initiative specifications, the HOP is a rover platform capable of allowing at least two crewmembers to engage in scientific and exploration activities on sorties of up to one week. In conjunction with a number of other technical projects, the HOP will be tested in central Australia. This region is popularly known as the 'Red Centre', and includes a number of Mars-analogue environments.

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Track 1C 1:30 pm COMPAQ ARES – A Mars Analog Rover Vesna Nikolic - University of Toronto Mechanical/Mechatronics Engineering Student vesna@pdwe.com Anthony Cutrona - Queen’s University Physics/Engineering Student 9ajc@qlink.queensu.ca Joseph McGinty - Videographer mcgintyj7@hotmail.com COMPAQ ARES is a product of the Mars Society’s 2000 Analog Rover Competition. A joint team from the University of Toronto, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Queen’s University and the Royal Military College is building the rover. ARES is a Mars analog rover in the simplest sense. Using a production model GMC cube van as a chassis, ARES will concentrate on simulating the laboratory and living space for Mars Society "astronauts". Laboratory equipment will include a computer network, robot manipulator arm and glove boxes. The living space will make use of HVAC, a recycling toilet, washing and cooking facilities and efficient space design for all the furnishings. This presentation will detail many aspects of design and construction in a multimedia format that will include video footage, 3-D animation and a scale model. The COMPAQ ARES team would like to thank our generous sponsors: The Mars Society COMPAQ Canada Queen’s University University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) Toronto Aerospace Museum Hong Kong Polytechnic University The Led Light.com Track 1C 2:00 pm Report from the Polish Rover Team

Krzysztof Biernacki Marek Zawisza

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Track 1C 2:30 pm Cruising With Bighorns: The Latest in Extreme Four-Wheel-Drive Technology, Including Considerations and Applications for Manned Mars Travel Jeremy Burns Burnsy825@hotmail.com A presentation and discussion of the latest and greatest radical technology for conquering different kinds of inclement terrain on Earth. Some different examples include tubeframe buggies with long-travel suspension and deep gearing for crawling rocks; swamp boggers with tractor tires and high horsepower nitrous-enhanced engines for crossing deep gumbo mud; and sand dune prerunners with large paddle tires, incredible power-toweight ratios, and compliant suspensions for soaking up multi-story launches. Descriptions of the engineering designs for each style of vehicle and the corresponding terrain they are meant to tackle will be included. Also, an overview of many of the simple pitfalls to avoid when building four-wheel-drives will highlight how these vehicles differ from any normal SUV. Finally we blend the best features from these designs to make less specialized, more multipurpose vehicles that are still very capable over a range of landscapes. Specifically, which terrains are likely to be encountered on Mars, a potential blend of features that are suitable for effective manned Mars travel, and how we are incorporating some of those features into the current Everest rover and future Olympus rover at the University of Michigan. Track 1C 3:00 pm Volunteers and Corporations Cooperate to Build a Manned Mars Rover Anna Paulson Michigan Mars Rover Team apaulson@umich.edu The Michigan Mars Rover Team raised funds and acquired materials for the construction of their Mars Rover by contacting many local and national corporations. The students on each sub-team researched various components needed for the vehicle, and found companies that made suitable products. The business team contacted each company and sent information about the project, asking for sponsorship in the form of a specific product. The business team also contacted many large corporations for cash sponsorship, totaling several hundred companies. The sponsors who are participating in the project are enthusiastic about furthering space exploration. They are also interested in the publicity we've received, and in establishing contacts with engineering students at the University of Michigan.

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Track 1C 3:30 pm A Review of Power Source Options Chad Ohlandt chadjo@umich.edu The power requirements for a manned rover (crew 2-3) that has long-range capability (14 day, 1000 km) are significant. The results of a systems analysis on various power options including batteries, combustion engines, fuel cells, solar and nuclear systems will be presented. The study is part of the Michigan Mars Rover Project. Track 1C 4:00 pm Digital and Voice Communication Systems For An Analog Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu The obstacles in creating a communication system for an analog Mars rover are many. Most off-the-shelf systems are inadequate, and at the same time, the existing solutions for space systems are complex, expensive and often low-performance. A compromise of custom, space-hardened solutions and cheap, off-the-shelf equipment must be reached. This talk will outline the difficulties at hand, and the creative engineering that was required to enable the voice and digital communication systems on the Michigan Mars Rover. Computerization of a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu A manned Mars Rover is very much like traditional SUVs and RVs on Earth, except for one vital difference: computerization. Manned Mars Rovers will see the ubiquity of computers unlike any other vehicle or system. From digital video cameras and digital communication systems to computerized control of the vehicle and science computers, manned Mars Rover design is more computer engineering than anything else. State-ofthe-art technologies from many fields come together in a manned Mars Rover to enable a vehicle that can be completely tele-operated, and even autonomously commanded from Earth to perform long, complex missions. This talk will go in-depth on the eight topics of computerization being investigated by the Michigan Mars Rover Team as well as their findings and future work.

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Real-time Networking and Computing for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu The systems on the manned Mars Rover are a life-or-death matter. The split-second delay of a critical system can cause a vehicle collision or rollover, life support system failure or power system breakdowns. To ensure minimum latency in the computer controlled architecture of the manned Mars Rover, real-time, or deterministic, computing and networking must be used. This talk will focus on the research and development efforts of the Michigan Mars Rover Team, and the use of real time Linux and sophisticated networking architectures to ensure command execution.

Track 1C 4:30 pm Mechanism Design for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu As with any space system, the volume available on a manned Mars Rover is limited. At the same time, the needs of the crew cabin are many. It must function as a work area, a kitchen and dining room, sleeping quarters and provide enough support to endure long, off-road traverses. In order to provide all of these needs in a small space, creative mechanism design is required. Systems such as the beds, tables, workstations and chairs have many requirements. This talk will focus on the mechanical engineering and mechanism design and construction done by the Michigan Mars Rover Team, and will detail the progression from requirements to ideas to prototype to vehicle hardware. Track 1C 5:00 pm Telemetry for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu As the most capable research platform on the red planet, a manned Mars Rover must be able to completely sense and process its surroundings and the environment. From advanced digital video cameras and positioning systems, to meteorology equipment and

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scanning laser obstacle detection systems, a manned Mars Rover bristles with telemetry equipment. This talk will focus on the many types of telemetry, storing immense amount of data, integrating the information, and the analog systems designed and used by the Michigan Mars Rover. Drive-by-Wire for a Manned Mars Rover Warren Strong Michigan Mars Rover Team wstrong@umich.edu Current mission architectures call for the manned Mars Rover to spend 2 years on the red planet without human accompaniment. To take full advantage of such an advanced vehicle, full tele-operation and autonomous capability must exist. Essential to this is drive-by-wire, the process of driving the vehicle by computer. Building upon years of existing research into this topic, a distributed network control system over Ethernet is being used to enable this state-of-the-art technology. This talk will focus on the flexibility and advantages of the system, a discussion about the implementation, as well as a discussion of performance from the Michigan Mars Rover. Track 1C 5:30 pm Articulated Triad Martian Roving Vehicle Bogdan T. Fijalkowski Automotive Mechatronics Institution Institute of Electrotechnics & Industrial Electronics Department of Electrical & Industrial Electronics Thaddeus Kosciuszko Memorial Krakow University of Technology Poland pmfijalk@cyf-kr.edu.pl The articulated triad Martian roving vehicle (MRV) "Bekker" type will be designed for the usage of maneuverability in overriding mounds of narrow ridges and anti-overturn stability on steep slopes. This MRV will be the train of two or three vehicle-units propelled electro-mechanically and coupled articulately with the aid of the mechatronically neural network (NN) fuzzy-logic (FL), that is, neuro-fuzzy (NF) controlled articulation inter-unit electro-mechanical couplers (coupling joints) and/or steering mechanisms. They permit rapid vehicle-units coupling without external assistance and with substantial inter-unit misalignment as well as triad MRV steering without detracting from the propulsion or dispulsion effort. Besides, NF control of the pitch attitude between vehicle-units will be added for superior obstacle crossing capability. The drive-by-wire (DBW) four-wheel drive (4WD) middle-unit will operate as single one, that is, like a lunar roving vehicle (LRV) "Bekker" type, as far as its mobility permits. The added DBW two-wheel drive (2WD) front- and/or rear-unit should not impair normal operation. The two or three vehicle units will be coupled when the

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human- and/or telerobotic-driver (H&TD) anticipates that the single 4WD middle-unit cannot handle a certain terrain or obstacle, or failing that judgment, after a 4WD middleunit becomes immobilized. The electromechanical actuators will position and latch the mating parts of the coupler and/or steering mechanism. Nobody is needed outside the triad MRV for the coupling process. An on-board artificial intelligence (AI) single-chip microcomputer-based NF controller, that is an AI NF micro controller, will be also added to coordinate the energy source (fuel-cell and/or storage battery) and electro-mechanical mono-drive very advanced propulsion and/or dispulsion (VAP&D) sphere operations and to optimize and simplify the AI NF control of the electromechanical mono-drive VAP&D spheres and both articulation joints (couplers and/or steering mechanisms). Track 2C 1:00 pm Synthesis of Low-Hydrogen Aromatic Fuels for Mars Dr. Anthony C. Muscatello tony.muscatello@pioneerastro.com Dr. Robert Zubrin zubrin@aol.com

Conversion of methane into aromatic fuels, such as benzene and toluene, is a highly desirable process, both for replacement of petroleum on Earth and for use on Mars for return to Earth and mobility on Mars. Besides being liquid fuels which are denser and easier to store than methane, aromatic fuels contain only one hydrogen per carbon vs. four hydrogens per carbon for methane. Thus, the amount of hydrogen taken to Mars would be reduced by a factor of four, greatly reducing costs. We have successfully scaled up catalytic processes reported in the chemical literature by a factor of one hundred and demonstrated the production of aromatic rocket fuel. Production rates for a process to convert methane into benzene, toluene, and naphthalene are approaching the ~280 g/day range needed to obtain 1 kg/day of bipropellant, including the liquid oxygen oxidizer. The whole process would include conversion of hydrogen into methane by the Sabatier process; electrolysis of the water by-product into oxygen and recyclable hydrogen; and conversion of the methane into liquid aromatic products and more recyclable hydrogen. In fact, the huge leverage of the process (over 40) makes it possible to ship the hydrogen to Mars in the form of methane or water, greatly simplifying hydrogen storage issues, but still providing leverage for fuel production. This presentation will summarize our experimental results and expand upon these possibilities.

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Track 2C 1:30 pm Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Space Propulsion using Advanced Fusion Fuels Chad Ohlandt Michigan Mars Rover Team chadjo@umich.edu Fusion space propulsion systems are extremely efficient high specific impulse (5000500,000 seconds) and high thrust engines which can significantly increase payload and decrease travel times to Mars (2 months one way). This presentation will review the basic gasdynamic mirror concept and explore the use of advanced fusion fuels such as deuterium-He3, He3-He3, and p-B11. Using these fuels, the gross weight of the system can be reduced to a realistic level. Additionally, a nuclear electric assist configuration can reduce the technological demands to within reach of current capabilities. These configurations of the gasdynamic mirror provide a clear development path for feasible fusion space propulsion systems. Track 2C 2:00 pm The GBG Heavy Lift Orbital Launch System George W. Onik CEO Rock Solid Buildings Inc. Technology Hub: Whittier, North Carolina Georgeonik@att.net There is only one thing stopping mankind’s exploration of space and that one thing is the price per pound to orbit or (3PTO). Using our current launch system the cost of a single pound of payload is about $10,000.00. The shuttle system is the most complex machine ever built and should be a source of intense pride to all of those responsible for such an engineering accomplishment. The shuttle system costs a billion dollars each time we light the fuse. In the long run it is not an economical solution for continued space exploration and certainly not a viable means of supporting any sort of colonization attempt. Those who are concerned with the exploration of space must face up to the fact that the American people need to see more for their money and those who are responsible must consider all options, including some very old ideas, if we expect to garner the support of the taxpaying public. Look no further than our current land system and you will see a transportation system where freight is shipped in trucks with far less complexity than a modern passenger vehicle, which has the human safety factor to consider. Herein lies the essence of the problem: how do we make space affordable? The days of the shuttle will soon end and we have no practical way to put large amounts of material into orbit. Even the use of large, relatively simple boosters is still expensive

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and once we reach a level of payload capacity that could support a large scale space effort the ecological impact and safety concerns could be so severe that we would again reach an impasse preventing our generation from realizing the dream of space travel for the masses. Jules Verne knew of a solution, Gerald Bull proved that a projectile could be launched over a hundred miles into space, and the fragments of Mars we find here on Earth were impact projectiles ejected from Mars’ surface, eventually finding the way here, to another planet. The initials GBG mean “Great Big Gun”. The specifications speak for themselves. Bore diameter of 50 feet (5000 caliber). Barrel length: 5,000 to 10,000 feet. Fuel: Hydrogen gas and Oxygen, possibly technology from rail gun research. Azimuth capability: 360 degrees. Elevation capability: 0-90 degrees. Payload per launch: 50 tons. Launch site: a giant floating platform kept on station in the western pacific with thousands of miles of uninhabited ocean as a launch range. Surplus ballistic missile submarines would be converted to giant platform thrusters and power plants to provide energy for hydrogen gas production. Using the GBG could provide a simple solution to the problem of 3PTO. This system could reduce the 3PTO by an order of magnitude, reversing the normal cost to a goal of less than $100.00 per pound and the payload ratio to 10% vehicle weight/90% payload and do it in an ecologically friendly way. If this system were to prove safe and reliable, it could be used to solve our most critical waste problem, nuclear waste. Imagine if we combined both budgets so that spent nuclear materials could be safely launched into orbit rafted together like a river barge and sent into a long shallow orbit towards the ultimate nuclear incinerator: the sun. Once the technology to launch safely is perfected, the incredible nuclear arsenal built in the cold war could be repurposed so that bombs once intended for death and destruction could be converted into nuclear drilling charges capable of penetrating the Martian planetary crust to release trapped gasses that could replenish the Martian atmosphere and provide unlimited geothermal energy for the colonization of Mars. If we could resolve the engineering challenges of such a system, which I believe we can do, not only could we open the greatest frontier (space) to significant exploration and colonization, but we could as well have a practical solution to the elimination of nuclear waste, allowing the nuclear power industry to realize the dream of clean, safe, affordable energy, at a time when the demand for clean energy is becoming a worldwide crisis. The connection between global warming, health, and ecological issues is becoming clear. Those who wish to turn Mars into the second inhabited planet of our solar system could actually help save our own planet and be the generation that actually made space exploration and colonization practical instead of the generation who wanted to do it, but could not.

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Track 2C 2:30 pm Outline of An Integrated Space Program Martin Dowd martdowd@aol.com A necessary step to the improvement of the U.S. (and a fortiori, at this point, International) space program is the retirement of the space shuttle. It is a costly behemoth, continuing to eat up the U.S. space dollar with little achievement. We will present an alternative program, including a manned Mars mission, within an integrated program using vastly more efficient (but not greatly unconventional) primary Earth launch vehicles. A twenty-year length is quite realistic. Track 2C 3:00 pm Self-Launching Payloads: A Novel Approach to Launching Large Payloads into Low Earth Orbit Janyce S. Wynter janycewynter@mail.cnwl.igs.net It has become evident to many observers that there are shortcomings with existing launchers, especially in the context of orbiting very large structures. As a result, the International Space Station requires many dozens of launches and a drawn out and complex assembly process. This adds tremendously to the cost of establishing permanent, manned outposts in space. Both Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) and reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are often touted as the solution to the high cost of launching large structures. Re-usable vehicles are fine for missions that need to return people and materials back to Earth. But most missions being flown today and in the near future are essentially one-way trips to transport hardware to orbit. In this context, reusability minimizes the amount of payload that can be delivered to orbit. In contrast, expendable launch vehicles are capable of delivering more, much larger mass fractions to orbit, but very few are capable of placing large payloads into orbit. A HLLV would allow very large payloads to be delivered to orbit, but the weak demand for very heavy launches has stunted the development of HLLVs. Numerous researchers have proposed to use the Space Shuttle to deliver spent External Tanks to orbit. But this approach can be improved upon by leaving the Space Shuttle Orbiter on the ground, and by launching just the modified propellant tank to orbit - thereby creating a single-stage-to-orbit, selflaunching payload. This novel approach makes possible the launching of large, otherwise impractical payloads.

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Track 2C 3:30 pm Access to Mars by Rotating Tethers G. Nordley gdnordley@aol.com Using existing materials, large rotating tethers in Earth orbit can be constructed to throw substantial payloads to Mars. The hyperbolic excess velocity with which a payload departs Earth’s field of influence depends on tether tip speed, initial orbit, length, mass and other parameters which can be traded to achieve specific mission results. For a given tip speed, short period tether orbits can help reduce Earth-to-orbit delta v requirements to less than 6 km/s. Long orbital periods give long trans-Mars insertion windows and the shortest trip times. A 3 km/s tip speed and 3-day initial orbital period yields a hyperbolic excess velocity of 8/25 km/s and an 84 day trip time during a favorable apparition. In a most favorable opposition, trip times can be as little as 68 days, and, for trip time equal to or less than 135 days, windows are as long as 110 days. Long period orbits allow a tether system with a 100:1 system-to-payload mass ration to throw as many as forty payloads to Mars during a favorable apparition., each payload going slightly slower than the next as the orbital energy of the tether is incrementally expended. The mass of such a system may be less than the mass of fuel needed to move a similar mass to Mars by chemical propulsion in one apparition, and the tether system can be reboosted without propellant to be used again in subsequent apparitions. Once in place, such a system can continue to throw payloads to Mars, almost indefinitely, without additional propellant mass. Track 2C 4:00 pm Non-propulsive Access to the Martian Surface Michael Pelizzari Virtual Galactonautics nextgalaxy@aol.com When humans begin to systematically explore and settle Mars, the addition of rocket exhaust gases to the thin Martian atmosphere will irreversibly alter its composition, and its reactivity with exposed surfaces. Scientists on Mars will then be hampered by the challenge of distinguishing anthropogenic from pristine features of their objects of study, a fact that will erode the value of their contributions to comparative planetology. The problem can be avoided, or at least mitigated, by conducting as much activity as possible using emission-free vehicles and power sources. Transportation between ground and space can be accomplished without rocket propellants by transferring momentum through ultralong cables. A Cable Transportation System (CTS), consisting of space tethers, space elevators, and other cable-based elements, would be easier to deploy at Mars than at Earth, due to the smaller size and lower gravity of Mars.

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Track 2C 4:30 pm The Pianeta Marte Affordable Mars Mission Giorgio and Elisabetta Gaviraghi giogavir@yahoo.it In order to minimize transportation costs to and from Mars, utilizing existing high cost propulsion technology, new solutions must be proposed which could help reduce such costs by several orders of magnitude. The Pianeta Marte alternative consists in maximizing the utilization of resources already in space and through proper mission profiles takes the best advantage of such resources. In particular we propose to utilize a small (100.000 ton mass) existing asteroid in NEO water rich, such as the recently discovered 1998KY26, rendezvous and land with an unmanned spacecraft on its surface, and, with the proper power and equipment, deflect it from the current orbit to a cyclical Earth-Mars trajectory. Once in the right orbital path and on its closest approach to Earth, such asteroid on its closest Earth approach would be joined by three SPACEHUT modules, one manned and two unmanned. The SPACEHUT modules being designed and developed by Pianeta Marte organization would allow the construction of a space station on the asteroid , utilizing local materials and would function as spacecraft for future utilization. Once on Mars vicinity, with the station-spacecraft fully operational, the second manned, and the third unmanned SPACEHUT units will rendezvous and land respectively on Phobos and on Mars on the selected location for the first landing. While the asteroid-spacecraft will go back to Earth on its cyclical trajectory, the astronauts will build a supporting base on Phobos, similar to the one already built on the asteroid. As soon as the base on Phobos is completed, with a landing module the crew will land on Mars at the selected site where the third SPACEHUT module would be expecting them and already operational for minimal life-support functions. At Mars the astronauts will assemble the third space station and perform all their planned activities. In the meanwhile the spacecraft asteroid at Earth vicinity will pick up another crew who will reach Mars utilizing the already built asteroid station, land on Phobos and reach the Martian landing site in complete safety while the original crew will rendezvous with the Phobos station first, wait for the asteroid station to rendezvous and take the trip back to Earth. In this paper we want to analyze in detail all such operations including the transportation assembly and functionality of the SPACEHUT concept.

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Track 2C 5:00 pm Single STEP To Orbit, the Only Way to Mars Professor Bruce B. Lusignan Stanford University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Packard Electrical Engineering Bldg. 350 Serra Mall, #237 Stanford, CA 94305-9510 lusignan@ee.stanford.edu Now that Lockheed-Martin and NASA have spent over a $ Billion to prove that a singlestage rocket will not make it to orbit, something Verner Von Braun knew in the 40's, we are faced with a serious transportation problem. To get to Mars we need to resurrect the Saturn or Energia, persuade Congress to pop for a Magnum, or allow a modern replacement of expendable vehicles to be developed. The SSTO fiasco could be a signal to the international community to start serious work on the configurations, developed by Kelly, Black Horse and Hot, that can in fact deliver payload to orbit. They use a large cargo plane to tow, carry or fuel a rocket plane to make the flight from 35,000 feet to orbit. Since the rocket plane and cargo plane return to Earth to refuel and go again, the cost is much less than expendable rockets, making Earth satellites, space tourism. and Mars exploration economically viable. Two students, part of an international study team will present the latest development on the Stanford single-STEP-to-orbit, based on the Antonov cargo plane. They will also present the preliminary design of an Earth-Mars crew transport vehicle, based on SSTO launches, that will serve the Mars Direct, NASA Reference or Stanford-Russian Mars mission architectures. Track 2C 5:30 pm Progress in Mars Exploration Technologies Robert Zubrin, Brian Birnbaum, K. Mark Caviezel and Gary Snyder Pioneer Astronautics 11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A Lakewood, CO 80215 Zubrin@aol.com In this paper we will present the results of the latest work on Mars exploration technologies performed at Pioneer Astronautics. This work includes development of a protoflight Reverse Water Gas Shift system for producing oxygen on Mars on the scale required for the Mars sample return mission, development of systems for converting methane to benzene, thereby reducing hydrogen importation requirements for Sabatier Electrolysis systems by a factor of four, development of gashopper mobility systems which use hot pellet beds to heat raw CO2 to enable repeated flights of tens to hundreds of kilometers on Mars, the development of rocket engines that can burn fuels using CO2 as an oxidizer, and the successful demonstration of methods to autonomously inflate solar

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heated Mars balloons under dynamic conditions. The potential value of all these technologies to future Mars exploration is explained. Track 3C 1:00 pm Shared Mental Model Theory and the Group Dynamics of Teams in Extreme Environments Stephen M. Fiore, Ph.D. Adjunct Faculty -- Department of Psychology University of Central Florida 12424 Research Parkway - Suite 301 Orlando, FL 32826 Joined by Jason P. Kring, Florian Jentsch, and Eduardo Salas University of Central Florida The focus of this talk will be on how to best understand and investigate team performance in extreme environments. Evidence from space and ground-based space analogs indicates that multiple factors in isolated and confined settings hinder higherorder cognitive functions necessary for team decision-making and problem solving. Factors include environmental characteristics and stressors, time limitations, restricted availability of communications and information, as well as heterogeneous team composition, particularly among teams with high cultural and occupational diversity. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for the development of a systematic program of research from which principles for team training in similar environments can be empirically derived. The presentation will focus on outlining the theoretical drivers associated with such a program in order to elucidate what we need to know in order to understand the socio-cognitive factors affecting team performance in extreme and isolated environments. Specifically, given the criticality of problem solving in long-term space flight (e.g., an increased need for trouble-shooting in isolated environments), a fuller understanding of group- and individual-level cognition is necessary. We suggest that the consideration of how inter- and intra-individual processes impact team problem solving can best be investigated through shared mental model theory. This approach aligns with the needs outlined in the NASA Space Human Factors Plan which states that crew members "must be fully aware of their own and their colleagues' functions, limits, and capabilities. And understanding how the space environments affects group dynamics is an equally important human factors consideration." Thus, to the degree we understand the behaviors of those engaged in group and team problem solving in extreme environments, the better able we will be able to gauge the impact of extreme environments on socio-cognitive functioning. We will focus on theories of shared mental models, on the tools available to measure mental models, and on the research data available to date covering shared mental models in teams.

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Track 3C 1:30 pm Early Polar Exploration and its Implications for Crew Selection Dr. Erik Seedhouse elseedho@sfu.ca Environmental & Aerospace Laboratory School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby British Columbia, V3J 1E2, Canada The paper examines circumstances faced by early polar explorers and how this information can be used when deciding on a crew profile for a journey to Mars. Much has been written about the psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for a mission to Mars. Our intuition tells us that surely the experience of such a mission will be so different from life on Earth that unearthly changes will manifest themselves in the crew, hence the need for extensive research. We know that there are physiological changes during extended space flight and believe that there must be some comparable psychological changes. We search for analogs for the space environment and see in those analogs only the examples of human frailty (so much for scientists being upbeat!). Often, we do not see the far more prevalent examples of human greatness. We read that the incidence of psychiatric cases in the Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines is 4/1000 but conveniently overlook the fact that the rate of reported psychiatric illness is lower in the submarines than it is in the surface Navy. History provides us with many examples of how people have performed admirably in stressful circumstances. The crew of Nansen’s Fram left home on 24 June 1893, and did not return for over three years. More than 2 years of that absence were spent frozen in the polar ice with no outside contact. That expedition was a far more arduous experience than a mission to Mars, yet the crew still managed to bring back a wealth of valuable information. When discussing who should go to Mars it is perhaps more insightful to examine the problems faced by polar explorers during the “Heroic Age of Exploration,” and how those crews survived their ordeals. We must accept the fact there will be differences of opinion and personality on a mission to Mars but we must not assume they will be any more disastrous than similar problems that arise when humans are confined together in small groups.

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Track 3C 2:00 pm Crew Composition for Mars Missions: Marines, Nuns, Singles of the Nice Couple Next Door? Jim Funaro jafunaro@cabrillo.cc.ca.us Comparative studies of human and primate societies suggest that evolution has crafted “special purpose groups” to perform the particular functions necessary to all communities. These groups are organized primarily on a sexual division of labor and based originally on biological differences between males and females. In both composition and function, these groups can be demonstrated by cross-cultural comparison to have considerable consistency in human time and space. In this paper, I propose to consider, in cross-cultural perspective, the biological and social properties of single-sex and mixed-sex special purpose groups. My goal is to urge the utilization of ethnographic and historical data to make sure we consider the widest possible range of options within humanity’s biosocial resources as our species expands into space. Track 3C 2:30pm What’s New in Choosing Who: Recent Technology for Team Assessment and Selection Sally D. Stabb, Ph.D., Laura Gately Micheal Gately Dan Smith Following up on a previous presentation to the Mars Society and after an additional two years of work in the field, the authors have developed a computer program that can track and display team interactions over time. Team compatibility and composition have been identified as critical areas of application for long duration space missions. These processes are currently being investigated by NASA and others; the group assessment tool developed by the authors offers a potentially powerful way to assist in this process. The authors have worked with an international team of field biologists in order to develop the tool. Such a team was chosen because it closely resembles the kind of people who will go to Mars: highly specialized scientists who will need to work together over an extended period of time. The team has members from three different countries and is has a mixed gender composition. The team members were videotaped conducting fieldwork and laboratory meetings. Following this, the digital video was transferred to computer memory and a program was developed in order to track their interactions over time. Interactions are coded on screen and all coded data goes into a database that can then be

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queried in multiple ways to search for patterns within the team dynamics. There is also a graphics component of the program that allows us to see each team member as a point on a circle, and then watch interactions unfold over time. We have examined how interpersonal and content level conflicts disrupt group functioning, and how specific team members either escalate or repair these disruptions. The authors will provide an actual demonstration of the program at the convention, in addition to discussing the numerous potential applications of the program for assessment, evaluation, and selection of astronaut teams. Track 3C 3:00 pm EEG Biofeedback and Maintaining Functional Integrity on Long Duration Space Missions John A. Putman JPutman905@aol.com When human beings are placed in a strange environment where the workload is extreme and the threat of destruction is omnipresent, the level of arousal in the human nervous system tends to remain above a certain threshold. It is, essentially, a milder version of what happens with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder where situational events or conditions reset the physiological set point for the alarm response in the brain. A prolonged state of overarousal leads, ultimately, to a state of exhaustion in the brain that has distinct features in the EEG (or brainwave activity). Typical symptoms that accompany this state of cortical exhaustion are: depression, insomnia, attentional deficits, mood instabilities and, ultimately, immune system irregularities and physical illness. Brain waves are reflected micro changes in electrical potential taking place in the cortex (measured at the scalp's surface). They represent synchronous firings of neurons located in specific areas of the brain. Although the EEG contains no useful information about the specific "content" of cognitive processes or of thoughts in general, it does register changes in states of physiological arousal, attention, and even of mood. Over the past 30 years or so, researchers have demonstrated that teaching a person to deliberately alter their EEG, through such techniques as operant conditioning via EEG biofeedback, can be very effective in treating problems involving disregulation in the dimensions of arousal, attention and mood. With the beginning of operations aboard the ISS, we begin a transition towards long duration space missions where maintaining functional integrity will become a crucial issue. If lessons aboard the MIR are any indication, long term flights will tend to tease out and expose our weakest links as the ability to endure extended periods of isolation under heavy work load conditions in microgravity is stretched to the limit.

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Track 3C 3:30 pm Psychological Suitability for Long-Duration Space Flight: the View From History Deborah Ames Watkins Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology The Professional School of Psychology San Francisco, CA 1992 WatkinsD PhD@aol.com

The present study explores the relationship between individual personality factors and small group dynamics anticipated to be relevant for long-duration space flight. The focus of this investigation is on the hypothesis that androgyny and noncompetitive work motivation are beneficial personality dispositions for an isolated and confined environment. Very few individuals have flown in space for months on end. The Russian cosmonauts have by far the most experience. Actual psychological assessment of this population was not feasible. In order to expand the available data, a thematic analysis based on experiences in analogous environments and drawn from archival material was planned. An in-depth study of three subjects in terms of androgyny and noncompetitive work motivation was conducted. The diary of Russian cosmonaut Valentin Lebedev's experience of seven months in space was fortunately available. The other subjects were Amelia Earhart, long-distance recordsetting aviator, and Robert Scott, Antarctic explorer. The findings support the findings in general. Particularly strong evidence emerged that enjoying work because it is pleasurable and needing social approval are important personality factors related to ability to adapt to the situation of long-duration space flight. Evidence also showed that, beyond a reasonable point, a "neediness factor" became detrimental. It is suggested that research be continued by comparing the findings of the present study to contemporary analogous situations such as Biosphere II, in order to better understand the relationship between personality and small group dynamics for space flight.

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Track 4C 1:00 pm From the Red Centre to the Red Planet - Australians Contribute to the Journey to Mars Guy Murphy & Jason Hoogland, Mars Society Australia Australia is a nation of 20 million people, occupying Earth's only island continent. A significant proportion of it is remote arid desert, with many Mars-like features, and Australia manages a large portion of Antarctica. Australians enjoy a high standard of living and education, and are enthusiastic adopters of technology. Australia has a history of exploration and innovation and has become a major exporting nation. However despite importing more than US$300 million in space services annually Australia has no national space programme. Yet public interest in space exploration is widespread. Within only a few years, the Mars Society Australia (MSA) has become the third ranked behind only the United States and Canada in terms of Mars Society members per capita, ahead of many other Mars Society branches in countries with vibrant space programmes. MSA believes Australians can make a significant contribution to Mars mission planning and has embarked on an ambitious Technical Programme consisting of 5 major projects: Mars-Oz, Marsupial, Mars Skin, SAFMARS and Jarntimarra, the first four of which are developing analogue hardware for simulated Mars mission field activities. In the northern hemisphere fall of 2002, these programme elements will be integrated in a major field exercise, Operation Red Centre 2002 (ORC02), similar to those undertaken on Devon Island and planned for the proposed US research station. Later this year a scouting expedition will head into central Australia to finalise a location for ORC02 and catalogue other sites of interest. Major outreach initiatives will include the second Australian Mars Exploration Conference and participation in a year-long touring space exhibition commencing in Canberra in November 2001 where we expect MSA exposure to up to 1 million Australians, and this presentation will elaborate on progress being made toward this vision in Australia, and be an opportunity to invite international participation in MSA activities. Track 4C 1:30 pm Listening to Earthlings Talk About Mars Marvin Hilton 689 Winbaugh Lane Fayetteville, Arkansas 72703, USA skymar@tcac.net What would Martians hear if they were to listen to Earthlings debate about whether or not to explore Mars? The most outspoken opponents of Mars exploration, who respond with

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disparaging little smiles and scornful remarks, can tell us what we most need to know, in order to go on to Mars. It is the great mass of apathy and opposition that keeps us anchored to the Earth. Listening to the hopes, needs and fears behind the wall of apathy and scorn will tell us how to connect with others and gain their support. We need to forget all of our great reasons for going to Mars and listen closely and gently to the reasons for not going. Then we will know how Mars exploration can help fulfill the opposition’s hopes, and needs and alleviate some of their fears and gain some supporting friends. For example, some say space exploration will increase military tension with powerful rockets and armed space stations. We might reply with, “Exploring Mars will place the human drama before the back drop of the solar system and the universe of stars and galaxies. This will emphasize the feeling of unity of the human family alone in the universe.” What words of opposition to Mars exploration have you heard? What are your own words of opposition? What are the hopes, needs and fears and thoughts of apathy behind the words? How can Mars exploration help fulfill some of these needs and hopes and alleviate some of the fears and apathy? Let’s meet in a circle and listen closely and with understanding to the knowledge that will boost us on to Mars. Track4C 2:00 pm Yuri’s Night Loretta Hidalgo Loretta@yurisnight.net On 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin made his historic 108-minute flight and became the first human to travel into space and also became a national and international hero. 12 April 2001 marks the 40th anniversary of this momentous event and the 20th anniversary of the first Space Shuttle flight. Under the banner of “Yuri’s Night,” a global grassroots celebration of this anniversary has been organized. Yuri’s Night is taking the form of a worldwide effort designed to simultaneously celebrate humankind’s exploration of space and to reach out to the general public, particularly young people. Mars Society was a supporter of the event and the Mars Society Caltech Chapter was very active in the global website, web casting and LA specific events. An archive of the live LA web cast with interviews of space personalities and entertainment personalities alike is available at www.yurinight.net. Sixty-five events in twenty-four countries around the world aim to ensure that knowledge of Yuri Gagarin’s achievement and its implications are carried forward to a new generation. These events, varying in size, style and content are being organized by space enthusiasts around the world, each seeking to celebrate in the means most appropriate for their culture. Examples include club nights, poetry readings, space art events and

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meetings with astronauts. The lager events will be web-linked and web cast so participants can follow the celebrations as they travel around the globe. This paper describes how the idea for Yuri’s Night first arose, grew to include events on all seven continents and came to be publicized globally on CNN, space.com, MTV, BBC and NPR. It then outlines the different international events and the ways in which they were organized and identifies lessons learned and good practice to be shared with the wider space education community. We think it is important to describe this successful space event and to inform people of ways to get involved in next year’s event Track 4C 2:30 pm Mars Simulation Project: Simulating Martian Settlement on a Computer Scott Davis Project Administrator Mars Simulation Project http://mars-sim.sourceforge.net scud1@users.sourceforge.net The Mars Simulation Project is an open source software project to create a simulation of future human settlement of the planet Mars. The project uses an object-oriented architecture to represent a virtual world and the structures and people who populate it. Settlements, complete with internal facilities such as greenhouses, maintenance garages and living quarters, are randomly located about the surface of planet. Virtual people inhabit the settlements, eating, sleeping and going about their daily work there. Longrange rovers are often used for research excursions and for people to travel between settlements. The orbit and rotation of the virtual Mars is tracked, along with the day/night cycle. Surface terrain elevation is also represented from NASA data. The project's user interface shows generated surface and terrain maps of the virtual planet, based on NASA data. Information windows can be brought up for each person, settlement and rover in the simulation, updating in real time as information changes. A Martian clock/calendar tool displays the passing of time in the simulation. This presentation will cover the history, current status and future plans for the Mars Simulation Project. Track 4C 3:00 pm Bringing Mars to Children and Other Audiences Brian Jacobson stree@redshift.com This is an overview for how to prepare for a Mars Presentation. A sample Mars Presentation is outlined. This information will help you to be more confident and
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prepared when presenting to the public. Specific information will be presented on: Getting a Venue: contacting teachers, museums, astronomy clubs, scouting groups, churches. Questions to Anticipate: different degrees of interest will result in different types of questions. Custom Fitting your Presentation to Your Audience: If presenting at a grade school, check with teacher to determine what the class has learned already. Also, it is important how you dress. Equipment and Resources: getting your own projection equipment and images, where to get them and what to bring. Improving your Public Speaking Skills: Join a Toastmasters group. How to get rid of the “ahs” and “ums” and other cluttering sounds. Keep improving and updating your material so it is fresh and up to date. Track 4C 3:30 pm Getting Local Media and Political Attention Carl Carlsson caycarl@structurex.net The Louisiana Mars Society (LAMS) has learned a few lessons about getting local media and government attention for the Mars Society. This presentation will go over the steps LAMS took to get published in the newspaper, interviewed by a television station, and scheduled appointments with local Congressional leaders' associates. Track 4C 4:00pm A Child Once Dreamt of Space F. Becker Mach25@inow.com As a boy, Fred Becker was intrigued by the Apollo missions to study space and Mars in particular. He spent long hours designing a space ship and mission architecture for getting humans to Mars. His design ultimately won science fair awards and garnered positive feedback from some of his heroes. Fred discusses how this childhood fascination with space inspired him to continue his studies in science and engineering and ultimately, to forge a career in the field of aerospace.

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Track 4C 4:30 pm Prototype Permanent Base / Research & Education Center Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu Proposal for a Research and Education Center addressing use of in-situ building techniques, food and clothing production, and support of an early permanent Mars base. At a single site, we would collect all technology needed for a permanent base, and test the feasibility of alternative methods. Major portions of the funding could come from individual research projects, public programs, volunteer construction, and local nonaerospace corporations. It could be a follow-up on to the Mars Society Hab program that is investigating early mission operation. Track 4C 5:00 – 6:00 pm Chapter Projects Workshop Lorraine Bell lmbell@earthlink.net An hour-long workshop to discuss projects individual or groups of chapters can undertake to support Mars Society activities. This would include educational projects, fundraising projects, and technical projects such as further development of the analog spacesuits and Mission Support activities for the analog stations.

Track 5C 1:00 pm Dry Reforming: A Unique Flowsheet for Fuel Production on Mars Brian Frankie brianf5070@aol.com A new conceptual flowsheet is presented for Martian in situ fuel production. The dry reforming flowsheet incorporates the well-known Sabatier-Electrolysis process with a carbon dioxide/methane reforming step to consume some of the Sabatier methane. By varying the ratio of effluent to reformed methane, any desired methane/oxygen ratio can be produced by the dry reforming process. Such a machine will enable utilization of all imported hydrogen into an optimal methane/oxygen fuel mixture, with copious quantities of surplus oxygen produced for crew consumables. The reforming process is highly endothermic and requires temperatures above 650 centigrade on precious metal catalysts. Appropriate feed/effluent heat exchange reduces

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the reformer power requirements, but an increased oxygen/methane ratio increases the power requirements. In addition, the complexity introduced by the reformer and its interactions with the Sabatier system make the system relatively difficult to automate or control remotely. The energy usage and complexity imply that a dry reforming process will not be useful in the early stages of Mars exploration. However, the increased material usage efficiency and oxygen generation capability of the dry reforming technique will make it an attractive technology to consider for second generation ISRU systems. In addition, the potential ease of retrofitting Sabatier/Electrolysis units with a dry reformer provide an important advantage for early adoption of the technology. Minor preinvestment in the Sabatier system – essentially just provision for interconnections will allow the addition of a reformer, thus extending the useful lifetime of the Sabatier system, instead of replacing early Sabatier systems with entirely new second generation systems. Thus, dry reforming will be an important technology to allow cost effective expansion of early Martian exploration and base building efforts. Track 5C 1:30 pm Identification, Display, and Optimization of Martian Resource Locations Gregory Chamitoff, NASA, Houston, TX. George James, ETM Inc., Houston, TX. Donald Barker, MAXD, Inc., Houston, TX. The identification and utilization of In-situ Martian natural resources are the keys to enabling cost-effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. Local resources provide the essential safety net and cost reduction required for initial missions as well as permanent habitation. The incident solar radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface deposits, polar caps, and frozen volatiles represent a subset of planetary resources, which can provide consumable materials such as breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Although the current information on the location, extent, purity, and ease of extraction of these resources is limited at best, the knowledge base expands with each additional mission to the planet. The scientific community that drives the collection of this information maintains extensive databases designed to further the understanding of the planet. This work, however, presents an approach for collecting and utilizing this information for the collocation of planetary resources to enhance and enable, human self-sufficiency on Mars. There are three parts to this effort. First, the production and updating of a database of resource information from the planet is underway. The Mariner, Viking, Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor programs (as well as terrestrial observations and Martian meteorite studies) have created a significant basis from which to build. Over the next few years, other missions will provide even more information. Second, this work is preparing an interactive display medium to convey the best location information-to-date as well as the collocation of multiple resources. The ability to overlay potential reservoirs of useful materials with topography and regions of scientific interest allows for a thought process with self-sufficiency treated as a design variable. Closely coupled to this is the third

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effort that seeks to develop optimization strategies that will more closely couple resource utilization, self-sufficiency, manufacturing, and off-nominal survivability with more traditional mission design and operation parameters. The ability to estimate and optimize the importance and viability of a collection of resources can drive technology developments, precursor studies, analog simulations, and ultimately support efficient and effective mission planning. Track 5C 2:00 pm Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption in a Zeolite Molecular Sieve under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions M.A. Schneider† and A.P. Bruckner* Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Astrobiology Program University of Washington, Box 352400 Seattle, WA 98195 mschneid@aa.washington.edu In order to enhance or enable future missions to Mars, the utilization of native resources will be necessary to produce consumables such as rocket propellants for the return trip and/or oxygen and water for life support. A critical component for the production of these mission consumables is water, which can be electrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen or used directly. Even though the Martian atmosphere is extremely dry by Earth standards (typical water vapor concentrations on Mars are of the order of 1/10,000 of those on Earth), extracting the water is likely to be more feasible than extracting it from the regolith or polar caps, because atmospheric water vapor is globally distributed and is the best characterized source of water on the planet. In the department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the University of Washington a concept to extract water from the Martian atmosphere has been the subject of several mission design studies. In these studies, the adsorbent selected to extract water vapor was zeolite 3A, a synthetic molecular sieve. Zeolite 3A is a potassium aluminosilicate that has a cage-like microstructure with an effective aperture of 3Å. This allows water molecules to enter but excludes the larger carbon dioxide molecules, which comprise 95% of the Martian atmosphere. Although zeolite 3A has been characterized extensively at Earth-ambient conditions, it has not heretofore been tested at the low temperatures, pressures, and humidities characteristic of Mars. It is this lack of data at the desired conditions that motivated the current experimental study, i.e., to study the behavior of zeolite 3A experimentally at Mars ambient conditions. To perform adsorption characterization experiments on zeolite 3A under appropriate conditions, a continuous flow Mars atmospheric simulation chamber was built. The
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chamber simulates the pressure (4–6 torr), temperature (185–230 K), composition, and humidity (vapor pressure ~10-4–10-2 torr) on Mars. Of these four quantities, simulation of the characteristically low humidities on Mars proved to be extremely challenging, due to the difficulties presented by the generation, management, and measurement of very low water vapor concentrations. The simulation facility was recently completed and successfully tested. Initial results of experiments with zeolite 3A have confirmed its ability to effectively extract water from a simulated Martian atmosphere. Ongoing studies are aimed at fully characterizing the adsorption properties of this molecular sieve at Mars-like conditions.

Track 5C 2:30 pm Mars Kites for Human Habitation William Byron (Joe) Poston , Ph.D. joeposton@ij.net Utilizing the most recent advances in communications (Parabolic Reflectors) and space explorations (Mars Odyssey) it is conceivable to conclude that the feasibility of this concept can become a reality. The reality of Earthlings on Mars is now a very distinct possibility within our foreseeable future. This concept is easily proven with collage math (separate publication) and this dissertation is presented to familiarize the scientific (& political) communities to the feasibility of this concept and give credence for its implementation. This concept utilizes a well-known paradigm (man on Mars) but which had no practicality except to send someone there in a clumsy space suit. This abstract, utilizing modern day accomplishments, illustrates a different methodology. The sun shines daily on Mars and this enormous energy, while less than Earth, could be utilized to a great extent in many other applications, over a period of time. Additionally, localized KITES could be installed on Command Huts to give them steam generated electrical energy for the astronauts. This study provides an empirical observation of the concepts that could be implemented in the near future, utilizing the applications of present day technology, as noted below: - Determine the “exact” temperatures of the surface of MARS at this present time (Mars Odyssey). - Establish the “exact” orbital path for the Mars Kites. This would be the plan view (symmetrical about equator) (Mars Odyssey). - Establish the “exact” orbital path for the Mars Kites, this would the right side view (symmetrical a 45 degrees inclination), in this manner the suns energy would strike the Mars KITES uniformly, 24-days, 7-days, none would be in a shadow (Mars Odyssey). - Design & develop the “exact” specifications for the parabolic reflectors that are used for the KITE (separate publication). - Completely test all of these concepts on Earth (Space Shuttle). - Send Mars Odyssey II with one model (KITE) to orbit Mars for feasibility, and total confirmation of this methodology.

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- Prepare Mars Odyssey III with the test results of Mars Odyssey II for the implementation of three (3) more KITES. These four (4) Kites will give significant energy from the SUN to re-warm the surface for habitation. - Utilizing the aforementioned concepts and the practical implementations recommended. This should provide Human Habitation for a Chicago “environment” within 100 years. Only a small oxygen re-breather tank would be required for daily existence, on the surface. - Utilizing localized KITES, astronauts could generate their own electrical energy for many different experiments. - In the future, astronauts could use steam generators for propulsion, in the return-toEarth vehicle. Track 5C 3:00 pm One Way to Mars / An Early Permanent Mars Settlement Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu Since a major reason to go to Mars is to establish a second home for humanity and life why insist on bringing the crews back to Earth? About half the total cost of a 500-day Mars surface stay is the return spacecraft, fuel processing equipment, and supplies for the return trip. Also, the return trip can be more dangerous than the outbound trip or remaining on Mars. It may be cost effective to establish a permanent base with the first mission. This requires extra supplies, a complete machine shop, plastics shop, greenhouses, and significant Earth based testing. The settlement can receive more support from 'back home', than was ever possible in the past. For example, new equipment can be designed on Earth, and then the designs are transmitted to Mars where the equipment is constructed using 'rapid prototyping' machines. There would be tremendous cost savings if the return craft for later crews are not launched. When the base is well established after several years, we could produce paper, felt, pressed-board, ethylene based plastics, glass, fiberglass, and brick with very little equipment. These would be used for habitats and household furnishings for additional people, further reducing the cost per person. The scientific results from a permanent base would be greater than for a series of short missions, even if much of the time was spent growing food and housekeeping. Most importantly, there is only limited public support for roundtrip scientific missions. While "Opening a New World" will inspire many entrepreneurs, universities, voters, politicians, and the next generation.

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Track 5C 3:30 pm Infrastructures for the First Base on Mars Frank Schubert Therub9@aol.com This talk assumes that we don’t make the same mistake in going to Mars as we made on the moon. In other words, once we get there, we should stay there. The first astronauts that land on Mars will be there for a minimum of 18 months and in that time they can start building the systems that will be a part of the permanent base. Much like a home in a remote area, the Mars Base will need to start using the resources that surround it. The proposed systems in this talk will address the special needs and constrictions of building on Mars. It will look at building structures for living, working, storing materials and systems housing. The first building system proposed here will be that of rock structures with a pressurized membrane. This system could be built with existing materials and a binding compound made from the Martian atmosphere. Plumbing systems will have to be self contained and recyclable. These systems can have a central processing much like a city sewage plant. Special considerations will have to be made due to the low temperature and low gravity. Heating and ventilation systems will also require special filtering and distribution. The air will be cleaned and filtered under pressure much like the International Space Station. The moisture will be extracted from the air and be recycled into the water system. Co2 extracted from the air will be recycled also. The aim of these systems will be to make the Mars Base as comfortable and livable as possible. The comfort level of the crew will have a direct relation to moral and should be considered a high priority on every mission. Track 5C 4:00 pm The Costs of Settling the Red Planet James Brown jimbrown88@hotmail.com All of the technologies for starting a Martian settlement inexpensively, if thirty billion dollars can be considered inexpensive, are available and could net millions of trillions of dollars in the process. It is little more than the cost of sending forty people to Mars for a few years. We would start with just a few people so the initial cost wouldn’t be that high. Establishing a settlement can be accomplished almost entirely using readily available

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Martian resources. Mars has all the resources we need to start heavy industry, construction, and agriculture using mostly rapid prototyping techniques. Once the Mars settlement is established and can support a crew, work can be started to develop SPS’s (reflective solar thermal is most practical here) on one of Mars’ moons. A catapult can then be constructed and used to send some simple parts and raw resources back to Earth orbits and quickly assemble SPS’s there. Before the resources can be sent back they need to be mined from the materials available on the moon and simple automatic manufacturing equipment will need to be built. This will enable heavy industry on the moons of Mars and in Earth orbits. This can also supply the fluids to travel around the solar system inexpensively. Mars is the system to start real outer space industry that will fill the solar system. The first decade should send to Earth's orbits enough parts to construct terawatts of power beaming down to receivers on Earth. Thirty billion dollars spread over a ten-year period. Then get profits of that every month. I fear if NASA has its way we will go to Mars spending lots of money. Get a flag, footprint, and a little exploration-bloated program when we could instead start heavy industry and agriculture. After this we can explore very much more for far less. Track 5C 4:30 – 6:00 pm Technical Task Force Workshop Rocky Persaud, Moderator rocky.persaud@utoronto.ca A one and a half hour long session to examine all technical projects necessary to prepare the way for a human Mars mission, including technology to develop and test at the analog stations. Sunday, August 26, 2001 Sunday Plenary Session 9:00 am The Mars Society Balloon Mission: A Low-cost Mars Super-Pressure Balloon Mission Hannes Griebel, Michael Bosch, Kristian Pauly, Felix Kalkum, Markus Landgraf, Raimund Scheucher, Hanfried Schlingloff, Harry O. Ruppe, Sven Knuth A Martian super-pressure has been discussed since the first successful deployment of such a system in the atmosphere of Venus. A balloon on Mars could provide enormous scientific return while keeping total mass and costs extremely low. A lot of different scientific instruments could be used. A high-resolution camera (resolution approximately 0.2m/pixel), ground penetrating radar, imaging infrared spectrometer, magnetometer, and atmospheric tools seem to be appropriate. These instruments are placed in a gondola

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carried by a super-pressure balloon. The balloon’s volume is kept constant, so that a nearly constant altitude can be expected. The gondola provides energy supply, data processing and communication to an orbiter, too. Considerable development efforts by CNES and NASA, the later in recent times, have made such a mission much more realistic than some years ago. Especially it was demonstrated an in-flight inflation mechanism. New lightweight balloon skin composite materials were developed. We show that it is possible to conduct such a mission with an injected mass lower than 300 kg. The entry mass is 120 kg. The radius of the spherical balloon would be 18.8m. It could carry an 8 kg gondola with 2 kg of scientific instruments. The balloon is designed for a constant altitude of about 7 km. This mission would cost no more than approximately 50 Mio. Euro. The probe would be launched in a cost effective manner as a piggy-pack mission with a commercial satellite on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle. The Mars Society Germany proposed this mission to German Space Agency DLR in February. Sunday Plenary Session 10:00 am Life on Mars: Past, Present and Future Dr. Chris McKay mckay@galileo.arc.nasa.gov Sunday Plenary Session 11:00 am Flashline Station Mission Support Operations Anthony C. Muscatello, Dewey Anderson, Lorraine Bell, Robert Zubrin tony.muscatello@pioneerastro.com A dedicated team of volunteers has performed a tremendous service to the Mars Society by providing Mission Support Operations for the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station over the past year. Our primary task for most of that time has been the development and production of nine analog space suits and backpacks for FMARS analog astronauts to use during this summer's field season. (This activity is detailed in a separate presentation by Dewey Anderson.) During the 50-day field season, volunteers staffed the Mission Support office in Lakewood, CO every day from 3 pm to 8 pm or later. Science support was provided by NASA/Ames. The Mission Support team provided both practical logistical support in obtaining equipment and supplies for FMARS and simulated a Mission Support aspect by regular interactions with the FMARS crew. We received FMARS daily reports, commented on them, answered engineering/operations questions, forwarded personal messages to and from the crew, forwarded press inquiries (including Sports Illustrated, of all things), and updated the crew on world news. This presentation will cover the Summer 2001 FMARS field season from the Mission Support point of

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view and summarize issues, both resolved and unresolved, that might arise during a real human Mars mission. Track 1D 1:00 pm Life on The High Deserts of Earth and Dry Valleys of Mars Professor Bruce B. Lusignan Stanford University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Packard Electrical Engineering Bldg. 350 Serra Mall, #237 Stanford, CA 94305-9510 lusignan@ee.stanford.edu International cooperation, public support, and scientific data will be derived by promoting multiple Mars Analog sites to prepare for the human exploration of Mars. The real Mars crew will be made up of six explorers, men and women from the world's nations, isolated for 18 months on the surface. They will land at a site, possibly Candor Chasma in the bottom of Valis Marinaris. and search for traces of life that began 3.5 billion years ago, when Mars and Earth both had fairly dense atmospheres and abundant water. Stanford's Mars analog contest suggests that The US Mars Society Devon Island site be used to isolate a crew for 18 months to use Rover, drill and micro sampler to search for microbial life deep beneath the surface. A similar crew will conduct an isolation experiment in the Antarctic supported by the European Space interests. A third crew will conduct an isolation experiment in Siberia supported by the Russian Space Agency. A fourth will explore the Gobi Desert in China supported by the Chinese Space agency. And a fifth would be supported by the Japanese Space Agency, isolated perhaps in the Anaconda Desert in Chile. The crew at each site would be international. They will be isolated, confined and challenged to simulate the stress a real crew must learn to overcome. A Russian-built drill and Chinese-built micro sampler will be used at each site to gather ancient microbes for evaluation of genetic heritage at the isolated Earth sites. Panels of microbiologists and geologists will evaluate the samples, hopefully leading to fresh results on the evolution of Earth life forms in the high desert areas. The performance of the crews will be studied and rated to gain data on crew isolation dynamics. The performance will be compared and publicized to build enthusiasm for support of Mars exploration in each site and to build pride in the national institutions supporting each site. The Stanford report will provide detail of each site its national program support and a proposed sequence of crew challenges.

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Track 1D 1:30 pm Operational Research on a Manned Mars Rover Jeremy Burns, Michigan Mars Rover Team Burnsy825@hotmail.com An overview of the goals and methods we are putting together in order to do successful operational and human factors research with an Analog Rover. We will cover some of the design aspects that were influenced by human factors needs, and how they will contribute to good research in the field. Several "typical" operation missions will be covered, along with the key elements we will be looking for during these missions. Many different issues will be covered; from performing daily tasks correctly to evaluating crew efficiency to studying psychological impacts in these particularly close quarters. The tools of data collection will be another topic of importance, as we will have internal video cameras along with other feedback methods such as scheduled crew reports. Finally, the results of data collection and analysis will be put to practical use both in the short term and long term. It will influence the design of our next rover "Olympus," a more advanced and refined version of the first rover "Everest." It will also serve as a long-term bank of information housed at the University of Michigan, for consultation and study by other future rover builders. Track 1D 2:00 pm Prototype for Next Generation Mobile Access to Satellite Data, On Earth and on Mars Daniar Hussain dhussain@mit.edu http://www.insanemath.com The next generation of Earth and Mars explorers will need immediate, seamless, and roaming access to satellite data resources. Field scientists and explorers working on the surface of Mars or remote and dangerous locations on the Earth can not rely on conventional and bulky computing systems for access to the information resources they need to carry out their complex tasks. In order to explore the use-scenarios of such a future system, we are developing an end-to-end prototype of a wireless client-server environment for earth science data resources. We have established a wireless LAN testbed and a mobile GIS prototype at NASA GSFC with which to explore OGC standards for location-based services, efficient image data communication, and various use cases. By exploring simulated field uses of next generation mobile technologies at environments like the FMARS in the Canadian Arctic, we gain experience for future applications in science, events management, and exploration.

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Track 1D 2:30 – 4:30 pm Analog Studies Workshop Chris McKay, Moderator mckay@galileo.arc.nasa.gov A two-hour long panel of the professional scientists within the Mars Society to discuss scientific research goals that might be fulfilled at the analog stations. Track 2 D 1:00 – 2:00 pm Panel Discussion: The Planetary Society's Mars Outposts Proposal: Bridging the Gap between Robotic and Human Exploration. Bruce Betts bruce.betts@planetary.org A panel discussion including Bruce Betts (The Planetary Society), Chris McKay (Ames Research Center), and Pascal Lee (SETI Inst.) Until now, space exploration has involved either robotic or human expeditions. We launch probes to distant worlds to collect scientific data. Closer to home, humans regularly travel to Earth orbit and have ventured to the Moon. Mars beckons for exploration-robotic or human. Rather than argue about which approach is preferable, a third way bridges the gap. The Planetary Society has dubbed this approach Mars Outposts. Mars Outposts would consist of specially designated research sites on the Red Planet, equipped with permanent communications, navigational systems, and other technologies to support intensive robotic missions and, most important, vicarious public participation. At the sites, rovers, balloons, and other probes would comprehensively investigate the surrounding terrain. Thanks to continuous signals broadcast to Earth and distributed through the Internet, humans worldwide would be able to participate in the exploration of the planet. Furthermore, the Mars Outposts approach incrementally establishes the infrastructure needed for human expeditions and thus greatly reduces costs and increases safety. Also, the outposts could become future landing sites. The same communications and navigational systems used for the robotic probes could later support a human mission. The robotic infrastructure, for instance, could facilitate the production and storage of propellant and also breathable oxygen. To begin the process, outposts would be selected on Mars' surface, then promising sites would be expanded at an affordable level. Over time, these areas would become familiar places, focusing scientific research and inspiring a generation. The outposts may

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therefore offer a clear vision of the future as well as a new way of exploration-the raison d'être of our nation's civil space program. Track 2D 2:00 pm Mars SCHEME IV: The Mars Society/Caltech Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor Nathan Brown, Chris Hirata, and Derek Shannon Office: 317 Downs Caltech MSC # 560 Pasadena, CA 91126-0560 hirata@its.caltech.edu Mars SCHEME IV is the fourth version of the Caltech-JPL Mars Society's effort to design a safer, cheaper, and more effective early human Mars mission concept. Mars SCHEME IV includes the use of reusable, electrically propelled interplanetary spacecraft with artificial gravity, with smaller vehicles to shuttle crews up and down when the mothership is near Earth or Mars. The Mars SCHEME IV spacecraft are designed with increased redundancy and more conservative mass estimates than previous versions of the plan, and will follow an innovative trajectory to reduce transit times and mission Delta-V. Track 2D 2:30 pm Junkyard Mars - Your Goal is to get Humans to Mars Using the Clarke Orbit Junkyard Steve Mickler 4413 Bradley Dr. Snellville, GA 30039 What you have: Several hundred used satellites weighing in at nearly a million pounds, mostly communication satellites, in various states of disrepair. These satellites contain aluminum, efficiency challenged solar cells, microwave communications gear, antennas, thrusters, tanks, etc. Also: The Sun - a fusion power plant already in operation and on location. What you need: Some form of active telepresence by which you can use what you've got to build and propel a manned spacecraft to Mars. A possible solution: A Solar Thermal Rocket Telerobotic Orbital Transfer Vehicle. Solar Thermal Rockets use a concentrator mirror to focus the Sun's energy to heat and exhaust a propellant gas and are currently being pursued by Boeing. Aluminum is not usually thought of as a propellant, but as concerns trans Mars aluminum has the advantage of being storable as a liquid to over 4000 deg F with the concentrator supplying only the heat of vaporization to create hot exhaust gas. This means that it becomes practical to use the concentrator mirror to liquefy and heat aluminum harvested from satellites and then heat it to gas at perigee. This greatly increases thrust and makes practical sized payloads feasible. If the

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STRTROTV's are designed for mass production and are modestly sized, many can be used together for different tasks and they would have the added advantage of being able to repair each other. The satellites in and around GEO unlike those in lower orbits are not separated by high delta-V making it practical for an aluminum-propelled vehicle to efficiently accumulate a large mass. Harvesting a satellite may seem daunting at the 4 frames a second caused by time delay, but with proper tools and the willing labor of society members "virtually" in orbit, power (by making new mirrors out of harvested aluminum), propellant, communications and even structural members of a Mars vehicle could be made. We could start "cutting metal" for the cost of a Discovery mission and minimize what has to be made on or launched from Earth. Also: At your destination you have two moons that likely have solar wind deposited volatiles easily baked out by a solar concentrator. From orbit the concentrator enhanced solar cells broadcast power to the manned base, so no reactor is needed. Money: Unlike other Mars plans, this one is capable of generating a profit from the start by comsat repair, refueling, and orbital transfer from LEO to GEO. Use of NEO derived volatiles becomes highly desirable early on if orbital transfer predominates. So on your mark, start small, use what you have for as much as you can, build a space transportation/mining and manufacturing infrastructure, establish regular trips to Mars and make money doing it. This paper describes a solar thermal telerobotic orbital transfer vehicle as first proposed by the author in paper presented at the 1985 Space Congress and since refined. Track 2D 3:00 pm Solaris MET: Low Cost Human Mars Mission J. E. Brandenburg Aerospace Corp. Chantilly, VA John F. Kline Research Support Instruments Princeton, NJ Ronald Cohen and Kevin Diamant Aerospace Corporation El Segundo, CA The Solaris-MET is an architecture for a human Mars mission that utilizes the MET (Microwave Electro-Thermal) thruster (Brandenburg and Micci, 1995) with water as a propellant, for interplanetary propulsion and production of RP1 (kerosene) and LOX from the Martian atmosphere, plus aero braking to reduce mass in Earth orbit. Since the MET propulsion system is water based, a landing site on the former shoreline of the Martian Paleo-Ocean (Brandenburg 1986) could create a natural synergism if a fossil water table is present. Space Station Alpha is used as an assembly point for the spacecraft and storage of water fuel. The MET thruster system because of its high efficiency and high Isp (800-900 sec) can propel large spacecraft to Mars using large solar arrays for power, making the environmentally problematic space nuclear reactor unnecessary. The use of water as fuel for the interplanetary stage allows accumulation

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and transfer of fuel with minimal hardware or safety concerns and later utilization of space resources. This architecture allows the use of Martian water and so the system can form the basis for an eventual Mars-Earth transportation infrastructure by using a waterrich Mars base location and the Space station. For this reason, the recommended landing site is on the former shoreline of the Paleo-Ocean of Mars. This paleo-ocean, first hypothesized by the author, is of enough reality and utility at this point to be given a proposed name of “Malacandrian Ocean.” Track 2D 3:30 pm Fast-track for Manned Missions to Mars; The Promise of the Theta-Pinch Thruster Concept Dr. Erik Seedhouse elseedho@sfu.ca Environmental & Aerospace Laboratory School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby British Columbia, V3J 1E2, Canada Chemical rockets are well suited for Earth orbit and long-duration space probes but advanced propulsion technologies must be developed to enable more complex mission such as those planned for Mars. To maximize payloads for such a mission, the propellant exhaust velocity should be comparable to the required mission velocity. The theta pinch thruster concept is derived from the experimental theta pinch devices investigated during the early years of fusion research. It uses a pulsed magnetic field in narrow chamber to create plasma and thrust. By continuously repeating the process the plasma is brought to higher pressures and temperatures. Program elements in NASA’s (Institute for Advanced Concepts) theta pinch research have been aimed at resolving the key issues that determine whether such a thruster can be effective. The modeling of plasma temperatures and densities required to produce the necessary combinations of thrust and specific impulse have been established as part of the general feasibility of the thruster concept. Encouraging results of the Phase 1 program conducted by NASA suggest that a scaled theta pinch thruster operated with an upstream magnetic mirror can be an enabling propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars. Research suggests that such a system is capable of providing high average thrust at specific impulse values comparable to current electric propulsion engines.

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Track 2D 4:00 pm The Mars SCHEME IV Trajectory Analysis Nathan Brown and Chris Hirata Office: 317 Downs Caltech MSC # 560 Pasadena, CA 91126-0560 hirata@its.caltech.edu The Caltech-JPL Mars Society's human Mars mission design efforts have recently required the calculation of trajectories for low-thrust electrically propelled interplanetary vehicles. The optimization techniques we used for interplanetary missions and their results are reviewed. We also discuss the use of lunar flybys in the Mars SCHEME IV trajectory to yield significant transit time and Delta-V reductions and to eliminate the need for close Earth flybys, which is desirable if the vehicle is to carry a nuclear power source. Track 3D 1:00 pm Inflatable Tumbleweeds For Mars Jack A. Jones Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California, 91109 NASA is presently considering a number of inflatable vehicles for Mars mobility. Two of these were reported at the 1999 Mars Society Conference. One is the Inflatable Rover, which is a lightweight (25 kg) inflatable vehicle with three large spherical tires (1.5 m diameter) that can easily traverse over almost all of the rocky Martian terrain with very little power (20 Watts at 5 km/hr). Another is a solar-heated hot gas balloon, or Montgolfiere, that is filled with ambient Martian atmosphere as it falls during atmospheric entry, and is quickly heated by the sun, thus providing buoyancy. A more recent inflatable robotics concept being explored for Mars is known as a “Tumbleweed Ball.” This is a large beach-ball-like device that holds a central payload by means of a series of tension cords. On Mars, a 6-meter diameter ball could be used for descent (replacing the parachute), landing (replacing the airbag) and mobility (winddriven on surface). The ball could be stopped by partial deflation and restarted with full inflation during windy periods. On Mars, a 20-kg ball could carry a central 20-kg

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payload and be propelled at speeds of about up to 10 m/sec during typical afternoon winds of 20 m/sec. The ball could easily climb 20° hills, with moderate winds (20 m/sec) and 45° hills with stronger winds (30 m/sec.). Tests using this type of ball as an impacter sphere were successfully conducted in the 1960s at JPL. Impact speeds of as high as 60 m/sec were tested with payload fractions of as high as 75%. By comparison, the nominal Tumbleweed Ball of Figure 1 would have a vertical terminal impact speed of 30 m/sec with a payload fraction of about 50%. Preliminary tests at JPL are presently being conducted with a ¼ scale model (1.5-meter diameter) inflatable Tumbleweed Ball. The ball has a very low coefficient of rolling friction when fully inflated, and easily traverses over various sandy and rocky terrains. A number of means to stop the ball, including deflation and shape change methods, are also presently being evaluated. On Mars, the ball would likely perform magnetometry and subsurface water-sounding measurements, which cannot be done accurately from Mars orbit. The ball may also carry imaging equipment as well as a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) along with a 1-2 meter subsurface drill. Track 3D 1:30 pm Long Day's Drive: Long range Rover Exploration of the Martian Arctic Michael H. Sims, Chris McKay & Pascal Lee (SETI Inst.), Center for Mars Exploration, NASA Ames Michael.Sims@arc.nasa.gov Long Day=B9s Drive (LDD) is a proposed long distance rover traverse mission that will explore the northern circumpolar region, polar layered deposits, and residual ice cap of Mars. Science investigations will focus on determining the nature of the northern polar layered deposits (PLDs), the nature and distribution of ground-ice in the northern circumpolar region, the diversity of polar geologic features and terrains, the mineralogy and geochemistry of polar surface materials, and the nature and abundance of possible organics in these materials. The northern polar region of Mars holds many keys to the understanding of Mars and represents a high priority for scientific investigation. The proposed long distance exploration rover mission is an ideal reconnaissance mission to the northern polar region of Mars since LDD will produce a detailed understanding of the geology and astrobiological potential of this environment. In addition to yielding direct scientific return, LDD will help identify optimal sites and exploration strategies for future stationary polar landers and for human exploration in the polar region.

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Track 3D 2:00 pm Mars “Hopper” for Robotic Mars Exploration Geoffrey A. Landis and Diane L. Linne NASA John Glenn Research Center mailstop 302-1 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH 44135 geoffrey.landis@grc.nasa.gov The Mars In-situ Propellants Rocket is a small vehicle proposed to fly autonomously on Mars, using in-situ propellant production to manufacture rocket propellant directly out of the Martian atmosphere, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using local resources to “live off the land.” It is proposed as a payload on a Mars Surveyor class lander as a reusable “hopper” vehicle. The vehicle explores the Martian surface under rocket power and can repeatedly takeoff and land, carrying a suite of science instruments over a range of hundreds of meters to several kilometers per hop. An enabling technology for the human exploration of the planet Mars is in-situ propellant production (ISPP). ISPP involves the manufacturing of propellants on Mars using indigenous resources as feedstock in the chemical processes. The primary resource on Mars available for ISPP is the atmosphere, which can be converted directly into oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO), or, with some hydrogen brought from Earth, into O2 and methane (CH4). The proposed MIPR vehicle will demonstrate the use of the ISPP technology in a small vehicle designed to fly on a Mars Surveyor class mission. It will also demonstrate a cryogenic propulsion system for Mars ascent vehicles, lightweight space engine technology, and other innovative technologies for both Mars and Earth-based missions. Mobility on Mars has a high science value. Invariably, wherever a lander may touch down, we will always want to know what is beyond the next ridge, on top of the nearby hill, or just over the horizon. Surface rovers are limited by terrain, and cannot explore many of the most interesting territory on Mars. If a vehicle were to rise above the surface, it could traverse “impassible” chasms and hop over “uncrossable” cliffs. The "hopper" vehicle is able to take off and land repeatedly, carrying a suite of science instruments over hundreds of meters per hop. The rocket-powered hopper: - refuels itself autonomously for multiple hops by using solar power to react atmospheric CO2 into oxidizer and fuel; - achieves an altitude of several hundreds of meters and traverses a distance of several hundreds of meters during each hop; and - carries a suite of scientific instruments to a soft landing at the conclusion of each hop. The flight demonstration will accomplish a range of technology objectives important to both unmanned probes and to future human missions, including: demonstration of a sub-

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orbital Mars launch vehicle; demonstrating storage of cryogenic propellants on the Mars surface; demonstration of a pressure-fed cryogenic propulsion system for Mars ascent vehicles; demonstration of a lightweight space engine; and use for the first time of propellants manufactured in-situ on another planetary body. Track 3D 2:30 pm Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts David File davefile@pacific-works.com The history of early Martian aircraft developments is reviewed and recent studies are evaluated resulting in several proposed Delta II launched concepts. Mars's atmospheric and global surface investigations can benefit greatly from the aerial mobility of flying platforms. Advances in autonomous guidance and navigation create new missions by enabling these concepts to accurately target specific terrain features. Three concepts were developed and are evaluated in this report: an improved mid-weight version of the early large-span JPL/DSI flyer (1978), a "minimum mission" winged concept and a parasail-equipped lander delivery system. The parasail flyer achieves accurate, terminal targeting for its payload reducing the risks associated with landing site selection for roving explorers. In addition to concept design and feature descriptions a systems engineering, risk reduction approach is developed which delineates the necessary technology program to achieve performance goals and mission success. Track 3D 3:00 pm Mountaineering on Mars Thomas Joslyn joslyn@writeme.com Many of the locations on Mars that are of primary interest for study are not easily accessible by rover or walking. To explore canyon walls, caves, and caldera interiors, explorers will need to ascend and descent steep terrain. Mountaineering equipment such as nylon ropes and aluminum rappel devices now used on Earth can be adapted for use on Mars and need not be heavy, complex, or even expensive. The environment on mars, while much less extreme than the Moon, is more severe than that faced by climbers in the Himalayas. Still, weighing a third of their normal body weight should allow astronauts to safely explore some of the most important locations on Mars using Earth-based mountaineering techniques. If EVA is only conducted during the daytime, space suit thermal protection weight will be minimal and astronaut performance enhanced. To safely rappel and climb, astronauts will need to see the front and sides of their waist to locate and operate equipment. Gear can be secured to the suit with carabiners and rigid nylon/plastic gear loops located at the hips and chest. The Mars climbing suit should

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incorporate gloves with better dexterity than Shuttle EVA gloves and should allow leg range of motion for high stepping to at least mid thigh height. Rigid soled boots with sticky rubber and at least some foot dexterity are preferred, and the outer layer of the suit must resist tearing, especially at the knees, shoulders, and elbows. Initially, conservative climbing techniques with fixed ropes at the top of mountain or cliff will be employed. Astronauts will rappel from their rope anchor down to the site and then ascend the terrain and feeds the rope through an auto-locking belay device. Once safety is demonstrated and confidence is gained Mars walkers may venture up the steep terrain of Mars without fixed ropes, using traditional leading techniques. Track 3D 3:30 pm Martian Polar Expeditions Charles S. Cockell British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge. CB3 0ET csco@pcmail.nerc-bas.ac.uk The Martian polar ice caps are regions of substantial scientific interest, being the most dynamic regions of Mars. They are volatile sinks and thus closely linked to Martian climatic conditions. Because of their scale and the precedent set by the past history of polar exploration on Earth, it is likely that an age of polar exploration will emerge on the surface of Mars after the establishment of a capable support structure at lower latitudes. Expeditions might be launched either from a lower latitude base camp or from a humantended polar base. Based on previously presented expeditionary routes to the Martian poles, here a 'spiral in-spiral out' unsupported transpolar assault on the Martian north geographical pole is used as a Reference expedition to propose new types of equipment for the human polar exploration of Mars. Martian polar 'ball' tents and 'hover' modifications to the Nansen sledge for sledging on CO2-containing water ice substrates under low atmospheric pressures are suggested as elements for the success of these endeavors. Other challenges faced by these expeditions are quantitatively and qualitatively addressed. Track 4D 1:00 pm Space Tourism After Dennis Tito: Mars and the Space Tourism Industry Dr. David M. Livingston Livingston Business Solutions P.O. Box 95, Tiburon, CA 94920 dlivings@davidlivingston

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Dennis Tito’s May, 2001 trip to the International Space Station brought space tourism and sending humans to Mars closer to reality. Tito showed the world and especially NASA that a non-government astronaut could easily handle space travel, and, at the same time, confirmed the findings of credible space tourism market research. These studies show that a valid space tourist market exists, even at the price of $20 million per person. Just as important, Tito’s adventure struck a deathblow to the giggle factor, which has plagued the space tourism industry since its inception. However, neither the success of the Tito trip or the market research showing a strong likelihood for space tourism profitability is sufficient on its own to propel the space tourism industry into reality. This paper, therefore, examines the full scope of the Tito effect on the space tourism industry as well as efforts to undertake a manned Mars mission. While Tito demonstrated the viability of commercial space travel, it is still to be determined whether the space tourism industry itself can now develop into a profitable economic entity. Proponents of developing space travel businesses have often been their own worst enemies by making their case while relying too much upon dramatic rhetoric and unsupported assumptions rather than proven business tools and methodologies. With an understanding and appreciation of how this industry has promoted its cause, this paper discusses ways of using market research, financial analysis, and strategic business planning to facilitate commercial space travel and support the manned Mars mission. The space tourism industry’s true potential will be realized when there is a growing market consisting of millions of passengers paying a few thousand dollars instead of a handful of people paying millions to visit low Earth orbit. A major problem preventing affordable space access from happening is that space tourist proponents, while claiming the need for a passenger-certified, cost-effective reusable launch vehicle (RLV), have not fully integrated RLVs into their business plans. For example, space tourism advocates usually only mention that an RLV as the vehicle of choice. At the same time, people in the RLV industry distanced themselves from the space tourism market and focused on the satellite launch market instead. Fortunately, this is finally changing with the realization of space tourism’s potential economic prowess when compared to the limited economic market represented by launching satellites. For the space tourism market's potential to be realized, not only does building a cost-effective passenger carrying RLV need to be a priority, there also needs to be a strategy for cooperation between the RLV and space tourism industries to build and operate a fleet of RLVs. Tito is more than just a symbol to the space tourism industry and Mars proponents. As a business and financial expert, he can provide much needed industry leadership and energy. While Dennis Tito’s contribution to the space tourism industry is important, the space tourism industry must now do its share to ensure its own successful development. The discussion points and strategies put forth in this paper can help the space tourism industry meet this challenge. They can also be useful helping to further develop plans for sending people to Mars at the earliest possible date.

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Track 4D 1:30 pm Staying Aloft: Fundraising for Mars Society Projects Maggie Zubrin Executive Director, The Mars Society mzubrin@aol.com This presentation will answer key questions for understanding the financial mechanisms of The Mars Society. Where do we get our funding? How do we identify potential sources of funding? What are we doing to secure new sources of funding? How can members help with this process? Although membership dues are vital to maintaining our everyday operations, large infusions of money are required to carry on an aggressive program of analog research. To date, The Mars Society has raised over $900,000 for our program of analog research. This figure represents donations of at least $100,000 each that were earmarked specifically as sponsorships for either the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station or the Mars Desert Research Station. All donations to The Mars Society, whether for specific projects or general operating expenses, have come from the private sector. But The Mars Society has consistently invested donations in active programs of research and outreach. A concerted effort to raise additional funding will be required to continue to expand our operations and achieve our goals. The fundraising task force has spent the last several months doing research on foundations and potential individual donors. Countless letters of inquiry have been sent, dozens of forms filled out and filed. An analysis of these efforts helps pinpoint the most effective way to approach our fundraising needs. The next step is to engage chapters and individual members in the fundraising process, utilizing those methods which have been identified as most effective.

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Track 4D 2:00 pm 3 COM MARS Joel Pioneer pioneer@thinker.colorado.edu More important than soil samples or mineral deposits, more significant than what it might teach us about our own past, present, or place in the universe, what we can, what we will, what we must learn from a Mission to Mars is how to fund a Mission to Mars ultimately, how to fund 21st Century space exploration itself. The economic challenges of space demand a creativity and ingenuity little found in the businessman of today, and remain under-explored by the technologically oriented minds of the members of the Society. To wit: Advertising. When Neil Armstrong uttered his first words from the Moon, hundreds of millions of people listened. When he chose not to mention Coca-Cola, hundreds of millions of dollars vanished. Future generations of scientists paid dearly for the conspicuous absence of the Nike Swoosh(tm) from his suit. Now is the hour of a copywritten genome, pay-per-view data and the land lording of intellectual property. Royalty-based access to information gathered on the mission: an idea that funds itself. The first words spoken on Mars: "Buy a Coke!" MTV's The Real World: Mars. One egomaniac paying 10 million dollars to orbit the Earth is only 99 egomaniacs short of a billion dollars. The bones of tax-fed, government backed, megaprojects lie in dusty heaps where nubile, VC-funded mammals keep warm in logo covered fur. We stand at the dawn of the next Dark Age; that familiar time in the cycle of human history when, surrounded by sorcerers and quantum-alchemists, we recall, only with senility, the greatness of our past, and embrace our one last chance to sink a few treasurefilled galleons in the deep sea of space, somewhere off the coast of Mars. Track 4D 2:30 pm Mars Balloon Group Abstract Chris Vancil clvancil@aol.com To thrive an organizations like the Mars Society need to provide an atmosphere of innovation and exploration. Yet, any volunteer organization has trouble motivating it's members to perform in a timely manor major projects. This paper will show how the Mars Society can emulated AMSAT the creators of the forty some OSCAR radio amateur satellites and design, test and build a small hitchhiker payload. It is the intention of the author to show how the simplest flying machine a Solar Montgolfiere hot air balloon

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could be the prefect project to pursue using AMSAT as a model for these pioneering volunteers. Track 4D 3:00 pm The Mars Society Measure of Readiness Gary C. Fisher Independence Chapter P.O. Box 694 Bryn Athyn, PA 19009. gcfisheris@aol.com The Founding Declaration of The Mars Society declares: "The time has come for humanity to journey to Mars. We're ready." But are we ready? While the signers of the Founding Declaration may be psychologically and emotionally ready where does humanity really stand from a technical standpoint to undertake the first mission to Mars? I propose that The Mars Society annually generate a single number between 0 and 100 representing the percentage of complete technical readiness. This metric, which I call the Measure of Readiness (MOR), would be distilled from an analysis of a vast compilation of data undertaken by Mars Society volunteers and reviewed by panels of experts. Its publication each year should be choreographed to provide a media event that raises the public's awareness of how close, in a practical sense, Mars is, and a realistic assessment of what difficulties remain to be overcome. From a practical standpoint the analysis required to generate the MOR will help direct Mars Society research and lobbying. This paper discusses how the Measure of Readiness can be generated. Track 4D 3:30 pm Discussion on Mars Society Steering Committee & Member Input Bruce Mackenzie BMackenzie@alum.mit.edu What is the role of the Steering Committee within the Mars Society? Audience discussion on what Mars Society members expect of the committee, how to give your input, and suggestions for those who want to be on the committee. Discussion may drift off to how to get support for your favorite projects within the Mars Society.

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Track 5D 1:00 pm A Methanogen-based Bio-regenerative Life Support System John C. Crocker Dept. of Applied Physics California Institute of Technology Mail Code 128-95 Pasadena, CA 91125 jcrocker@caltech.edu The use of green plants to produce a closed-loop regenerative life support system is hindered by large energy, infrastructure and labor requirements. This paper proposes to achieve the same end though a combination of an anaerobic culture of methanogenic archea and simple physico-chemical methods. Such a system can achieve air revitalization and food production with energy, mass and volume requirements nearly two orders of magnitude lower than corresponding photosynthetic systems. This technology will at least enable the cultivation of small livestock, and at most greatly facilitate the early self-sufficiency of Mars outposts. Track 5D 1:30 pm Distributive Life Support Testing Sherwin J. Gormly Tech EM Inc. 1325 Airmotive Way Suite 200 Reno, NV 89502 gormlys@ttemi.com Presently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research indicates that Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) cannot achieve a payback on a mass basis until after 15 years mission length, based on current technology (Flynn and Borchers)1. There are well-documented reasons to expect that this number (15 years) can be reduced by investigation of specific hardware problems. However, because of NASA’s mission profile based priorities this result may deny CELSS the research funding required to develop the science behind “go to stay” scenarios. This would make a “flags and footprints” based life support system the inevitable NASA research priority. Also, this means that if truly long-term life support (go to stay) is to be competitively developed past the theoretical phase, then organizations like the Mars Society may play a key role. Three areas where this is particularly true are: - Development of a broad and flexible body of knowledge (database) in the use of appropriate hardware and techniques related to long term life support systems that are likely to be overlooked or receive insufficient funding at NASA.

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- Develop a broad interdisciplinary group of knowledgeable and competent researchers on the model of the backyard astronomers involved in Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) research. - Develop an open-ended forum organization (coop or working group) among Mars Society members to act as a working group and information point of contact for independent researchers in CELSS. There are four specific areas of CELSS related research in which any committed Mars Society member could make real and valuable contributions to the state of the art. These areas are: Advanced water treatment technology process validation Composting and digestor technology process validation Applied greenhouse and hydroponic controls and CELSS integration Extremeophile (lichen and microorganism) culture

This paper is primarily dedicated to the serious examination of and meaningful garage and backyard science opportunities in the above four areas, and ends with an encouragement for Mars Society members that are interested in these areas to come together. Track 5D 2:00 pm Algal Turf Scrubbers on Mars Dave Blersch, Dean Calahan, Dr. Patrick Kangas dean@baloney.com (Dean Calahan) The algal turf scrubber (ATS) is an ecologically engineered technology developed for use in wastewater treatment. An ATS consists of benthic algae growing in a shallow chamber through which nutrient laden water is passed. Nutrients are removed from the water stream through uptake by the algae during growth. Harvesting the algae removes nutrients from the system and provides a source of biomass. The system can be engineered to maximize biomass production by varying factors such as light input, flow rate, and degree of turbulence. A number of functions and products provided by ATSs work within the context of many Mars exploration, settlement, and terraforming scenarios. These include wastewater treatment, CO2 removal, nutrient recycling, and production of biomass (for soil amendment or as food for animals or humans), oxygen, methane and perhaps hydrogen. We present some preliminary mission designs, showing how ATSs can provide necessary functions and products, including performance curves and basic engineering diagrams. Ecologically engineered technology, such as the ATS, offers an alternative to mainstream technological solutions that have been favored in current mission scenarios.

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Track 5D 2:30 pm Controlled Ecological Mouse Support System Gus Frederick gus@norwebster.com How best to effectively demonstrate basic Advanced Life Support Systems in an educational setting? Requirements of space, mass, and logistical factors for many remote research facilities severely limit any sort of full-sized human CELSS/ALS setup. Likewise, building such a full-sized system for educational use could be quite costly. Enter the CEMSS Module. This is a self-contained experimental package, designed to demonstrate many of the basic functions of a full-sized Advanced Life Support System, but with a fraction of the mass and no ecological impact. Likewise, it will provide a unique educational opportunity to observe the basic workings of a bio-regenerative system. The CEMSS Module will be composed of two main elements: a "minigreenhouse" Plant Growth Chamber and a Mouse Habitat. Assuming 1 to 2 week 'Mouse Missions,' the plants would be germinated in advance, so that the vegetable matter will be up and growing when the mice are introduced. The mice, likewise, will be pre-adapted in the Rodent Hab prior to arrival. Both chambers will be linked to one another via a series of fittings, vents, and fans to allow for the CO2/Oxygen exchange cycle, as well as a water recycling system. Otherwise, it will be sealed for the duration. The system's sensor web will monitor variables such as CO2/O2 levels, temperature, humidity, pH levels, etc. Power for the system will be provided by 12 vdc storage batteries, kept charged with a photovoltaic system. Plants for the experiment will include "Apogee" seeds, a strain of quick-growing, high-yield dwarf wheat developed by Utah State University's Crop Physiology Lab, under a grant from NASA. A suite of High School curriculum is being developed in tandem with the CEMSS module, covering a multi-curricular unit involving the construction of the actual system, pre-flight tests, data acquisition and analysis techniques. Track 5D 3:00 pm Detection of P-Cymene by Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor Edward L Worthington tiwaz_rune@hotmail.com This project tested procedures for design of a biosensor using a bioluminescent bioreporter suspended in a permeable bead. The preponderance of the project was spent working with a bioreporter defective for the recombinant gene of interest. The work with the defective strain served to improve contamination control. Strain 2 provided immediate success but wasn’t available until just before the end of the project. Further work will be done with this strain to develop a working biosensor.

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Track 5D 3:30 pm Astro Farming Derrick L. Coles Sr. Owner/Director of Research Dragon Rose dragonroseinc@yahoo.com Although there won't be any nutrient rich soil and very small quantities of water available, it is possible to grow nutritionally adequate food crops in the Martian environment, by methods other than the conventionally thought process of hydroponics, or the use of commonly know crops such as "corn, wheat etc." With hydroponic solutions weighing in excess of ten pounds per gallon and the cost of payload space aboard the shuttle in excess of $10,000.00 per pound hydroponics is neither cost effective nor an effective use of payload space. By using alternative food producing crop plants we can employ the method of aeroponics, allowing us to dramatically reduce payload cost, increase payload available space for other uses while still providing for the on site growth of food producing crops. Track 5D 4:00 pm Fire Safety System Based on Phenomenon of Ignition Suppression and Flame Extinction in Normobaric Environment of Breathable Hypoxic Air Kotliar I, Prokopov A. Hypoxico Inc., New York. Extremely reliable systems that can completely eliminate the threat of onboard fire designed for long-duration human operations in deep space and on the Mars surface. A phenomenon of the complete suppression of ignition in a normobaric environment of breathable hypoxic air is discovered, investigated and discussed. A fire safety system, FirePASSTM, is being developed based on this phenomenon (patent pending). The application of the FirePASSTM in human-inhabited space objects provides the following benefits: - Inhabited space ships and surface habitats (on the Moon, asteroids or on Mars) will be completely safe from the threat of fire, using a normobaric hypoxic atmosphere as a life-supporting environment. - Adaptation to hypoxia in humans results in the significant enhancement of general stress tolerance and improves general health, which can increase the operational reliability of a crew. - Adaptation to hypoxia economizes the oxidative metabolism, which is followed by a significant reduction of both, oxygen and food consumption, without a decline in operational productivity or risking a health hazard. It can have a special value in a

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long-term interplanetary space missions and in emergency situations, where lifesupporting resources are limited. - The use of a moderately hypobaric hypoxic environment in a spacecraft would require less mechanical resistance to inner barometric pressure, which can lead to substantial weight reduction of orbiting structures. Track 5D 4:30 pm Benefits of Hypoxic Artificial Atmosphere for Spacecraft and Planetary Habitats Kotliar I, Prokopov A. Hypoxico Inc., New York Residents of high altitudes demonstrate normal physiological characteristics and show increased vitality and lesser morbidity. Subjects acclimatized to a low O2 (hypoxic) environment (corresponding to 14.5 - 11 % O2 at sea level) exhibit enhanced physical endurance and increased resistance to stress-inducing and damaging factors and accelerated recovery in a variety of conditions. Hypoxic stimulation reactivates the O2saving genetic program, which is active in all mammalian cells during embryonic development, when O2 partial pressure in the uterus is comparable to that in high mountains. CO2 deficiency (hypocapnia) is a regular component of general stress reaction and is extremely harmful for normal physiological functions. The positive effects of moderately increased CO2 (physiological hypercapnia) are well documented. CO2 has direct antioxidative action, suppressing the production of superoxide-anion radicals in the mitochondria and neutralizing a highly – aggressive radical--peroxynitrit. The application of a moderately hypoxic-hypercapnic normobaric environment in space habitats has following biological benefits: - Inhalation of air with 8.5-10% O2 concentration has been proven to induce radioprotective effect against X- rays and γ- rays. This effect finds an application in cancer radiotherapy for protection of healthy tissue and can be used by astronauts for short - time radioprotection in urgent situations. - Adaptation to hypoxia results in the significant enhancement of general stress-tolerance and improves general health, which enhances the operational reliability of crew. - Adaptation to hypoxia economizes oxidative metabolism, with significant reduction both of O2 and food consumption and without productivity decline or health threat. It can have special value in emergency and in long-term interplanetary space missions, where life-supporting resources are limited. - Hypercapnic atmosphere in the greenhouse results in significant increase of plant productivity.

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Track 6D 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm Planning Chapter Outreach and Communications Lyle Kelly lhkelly@aol.com An open discussion of the following issues: organizing an event, finding opportunities, finding and making materials, building a web site, building relationships with schools and local business, promoting events, what to do with your newly-started chapter (i.e. what activities will keep the people coming back for more), using Majordomo lists, and how to form collaborations with other local space groups. This session will also include remarks by the moderator about experience in Ohio, opportunity for attendees to share their experiences and ideas, and encouragement for further collaboration after the session. Ohio has been involved in Mars Direct presentations to local clubs, college classes and public meetings at libraries; discussions on talk radio; Humans to Mars displays in public squares, in movie theatres, at astronomy club events, and on college campuses; and some limited contacts with congressional representatives. Closing Plenary Session 5:00 pm Dr. Robert Zubrin

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The Mars Society would like to thank all of those who have generously donated funds, services and materials to help make our daily operation and research projects possible.

Major Sponsors
The Discovery Channel Flashline.com/The Longview Foundation F.I.N.D.S./The Space Frontier Foundation International Training Institute for the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Industry The Kirsch Foundation The Musk Foundation Eric Tilenius and the Tilenius Fund United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters

Corporate Sponsors
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Individual Donors
Explorer Level - $5000
Lorraine Bell Robert Bigelow James Cameron Gregg T Smith Trust George McNamee Trust Elon Musk Declan O'Donnell Charles Stack

Benefactor Level - $2000
Michael Bresolin Paul Contursi Gary Fisher Waldemar Horwat Charles Stack George Onik Steve Perlman Rob Stanley Richard Wagner Robert and Maggie Zubrin

Supporter Level - $1000
Jason Andringa Walt Baldwin Kristin Boekhoff Amy Bouska Bruce Boxleitner Richard Brodeur & Company Ron Brys Brian Chapel William Clancey Nicholas Cross Tamarack Czarnik Martin Eberhard Mark Evenson Daniel Geraci George Harrison Andrew Hoppin Jean LeGarde Fumio Mizoguchi Thomas Olson Geoff Peterson John Roesch Gregg Smith Gregory Staple Carol Stoker Joel Weder

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Individual Donors (continued)
Enthusiast Level - $500
Bruce Anderson Michael Atkinson Josuah Bell Jim Beyer Eugene Butcher Frank Crossman John Happel Glenn Morrison Anthony Muscatello Eric Orrill James Partan Simon Plant Al Reinert Randy Rumley James Sachs Craig Snapp Rick Starr Ed Streeter

Friend Level - $200
Paul Allen Richard Allen Algirdas Avizienis Georges Ballini Patrick Banks Jim Benson Dallas Bienhoff John Blitch Jocelyn Boily Bruce Bury Doug Caswell Ned Chapin Betty Coleman Tim Cook Peter Diamandis Edward Dodds James Early Noah Falstein Charles Fox Steven Glenfield Andrew Harmsworth Rev. James Heiser Willard Hess Marvin Hilton Derek Hinspater Michael Hsu Shelly Hynes Matt Iwaskow John Jameson Terry Jones Lyle Kelly Beatriz Kelly-Serrato Mike Kretsch Ralph LaBarge Morris Levine Steve Lindsay Robert Meigs Harold Miller Justin Milliun Michitaka Onizuka John Oss Elizabeth Otillar Emmanuel Petrakakis Emil Petrinc Jim Plaxco Shawn Plunket Katy Quinn John Roesch Shannon Roy William Ryder Eric Scosberg Richard Shannahan, George Smith Steven Smoliar Chris and Leanne Struble Joe Trela Nancy & Bob Unferth Chris Vancil William Vartorello Peter Waller Waylon Webbon Joseph Webster Timothy Weisser William White Virginia Winter Robert Woolley David Yeoman

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Individual Donors (continued)
Additional Donors
Michael Alaux Eric Anderson James Antifaev Penelope Ashcroft Daniel Auclair Jane Barton Gregory Beat Howard Beim Steven Belasco Kirk Berry Joe Betz Nick Blackwell Elmo Blubaugh Gerry Bogue Benoit Boulant Stephen Boydston Peter Boyes Jason Braverman Stewart Brekke Pierre Brisson Colin Bulthaup Tobias Cabral Justin Callison Chris Carberry Erik Carlstrom Russell Castagnaro Mr & Mrs Caulder Stephanie Charles Rodney Clark Don Clewell Scott Clingenpeel Ben Coblentz The Stuckey Coles Daniel Constantinescu Amy Cooprider Mike Cordova Dennis Creamer Scott Davis Richard de Revere David Deaville Steven DelVaille Jim Dempsey Edward Dinnen Thomas Dubois Jon Eckberg Robert Ede Sara Edwards Brian Enke Mert Eyuboglu Seth Fearry Edmund Fisher Arthur Fleisher Matt Fleishman Terry Fravel David Frey Sawyer Fuller Jan T. Galkowski Roger Garst Francis Gastellu Robert Gissing Shawn Goldman Ned Goldreyer Chris Grossaint Stephen Hall Frederick S. Hall John B. Hansen C. Craig Harbuch David O. Harrington Charles Hengley IV Michael Hill Tom Hill Christopher Hirata Richard Hirata Dennis Hoey Jason Hope Patrick Howlett Douglas Hubbard Johnson Ices Brian Jacobson Marcus Janietz Roger Jones Eric Kanagy Michael Kaufhold Robert Kelley James Kelly Edward Kiker Richard Kleinberger Wojciech Klimkiewicz Greg Kooistra Robert Kopp Michael Krause Miriam Krause Arnie Krepel Indy Krummins Kurt Lancaster Bryan Laubscher Peter Levin David Livingston Robert Lowe Matthew Lowry The Manning Thomas Mansell Morwena Marshall Andrew Martin Robert Martin Mike Masters Cecilia Matthew Jaret Matthews Lincoln Mayer Alfred Mayle William McCabe John McGowan Leo Metcalfe Norman Morris Mike Moshitto Carlos Munoz Madeline Mutch New York chapter Paul Oakley Aaron Oesterle Sherri O'Grady Tony Pace Suzanne Paine Gregory Peisert Peter Perrine Robert Pfammatter

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Individual Donors (continued)
Additional Donors

Philadelphia Chapter Robert Pohling Joel Porter Richard Poss Patrick Purcell Victor Radjuko Frank Ramsay Steven Riggs David Rodger David Roggenkamp Robert Roy Alan Rubin Shannon Russell Will Sadler Edgar Salazar-Grueso John Samouce Keith Savage Richard Schiavi Adam Schiffman Mike Schilling Thomas Schneider Thomas Schneider Don Scott The Seurig Jeremy Sevareid Philip Sharpe

Mike Shaw M.S. Sherrard Douglas Shull Daniel Silver Elizabeth Sims Stacy Sklar Ken Sloan Jamie Smith Kim Smith Wesley Smith David Snelgrove Jamie South Francis Stabler Edward Stanton Kurt Stengl Michael Stickel John Strickland, Jr. Maggie Stringfellow David Stuart Mary Ellen Symanski Mike Symond Marc Tarpenning Taras Tataryn Larry Thorbjornson The Toronto Chapter Edward Travers

Joseph Turner The Landis Turzillos Gabriel van den Berg Lari Jo Vickrey Sebastian Vincent Chris Ward Tim Weaver Daniel Weber Bill Weinberg William Weitze Robert Wells John Westerhoff R. Lee Wheless Glenn Whiteside R. Whitley Charles Williams Christopher Williams Bill Willis Robert Willis Tim Wilson Gerald Wolfe Douglas Wooster Gregory & Pat Wright Steve Wyburn August Yonker

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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites
Jessica Jenkins [2000] Abstract For a manned mission to Mars, there are numerous systems that must be designed for humans to live safely with all of their basic needs met at all times. Among the most important aspects will be the retention of suitable pressure and breathable air to sustain life. Also, due to the corrosive nature of the Martian dust, highly advanced airlock systems including air showers and HEPA filters must be in place so that the interior of the habitat and necessary equipment is protected from any significant damage. There are multiple current airlocks that are used in different situations, which could be modified for use on Mars. The same is true of connecting tunnels to link different habitat modules. In our proposed Mars Analog Challenge, many of the airlock designs and procedures could be tested under simulated conditions to obtain further information without actually putting people at risk. Other benefits of a long-term study would be to test how the procedures affect air maintenance and whether they need to be modified prior to their implementation on Mars. Introduction One of the most important factors in the Mars Habitat design involves maintaining the air pressure within the habitat. Preservation of breathable air will be an extremely vital part of the mission, as very little can be found in situ. Since Mars surface expeditions will be of such long duration, it is imperative that the airlock designs incorporate innovative air maintenance strategies. For our proposed Earth Analog Site competition, many of the components of these designs can be tested, as can the procedures required for long-duration habitation on Mars. Current Personnel Airlock Designs And Modifications For Mars Use Many types of airlocks are currently in use on Earth and in orbit, each of which incorporate factors that would be required on Mars. The closest analog is probably the Space Shuttle / Spacelab / Space Station airlock. This airlock is sized to fit two astronauts simultaneously, with an interior volume of 150 cubic feet, although the inside diameter is only 63 inches and the length is 83 inches. The D-shaped doors both have a 40-inch diameter and are 36 inches across. The airlocks are designed so that the higher pressure on one side aides the pressure seals by having the interior door open into the interior of the module and the exterior door open into the airlock.1 The pressure seals are certified for vacuum use; therefore they would also be acceptable for use on Mars where the ambient pressure is approximately 0.005 atm. However, as this airlock is employed solely in null-g environments, it would need to be modified for ease of use in 0.33 g. For example, an inside diameter of at least 72 inches and doors of 65 inches in diameter would greatly improve the maneuverability of astronauts suited up to go through the door. Figure 1 details a sketch of the proposed Mars personnel airlock door dimensions. The most basic and important type of lock is the personnel airlock that will connect the interior of the habitat to the Martian atmosphere. This lock will most likely be a Space Station derivative in design, as the pressure requirements are operationally similar. Modifications, however, will be necessary to accommodate this new application. Due to the corrosive nature of the Martian dust, it is imperative that as little as possible be allowed to enter the habitat. One method that could be used to prevent this would be to have a cleanroom air shower with incorporated HEPA filters placed directly in front of the exterior door to remove dust down to 10 parts per million, or whatever is deemed appropriate. This air shower could also be used to remove any human particles from the suits prior to leaving the habitat so as not to contaminate the Martian atmosphere. Additionally, the air pumps would be incorporated into this system to return the air to the habitat as the airlock is depressurized. Air showers can be manufactured to keep contaminants to ensure a maximum of one particle larger than one-half micron in one cubic foot of air, with the appropriate HEPA filter. The optimal configuration for the air shower would be to place the fan in the ceiling and the HEPA filters in the floor for

Jessica Jenkins; Stanford University
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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites

Vertical Laminar Flow.2 Another use of the personnel locks will be the storage of the EVA suits, with enough space so that up to four astronauts can don their suits easily and simultaneously. This implies a length of approximately 120 inches. Figure 2 shows a sketch of the proposed Mars personnel airlock.

Figure 1. Personnel Airlock Front View

Figure 2. Personnel Airlock Cut-Away Side View

The same type of personnel airlock could be used in the rover, as the entry from both the habitat and the Martian atmosphere. This airlock would also double as the emergency pod for the vehicle. Therefore, in addition to the air shower, filtration system, and suit storage, the airlock must also have its own stores of emergency rations, water and medical supplies, communication equipment, and air scrubbers. This would be most efficient if these systems were situated in the walls or floor of the airlock so that they could not be cut off during an emergency where the crew was forced to remove themselves from the main part of the rover.

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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites

Other Airlock Types for Use on Mars So far, this has been a discussion of personnel EVA airlocks. On Mars, there will be uses for up to four different types of airlocks as the habitat structure is diversified. Current proposals state that the habitat would be started with only one type of personnel airlock, and as the structure is made more complex, other types of more specialized locks would become more suitable. A different airlock for scientific samples would be beneficial in maintaining the safety of the habitat by keeping samples isolated until they are examined in the scientific section. If a sample airlock were to be found in the science section, it would be easier to simply place the samples into the lock from the outside and retrieve them on the inside. This type of airlock might not even need to equalize pressure, if the analysis were to be done under normal Martian conditions. However, the lock still must have two sets of pressure doors and the ability to be pressurized, if necessary. I propose a size of approximately two feet in diameter and three feet in length for a scientific sample airlock. Once the station is more established and complex, a third type of personnel intra-habitat airlock would become quite useful. High importance must be placed on the independence of each area in the habitat so that in case one module experiences a leak or is suddenly depressurized, the atmosphere can be contained in the other modules, minimizing the air loss and crew danger. Therefore, smaller airlocks must exist at every exit from the habitat into the tunnels connecting to other habitat modules. These locks could consist solely of two pressure doors and enough interior space for four astronauts to pass through simultaneously, with a smaller pressurization system required as the pressure is anticipated to be the same on both sides of the lock under normal conditions. The fourth airlock type would be used to enter the greenhouse or vehicle garage, if it is decided that these structures be kept at a lower pressure than the habitat modules. Our current garage design specifies that vehicles should be able to back up to the habitat module in order to mate the airlocks and allow the astronauts to enter or leave the habitat without needing to suit up. However, it must also be possible to maintain and clean the rovers without going into the Martian atmosphere, and it would be better for the vehicles if they were stored in a protected environment away from the corrosive dust. Therefore, we suggest that an inflatable garage system with an airlock is devised that could easily be sealed by an astronaut in a suit and then inflated to a pressure lower than that in the habitat, but high enough so that astronauts can work there in only protective suits and oxygen masks. NASA has proposed a retrofitted airlock for this purpose that would be inexpensive, simple to assemble, adaptable to any terrain and size required, and require no external power.3 Similarly, our greenhouse proposal indicates that it should be inflated to the same lower pressure, along with the connective tunnels leading to the greenhouse. These airlocks must also have space for storage of the protective working suits and air systems, as well as an air shower to remove any dust that attached to the suits after working with the vehicles. Figure 3 shows the artist Carter Emmart’s impression of the habitat’s layout, including views of the different airlocks connecting the greenhouses and garage to the main habitat modules.

Figure 3. Artist’s Conception of Mars Base Layout
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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites

Figure 4 details the anticipated locations of all types of airlocks.

Figure 4. Suggested Airlock Locations4

Connective Tunnel Implementations The connective tunnels mentioned will also be designed to be inflated, so that they will have a cylindrical shape of the same size as the entry airlock, and be reinforced with ribbing along with a grated walkway along the bottom to help secure the tunnel to the ground. If they can be kept at a lower pressure relative to the habitat, this will induce smaller stresses on the walls as well as reduce the amount of atmosphere lost in the case of an air leak. The most common current application of a similar type of connective tunnel is found on the Space Shuttle. This tunnel was used as a transfer tunnel from the shuttle to Spacelab, which was housed in the shuttle payload bay. The tunnel was constructed from welded 2219 aluminum with exterior exposed structural ribs of 2.4 x 2.4-inch aluminum as well as external waffle skin stiffening. The interior diameter was 63 inches, which tapered to two D-shaped openings that had a 40-inch diameter and were 36 inches across.5 The very high strength and stiffness was required for safety in orbit; whereas, on Mars, possibly a strong polyethylene that is sufficiently resistant to puncture plus layers of Nextel, spaced between several-inches-thick layers of open cell foam would be suitable for the connective tunnels. These layers would provide the necessary protection from meteorites as well as reduce heat loss from the structure.6 Related Mars Analog Contest Goals And Rules The main goal of this analysis is to find appropriate methods for simulating Martian atmospheric responses at Earth analog sites so that the procedures and mechanisms can be tested for safety and ease-of-use over the long term. Examples of airlocks that would be useful for a Mars analog study include the pressure doors found on all Navy ships and the anterooms of cleanrooms. In both of these cases, the interior is also at a higher pressure than the exterior ambient pressure for safety reasons. As a minimum requirement on all sites wishing to enter the Mars Analog Site Contest, the structures must be able to tolerate an overpressure differential of 0.05 atm above ambient pressure. The systems need not be closed, but there must be a continuous-speed fan capable of maintaining this overpressure at all times. Differential pressure sensors must be placed within the habitat as well as the airlocks and rovers. Such sensors that are accurate to at least 0.0001 atm can be bought off the shelf for less than $100. Any pressure change greater than 0.01 atm should sound an alarm to indicate a leak.7 An emergency situation requiring the astronauts to wear pressure suits within the habitat would arise if the pressure differential dropped below 0.035 atm.

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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites

The airlock simulators need not be along the designs of the Mars-ready airlocks. An appropriate analog for the minimum requirements would simply be a room with close-fitting doors that lead both into the habitat and outside, space to store outerwear and suits, a constant-speed fan, a vent to simulate pressure equalization, and a differential pressure sensor. For the interior-interior locks, the only requirements would be two doors and a small space for transit. See the Appendix for more detail into the components and procedures governing analog airlock construction and use. Figure 5 shows sketches for a possible analog airlock design.

Figure 5. Analog Airlock Design Front and Cut-Away Side Views

If a certain site, such as the Biosphere, chooses to concentrate data gathering on air maintenance in a closed system, more stringent rules can be created to better simulate the pressure differential and procedures that will be found on Mars. The maximum analog pressure differential advised is 0.2 atm above ambient pressure. At this same analog site, excursion suit components as well as other vehicle designs can be tested under higher-pressure conditions. Also, with true pressure-sealed airlocks, the long-term use of air pumps and air scrubbers can be tested to ensure that the extra pressure within the airlock is removed to the interior when equalizing to the ambient pressure, as the air pumps are a vital part of the air maintenance cycle.

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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites

Another system that could be tested either simultaneously or at a different analog site would be the air maintenance system, including the HEPA filters in the airlock area, CO2 scrubbers, and O2 production components. In such an experiment, the habitat would need to be entirely closed and sensitive air quality sensors placed in all areas so that poor circulation or O2 production would trigger an alarm. Normal procedures for all of these analog experiments as well as on Mars must be very strict, as the air maintenance is quite important. First of all, the system controls must not allow both sides of the airlock to be open at the same time, even interior-interior locks. This is required so that in any emergency, such as a leak of pressure, the entire habitat will not depressurize. Under normal circumstances, when exiting from the habitat to the outside, a suited astronaut must wait for the extra pressure to be pumped out of the lock and back into the habitat before opening the outer door and vice versa. However, both doors must be equipped with emergency overrides so that if the occasion arises, the doors can be opened before the pressure is equalized. This cannot be a common practice, as too much air volume would be lost in such an episode. See the Appendix for more detail into emergency airlock procedures. In a simulation containing air shower and HEPA filter-equipped locks and pressurized EVA suits, procedures to use the air showers when re-entering the habitat to remove as much dust as possible should be followed. One way to test the efficacy of these systems would be to place sensors on the habitat side of the airlock to check the air quality for particle influx when the airlock is used. Additionally, EVA suits should remain in the airlock storage area at all times to minimize particulates in the habitat modules. Inflated connective tunnels can also be tested at an analog site by using an appropriately sized cylinder of polyurethane sheeting and attaching it to two sets of pressure doors before inflating it to a higher pressure. Emergency testing can be accomplished by creating small punctures in any pressurized surface connected to the habitat to examine the sensitivity of the barometers and to determine procedures to deal with such occurrences. For all of these purposes, analog sites will be quite beneficial in determining daily and emergency procedures for the Mars habitat. Many different components of the airlock and air maintenance systems can be tested either separately or together at a number of sites. Equivalent systems in most cases can be constructed from materials acquired at the local home improvement center. Thus, the use of analog sites will be able to furnish very important long-term data to indicate how well the air maintenance systems will function on Mars. Appendix 1 Airlock and Pressure Rules for Mars Analog Sites Habitat As a minimum requirement for the contest, all parts of the habitat should be overpressurized to 0.05 atm above ambient outside pressure by use of fans situated throughout the structure that continuously blow in fresh air. Pressure Systems The overpressure of the habitat, rovers, and personnel suits must be maintained at all times. At a minimum, this can be accomplished by placing multiple fans connected to the outside that run at a constant speed, to be determined before the contest begins by evaluating the leakage of the habitat structure. There must also be differential pressure sensors situated around the habitat capable of signaling an alarm if the pressure differential goes outside of 0.05 +/– 0.01 atm. The daily monitoring and maintenance of these sensors should be a part of Normal Activities. If any alarms go off or pressure sensors indicate a pressure loss, emergency procedures should be followed until the situation is resolved. Airlocks All habitat areas and rovers must have airlocks with close-fitting doors that can hold 0.05 atm above ambient pressure. At a minimum, this should consist of a prefab compartment with two sealing doors. For safety reasons, the exterior door should open into the airlock, while the interior door should open into the habitat or rover. Since it is assumed that in the minimum configuration, the structures will not be airtight, a vent must be situated in the airlock such that the
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Airlock and Connective Tunnel Design and Air Maintenance Strategies for Mars Habitat and Earth Analog Sites

pressure can be increased and decreased at will, by either opening or closing this vent to multiple positions. The apparatus can be either manually or computer-controlled, and it must be controllable from both sides of the airlock as well as inside. The airlock should also be used for storage of the EVA suits, and the rover airlock can also double as the emergency pod for the vehicle. For grading purposes, surveillance cameras should be placed to ensure that the competitors are adhering to the rules and procedures. One or more sites can use a higher differential pressure in order to test different components of the site design as monetary and structural loads allow. The differential must be within the range of 0.05 – 0.2 atm above ambient pressure. Airlock Procedures To pass through the airlock, the astronaut must first check the pressure sensor readout to ensure that the airlock is fully pressurized. After unsealing, traversing, and resealing the first door, the excursion suit can be removed from storage and put on. Once all requisite procedures are completed regarding the suit, the vent should be opened to equalize pressure with the outside, determined by looking at the readout. (For analog purposes, the vent simulates the pump that will be removing the excess air from the airlock back into the habitat. In order to keep from losing precious breathable air on Mars, these procedures must be strictly adhered to.) When the pressures have equalized, the vent should be closed, and the outer door may be opened, traversed, and resealed. For the reverse procedure, many of the steps are the same, except that the vent must be closed fully until the pressure differential is reacquired, when it is returned to its resting state. During normal procedures, the airlock shall remain “depressurized” while the astronauts are in the local area near the habitat (or outside of the rover) for safety reasons and to facilitate ease of reentry unless other astronauts are also preparing to exit. Similarly, it should be pressurized when all participants are inside the structure. Emergency Procedures In the case of an emergency, some of these airlock procedures can be broken with only minor loss of points (assuming the emergency can be verified by the grading authority.) In such cases, it is possible to open the second door before full repressurization or depressurization has been accomplished. However, both doors can never be open at the same time as this would simulate an explosive decompression of the habitat. In the event of a pressure alarm or other indication of a leak, all available personnel should immediately begin searching for the cause of the problem while monitoring the pressure within the structure. If the pressure differential drops to 0.035 atm or less, the pressure suits should be worn within the structure until the leak can be fixed. References
1. NASA web site, http://www.shuttle.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-78/shutref/sts-eclss-airlock.html 2. Servicore, Inc., http://www.cleanroom.com/learning_center/partone.html 3. NASA web site, http://technology.nasa.gov/scripts/nls_ax.dll/w3TechBrief(15;NPO-15415-1;20076886;1) 4. Stanford US/USSR Mars Exploration Initiative Final Report Vol. 1 (1992) pg. 523 5. NASA web site, http://www.shuttle.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-78/shutref/spacelab.html#spacelab 6. Emmanuel, R. (2000) Structures for Mars and Mars Analog Sites. 7. NASA web site, http://www.shuttle.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-78/shutref/sts_eclss.html#sts_eclss

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Anthropological Considerations On The Human Colonization Of Mars: Insights From The Indigenous Peoples Who First Settled Earth’s Arctic
Roy D. Iutzi-Mitchell [1999] Abstract The High Arctic has been the latest region of the Earth to be peopled by societies which subsist “off the land” in the sense of the proposed Mars Direct plan. At latitudes beyond 70° north, environmental factors necessarily include some of this planet’s extremes for cold, wind, darkness and brightness, predictable and unpredictable food shortages, periodic shortages of fuel (for cooking, lighting, heating, and transportation), limited choices for construction materials, and associated social constraints. Although humans had made use of Arctic resources seasonally since the time of our Neanderthal forerunners, no human societies existed in the Arctic year-round until the end of the third millennium BCE. At that time Paleo-Eskimos of the Arctic Small Tool Tradition settled the North American coast of the Arctic Ocean (including Devon Island) to within 700 km of the North. No human communities exist further poleward today than the Inuhuit (Polar Eskimos) of northwestern-most Greenland (and some of whose ancestors migrated through Devon Island in the mid-19th century). (Antarctica is an extremely useful model of frontier entry in the 20th century, albeit of a region colonized but not settled by self-sustaining human communities.) Here I examine aspects of how seasonal migrations, exploratory expeditions, and multi-year immigrations took place, both among Paleo-Eskimo and Neo-Eskimo societies, whose descendants call themselves Inuit. I provide an overview of some of the coherency among Eskimo cultural features (ethical, social, linguistic, epistemological, aesthetic, legal, technological, pedagogical, and political economic systems) fine-tuned for survival and subsistence in extreme environments over the past five millennia. Introduction Of Earth’s many ecosystems, the High Arctic has (to date) been the last, major ecosystem occupied by entire human societies. Even though humans have been making seasonal use of the Arctic sense the time of the Neanderthals, it was not until the fifth millennium before present (B.P.) that human societies lived permanently in the Arctic. These were the earliest Eskimos1 that archaeologists have evidence of. There are a number of environmental challenges facing any human society wishing to exist in Arctic environments. Extremely cold winters are just one of these. However, equally cold winters can be found in subarctic, and indeed in colder temperate climates. None, however, has such lengthy periods of cold combine with the shortages or lack of wood, elsewhere a nearly necessary resource. In this paper I will highlight certain aspects of Eskimo society and culture which have allowed them to survive – indeed to thrive – in one of Earth’s most challenging environments. Specifically, I will talk about what is known about the people of the ASTt at the end of the fifth millennium B.P., about the so-called Thule expansion of the Neo-Eskimos one millennium ago, and about the 19th century migration from Baffin Island to northwest Greenland via Devon Island. Each of these offers us insights that, I suggest, should be considered by any humans contemplating moving onto new planets. Physical and Biological Constraints of Earth’s High Arctic Two kinds of cold stress confront the people of the Arctic:2 hypothermia and frostbite. Hypothermia always has been the more common problem (Burch 1988:49), potentially dangerous during any time of the year. Frostbite during the winter is a rarer danger but one just as potentially fatal. Noteworthy for the historic Eskimos has been their traditional
Roy D. Iutzi-Mitchell; Asst. Prof. of Anthropology and Linguistics; Ilisagvik College, Barrow, Alaska 99723-0749 USA; email: ffri@aurora.alaska.edu, roydeanmitchell@hotmail.com
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Anthropological Considerations On The Human Colonization Of Mars: Insights From The Indigenous Peoples Who First Settled Earth’s Arctic

use of animal skin clothing, particularly of caribou skins with their naturally superb insulation, and grass as an insulator (grass socks, for example, as well as grass for kayak mats). Each of hypothermic stress and frostbite stress produces its own forces of natural selection, not necessarily calling forth the same responses. I won’t go into the details in this paper, but the major human biological adaptations include increased basal metabolic rate, increased peripheral circulation, and alternating vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Each of these seems to have a genetic component as well as one of acclimatization. For a basic discussion on hypothermic and hypoxic adaptations by human populations, see chapter 21 in Harrison, Tanner, Pilbeam, and Baker 1988. The Arctic also has Earth’s greatest annual variation in amounts of solar radiation. This creates stress on the human organism in terms of vitamin D synthesis, melatonin synthesis, and UV radiation. Again, I will not explore these further in this paper other than to note that Eskimos, along with other Asian-derived populations, have a great ability to vary their skin color seasonally and made great use of vitamin D sources in their diet. Historically, seasonal lack of sunlight was associated with behavioral disorders, among them the so-called Arctic hysteria. Eskimos have been aware of this behavior pattern (if not its solar-biochemical origin) and have worked to protect those suffering from damaging themselves. In the Arctic, Eskimos societies have necessarily required humans to live in extremely small, closed shelters, often with very low supplies of fuel for light and heat, sometimes with very little food. The parallels to Mars exploration are great. A fourth, critical, component of life in the Arctic arises from the vagaries of its food resources. Food supplies can be seasonally very abundant, but suffer from seasonal periods of extreme privation, usually in the late winter and early spring. Starvation used to be a constant threat - one that required human responses. Across the Eskimo homeland, marine mammals have been the basis of subsistence since ancient times. Hunted from qayaqs, marine mammals were harpooned (in order first to secure them) then dispatched with lances or clubs. In some places fish nets of willow bark or baleen, along with fish traps, could be used during the entire calendar year. Caribou and muskoxen are an important terrestrial resource across most areas of the Arctic. Both are migratory, and their presence at any given time and place always has been only partially predictable. Further, it appears to some biologists that caribou may experience population fluctuations over cycles of seventy to one hundred years, heretofore undiscovered because their periodicity has been greater than that of our life span. Thus, Eskimos have had to develop strategies for dealing with great annual variations in food abundance, as well as short- and long-term differences from year to year. One of these strategies is to be highly mobile. While no known Eskimo society was ever truly nomadic in the technical sense, they all have been highly mobile. That is to say, their system of living they designed to include great ability to move, often on short notice, to procure alternative food resources as necessary. With very few exceptions documented in the historic period from southwest Alaska (not the High Arctic, anyway), all Eskimo subsistence calendars have involved migration among a series of food resource locales, almost always involving both marine and terrestrial procurements. Even here, though, alternatives were explored and utilized when one particular resource was inadequate during a given year. Often an area that was a primary subsistence site for summer food resources, say, might be a secondary, alternative site for winter resources, and vice versa. Additionally, hunters in pursuit of new game locations might locate new, previously unknown resources. This knowledge would be used in time of starvation – or of social strife within the community – and a new settlement in a new area would result.

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Anthropological Considerations On The Human Colonization Of Mars: Insights From The Indigenous Peoples Who First Settled Earth’s Arctic

The Arctic Small Tool Tradition The earliest human inhabitants of the High Arctic are best known by their technological system, referred to by Arctic archaeologists as the Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt). It clearly derives from technological traditions in northeastern Siberia. Its hallmark is the amazingly fine tools crafted using a flaked-stone technology called microblade and core. This achieves the greatest known possible efficiency in deriving cutting edge tools from a finite amount of flint. But the makers of the ASTt did more than just make highly efficient stone tools; they made use of them to create composite tools, combining small stone components bound into wood, bone, ivory or antler parts. They did so while investing an artistic exquisiteness into their manufacture – resulting in what many archaeologists consider to be the epitome of flaked stone technology ever developed on this planet. ASTt houses were semi-subterranean when possible, but were constructed of large stone when deep soil was not available. Alternatively, particularly in the eastern Arctic, insulated tents of animal hides allowed the creators of the ASTt to live where neither deep soil nor large stones were available. This system of Arctic housing persisted throughout the Eskimo world up into this century. With this highly efficient tool kit, the makers of the ASTt quickly occupied the entire North American Arctic. From an early ASTt site (pre-ASTt, or “Proto-Denbigh”) near Onion Portage in northwest Alaska, dated at 4,200 B.P., these people spread across the entire North American Arctic, from Alaska to Greenland, seemingly in less than 200 years (Dumond 1987). Doing what no humans had done before these people, the Paleo-Eskimos, established a set of lifeways that persisted, and evolved, up until our present time. The Thule Efflorescence Between the sixth and tenth centuries C.E. (current era, or A.D.), Eskimo societies in northeastern Siberia and northwestern Alaska developed a highly specialized subsistence technology focused upon the harvest of bowhead whales. Rising population densities – both within individual villages and numbers of villages per region – were also associated with increases in rates of warfare. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries C.E. this specialized whaling culture, with the so-called Thule culture (named after Thule, Greenland, where this technological complex was first defined) spread eastward from northwest Alaska, across Arctic Canada, and around Greenland. This expansion within approximately a two-century span of time mirrored the rate of growth of the ASTt three thousand years prior. The technology of the previous Dorset technology of eastern Canada and Greenland was largely or completely replaced by the related Thule technology. Associated with this was the replacement of the earlier Eskimo languages with the Inuit language. The degree to which the Thule Efflorescence also involved genetic replacement of the Dorset Eskimos is quite unclear at present; but we see here an example of an indigenous way of life rapidly spreading across the Arctic that is underlain with a technological and social system structured to live off the land. The 19th Century Migration From Baffin Island Via Devon Island To Thule, Greenland In the 1860s a small group of Inuit began a multi-year emigration out of Baffin Island, leading them through Devon Island, thence across Davis Straight to the Thule region of northwestern Greenland. This movement involved a group of related individuals moving as a self-sufficient unit, men and women, parents and children, and took approximately three years. Along the way they lived off the land, just as they would have done back on Baffin Island. Their subsistence technology – their tools and techniques for using them – as well as other aspects of their culture allowed them to survive along the way as a self-sufficient unit. Upon reaching Thule, they merged with the local population there, each group sharing details of the other’s culture. These Inuhuit Eskimos today are the furthest north human population on Earth, living at 78° N latitude. Technology I will not attempt to describe here the entire realm of traditional Eskimo technology. However, a number of key features are appropriate, particularly with regard to Zubrin’s Mars Direct model of “living off the land.”

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Anthropological Considerations On The Human Colonization Of Mars: Insights From The Indigenous Peoples Who First Settled Earth’s Arctic

One characteristic of Eskimo technology is making innovative uses of raw materials. Where wood is not available, Eskimos use antler, ivory, or baleen. Where large pieces of raw material are not available, people lash and rivet smaller sections together. A classic example are the bows made by the Caribou Eskimos of the Central Canadian Arctic in the 19th century; the bellies of the bows are sections of caribou antler riveted together with antler rivets, and the back of the bows are of twisted caribou sinew cables. Sinew-backed, compound bows have been found at an ASTt site in western Greenland (Grønnow 1994). These ASTt bows are the earliest known bows in America; it thus appears that PaleoEskimos introduced bow-and-arrow technology, at least indirectly, to the American Indians. Society: Law And Social Control Traditional Eskimo societies are relatively small (typically 250-500 individuals) and have no formal political organization that is not kinship-based. Without a tribal or state political organization, serious disputes between individuals were addressed through the medium of kinship. Within the society strong sanctions opposed overt showings of violence and encouraged specific, alternative means of social control. Good-natured teasing has been and continues to be a key component of dealing with mild-to-moderate social infractions. Public forums in which teasing was in fact expected included teasing cousins who are supposed to point out the faults of their counter-part, while the one being so teased is required not to show anger. This allows for public portrayal of individuals errant actions in a socially approved manner, and often results in self-correction. More stringent sanctions ranged from ostracism, to banishment, to execution. When execution was called for, the nearest kin were the ones expected to carry it out, those avoiding the moral obligation for blood feud which would have obtained otherwise. Epistemology Historic and modern Eskimos have a long-standing empirical tradition. As with all human societies, many forms of common knowledge and specialized knowledge are passed both through oral tradition and through the example of daily interactions. Yet all Eskimo societies encourage the individual to examine cause-and-effect relationships and determine the veracity of traditional knowledge. Having lived in predominantly Eskimo communities for most of the last two decades, I can attest to the extremely high value that Eskimos continue to place on first-hand, empirical observations. Language A related aspect of empiricism occurs in the grammatical system of Eskimo languages. A grammatical particle (an enclitic) is appended to words that convey information that one has been told but has not directly perceived with one’s own senses. This highlights the distinction between fact and hearsay in a way all-but-impossible in normal discourse in Indo-European languages. Thus, the simple statement silaluktuq,3 ‘it is raining,’ directly implies that the speaker has first-hand, sensory data to support the statement. If one has hearsay information, one may say silalukturruuq; ‘it reportedly is raining.’ Further, if one surmises that it is raining, one says silaluksungnaqtuq, ‘I infer that it is raining.’ Such linguistic precision – requiring speakers constantly to convey the empirical, hearsay, or logical bases of their statements – may have proven to be a very significant component of Eskimo adaptations to one of Earth’s most extreme environments. Pedagogy As mentioned above, Eskimo societies continue to combine oral tradition with an emphasis on direct observation. This emphasis extends to a model of learners learning by observation and experimentation. Every member of Eskimo societies is in practice an apprentice to many of the adults in the community. That is to say, one learns by observing and assisting, gradually being given ever-greater responsibilities for larger components of the practice being performed and learned. This gradual transition, all within in experiential learning frame, allows all individuals to develop proficiency at their own rates. In addition to skills learned through apprenticeship, Eskimo societies also have a tradition of teaching and learning through lecture. Many of life’s experiences in the Arctic can be fatal if one is not prepared. Thus, information on how to survive when the sea ice one is walking on breaks, or when one is attacked by a polar bear, cannot wait for apprenticeship learning. For this information, traditional lectures were used and still are in some regions to convey critical, life-saving information that cannot be transmitted any other way.
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Anthropological Considerations On The Human Colonization Of Mars: Insights From The Indigenous Peoples Who First Settled Earth’s Arctic

Ethics I will highlight here only three components of traditional Eskimo ethical or moral thinking. One of these concerns one’s duty to kin. In a kinship-based society, it is not surprising that one’s highest degree of moral obligation goes to one’s kin and that, furthermore, degrees of kinship relation can be used to resolve personal dilemmas involving conflicting demands. A second important factor is the traditional right of choice to live or die. Not only was the right to die when one chooses a fundamental right, but in some areas this intersected with kinship obligations, such that it was precisely the next-of-kin had the highest moral obligation to assist in suicide. Typically, these suicides would take place when an elderly, infirm individual decided that his or her life at the time had become unlivable. Cosmological modeling of the universe which involved recycling of one’s multiple souls may also have contributed to Eskimo individuals being able to make rational choices regarding life and death in times of hardship. Thirdly, all individual interactions with other animals, plants, and material objects was, and is in more traditional areas of modern Eskimo country, seen to have a spiritual-and-hence material affect on all members of one’s society. Political Economy Each individual Eskimo traditionally was a member of a residential family, an extended family (largely equal with one’s community of residence), and of a society (again, largely consisting of kin). Production of food and technical resources was occasionally for inter-societal trade but largely for consumption within the residential family and community. Since all levels of Eskimo society were, and are kin-based, great flexibility existed in organizing economic activities within the society and in organizing political (and military) activities within and between societies. Eskimo societies (save for those of the North Pacific Rim) were what anthropologists call egalitarian. That is to say, within the limits of one’s age, sex, and abilities, anyone could occupy any social status within the society. Again, except on the North Pacific Rim, Eskimo societies have had leaders, but not authorities (outside of the kinship system). A leader is a leader because people follow; when they cease to follow, that person is no longer a leader. In other words, a leader does not, in these cases, involve authority, with the recognized legitimacy of coercive force; rather, the community is constantly creating its leaders. Humor A pervasive value in all Eskimo societies within historical times has been to recognized the importance of humor; this likely dates back at least to ASTt times. The ability to see the humor in hardship, to laugh at one’s own mistakes, and to gracefully accept teasing from others – all these are seen as signs of a sane mind. Certainly in extreme environments (but perhaps in all environments), this understanding of the role of humor in the human psyche is provides valuable insight. Conclusions The early Eskimos, creators of the Arctic Small Tool tradition, possessed technological, social, cultural, and spiritual knowledge which allowed them to inhabit the High Arctic of North America on a permanent basis. Their descendants down through the modern Inuit and Yupiit Eskimos of today still thrive in what is (for most of humanity) an extreme environment. I am not suggesting that any components of Eskimo society or culture be adopted wholesale by those planning the human settlement of Mars. Rather, consideration of such settlement needs to be much broader than that which would result if one uses only late-modern capitalism, and industrial European and Euro-derived societies and cultures, as models of humanity. Human societies have a number of universal features in common; within this, however, there is a great range of possibilities in the ways that we can be human. The Eskimos of Earth’s Arctic are a wonderful example of human adaptability in creating rich, meaningfully human lives in extreme environments. As such, we all may learn much from consideration of their amazing achievements over the past five millennia. Any planned effort to settle Mars would be well aided by including membership of Inuit and Yupiit Eskimos who alone among modern humans have recent, first-hand experience at settling extreme environments. End Notes
1. The term Eskimo itself is full of confrontation and misinformation. The Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary lists the word as of Danish origin, from the Cree language, and thence from Algonquian askimowew, meaning, “he eats it raw.” This commonly-held notion – that

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Anthropological Considerations On The Human Colonization Of Mars: Insights From The Indigenous Peoples Who First Settled Earth’s Arctic the word Eskimo means Eater of raw meat – is apocryphal. In fact, the English word “Eskimo” derives from the French “Esquimauw” which, in turn, comes from a Montagnais language term applied originally to Micmac Indians (in one dialect) and to Eskimos (in another Montagnais dialect); the term in Montagnais translates as “snowshoe netters” (Goddard 1984). In north central Canada, Euro-Canadian teachers from southern Canada indoctrinated Inuit students in the 1960s that the term “Eskimo / Eaters of Raw Meat” was derogatory (Diveky 1992). Two problems with this arise. First, the translation of “Eskimo” is false. Secondly, it presumes that European cuisine is inherently superior to that of Native Americans, that there is something wrong with eating meat that has been prepared by freezing rather than by heating. Both allow Euro-Canadian cultural values to decide what is and what is not cultural or epicurean acceptability. Indeed, Alaskan Inuit and Yupiit are currently creating graffiti of “Eskimo Power” as resistance against Euro-American hegemony. Clearly, in Alaska the term Eskimo is a proud marker of identity. 2. The Arctic has received numerous definitions from astronomers, geometricians, ecologists, geographers, geologists, and anthropologists. The Subarctic has approximately the same number of definitions, as it is generally defined as those regions between the Arctic and the Temperate zones. Some of these definitions are presented here. The Ancient Greeks postulated that the Earth was divided into three zones: the temperate Mediterranean homeland that was framed by a frigid zone to the north and a torrid zone to the south. Applying this model to the globe, some modern researchers trisect the degrees of latitude in each hemisphere, defining the polar regions as those above 60° N and below 60° S. Astronomers define the Arctic and Antarctic Circles as the lines of latitude, poleward of which the sun shines for 24 hours at the summer solstice and where the sun does not shine for 24 hours at the winter solstice. By this definition the Arctic is all territory north of the Arctic Circle, approximately 66° 33” at present. Ecologists generally use the northern tree line, i.e., the northward extent of timber-quality tree growth, to delimit the boundary between the Arctic and Subarctic in continental areas and the southern extent of winter sea ice to delimit the boundary between the Maritime Arctic and Subarctic. The Arctic portions of northern lands have been defined by geographers (in an attempt more abstractly to define where tree line occurs) alternatively as those areas having a mean annual temperature of less than 10° C during the warmest month of the year, or as those areas underlain by continuous permafrost. Arctic shores and seas are defined as those covered during most winters by sea ice. Geologists define “cold lands” as those subjected regularly to cryoturbatic forces that are mechanical forces due to cold (such as glaciation and continuous or discontinuous permafrost) which affect soil or rock. For sociocultural anthropologists the key features for defining the Arctic are those which most directly impact human life: the absence of trees in the true Arctic regions, the low bioproductivity of both the Arctic and subarctic terrestrial ecosystems, and the presence of winter sea ice in the Arctic maritime. 3. Eskimo language citations here are from North Alaskan Iñupiaq, rendered in the international auxiliary Inuit alphabet.

References
1. Burch, Ernest S., Jr., 1988. The Eskimos. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press 2. Diveky, George, 1992. “The Thirty-Year Turn Around: A Teacher’s View of Changing Educational and Language Policies in the NWT.” Pp. 87-101 in Language and Educational Policy in the North, edited by Nelson H. H. Graburn and Roy D. Iutzi-Mitchell, Working Papers of the Canadian Studies Program, Berkeley, CA: International and Area Studies, University of California at Berkeley. 3. Dumond, Don E., 1987. The Eskimos and Aleuts, revised edition. London: Thames & Hudson. 4. Grønnow, Bjarne, 1994. “Qeqertasussuk – the Archaeology of a Frozen Saqqaq Site in Disko Bugt, West Greenland.” Pp. 197-238 in Threads of Arctic Prehistory: Papers in Honour of William E. Taylor, Jr., edited by David Morrison and Jean-Luc Pilon, Mercury Series no. 149. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization. 5. Harrison, G. A., J. M. Tanner, D. R. Pilbeam, and P.T. Baker, 1988. Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Adaptability, third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6. McGhee, Robert , 1996. Ancient People of the Arctic, Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia Press. 7. Zubrin, Robert with Richard Wagner, 1996. The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must. New York: The Free Press.

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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor
Christopher Hirata; Nathan Brown; Derek Shannon; Jim Burke; Bruce Murray; Mark Adler [2000]

Abstract The Mars Society of Caltech Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor (Mars SCHEME) is a detailed description of robotic and human missions necessary to establish a permanent human presence on the surface of Mars. The sequence begins in 2009 with a robotic Mars sample return mission on a larger scale than that currently planned. This is followed in 2011 by a pair of HEDS landers designed to test in-situ propellant production and other necessary technologies. Cargo for the human crews is sent in 2016 and in 2018, with the first five-member crew traveling to Mars during the 2020 opportunity. The Mars SCHEME features design redundancy; for example, the capsules for Earth ascent, Mars ascent, and Earth arrival are based upon a common design. Systems redundancy is also included to provide multiple habitats on Mars and in interplanetary space. The plan uses only chemical propulsion, starting with the Z-5 launch vehicle that can deliver up to 112,000 kg to low Earth orbit. Costs of human missions are comparable with those of the NASA Design Reference Mission 3.0. Human missions have low recurring costs, high reliability, and high scientific return. Extensive computer simulations were used to develop launch vehicles and trajectories. Further details are available at http://mars.caltech.edu/. 1 Overview 1.1 Statement of Design Problem Our design problem is the creation of the safest, most cost-effective, and most easily achievable human Mars mission architecture possible. This architecture must also lead to a permanent human presence on Mars and elsewhere. Our decision in favor of this design problem is first based on what technological decisions are currently most crucial to getting a human Mars mission off the ground. Because such a mission is still in the earliest of design stages and lacks funding, the broader mission architecture decisions are currently more important than the detailed design of individual components. Our design problem is therefore centered on fundamental mission architecture decisions that will shape details later in the design process. Second in our selection of a design problem was context. We will be relating future human Martian exploration to current robotic Martian exploration and human space flight efforts, easing the transition between the two. For this reason, our primary design problem of human Mars mission design will also encompass robotic missions to occur before the first human mission, additional applications of mission hardware, evolution of hardware needed for long-term exploration and settlement, and the fiscal and political pressures that NASA and its potential partners will face in their attempts to send humans to Mars. 1.2 Robotic Predecessors to a Human Mission At present, NASA’s Mars Surveyor program sends robotic spacecraft to Mars in order to accumulate valuable scientific data. Robotic Mars spacecraft can help us send humans to the Red Planet in many ways. Those identified in this study are:

Christopher Hirata, Nathan Brown & Derek Shannon; California Institute of Technology Undergraduate Contributors Jim Burke, Bruce Murray & Mark Adler; California Institute of Technology Faculty Advisors
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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor

1.2.1 Communications and Navigation Infrastructure A human Mars mission will require near-constant communication with Earth. Automated communication satellites near Mars will be necessary for occasions when direct radio contact with Earth is impossible. In addition, the mission will require good navigation, both for precision landing of vehicles and for surface rover guidance, so navigation satellites will also be needed. Dual-purpose satellites could fulfill both functions. 1.2.2 Testing Technologies in the Martian Environment Though far more expensive than Earth-based tests, operating a technology on the surface of Mars provides the most useful data on how it functions in the Martian environment. Technologies such as in-situ propellant production, precision landings, and aerocapture should be tested with robots if they are to be included in a human mission. 1.2.3 Characterization of the Martian Environment Before sending humans to Mars, we must better understand the environment that awaits them. Radiation levels, soil oxidants, dust damage to surfaces, and other potential hazards can be studied by robotic landers. Studies of more complex interactions between Martian soil and humans may require returning Martian samples to Earth for analysis. A network of surface meteorological stations and orbiters could survey the pressure, temperature, and wind conditions at potential landing sites. 1.2.4 Scientific Study of Mars In addition to laying the technological groundwork for human exploration of Mars, scientific instruments on robotic Mars missions will increase our knowledge of the Red Planet. This will place the astronauts’ observations in context. More important, it allows us to send the astronauts with the proper tools to answer the most intriguing questions raised by the discoveries of the next generation of robotic probes. These objectives will be met by three classes of Mars missions. The micromissions, of which the (failed) Deep Space 2 probes were the first, are already part of the Mars exploration program. These are fast and cheap, so many can be flown. The Small Mars Landers (SMLs), such as Mars Pathfinder and Mars Polar Lander (several hundred kilograms), can carry more instruments but are still small. The largest of the robotic probes, the Intermediate-Sized Mars Landers (ISMLs), will have masses in the thousands of kilograms and will fill the technological gap between the current SMLs and the heavy machinery needed for human missions. The ISMLs will also be able to operate high-power experiments and return large samples to Earth for analysis. A possible sequence of robotic missions to Mars (excluding micromissions) leading up to a human mission is shown in Figure 1.2.1 and discussed in more detail in section 4.

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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor

1.3 First Human Mars Mission The first human Mars mission begins in 2016, when an unmanned Z-5 rocket lifts off from Earth. The Z-5, which can place up to 112 metric tons (112,000 kilograms) into orbit, is roughly the size of the Saturn V that once took astronauts to the Moon. Its first payload is a Mars Surface Power Unit (MSPU), launched directly to Mars. It descends to the surface using parachutes and rockets. In 2018, four more Z-5s launch directly to Mars with Large Mars Landers (LMLs) carrying a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a crew habitat, a cargo lander with two rovers and other science equipment, and a second MSPU. When the first MSPU lands, it generates power and deploys small rovers that will connect power cables to the habitat and MAV when they arrive. The MAV contains a small capsule on a liquid hydrogen (LH2) / liquid oxygen (LOX) powered rocket stage. It arrives on Mars with its LH2 tank full but its LOX tank empty. Using MSPU power, the MAV draws carbon dioxide (CO2) from the Martian air. The MAV’s array of electrolysis cells pulls an oxygen atom from each CO2 molecule and liquefies the resulting oxygen, storing it in its LOX tank. By early 2020, the MAV propellant tanks are full.

In 2020, another set of five Z-5 launches assembles an Interplanetary Transfer Vehicle (ITV) in low Earth orbit (LEO). The ITV consists of the crew Mars lander (CML), a habitat, the Earth entry vehicle (EEV), a truss, and four LH2 / LOX rocket stages. When the ITV is complete, five astronauts travel to it in an Earth ascent vehicle (EAV) launched by a Soyuz booster.
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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor

The first three of the ITV’s four LH2 / LOX stages fire to raise the ITV orbit to near Earth escape. Finally, the fourth and final stage fires, sending the ITV on a 146-day trajectory to Mars. During the trip to Mars, the ITV spins at four revolutions per minute to provide about 1/3 of normal Earth gravity in the habitat. Upon arrival at Mars, the crew enters the Mars lander and separates from the habitat, descending to the surface. The truss is jettisoned, and the remainder of the ITV aerocaptures into Mars orbit. The crew explores Mars for over 500 days, living in either their lander or in the habitat. At the end of their stay on Mars, the crew members enter the MAV and blast into Mars orbit. There they dock to the ITV and transfer into its habitat. The ITV propulsion system fires its engines to send the crew back toward Earth, where they arrive 177 days later. The crew performs a direct entry at Earth in the EEV, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean in 2023. 1.4 Subsequent Missions A crew of five can be sent to the same site on Mars every 2.14 years using this architecture if, in each launch opportunity, six Z-5s and a Soyuz launch a MAV, an ITV, and an EEV. In addition, MSPU systems, consumables, and science payloads are replaced whenever they are consumed, break, or wear out. However, additional possibilities may be opened after the first mission. Since there will be a significant infrastructure on Mars after the first mission, it makes sense to make this primitive Mars base less dependent on Earth to reduce the cost of the Mars missions. For example, finding usable in-situ water would reduce the costs of resupply from Earth. 1.5 Methods and Validation Three computer simulations were designed using the C programming language to calculate interplanetary trajectories and launch capability (from Earth and Mars). 1.5.1 Trajectory Program The trajectory program analyzed mean Keplerian orbital elements of Earth and Mars and assumed a heliocentric conic section transfer orbit. Within these approximations, trajectories were calculated exactly. The program was validated by comparison to previous interplanetary probes.1,2 Table 9.2.1 displays this validation, using C3 as the benchmark trajectory feature. After establishing this small absolute error in C3 for recent Mars trajectories, the program was deemed valid for calculations used in designing this mission. (Note that because the 200 km error in the Mars Climate Orbiter trajectory is small compared to the distance scale of the inner planets, Climate Orbiter was considered an acceptable reference against which to validate the trajectory program.)
Table 1.5.1.1. Validation of Trajectory Program

It was initially desired to run the trajectory program in a faster, two-dimensional mode in which the inclination of the Mars orbit was neglected. A quick check, however, indicates that this is not a good idea; compare the parameters of the 2022 Mars mission trajectory as shown in the table below. In particular, we note that the two-dimensional assumption is optimistic, as it is in nearly all cases. (Earth departure on Sat 17 Sep. 2022 and Mars arrival on Sun 26 Mar 2023 were assumed for 190 day transit time.)
Table 1.5.1.2. Comparison of 3D and 2D Trajectory Simulations in 2022 Opportunity

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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor

1.5.2 Launch Vehicle Program The launch vehicle program assumed a gravity turn trajectory, thrust, and a simple model for air drag. Within these approximations, the payload capacity to low-Earth orbit (LEO) was calculated exactly. The Space Shuttle was used as a test case for the launch vehicle program, which predicted a payload capacity of 28.442 MT to LEO, as opposed to an actual 29.5 MT,3 an error of 3.59%. Given that the error is expected to be greatest for vehicles on which the payload is a small fraction of the mass at burnout (such as the Shuttle, unlike the Z-5 launch vehicles described in section 2.4), this program was considered valid for use in designing the mission architecture. 1.5.3 Aerocapture Program The simulation program used for Mars aerocapture numerically integrates the trajectory of a spacecraft in the Martian atmosphere. A drag force proportional to atmospheric density and the square of the spacecraft velocity was assumed, as was a constant lift-to-drag ratio and an exponential atmosphere with a scale height of 11 km. 1.5.4 Cryogenic Systems These were sized using the model of Kittel et al4 with a 25% mass margin and 100% heat load margin. 2 LAUNCH SYSTEMS 2.1 Launch Needs for Mars Exploration Neither robots nor humans can get to Mars without a launch vehicle for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation. For the current generation of Mars spacecraft, vehicles that can send roughly one metric ton of payload to Mars are sufficient, but future missions such as Mars Sample Return will need to send an order of magnitude more payload to Mars. Eventually, human missions will require at least an order of magnitude more payload still; the ITV is projected to have a mass up to 421 MT upon departure from LEO. Even if such a large spacecraft is launched in several pieces, a large launch vehicle becomes a necessity. The human Mars mission plan we have outlined requires a launch vehicle with 111 MT to LEO capacity; a smaller vehicle could be used at the expense of reduced efficiency, but current launch vehicles under the 25 MT to LEO regime would require nearly twenty launches for the ITV alone, clearly not reasonable if we wish to travel to Mars on a regular basis. Thus for the near term current launch vehicles are sufficient, whereas a human mission will require something larger. 2.2 Current Launch Vehicles The near-term Mars missions are likely to fly on Delta II vehicles, including the upcoming 2001 Mars orbiter. Future robotic missions may require payload capacities as great as that of the Titan IVB Centaur or an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle. Additionally, the Ariane 5 will be upgraded in the early years of the 21st century; a cryogenic upper stage, currently under consideration,5 would increase its payload capacity substantially. Thus for the next decade, the approximate maximum that can be delivered to Mars in a single launch is 7,500 kg. For this reason, the ISML is designed for this size. 2.3 Need for a New Launch Vehicle There are several reasons why current launch vehicles, despite their applicability to the robotic Mars missions of the next decade, are inadequate for human missions to Mars. 2.3.1 Payload Fairing Diameter Current launch vehicles typically have payload fairings no wider than five meters. Packaging the Mars Ascent Vehicle, for example, into such a narrow fairing is nearly impossible given the wide hydrogen tanks and rocket engines. A mission has two options for avoiding this difficulty: extensive on-orbit assembly, or a larger fairing. The latter is simpler and probably much cheaper and better in the long run; it would be expensive and dangerous for astronauts to assemble Mars landers or aeroshells on orbit.

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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor

2.3.2 Number of Launches A 25 MT to LEO vehicle, probably typical of the heaviest rockets that would be built for commercial, military, and scientific missions, would require at least 17 launches to build the ITV in orbit. Operationally, the prospect of 17 launches just for this part of the Mars mission presents difficulties. For example, there is a high probability that one launch would fail. Additionally, some components, in particular the ITV’s large cryogenic stages, are not split easily into smaller pieces because the dry mass fraction of cryogenic systems increases as they become smaller (higher surface area to volume ratio). 2.3.3 Earth Orbit Rendezvous Rendezvous in Earth orbit is a well-tested technology, but sixteen rendezvous add significantly to the number of failure points in the mission. A new launch vehicle is clearly needed. It must be a large launch vehicle with a wide fairing. A compromise must be made between the capacity of the launch vehicle and its associated development costs; a good choice is probably a vehicle about equal in size to the Space Shuttle or the Saturn V, as this is the largest size with which there is operational experience. 2.4 The Z-5 Launch Vehicle The Z-5 expendable launch vehicle consists of three stages. The third is used only on direct-to-Mars missions, not on LEO missions. The Z-5 will be launched from Kennedy Space Center. The stages are summarized in Table 2.4.1.
Table 2.4.1. Characteristics of Z-5 Booster

Vacuum performance data for the RD-170 and Vulcain 2 engines are from Andrews Space and Technology.6,7 The RL10D is a derivative of the existing Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engines used on the Centaur and Delta III vehicles.8 The overall height of the Z-5, including a 10.5 × 45 m payload fairing that encloses the third stage and payload, is 97 m (318 ft), taller than the Space Shuttle but somewhat shorter than the Saturn V. The total liftoff mass for a direct-toMars mission is 2.48 million kg (5.48 million lb.), and the liftoff thrust is 36.30 MN (8.16 million lb.). The Z-5 payload capacities are calculated for a 51.6° inclination orbit. Launch trajectories were determined both for ITV assembly missions and for direct-to-Mars missions. Acceleration is kept under 6 g at every point in the trajectory. Table 2.4.2 shows the launch trajectory for the Z-5 on a direct-to-Mars mission at 51.6° inclination. The three-stage Z-5 can carry 44 MT to C3 = +14.9 km2/s2. The third stage burns for 80 seconds after second stage separation. It then coasts to the proper TMI point and burns for an additional 295 seconds to place its payload en route to Mars.

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Table 2.4.2. Z-5 Direct to Mars: Sequence of Launch Events

For a LEO mission, such as the ITV propulsion stages, the third stage is replaced with a Star 48/TEM-711-8 solid motor. The payload capacity to a 360 km orbit is 112 MT. After second stage separation at T+07:04, the spacecraft coasts for 45 minutes until apogee at 360 km altitude. There the Star 48 fires for 88 seconds, providing 48 m/s of DV. (The Star 48 has a dry mass of 116 kg, 2,000 kg of propellant, and an Isp of 292.9 seconds.9) Alternatively, the first stage of the Z-5 can be throttled down to 60% two minutes into launch. This ensures that acceleration remains below 4 g but reduces payload capacity to 109 MT. 2.5 Z-5 Design Considerations A number of tradeoffs were considered for the Z-5 launch vehicle. It could be expendable, reusable, or mixed (like the Space Shuttle); it could be parallel or sequentially staged; and each stage could use any of several propellants. 2.5.1 Expendable or Reusable Vehicle A large RLV would be a significantly costlier development program than a large expendable due to the complexity of recovering and refurbishing a rocket. Furthermore, reusability only pays off for systems that fly often, and these missions will only need several Z-5 flights per year. It is also possible to envision a partially reusable launch vehicle such as “Magnum” which would have liquid fly back boosters as its first stage and an expendable core vehicle as its second. This strategy was not chosen due to the potential high development costs associated with liquid fly back boosters. Thus an expendable vehicle was chosen. 2.5.2 Propellant Hydrogen / oxygen is undoubtedly the best choice for the upper stages of the launch vehicle; it is the only current propellant that achieves Isp in excess of 400 sec. This prevents the heavy-lift vehicle from becoming unreasonably large. The lower stages should use a low-energy, high-density, highthrust propellant: solid propellant (Al / NH4ClO4), storables (N2H4 / N2O4 and derivatives), or LOX / RP1. Of these, LOX / RP1 has the highest Isp, with the relatively high-thrust RD-170 rocket engine providing 337 s Isp in vacuum. Although it has the operational difficulties associated with cryogenic oxygen, the other choices have worse difficulties. Since solid propellant cannot be loaded on the launch pad, explosive propellant is present during much of the launch processing, and the exhaust has a high concentration of acidic HCl, an environmental concern. Storable propellants are highly toxic and require special precautions to handle. Given these drawbacks and the relatively advanced state of LOX / RP1 propulsion technology in Russia, LOX / RP1 was selected for the Z-5 first stage. 2.5.3 Parallel or Sequential Staging Parallel staging, in which the first stage is composed of booster rockets strapped to the core stage, has advantages in that the core stage can be ignited on the ground, allowing a simpler ignition system and verification before launch commit. However, the core stage spends part of its burn pushing not only its own mass but that of the boosters as well, inefficient from the DV perspective. This can be solved with a cryogenic upper stage, as in the Mars Direct Ares or CMSM2 Janus.10 To avoid this additional stage, a sequentially staged configuration was chosen for the Z-5.
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2.6 Soyuz / EAV Launch The crew is launched in an Earth Ascent Vehicle on the Soyuz booster from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz has four boosters burning kerosene and oxygen in RD-107 engines and a two-stage core. The first core stage burns kerosene and oxygen in the RD-108, very similar to the RD-107; the second stage burns kerosene and oxygen in an RD0110 engine.11 With an escape tower, the Soyuz booster can lift the 6,850 kg mass of the Soyuz-T to LEO.12 The Soyuz was chosen to launch the crew because of its long history of reliable transportation to orbit and because of its launch facilities, which can already handle a crew. A capsule capable of carrying five humans to orbit within the Soyuz launch capacity will be built anyway for the MAV; modifying this capsule for Earth ascent is expected to be a minor part of total mission cost. Some modifications to the Soyuz launch system might be necessary to accommodate the EAV. 2.7 Selection of the Z-5 The selection of a launch vehicle remains a major issue for a human mission to Mars, but it probably will not be resolved until the time of program approval. This mission is baselined with the Z-5 as the launch vehicle. 3 Trajectories 3.1 Orbital Mechanics of Mars Missions A human Mars mission will require a selection of trajectories, both for cargo vehicles (one-way) and humans (two-way). Most cargo vehicles will use either a Type I (6-9 months) or Type II (8-12 months) trajectory, each of which has a departure of 12 km2/s2 and an entry velocity at Mars of 6 km/s. For human missions, several mission profiles could be considered. There are three major options to be considered: fast missions, opposition missions, and conjunction missions. These are compared in Table 3.1.2.
Table 3.1.2. Possible Profiles for Human Crews to Mars

3.2 Interplanetary Trajectories for Humans Since the fast mission’s high DV prevents it from being performed with present or near-term technology, a human Mars mission must use either the opposition or conjunction profile. An opposition mission is somewhat shorter in total but requires a larger DV. Additionally, most of the conjunction mission is spent on Mars, whereas most of the opposition mission is in interplanetary space. The opposition mission might be appropriate for a “flags-and-footprints” mission, but it defeats the purpose of an overall Mars exploration program. For these reasons, a conjunction trajectory was chosen for the first missions. Within the conjunction class missions, there is a choice of slower versus faster trajectories between Earth and Mars. Faster transit times reduce deep space radiation and microgravity exposure at the expense of higher DV, requiring a smaller spacecraft, better propulsion, or more fuel; in addition, fast trajectories raise entry velocities, making
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aerocapture more difficult. With an Earth departure C3 of 20.25 km2/s2, a transit time of 220 days or less can be achieved with Mars hyperbolic approach velocities no greater than 3.9 km/s in all launch opportunities from 2020 to 2033. This trajectory requires a DV of 1,300 m/s greater than that of the optimal Hohmann transfer. (See section 1.5 for further details on the program used to compute interplanetary trajectories.) Table 3.2.1 lists trajectories for human Mars missions between 2020 and 2033.
Table 3.2.1. Details of Human Trajectories, 2020–2033

3.3 Mars Orbits In this mission, the ITV travels from Earth to Mars, inserts into Mars orbit, and then returns to Earth. The Mars orbit must be accessible from the Earth-to-Mars trajectory and must bring the ITV to the proper point for trans-Earth injection. To a first approximation, orbits around Mars follow the familiar Keplerian orbital mechanics laws. However, Mars has a gravitational quadrupole moment J2 = 0.001959 (see ref. 13) due primarily to its equatorial bulge, causing a gradual precession of orbits. Essentially, this precession leaves the period, eccentricity, and inclination with respect to the Martian equator fixed but perturbs the nodal and apsidal axes. It is undoubtedly significant for any spacecraft that
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lingers in Mars orbit for an extended period of time; a spacecraft in a low-inclination, low-altitude Mars orbit would have a precession rate of about 12° per day. The ITV will fly in a near-polar, circular orbit around Mars at 250 km altitude. The nodes regress at the rate of 11.9° per day times the cosine of the orbital inclination i. In 450 days, an orbit of inclination i=90° does not precess at all, while an inclination of i=88.07° is sufficient to cause a one-half orbit precession. By varying the inclination between 88.07° and 90°, we can adjust the “final” ITV orbit plane (that is, the ITV orbit plane after 450 days or more of Mars orbiting) to be within 2° of any direction we choose. This is useful for the trans-Earth injection maneuver. 4 Robotic Mars Missions 4.1 Mars Sample Return and ISMLs Current plans call for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, returning about a kilogram of Mars rocks, sometime in the next decade. While this mission would be a useful step in the exploration of Mars, it is not sufficient for the needs of a human Mars mission that will spend up to 600 days on the surface. A human Mars mission will require at least 10 kg from the site of the first Mars base. There are several ways to increase sample size, such as changing ascent propellants (solid, storable, or in-situ produced propellants). ISPP was rejected since cryogenic systems do not scale well to small vehicles. A single-stage storable rocket was chosen because it is a better analogue to the MAV that will carry the astronauts. (Specifically, it allows the ascent vehicle to play the active role in the rendezvous rather than the Earth return vehicle.) The general architecture (two landers which launch samples into orbit where an orbiter grabs them and returns to Earth) is very similar to that of the first MSR mission, except that all the vehicles launch in the 2009 opportunity. The Mars sample collection systems and ascent vehicle are to be landed on Mars by an Intermediate-Sized Mars Lander (ISML), which has a mass at TMI of 7,000 kg. Upon approach to Mars, the ISML separates from its cruise stage and enters the atmosphere of Mars, protected by an aeroshell of L/D = 0.4. Parachutes and three hydrazine / nitrogen tetroxide rockets slow the ISML to a touchdown on the surface of Mars, with a useful landed payload of 2,000 kg. The ISML mass allocation is shown in Table 4.1.1. (Margins are included in the individual items.)
Table 4.1.1. Intermediate-Sized Mars Lander mass budget

The ISML would be launched on a large vehicle (see section 2.2) such as an EELV or an upgraded Ariane 5. The ISML power supply will be a dynamic isotope power supply (DIPS) using Stirling power conversion technology. The mass of a 2.5 kWe DIPS using 27 kg 238PuO2 is estimated at 350 kg;14 here 445 kg was budgeted, some of the increase necessary to move the DIPS system some 50 m away from the ISML. (When the Mars ascent vehicle launches, the ISML and any equipment remaining on it will be destroyed. We wish to conserve the Martian 238Pu isotope inventory for future use.) The MSR lander payload consists of a sample acquisition system, spacecraft utilities, and an ascent vehicle. The ascent vehicle is capable of producing 4.8 km/s of ∆V using a 50/50 mixture of hydrazine and dimethylhydrazine (“aerozine– 10 –

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50”) and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, which can yield 320 s vacuum Isp (used on the Delta II second stage). It can lift an 80 kg capsule containing 10 kg of Martian samples into low Mars orbit; its total liftoff mass is 1,500 kg and it has an inert mass of 245 kg excluding the capsule but including residual propellants. The ascent vehicle has a single engine providing 9 kN thrust. The sample acquisition system features a robotic arm of length 4 m that obtains samples of Martian regolith and rocks and loads them into the ascent vehicle. This design is simpler than a sample-collecting rover, which would require a robotic arm anyway to raise the samples to the ascent vehicle. The lack of a rover will bring a scientific loss, since only the most accessible Martian material can be acquired; however, the first MSR mission is primarily scientific, whereas the second MSR mission is intended to acquire Martian material in bulk for compatibility analysis and testing with humans and their spacecraft. This objective is met just as well by typical Martian dirt as by any specially selected sample. 4.2 HEDS Lander Before humans travel to Mars, it will be necessary to test out the Mars surface technologies needed for human exploration on a scale larger than, for example, the currently planned MIPP. Also, certain data on the proposed base site will be needed that the second MSR mission cannot return. An oxygen generator that produces at least 500 kg of oxygen in 400 days must be tested. (The human mission will require three generators to produce 17,710 kg O2 in the same time frame.) Radiation levels of all varieties (neutrons, gamma rays, ultraviolet, and charged particles) must be measured, since radiation levels can vary significantly with site due to sunlight, altitude, and soil composition. Weather patterns at the landing site must be monitored for a full Martian year or more to show that diurnal thermal cycling (for example) will not damage critical systems. Concentrations of CO2 and H2O in the air should also be monitored since ice or dry ice may condense on a vehicle. Water content of surface and subsurface material must be measured to as great a depth as possible. The HEDS lander will serve these needs. It uses the ISML landing system, common with the second MSR vehicle, to save development costs. Its most massive payload element is the oxygen generator and storage system. The oxygen tank has 1 m3 volume to store 1,100 kg of liquid oxygen at 92 K. The internal temperature is maintained by 100 layers of MLI and one of four cryocoolers capable of extracting 2.5 W of heat from the interior of the tank. The tank radius is 70 cm including insulation and a vacuum jacket necessary for the MLI to work on the surface of Mars. The oxygen generation system is 399 kg and draws 2,115 W, scaled from (DRM1/p. 3–106). Another major mass item on the HEDS lander is a 10 m surface drill with a mass of 260 kg (DRM1/p. 3-52). Due to power constraints, this drill cannot operate when oxygen is being generated. The mass of the sample analyzer, radiation monitoring instruments, and the spacecraft material exposure system is estimated less than 100 kg. These instruments, the drill, and the oxygen generator easily fit within the ISML mass budget. 5 Cargo Vehicles And The Large Mars Lander 5.1 Selection of a Permanent Base Site After the second MSR mission and the twin HEDS landers, a site for a permanent Mars base may be selected. The following considerations are key in landing site selection: 5.1.1 Availability of Water It is generally believed that water concentration increases toward the poles and decreases toward the equator due to the temperature gradient. Water, of course, is a key resource for a Mars base. 5.1.2 Sunlight Some daylight during each Martian sol is probably desirable, for psychological and operational reasons; EVAs may be difficult at night.

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5.1.3 Elevation Lower elevations are desirable due to increased atmospheric density. This results in an easier task for the atmospheric compressor of an ISRU system and greater protection from radiation. 5.1.4 Temperature To simplify vehicle design, it is desirable to choose a landing site at which the spacecraft is always operating at a temperature significantly greater than that of its surroundings. If the temperature at the base site reached 280 K, for example, a very large radiator or active cooling system (both undesirable) would be necessary to prevent spacecraft overheating. Overheating is likely to be at least as great a danger as cooling to Mars base spacecraft because of the high power consumption compared with current robotic Mars missions. 5.1.5 Agricultural Potential Crops may be grown on Mars using either natural sunlight or artificial light. The former will obviously be easiest at the equator due to greater sunlight; the latter will be easiest in polar regions due to the colder temperatures, which reduce radiator size. Artificial lighting, which is more dependable, can operate in a limited volume (such as an inflatable habitat style module), and avoids water condensation on the roof of an inflatable greenhouse, may be desirable. In this case, the polar regions may be favored. Once a base site is selected, it is time to deliver cargo and humans there. This will require a larger lander, the Large Mars Lander (LML), and its cargo payloads. 5.2 Large Mars Lander The LML is a circular shelf of 3.4 m radius on three 2.7 m tall landing legs. On its underside are four 1.48 m diameter descent propellant tanks, two containing hydrazine and the other two containing nitrogen tetroxide. A pressure-fed engine consumes this propellant, providing 300 kN thrust at 300 s Isp. The mass allocation for the LML is shown in Table 5.2.1.
Table 5.2.1. Large Mars Lander mass budget

Here the propellant tanks and the helium tanks for the propellant feed system are scaled from the Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering system15 and the parachutes and lander structure are scaled from DRM3. The aeroshell and reaction control system (RCS) are allocated 29.7% of the total entry mass since the RCS must provide up to 300 m/s of DV in orbital maneuvers using hydrazine / nitrogen tetroxide bipropellant with 315 s Isp. The LML descent sequence is as follows: 5.2.1 Mars Aerocapture Several minutes before Mars arrival, the LML separates from its interplanetary power supply. The LML enters the Martian atmosphere at 125 km altitude at up to 6,300 m/s. The entry flight path angle must be between 9.8° and 12.4° to capture into orbit around Mars without exceeding the 3.2 g deceleration limit. To capture into a 160 km circular orbit, the LML would first capture into an elliptical orbit and then aerobrake until the apoares fell to 160 km. Then an engine
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firing of under 100 m/s, depending on the entry parameters, would place it into this low Mars orbit. The entry corridor is 48 km deep. The LML aeroshell is based upon an ellipsoid configuration specified by Lockheed Martin.16 It has a lift-to-drag ratio of 0.4 and (with this heavy payload) has an estimated ballistic coefficient of 300 kg/m². 5.2.2 Mars Descent After a final checkout of LML systems, its reaction control system retrofires to send the lander down toward the surface of Mars. At 8 km altitude, terminal velocity is 650 m/s, and the parachute deployment sequence begins. At 1 km altitude, the LML’s velocity has dropped to 100 m/s if one of the parachutes has opened and 70 m/s if both have opened. In the former case, the LML separates from its parachute and ignites the single bipropellant engine on its underside, slowing itself to a halt 30 m above the Martian surface. It may then hover for up to 150 seconds in some cases before it must touch down on a smooth landing site. On some missions the LML will need a larger payload than the 19,267 kg listed above. This can be achieved by removing propellant from the descent stage and accepting a reduced hover time, leaving the lander’s total entry mass unchanged. For example, the 22,696 kg MAV can be landed on Mars with 45 seconds of hover time. 5.3 MSPU Lander The minimum power requirement will be 100 kW for 600 days, the duration of a crew surface stay. Three usable energy sources can be imported from Earth: wind, solar, and nuclear fission. Wind power has many moving parts at risk of malfunctioning in the Martian environment, and the extremely limited flux of sunlight on Mars is prohibitive to solar power. A 160 kWe MSPU requires a nuclear reactor that can run for seven years, a radiation shield, a power conversion system, a radiator, and power conditioning equipment, for a total mass of 9,738 kg.17 The radiation shield leaves an acceptable radiation dose (below 5 rem/yr) at a distance of 2.8 km. The MSPU will land roughly this distance from the proposed Mars base site and will be targeted into a crater for additional shielding, making the crew’s exposure to MSPU radiation negligible. After separation from the LML interplanetary power supply, power is provided by fuel cells. The mass and performance are taken from the STS fuel cells,18 but some changes may be necessary to improve their lifetime. The total mass budget for the fuel cell system, including the five fuel cells generating at least 6 kWe each, is 1,844 kg dry. 2,000 kg reactants can run one fuel cell for 40 days, which will keep the MSPU alive during approach, landing, and deployment. Once the LML / MSPU payload has landed, its radiators are deployed, and power can be produced. Five small rovers connect it to other payloads; each rover has a total mass of 1,200 kg, of which 704 kg (see ref. 19) is devoted to the power cable that is rolled off a spool on the back of the rover. Thus the total payload mass of the MSPU’s LML (including 320 kg for communications, as in (DRM3 / section A4.0), and a 500 kg power distribution system) is 20,402 kg plus rover deployment ramps. In the dusty Martian environment, a direct metal surface contact like a conventional electrical outlet is not a good way to connect the power rover to a base element. Two schemes avoid the need for a metal surface contact: the metallic connector, which uses a heater to solder two connectors together, and the inductive connector, which uses neighboring coils to transfer alternating current by magnetic induction. The final selection must await a thorough engineering analysis of both options. 5.4 Cargo Payloads Two cargo payloads will be sent directly to Mars on Z-5s in 2018. One of these payloads will be a backup habitat derived from the CML (see section 6.3) for the first crew. In addition, the scientific exploration of Mars will require a long range mobility capability on the surface. Two 5 MT rovers (DRM3 / section A2.2.1) are allocated in the first cargo payload, with a total mass of 10 MT. The remainder of the capacity on this first LML will be dedicated to scientific equipment. There is also the capability for additional cargo landers in 2020 and in subsequent opportunities.

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5.5 Mars Ascent Vehicle The mass of the MAV payload is 22,506 kg, broken down in Table 5.5.1.
Table 5.5.1. MAV payload mass budget

The food is intended to be the primary food supply for the crew members during their stay on the Martian surface. The dry MAV stage includes a 4.45 m diameter liquid hydrogen tank, a 3.10 m diameter liquid oxygen tank, and four RL10D engines burning hydrogen / oxygen bipropellant. The RL-10D is a possible future variant of the current RL-10 Pratt-Whitney rocket engines providing 222 kN thrust and 472 s Isp with a mass of 378 kg.20 The dynamic isotope power supply is the same as that used on the ISML (see section 4.1), except that it needs no deployment system. At Mars landing, the MAV hydrogen tank is full but the oxygen tank is empty. The MAV oxygen generators use the same basic process as the HEDS lander oxygen generator but are larger, draw more power, and have a higher output rate.
Table 5.5.2. MAV oxygen generator and storage systems

The output rate of a MAV oxygen generator is 15 kg O2 per day, more than sufficient to produce the required 17,710 kg of liquid oxygen in a 400 day time span. The system masses and powers have been scaled from (DRM1/p. 3–106). Upon separation from the interplanetary power supply, the hydrogen begins to boil off. With a heat of vaporization of 445 J/g, and a capability to boil off up to 200 kg of liquid hydrogen without loss of functionality of the ascent stage, the MAV can handle up to 89 MJ of heat transfer into the hydrogen tank. Since the expected heating rate is 50 W, the MAV will be able to sit on Mars without power for up to 20 days before hydrogen boiloff becomes problematic. The MAV is then plugged into the MSPU lander, providing power to run the high-power MAV systems, specifically the oxygen generators and the cryocoolers in the hydrogen tank. Three of the four oxygen generators must operate for sufficient oxygen to be produced. Together, they consume 73,560 W power. After 400 days, the MAV is fully fueled for ascent into orbit. This information is transmitted to Earth, allowing the next phase of the Mars mission to begin.
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6 ITV and First Human Mission Design 6.1 Interplanetary Transfer Vehicle Habitat The ITV is the vehicle in which the crew travels from low Earth orbit to the vicinity of Mars and in which the crew makes the return transit to Earth. Although unneeded items can be jettisoned in the EEV, there is no capability for extensive EVA in interplanetary space. Such a capability was deemed unnecessary because there are no spacecraft systems outside the pressurized compartments that the astronauts could conceivably repair. 6.1.1 Structural and Thermal Systems The basic structure of the ITV is a rounded cylindrical inflatable habitat 8 meters in diameter and 8.5 meters long, with 300 m3 of internal volume. The mass estimate for this component was taken from the TransHab derived habitat proposed for Mars exploration (DRM3 / section A3.1) at 1,039 kg structure and 500 kg thermal control systems. Here we increase the thermal control system’s mass budget to 1,000 kg, allowing redundancy for many components, and introduce an additional 25% margin on structural and thermal systems, bringing the total mass budget for this item to 2,549 kg. 6.1.2 Life Support Systems A life support system for six people (this mission would have five) is estimated as having a mass of 3,796 kg, a power requirement of 5,831 W, and a volume of 19.13 m3.21 This includes complete recycling of oxygen and water, meaning that only food and power are required as inputs to run the life support system indefinitely. While this mass budget does include spares, it may still be prudent to send two such life support systems due to the lack of in-space experience with extensive recycling of consumables. The 3,796 kg figure was taken unadjusted; the performance reduction (five astronauts versus six) serves as margin. Additionally, food should be sent with the astronauts; the mass of food needed is taken from a TransHab derived module mass budget (DRM3 / section A3.1) as 2.2 kg per person per day, or 11 kg/day for a crew of five. The ITV (including the crew Mars lander) will carry 1,000 days of food (enough for the entire mission) through launch and TMI; 800 days of food at MOI; and 200 days at TEI. Adequate consumables are present at each mission phase. To make the ITV lighter during launch, five metric tons of food are launched with the crew Mars lander. 6.1.3 Crew Accommodations This item includes health care equipment and other crew systems. A mass of 2,356 kg is estimated from a TransHab derived module (DRM3 / section A3.1) crew accommodations item, removing food (which we include in the life support category) and adding a 25% margin. 6.1.4 Communications and Information Management This item is again taken from (DRM3 / section A3.1) with a 25% margin, yielding a total mass of 400 kg. 6.1.5 Electrical Power The power requirement for an ITV-type habitat was estimated at 29,400 W (DRM1/p. 3–93), but the life support power requirement has been reduced in more recent studies from 12 to 6 kW, so a power supply need only provide 24 kWe to the habitat. During the return trip to Earth, therefore, a 30 kWe power supply has been baselined to provide margin. In addition, the cryogenic tanks in the TEI stage must remain chilled, yielding a power requirement of 40 kWe prior to TEI. The most promising power source is a combination of solar and battery power, avoiding the complications of a nuclear reactor or the large quantity of 238Pu (roughly 400 kg) for an isotope power supply. The solar arrays provide the power except during eclipse periods, when the battery is used. It is later recharged from the solar arrays. The solar arrays will be of the type projected for the (now canceled) Space Technology 4 / Champollion mission. These would provide a power density of 100 W/kg and about 55 W/m2 at 1 AU from the Sun,22 or 35 W/kg at Mars aphelion. The post-TEI array system would have a mass of 857 kg and an area of 1,500 m2. The array for Mars orbit should provide 80 kWe at Mars aphelion to adequately charge the batteries during the sunlit portion (at least 62%) of the ITV’s orbit; it would have an area of 4,100 m² and a mass of 2,286 kg. Before MOI, power is to be provided from the ITVCML truss; see section 6.4.
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The battery will have to endure at least 10,000 charging cycles; nickel-metal hydride batteries with a specific energy of 55 W-hr/kg can survive only 3,000 cycles.23 However, some improvement in battery technology can be expected; for this study, a 40 W-hr/kg rechargeable battery that can survive 10,000 cycles is assumed. The batteries must provide up to 42 minutes of power at 40 kWe, corresponding to a mass of 700 kg. Dividing into fourteen units of 50 kg (2 kW-hr energy storage each) and adding two spare units, the total battery mass is 800 kg. Half of these are to be jettisoned just before TEI along with the Mars orbit solar arrays; this reduces the TEI mass but still leaves a backup power source during the trans-Earth cruise. Additionally, power will be needed for up to several days after MOI while the ITV aerobrakes. It is not desirable to drag a solar array through the Martian atmosphere, so a non-regenerative fuel cell consuming hydrogen and oxygen was selected to power this phase. It is comprised of nine fuel cells using the existing STS fuel cells as a mass and performance estimate,24 although they would need an improved in-space lifetime. Six fuel cells are needed to produce 37 kWe power; together they consume 300 kg/day of hydrogen and oxygen reactant. If reactants for five days are supplied, the total mass of the fuel cell reactants is 1,500 kg, and their tankage has a mass of 422 kg. The fuel cells themselves total 1,041 kg. Power must be distributed to the components and radiated away after it is used. Power distribution mass was taken as 550 kg, double the value given in (DRM3 / section A3.1) since there is a higher power requirement along with a TEI stage that also requires power; the radiator was scaled from (DRM1/p. 3–96) to a 93 m2 area and a 507 kg mass. In total, the power system has a mass of 2,314 kg at TEI, with an additional mass of 5,649 kg to be inserted into Mars orbit. 6.1.6 Earth Entry Vehicle and Return Payload The Earth entry vehicle is described in greater detail in section 6.9; it has an unloaded mass of 3500 kg. The crew has a mass of 500 kg (80 kg per crew member and five 20 kg pressure suits). The samples returned to Earth from Mars have a mass of 500 kg, and there is an additional 100 kg of scientific equipment. 6.1.7 Reaction Control System This system was designed to provide 80 m/s of DV during each of the three legs of the mission (trans-Mars, Mars orbital, and trans-Earth.) It uses hydrazine resistojets with 320 s Isp and thus requires 8,000 kg propellant with a 2,000 kg dry mass. Of this dry mass, 1,000 kg holds propellants which will be used prior to TEI, so this part of the RCS is to be jettisoned along with the Mars orbital power systems just before TEI. 6.1.8 Solar Storm Shelter This device protects the crew from radiation from solar particle events. It must provide 10 g/cm2 of shielding to the crew during a major flare in addition to that available from onboard equipment. This is described further in section 8.1, but here we merely note that a 2.6 m diameter sphere using LiH shielding is 2,346 kg. 6.1.9 Atmospheric Repressurization System The EEV may need to be repressurized several times, for example, if the EEV is used as an airlock through which to jettison unneeded items. If this is to be done three times, 100 kg of air will be expended. The mass of this air and its cryogenic storage systems was estimated at 250 kg. Additionally, the ITV / EEV complex contains 300 kg of air budgeted under this mass item. 6.2 ITV Main Propulsion System The ITV is propelled by a hydrogen / oxygen stage that is required to deliver a DV of 300 m/s post-MOI and at least 3,080 m/s at TEI. The stage contains 5,450 kg of usable hydrogen and 32,700 kg of usable oxygen; its dry mass is 6,739 kg distributed according to Table 6.2.1.

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Table 6.1.1. ITV mass budgets at major mission stages

If a 2% margin is applied to this stage’s Isp (that is, Isp = 462.6 s is assumed rather than the specified 472 s), the propulsion system burns 5,503 kg of its 38,150 kg propellant providing the 300 m/s post-MOI DV to the ITV. This leaves up to 3,089 m/s for the TEI burn. The ITV main propulsion stage, including the rocket engines, is 7 m in diameter and 14 m long.
Table 6.2.1. Inert mass of ITV main propulsion

6.3 Crew Mars Lander The Crew Mars Lander (CML) is the vehicle in which the astronauts will descend to the surface of Mars. On the surface, they will live in either this CML or in the habitat (derived from the CML) that landed in 2018. They move the food landed in the MAV into this habitat and connect it to the MSPU’s power grid. It is then the analogue of the habitat module in the Mars Direct plan. It is essentially a Large Mars Lander (LML), similar to those described in section 5, but with a different payload and without the solar arrays in interplanetary space. Thus the Mars entry mass is 43,800 kg. The CML payload contains the following elements: 6.3.1 Structural and Thermal Systems The estimate in section 6.1.1 applies; the TransHab derivatives from which the ITV structural / thermal unit was scaled (DRM3 / section A3.1) operate on Mars as well as in interplanetary space. Thus we retain the 2,549 kg mass estimate. 6.3.2 Life Support The crew Mars lander should be able to land on Mars and keep the crew alive for 30 days; in addition, it should operate much longer if power and consumables are available. Thus we provide the 3,796 kg life support system from the ITV, which requires only food as input (see section 6.1.20. As a backup, an open-loop life support system, of mass 1,000 kg, is included in the crew Mars lander as well as 420 kg of hydrogen peroxide for oxygen generation, sufficient for 30 days. Additionally, food sufficient for 45 days (495 kg) is provided, so the crew will be able to survive in the CML for up to 30 days in all cases. (Water is produced in sufficient quantity for crew survival by the fuel cells; see section 6.3.5.) This
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yields a total mass of 5,711 kg. An additional 5 MT of food is present in the CML at launch, since there was not room in the ITV. 6.3.3 Crew Accommodations 2,356 kg; see section 6.1.3. 6.3.4 Communications and Information Management 400 kg; see section 6.1.4. 6.3.5 Electrical Power Supply The electrical power supply for the crew Mars lander is the fuel cell system from the MSPU (see section 5.3). It has a mass of 1,844 kg dry, with 4,507 kg reactants. The reactants can supply three fuel cells (18 kWe power generation) for 30 days. Loss of any one of the cryogenic reactant tanks still allows the crew to survive for 20 days. The production rate of water from the fuel cells is 150 kg/day, sufficient to meet the crew’s needs. A 500 kg power distribution and rejection system has been budgeted. 6.3.6 Crew and EVA Systems The crew has a mass of 500 kg, including pressure suits (see section 6.1.6). The Reference Mission allotment for EVA systems (DRM3 / section A3.2.4) was used here: 195 kg for the airlock and 940 kg for the EVA suits (including one spare since we have a crew of five). Thus the total mass for this item is 1,635 kg. (At launch and TMI, the crew is not in the CML, leaving 1,135 kg.) 6.3.7 Atmospheric Repressurization System Like the ITV (section 6.1.9), the crew Mars lander contains 300 kg air. It also carries two 1/3 scale versions of the MAV oxygen generators, each with a mass of 346 kg, drawing 8,173 W power, and producing 5 kg/day of O2 (sufficient to make up for the CML’s lack of oxygen recycling). It is not feasible to run the oxygen generators until the crew Mars lander is electrically connected to the MSPU. Also, a buffer gas generation system will be needed on the crew Mars lander if it is to serve as a long-term habitation unit on Mars. The buffer gas is a mixture of nitrogen and argon, minor constituents of the Martian atmosphere; it is added to oxygen in habitation modules to reduce the danger of fire. The two generators each produce 1 kg of buffer gases per day. Mass and power are scaled from (DRM1/p. 3–105) with a 50% mass and power margin for a total mass of 219 kg and power consumption of 699 W. Additionally, there are four 63 kg/44 W cryogenic tanks for storing up to 0.78 m3 of buffer gas or oxygen each. These are identical to those from the HEDS lander (see section 4.5). This brings the total mass allocation for atmospheric pressurization to 1,682 kg.
Table 6.3.1. CML mass budgets at major mission stages

6.4 ITV-CML Tunnel and Truss The ITV and CML will be connected in transit to Mars by a 30 m tunnel encased in an equilateral-triangle shaped truss with 7 m side length and three segments. During launch and TMI, the truss is collapsed to a 10 meter length. One of the three segments supports compression of the truss during these events. After TMI, the other two 10 m segments will
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deploy. Figure 6.4.1 shows the appearance of the ITV on the way to Mars; the CML is shown at left inside its aeroshell, with the truss and solar panels to the right, followed by the EEV within the truss, and the ITV habitat and propulsion system within their aeroshell. The tunnel itself will need to be collapsed to 10 m length for launch and deployed to 30 m post-TMI. An inflatable tunnel was suggested by James Cameron, and will be portrayed in his upcoming Mars TV miniseries and IMAX 3D movie; since we have a 10 m initial length to work with, however, the inflatable tunnel will have this initial length. The three sides of two of the truss segments will be covered with triple-junction (GaInP2 / GaAs / Ge) solar cell arrays,25 which will convert sunlight into power with at least 21% efficiency. After truss deployment, the arrays on the two sides of the truss facing away from the Sun are deployed. Because only 400 m² of solar arrays are needed here, sufficient power can be produced even if one of the four deploying solar arrays fails to open. If the tunnel cannot be used to connect the CML and the ITV habitat, the mission proceeds nominally but without rotating the ITV as described in section 7.2. As a result, the crew will land on Mars after living in microgravity for approximately six months. The solar panels and their backing / deployment system are estimated at 2,400 kg, three times the panels themselves. The aluminum 2024 T3 alloy primary segment (the one that holds compression during launch and TMI) of the truss will have a mass of 2,045 kg, and the remaining two segments, which do not have to hold nearly this load, will total 2,045 kg. The inflatable tunnel of radius 1 m has a mass of 1,500 kg, scaled from the TransHab-derived module study (DRM3 / section A3.1) by surface area with a factor of 3 margin accounting for the differences in configuration between TransHab and the tunnel. A 700 kg docking module for the EAV is located at the CML end of the tube. This gives the ITV-CML tunnel and truss an 8,690 kg mass. 6.5 TMI Stages The ITV / CML combination will use four stacked hydrogen / oxygen stages to inject to Mars. The first three are modified versions of the Z-5 third stage, fitted with cryocoolers to keep the hydrogen and oxygen propellants cold, solar arrays to power the cryocoolers, a reaction control system providing 150 m/s of DV, and insulation to reduce the heat load on the cryocoolers. The fourth stage duplicates the ITV main propulsion system, with a 3 MT adapter that attaches to the CML aeroshell and a 6 MT reaction control system (similar to that on the large TMI stages) for rendezvous with the other components. It is frequently suggested that either nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) or solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems be used for TMI instead of conventional chemical rockets. NTR would reduce the number of Z-5 launches needed for the ITV by one and replacement of the Z-5 upper stage with an NTR system would increase the Z-5’s trans-Mars delivery capability from 44 to 50 MT. It was determined that this performance gain does not balance out the political difficulties associated with nuclear systems or the need to develop a special new test facility required for NTR engines. SEP is another possible TMI technology, whether it is used for the entire TMI process or augmented by a chemical “kick” stage.26 While SEP provides a high specific impulse, a human mission would require an SEP system to be at least two orders of magnitude larger than the kilowatt-scale SEP systems used today on communications satellites and Deep Space One, thus presenting a major development risk. Additionally, since solar arrays do not produce power in Earth’s shadow, an SEP spacecraft must either turn its propulsion system on and off once each orbit, discharge / recharge batteries or regenerative fuel cells once each orbit, or fly in an orbit with continuous sunlight. The first option involves running the SEP system and its associated hardware through of order 1,000 on-off cycles, which is undesirable from the
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standpoint of reliability. The second option greatly increases the mass and unreliability associated with the power system. The third option could involve restricting launches to the solstices, when a 51.6 degree inclination LEO can be in continuous sunlight, or it could involve launching into a (nearly) sun-synchronous orbit. The former idea is operationally undesirable, as it places a large burden on the launch facilities; the latter idea requires launching of the Z5 from Vandenberg or another site with access to sun-synchronous orbit. Additionally, it adds another 300 m/s to the DV required to reach orbit, reducing the booster’s payload capacity. Finally, the crew of the Mars mission must either spend months traversing the Van Allen Belts or ride a larger rocket (such as Proton) when their EAV is launched.
Table 6.5.1. Mass budget for first three TMI stages

The costs of large SEP systems are not known at present, but given their complexity they will undoubtedly be more expensive to produce than chemical stages, although they might cost less to launch. One method of reducing overall costs would be to reuse the SEP system, but depending on the specific configuration, even one reuse may require tens of thousands of hours of thrusting. SEP system lifetimes would have to be extended to make this option feasible. For these reasons, SEP was not used for the TMI scheme in this Mars mission.
Table 6.6.1. Sequence of ITV / CML Assembly Launches

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6.6 LEO Assembly and the EAV The complex of the ITV, CML, and four propulsion stages is launched in five pieces. Each component is launched northeast from KSC into 51.6° inclination, 360 km altitude orbits. The orbit nodes precess backward by 5.1° per day, so launch windows to this orbit are 23 hours 36 minutes apart. Because the TMI stages have cryogenic coolers, scheduling of these launches is not critical; they need only occur well in advance of the TMI window. Finally, several days before departure to Mars, the crew is launched on a Soyuz booster in the EAV. Because of the degrading physiological effects of the space environment, it is desirable not to extend the crew’s stay in LEO unnecessarily. Launching the crew on a Z-5 with the CML (for example) would have to occur well before the TMI window because a delay close to the TMI window would force a mission abort. (The Z-5 is a large and complicated launch vehicle, and launch delays are to be expected.) For this reason, a reliable means of sending the crew to the orbiting ITV / CML / TMI system is necessary. The only system currently capable of carrying a crew of five to the ITV is the Space Shuttle, but experience has shown that it too is susceptible to long delays. Thus a new vehicle will be needed. Fortunately, it does not need all capabilities of the STS; in fact, it should be as simple as possible to reduce the likelihood of a launch delay. An EAV was therefore designed to carry the crew into orbit and to the ITV / CML. It will launch on the Soyuz booster, which at present has been man-rated; humans frequently use it to travel to Mir with relatively few delays. The continued production of Soyuz vehicles is considered very likely, both because it has found a commercial role in launching communications satellites and because it will launch Progress and Soyuz spacecraft throughout the ISS program. Trans-Mars injection uses the three large cryogenic stages and the copy of the ITV main propulsion system for a total DV capability of 4342 m/s. The DV necessary to reach Mars (C3 = 20.25 km2/s2) from the 360 km assembly orbit is 4103 m/s. 6.7 Mars Arrival and Landing; Surface Operations When the ITV arrives at Mars, the ITV / EEV complex separates from the CML, and the two aerocapture into Mars orbit separately. The CML follows the LML aerocapture and landing procedure described in section 5.2, while the ITV and EEV capture into low Mars orbit at altitude 250 km. This orbit is nearly polar – its inclination varies between 88.07° and 90° (see section 3.3). The truss and tunnel are jettisoned. During the crew’s surface stay of 553 sols on the first mission (see Table 3.2.1), the crew will have access to the contents of the cargo payload landed in 2018, namely the two rovers and the scientific equipment. Possible examples of scientific equipment include greenhouses to test crop raising in the Martian soil, drills to excavate samples of subsurface materials, and automated rovers to collect samples from nearby locations. 6.8 Mars Ascent and the MAV Capsule At the conclusion of the crew’s surface stay, the MAV lifts off into a 250 km orbit and docks with the ITV and EEV. The MAV’s crew capsule stands 4.5 m high and is 3 m wide; its mass budget is detailed in Table 6.8.1. 6.9 Trans-Earth Injection, Earth Return, and the Earth Entry Vehicle After docking of the MAV, the crew transfers its rock samples to the EEV. The MAV is then jettisoned, and the ITV’s main propulsion system fires to place the crew on a trans-Earth trajectory. Upon arrival at Earth, the crew enters the EEV, separates from the ITV habitat, and aerobrakes at Earth for a direct splashdown. The Earth Entry Vehicle is derived from the MAV crew capsule; it also measures 3 m in diameter and 4.5 m in height. 7 Crew Health Issues 7.1 Radiation The majority of the crew’s radiation dose during the first several human missions will be acquired in interplanetary space. Although the Martian atmosphere is much thinner than Earth’s, it still provides reasonable shielding. At altitude
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4 km, the atmosphere provides the equivalent of at least 11 g/cm2 shielding in the vertical direction. For a surface stay in 2020–2022 similar to that called for in section 3.2, Simonsen and Nealy estimate a dose equivalent in the blood forming organs of no more than 19.0 rem from GCR.27 Solar flares are unlikely considering the fact that this mission occurs shortly after solar minimum, but subsequent missions at solar maximum can expect comparable dose equivalents from solar particle events.
Table 6.8.1. MAV capsule mass budget

Table 6.9.1. EEV mass budget

Since GCR is continuous, a shelter for this type of radiation is not feasible. Shielding must be available throughout the entire interplanetary transfer vehicle. A TransHab-derived habitat would have about 5-8 g/cm2 with included equipment, with typical atomic number between that of polyethylene and aluminum; the crew’s dose equivalent would be about 65 rem/yr at solar minimum.28 The missions listed in Table 3.2.1 all spend of order 1 year in transit between planets. As a result, the crew’s maximum total dose from GCR over the course of the mission is about 100 rem. On the other hand, a variety of shielding materials may be used for solar particle events; those with high atomic numbers are inadvisable because of the secondary radiation produced when particles collide with these large atomic nuclei. By contrast, when a particle strikes a low-Z material such as hydrogen, little of this secondary radiation is produced. Since hydrogen has the lowest atomic number, it would appear to be the logical choice, but logistical difficulties prevent it from being a useful shielding material. Only the liquid form of hydrogen is dense enough to provide appreciable shielding, and although the crew has an ample supply of LH2 in the ITV’s main propulsion system, the rotation of the structure (see section 7.2 below) means that this tank cannot shield the crew in the case of a solar flare. But it is relatively easy to create a solar flare shield from polyethylene. A shelter of polyethylene can provide 10 g/cm2 of shielding to the crew in addition to the habitat’s own shielding. For this reason, the ITV includes a polyethylene sphere 2.6 m in diameter as a solar flare shelter.
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An additional concern on the Martian surface is neutron radiation produced from interactions of cosmic and solar radiation with the Martian regolith. The severity of this radiation is not known exactly, but our calculations based on a Langley Research Center model of the neutron flux29 and our own neutron propagation code (validated by experiments using a 252Cf fast neutron source) suggest that the total dose equivalent to a Mars crew from these neutrons is roughly equal to the direct GCR dose for the surface phase of the mission. 7.2 Artificial Gravity The ITV-CML complex totals 62 m in length. The center of mass lies 20 m from the lowest level of the ITV habitat, providing a 20 m baseline for artificial gravity. The system rotates around a point in the central section of the truss. At three revolutions per minute, the crew experiences a centripetal acceleration of 2 m/s2, somewhat higher than lunar gravity. At 4 rpm, the crew’s acceleration is 3.5 m/s2, slightly below Martian gravity. Revolution rates greater than 4 rpm will likely have disorienting effects on the astronauts. During this rotation, the complex is oriented so that the truss’s solar panels face the Sun at all times. The truss is jettisoned at MOI, so artificial gravity is unavailable for the return trip. The astronauts will travel to Earth in microgravity since medical facilities will be available upon arrival. 8 Summary 8.1 Cost Estimates Cost estimates of the human missions were constructed using the NASA Spacecraft / Vehicle Level Cost Model.30 A learning curve of 85% (i.e., the cost of producing twice as many items is only 1.85 times as much) was assumed. Both optimistic and conservative estimates were applied to the results of the cost model, as listed in Table 8.1.1. All values are in 1999 US dollars. The estimates also assumed one pre-landed habitat per mission sequence, one ITV and one MAV per human crew, and two MSPUs and rover landers for the three-mission sequence or three each for the five-mission sequence. Estimates of the MSPU and rover costs were derived from (DRM1/p. 3–128), approximating the cost of two MSPUs and rover landers as 11% of the $55 billion overall cost and scaling linearly upward for the five-mission sequence. The costs of Soyuz launch vehicles for the crew was estimated at $18,000,000 per booster in each set of estimates.31 Finally, the cost of mission support was estimated using the Mission Operations Cost Model.32
Table 8.1.1. SVLCM Cost Estimates of Mission Components

Table 8.1.2. Other Cost Estimates of Mission Components

The results of these models are compared with optimistic estimates of the NASA Design Reference Mission 3 (see ref. 33) in Table 8.1.3.

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Table 8.1.3. Total Cost Estimates

From this we conclude that the total costs are comparable to those of DRM3. We also see that the recurring costs are relatively low; each individual mission has a cost of $3 billion to $7 billion after the initial development of components. 8.2 Risk A number of factors contribute to the reduced risk of the Mars SCHEME. First, each stage of the mission contains redundant crew life support systems. On the Martian surface, the first crew has available the CML in which it landed, as well as the 2018 habitat. (The MAV was not designed as a long-term habitat.) Subsequent crews will have the same two options as well as the CMLs of previous crews. In interplanetary space, the ITV habitat is equipped with two fully redundant life support systems (see section 6.1.2), and the CML is also available on the way to Mars. Second, new technologies are tested in the Martian environment before they are used by the crew. The HEDS landers (see section 4.2) each contain a smaller version of the oxygen generators to be carried by the MAV, as well as radiation and materials exposure experiments. The descent and landing system on the crew Mars lander is identical to that used by the other LMLs, which are first tested in 2016 by the MSPU. Third, a perfect (error below 1 km) surface rendezvous is not a requirement for crew safety. The CML has sufficient power and consumables (see section 6.3.2) to support the crew for up to 30 days, enough time to drive the pressurized rover from the base to the crew’s landing site by teleoperation and to return to the base. Fourth, all LOX / LH2 propulsion stages have engine-out capabilities. The TMI stages of the ITV each need three of five engines, the ITV’s main propulsion stage requires two of three engines, and the MAV requires two of four engines. Although the LML descent stage uses only a single engine, it uses hydrazine / nitrogen tetroxide, a highly reliable bipropellant. In addition, the crew launches on a Soyuz rocket, which is already man-rated and has an extensive history of reliability. An escape tower is provided for the Soyuz launch. Fifth, electrical power systems were also designed to reduce risk. The Mars SCHEME does not rely on retractableredeployable solar arrays; retraction of such an array would be a major risk element due to the possibility of a failed retraction just hours before an aerocapture, which would be catastrophic to the mission. Also, there are two MSPUs provided for the crew on the Mars surface, providing redundancy in case of failure of one. 8.3 Conclusion and Recommendations Clearly, the high reliability and low recurring costs of the Mars SCHEME make it a very feasible sequence of Martian exploratory missions. The plentiful infrastructure it establishes on the surface of Mars also makes it a good predecessor to a fully staffed base on the Red Planet. 9 Outreach As the leaders of the Mars Society of Caltech / JPL, we are at the forefront of space advocacy and public outreach on behalf of Mars exploration. We have had tremendous outreach success in politics, education, and in getting the general public excited about Mars. Highlights of our outreach efforts include: • Production of an educational activity for 4th-6th grade students in which students pretend to be the first Mars explorers and use math and reasoning skills to save their Mars base’s greenhouse. We have visited six schools with the activity and distributed it through our high school science teachers, our web page and via the Mars Society quarterly CDROM. We have visited nearly a dozen schools from elementary to college to promote Mars exploration.
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• Meetings with major politicians, including face-to-face encounters earlier this year with President Bill Clinton and all four major presidential candidates – Bush, Gore, McCain, and Bradley, before the latter two exited the race. We have met with four members of Congress (Waters, Rohrabacher, Rogan, Calvert) and ten congressional offices (the above and Royce, Sanchez, Pomeroy, Conrad (Senator), Waxman, and Kuykendall). • Consulting for James Cameron’s upcoming Mars movies. Chris calculated his trajectories and we provided feedback on the architecture he will be depicting in his projects during a visit to his office. • Creation and regular updating of our chapter web site, which features the outreach materials we have designed available for download by other Mars Society chapters or other space advocacy groups, information on our technical projects, Mars, and Mars missions, education materials, and photos from our activities. • As of this writing, we have gathered 1,998 names and E-mails for our own chapter’s mailing list and that of the national Mars Society. A detailed listing of our events is available at our web site, http://mars.caltech.edu/. 10 Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank all who suggested improvements and modifications to the Caltech Mars Society Missions 1.0 and 2.0. We would especially like to thank our faculty advisors, Jim Burke, Bruce Murray, and Mark Adler for their input and encouragement. We also wish to thank others who have supplied us with much-needed information, most notably C. R. Joyner of Pratt-Whitney and John Connolly of NASA Johnson Space Center. We would like to thank the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the HEDS-UP program for giving us the opportunity to participate in the 2000 HEDS-UP Forum. Caltech’s Digital Media Center provided us with guidance, equipment, and software for the graphics in our presentation. Finally, we would like to recognize the contribution of David Berry of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who graciously provided the name of this mission plan.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Mars Global Surveyor Mission Plan, Final Version, Rev. B (542-405). http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/pdf/405.pdf. 1996, p. 3-9. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. “Mars Surveyor 98 Launch Vehicle.” http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/delta2.html. 1999. Wiesel, W.E. Spaceflight Dynamics. (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1997). p. 206. Kittel, P. et al. “Cryocoolers for Human and Robotic Missions to Mars.” (Received by personal communication from Plachta, D./NASA Glenn Research Center) Arianespace. “Arianespace, Launcher Family, Ariane 5.” http://www.arianespace.com/launcher_5_evolving2.html. Andrews Space and Technology. “Zenit-Specifications.” http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/elvs/zenit_specs.shtml. Andrews Space and Technology. “Vulcain-Specifications.” http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/engines/vulcain_specs.shtml. Joyner, C. Russell (Pratt-Whitney). Personal communication, 1998. Thiokol. “STAR Performance & Summary Chart.” http://www.thiokol.com/StarPerf.htm. Hirata, Christopher et al. “A New Plan for Sending Humans to Mars: The Caltech Mars Society Mission 2.0.” 1999. http://mars.caltech.edu/chris_its/mars/cmsm2r.html. Starsem. “Starsem.” http://www.starsem.com/web_in/family.htm. Newkirk, Dennis. Almanac of Soviet Manned Spaceflight. (Gulf Publishing Co., 1990). Lang, Kenneth R. Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars. (Springer-Verlag, 1992). p. 49. Cataldo, Robert. “Considerations for Mars Surface Power Systems: From Robotic to Human Outposts.” Presentation at the American Astronautical Society National Conference and 46th Annual Meeting. NASA Human Spaceflight. “HSF – The Shuttle.” http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/reference/shutref/orbiter/oms/. Lockheed Martin Space Mission Systems & Services. “Aeroheating Analysis for Mars TransHab Vehicles, Volume I – Methodology and Results.” LMSMSS-32724, February 1998. Cataldo, Robert. “Considerations for Mars Surface Power Systems: From Robotic to Human Outposts.” Presentation at the American Astronautical Society National Conference and 46th Annual Meeting. NASA Human Spaceflight. “HSF – The Shuttle.” http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/reference/shutref/orbiter/eps/pwrplants.html. Cataldo, Robert. “Considerations for Mars Surface Power Systems: From Robotic to Human Outposts.” Presentation at the American Astronautical Society National Conference and 46th Annual Meeting. Joyner, C.R. (Pratt-Whitney). Personal communication, 1998. Connolly, John (NASA JSC). Personal communication, 1998. Muirhead, Brian (NASA JPL). “Champollion/DS4 Mission Overview.” Presentation, June 1997. http://cism.jpl.nasa.gov/randp/docs/muirhead.pdf.

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The Mars Society of Caltech – Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor
23. Cornell University, student design team. “Extravehicular Activity Suit Systems Design: How to Walk, Talk, and Breathe on Mars.” http://cass.jsc.nasa.gov/lpi/HEDS-UP/cornell.pdf. 1999, p. 13 24. NASA Human Spaceflight. “HSF – The Shuttle.” http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/reference/shutref/orbiter/eps/pwrplants.html. 25. Joyner, C.R. (Pratt-Whitney). Personal communication, 1998. 26. Hughes Spectrolab. “GaInP2/GaAs/Ge Triple Junction Solar Cells.” http://www.spectrolab.com/DataSheets/TJCell/TJCells.html. 27. Gefert, L. et al. “Options for the Human Exploration of Mars Using Solar Electric Propulsion,” Space Technology and Applications International Forum 1999, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 458, El-Geuk, M. ed. 1999, p. 1275. 28. Simonsen, Lisa C. and John E. Nealy. “Mars Surface Radiation Exposure for Solar Maximum Conditions and 1989 Solar Particle Events.” NASA TP-3300, February 1993. 29. Wilson, J.W. et al. “Galactic and Solar Cosmic Ray Shielding in Deep Space.” NASA TP-3682, pp. 22. December 1999. 30. Wilson, J. W. et al. “Mars Surface Ionizing Radiation Environment: Need for Validation.” MARS 2001 Workshop, Houston, Texas. October 2-4, 1999. 31. NASA Johnson Space Center. “Cost Models – Spacecraft/Vehicle Level Cost Model.” http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/bu2/SVLCM.html. 32. NASA Johnson Space Center. “Launch Vehicle Cost and Performance Data – International.” http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/bu2/ELV_INTL.html. 33. NASA Johnson Space Center. “Cost Models – Mission Operations Cost Model.” http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/bu2/MOCM.html. 34. Hirata, Christopher et al. “A New Plan for Sending Humans to Mars: The Caltech Mars Society Mission 2.0.” 1999. http://mars.caltech.edu/chris_its/mars/cmsm2r.html.

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Detection of Para-Cymene, a Microbial-Generated Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC), By Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor, a Proof of Concept
Edward L. Worthington; Kathleen Daumer; Dr. Jay Garland [2001] Abstract All environments inhabited by humans contain microbes. The detection and elimination of harmful fungi and bacteria in closed system environments such as spacecraft is of vital importance. Biological waste products of microbes can cause “sick building syndrome,” structural damage, and pose a fire hazard. Traditional means of detecting and quantifying these microbes, GC/MS and HPLC, are too bulky and labor intensive to operate in space. Biosensors provide an alternative to conventional instrumentation. This study examined the use of bioluminescent biosensors for the detection and quantification of microbial-generated volatile organic compounds (MVOC’s). A strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens containing the lux operon from Vibrio ficsheri was suspended in an alginate bead and exposed to para-cymene. The MVOC, para-cymene, can be metabolized by P. fluorescens. This strain has been engineered to stimulate activation of the lux operon resulting in the production of bioluminescence with para-cymene metabolism. A non-linear qualitative but perhaps non-quantifiable relationship was observed between para-cymene concentration and electric current generated by bioluminescence. Introduction This work was in support of Dr. Jay Garland’s project “Calibration and Stability Testing of a Microbial Volatile Organic Contaminant (MVOC) Biosensor.” Human habitation is always concomitant with microbial habitation. These microbes, including fungi and bacteria, produce metabolic wastes. On Earth these wastes can be detrimental but the presence of an open system mitigates these effects. In closed systems such as the International Space Station, shuttle orbiters, and any future manned Mars missions, the potential for microbial induced problems is serious. A principal group of metabolic waste products from fungi and some bacteria is volatile organic compounds, (VOC’s).1,2 Many of these MVOC’s, especially terpenes, are unique products of specific fungi or bacteria.1 On Earth these compounds have been found to be responsible for “sick building syndrome” as well as acting as a corrosive agent upon structural materials.2 In space these problems will be more severe. Most organic compounds are combustible, which produces a potential for fires in the high oxygen environments encountered in space vehicles. The traditional means of determining the presence and identity of these compounds has been by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (GC/MS), or high performance liquid chromatography, (HPLC).1,2,3 Both of these systems, while very accurate, are bulky and high mass, which are limiting factors with current propulsion technology. Additionally, these systems require extensive crew time and do not even provide real time detection or analysis of bio-contaminants. In spacecraft air filtration and surface disinfection will be key in eliminating MVOC’s and microbial growth. Early detection of these compounds is then the critical issue. Chemical weapon sensing is another area in which simply determining presence or absence of a compound is important. Both the American and the British military have developed biosensors that can detect minute quantities of chemical agents.3,4 The British biosensor is based on bioluminescence of a genetically modified bacterium. A similar system could be developed for real time early detection of MVOC biocontamination. Bioluminescence is the process of light emission by a living organism. In bacteria it is produced by the oxidation of reduced flavin mononucleotide, (FMNH2), and a fatty aldehyde in the presence of molecular oxygen catalyzed by the enzyme luciferase.5 Bioluminescence is extremely rare in terrestrial bacteria but more common in marine species. The genes responsible for bioluminescence in one aquatic bacterium, Vibrio ficsheri, have a particularly well-characterized sequence known as the lux gene cassette.4,5,6 This cassette, or operon, consists of five structural genes, luxCDABE, which encode for both luciferase and a multi-enzyme complex that catalyzes aldehyde biosynthesis.2,5,6 The cassette is fully self-contained, meaning no exogenous substrate nor cell lysis is required to achieve bioluminescence.2,6 A
Edward L. Worthington; Southern Oregon University, Dept of Chemistry, Ashland, OR 97520; (tiwaz_rune@hotmail.com) Kathleen Daumer & Dr. Jay Garland; Dynamac Corportation, Life Sciences Support Contract, DYN 3 Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899
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Detection of Para-Cymene, a Microbial-Generated Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC), By Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor, a Proof of Concept

recombinant, man-made, version of this gene cassette has been successfully inserted in a number of plasmid cloning vectors with subsequent transformation into and functional expression by several strains of Escheria coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa and P. fluorescens.6,7 Previous Work The Center for Environmental Biotechnology (CEB) at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville has engineered a bioluminescent strain of P. fluorescens and developed a method by which this bacteria may be incorporated into a biosensor.2,7,8 The P. fluorescens contains plasmid vector pUT mini-Tn5-cym-lux with a cym promoter, the lux gene cassette and genes coding for resistance to both kanamycin and ampicillin. The biosensor was created by suspending the bacteria in a droplet of sodium alginate that was then hardened in a strontium chloride solution.8,9 A metabolic pathway using benzene ring containing compounds is activated in the presence of para-cymene in this bacterium, which triggers bioluminescence.12 Dr. Val Krumins of the NASA Life Sciences Support Contract (LSSC) division of Dynamac Corporation had developed a concept for a flow through analysis system for the biosensor. Drs. D. Kong and L. Levine, also of Dynamac Corporation LSSC division have conducted GC/MS studies of para-cymene at varying concentrations for calibration of the biosensor.

Methods and Materials
A flow through analysis system was constructed (figure 1). A flow-regulated stream of ultra pure air was bubbled through a solution of para-cymene, ethanol, and distilled water that half filled a 500mL jar. The flow of bubbled air was mixed with and forced the volatilized para-cymene above the solution to flow out of the jar and into the biosensor cell. The biosensor chamber, a light tight jar, contained a fitting for holding the biosensor bead and for holding the tip of the fiber optic light pipe a fixed distance directly above the bead. The biosensor chamber also contained inlet and outlet ports as well as a septum for drawing off headspace gas for GC / MS calibration. Bioluminescence was measured using a fiber optic light pipe (Oriel 77568) coupled with a photo-multiplier tube (Oriel 77340) connected to a multifunctional optical power meter (Oriel 70310) for read out measurements. Downstream of the biosensor chamber was a final jar for measurement of relative humidity and temperature with an outlet to a fume hood. All fittings upstream and within the biosensor chamber were of non-reactive stainless steel or Teflon, while those downstream were a mixture of Teflon, PVC, and surgical tubing. Due to difficulties with rapid loss of para-cymene concentration most measurements were taken in a closed cell while a modified flow through system was engineered. A dark room was constructed using vinyl sheeting and duct tape within the LSSC physiology lab in Hangar L, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

The P. fluorescens for the biosensor was grown in yeast extract-polypeptone-glucose (YEPG) media treated with kanamycin (Kn), for plasmid selection, overnight at 30ºC. The bacteria-YEPG-Kn culture was then be added at a ratio
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Detection of Para-Cymene, a Microbial-Generated Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC), By Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor, a Proof of Concept

of one to ten to fresh YEPG and cultured to an optical density of 0.8 measured on a spectrophotometer at 546nm. It was diluted with an equal volume of minimal salts media (MSM), which consisted of 0.4 mM MgSO4 * 7H2O and 2.5 mM NH4NO3. The diluted culture was then added one to two to a sodium alginate solution, mixed on ice, and pushed through a wide bore syringe falling drop wise into a 0.1 M strontium chloride solution. The drops solidified into beads in the SrCl2 solution with bead hardness increased by longer duration within the bath.8 The hardened beads were placed in the biosensor cell and exposed to para-cymene vapor. The bioluminescence was measured and compared with GC / MS analysis of the headspace gas to derive a calibration model. Higher concentrations of para-cymene were drawn off by syringe. In preparation for lower threshold analysis of para-cymene, below the limit of syringe draws, calibrations of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) were preformed. SPME uses a small diameter fused silica fiber coated with a polymeric stationary phase to extract analyte by adsorption.10 The analyte can be easily desorbed thermally in the injection port of a GC/MS. SPME has been shown to be up to 100 times more sensitive than conventional syringe headspace analysis.11 Lack of measurable bioluminescence initially spurred heightened asepsis, varied bead holding devices, and plate lawn colony measurements to no avail. Receipt of a second culture from the CEB allowed work to progress. Results No experiment conducted with P. fluorescens culture 1 yielded luminescence above the background noise threshold. P. fluorescens culture 2 was analyzed by the plate method and GCMS data was obtained for the headspace para-cymene. After a 45 minute lag the biosensor displayed exponential like increase in current for 80 minutes. This was followed by a 35 minute plateau and ended with a 45 minute linear growth period (figure 2). Over the course of the experiment the average headspace para-cymene concentration decreased from 0.19 mgL-1 to 0.088 mgL-1 (figure 2).

Discussion All work with culture 1 proved to be controls and checks against contamination. The immediate response obtained with culture 2 validated the procedures used and indicated that culture 1 was defective for the luxCDABE operon. This deficiency may have been caused by selection of a colony that developed spontaneous resistance to kanamycin without the recombinant insert. The results shown here are from the plate method but this work will be incorporated into further work with culture 2 using the bead method. The bead method should lead to a product that can be integrated onto a biosensor chip while the plate method merely demonstrated the viability of the inserted bioluminescent operon. The continued increase in current generated by the biosensor even after nearly three and a half hours supports the hypothesis that para-cymene can be detected at concentrations much lower than the 0.088 mgL-1 used, hopefully with a threshold in the low ppb range. The 50 minute lag between exposure and the onset of measurable response indicates
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Detection of Para-Cymene, a Microbial-Generated Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC), By Use of a Bioluminescent Biosensor, a Proof of Concept

that the biosensor is hindered in delivering an acute response but this should not prove unworkable at the concentrations being detected. Additionally, as crew time is a major constraint on spacecraft, the ability to qualitatively monitor for contaminants with minimal crew involvement will be a great boon. Implications and Further Research When it is felt that an adequate calibration model for the correlation of bioluminescence to concentration, or simply lower threshold detection if correlation is not possible, has been achieved the known para-cymene bubble chamber will be replaced with a fungal bubble chamber. The fungal bubble chamber will contain a culture of Penicillium roqueforti in sucrose-yeast-extract solution (SYES). SYES contains 20g yeast, 150g sucrose, and 20g agar per liter with an additional 5 ppm CuSO4 * 5H2O and 10 ppm ZnSO4 * 7H2O. The culture of P. roqueforti will be grown until a measurable amount of para-cymene is detected by the biosensor. This should lead to a detection system for para-cymene to be used in air quality measurements on spacecraft. Further research to develop additional biosensors specific for other uniquely linked metabolic wastes could lead to an integrated biosensor array for detection of biocontaminants. Correspondence with individuals still involved with the project indicates that the non-linear relationship continues to be observed, that the detection threshold is approaching acceptable levels, and that a working flow through system has been implemented. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank NASA, the University of Tennessee Center for Environmental Biotechnology, and the Spaceflight and Life Sciences Training Program, all of which contributed to the funding of this research. Individual thanks goes to Dr. Val Krumins and Mr. Larry Koss from engineering support, to Dr. Lan-Fang Levine who provided instrumental analysis support, and finally to Mr. Ron Stoesz from the Florida SIFT program for assistance and advice. References
1. Dott, W. Muller, T. Thissen, R.Braun, E. Dohms, E. Fischer, G. Q410, Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Health, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, 2. Ripp, S. Patterson, S. Sayler, G. Q-436 Poster, Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee-Knoxville 3. Research Report, (1997) Engineering News Report, v 239 Aug 25 1997 p. 18 4. Coghlan, A. (1998) New Scientist, May 16 1998 p. 16 5. Rupani, S.P. Gu, M.B. Konstatinov, K.B. Dhurjati, P.S. (1996) Biotechnol Prog v12 p. 387-392 6. Elasri, M.O. Miller, B.V. (1998) Appl Microbial Biotechnol v 50 p. 455-458 7. Garland, J. (2001) MVOC Project Proposal, Dyanamac Corp. Kennedy Space Center, FL 8. Ripp, S. (2001) Email correspondence with KSC MVOC team, May-June 2001 9. Chibata, I. Tosa, T. Sato, T. Chapter 18 Methods of Cell Immobilization in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 1986American Society for Microbiology Washington DC p217-229 10. Gorecki, T. Pawliszyn, J. (1995) Anal Chem v 67 #18 p. 3265-3274 11. Galipo, R.C. Canhoto, A.J. Walla, M.D. Morgan, S.L. Analysis of Volatile Fragrance and Flavor Compounds by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Combined with GC / MS. An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina-Columbia SC 12. Psuedomonas aeruginosa. P. fluorescens http://www.sunysccc.edu/academic/mst/microbes/18paeru.htm

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions
Marilyn Dudley-Rowley [1999] Abstract Reported are results from an ongoing project, which examines the key social structural variables thought to correspond with dysfunctional behavior and performance in extreme environments in a sample of space and polar groups. The study first operationalized what was meant by a deviant act in an extreme environment. Using this operationalization, multiple coders have been reading narratives, diaries, and logs from a number of space missions and polar field expeditions and are recording deviant acts. As occurrences of deviant acts and related data are extracted from mission and expedition records, descriptive statistics were employed to examine rates of deviance against crew size, heterogeneity, and mission duration in each mission and expedition. This methodology seeks to examine how crew size, heterogeneity, and mission duration structure deviance in extreme environments. The specific hypotheses being tested are: 1) as crew size, heterogeneity, and mission duration increase, off-nominal acts increase; and 2) between the half-way point and the end of the third quarter of the mission, off-nominal acts increase in frequency (Third Quarter Phenomenon). In collecting the data, additional data are being recorded to answer other questions in relation to the specific hypotheses: 1) Were there any differences between space and polar missions and expeditions; 2) were there any differences between Arctic and Antarctic expeditions; 3) were there any differences between earlier polar vs. later polar and space expeditions / missions; 4) were there any differences between shorter-term vs. longer-term missions and expeditions; 5) did odd-numbered crews have less deviance; and 6) did even-numbered crews have more deviance? The project is producing an important space data base for long-duration missions, such as the Mars missions; important because past studies in this vein have been suggestive, qualitative, and where quantitative, lacked sufficient sample sizes and/or focused on data from well-prepared Antarctic bases or laboratory simulations which lack some important features as analogs of space missions. An Overview This study examines the key social structural variables thought to correspond with deviance in extreme environments in a sample of 75-110 space and polar field groups. It first operationalized what is meant by a deviant act in an extreme environment. Using this operationalization, multiple coders read narratives, diaries, and logs from 10 space and polar field expeditions and recorded deviant acts. Once occurrences of deviant acts and related data were extracted from mission and expeditions records, data was analyzed to examine rates of deviance against crew size, heterogeneity, and mission duration in each mission and expedition. This methodology sought to examine how crew size, heterogeneity, and mission duration structured deviance in extreme environments. The specific hypotheses tested were: 1) As crew size, heterogeneity, and mission duration increase, off-nominal, dysfunctional acts increase; and 2) Between the halfway point and the end of the third quarter of the mission, off-nominal, dysfunctional acts increase in frequency. At first glance, it may seem that these are simplistic concerns. But, if these concerns were so simple, they would not loom so large in the literature and there would not be so many calls among high-ranking researchers for studies involving them.

Marilyn Dudley-Rowley; OPS-Alaska, c/o 1030 Carl Shealy Road, Irmo, South Carolina 29063; (803) 732-3604 MD-R@Hotmail.com
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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Do crews “go a little crazy” beginning halfway through an expedition or mission? Russian space psychologists must think so because cosmonauts Valentin Lebedev and Anatoly Berezevoy were told that they could expect a breakdown in relations about mid-way through the flight, but that later “everything will get to normal (Lebedev 1988).” The Third Quarter Phenomenon (or Syndrome) was characterized by J. H. Rohrer, who identified three stages of reaction to prolonged isolation, confinement, and stress. The first stage was a heightened anxiety brought about by the perceived dangers of the situation. The second stage occurs as the crew settles down to a daily routine, and is marked by depression and regrets about having joined the mission. The third stage is a period of anticipation, but features increased emotional outbursts, aggression, and rowdiness (Rohrer 1961). Earls called it a “half-way syndrome” which corresponded with a low point in the crew’s morale beginning halfway through an expedition (Earls 1969). Evidence shows that these phases are present regardless of the length of the mission, whether it be days, weeks, or months. Sheddan thinks that with longer duration missions, the phenomenon is even more pronounced (1995). But, the fact is, the reality for Third Quarter Phenomenon has been anecdotal and, at best, suggestive in the literature of cold regions. Previous studies have been hobbled by not collecting or examining data for all four quarters of a mission. Robert B. Bechtel and Amy Berning (1991) have done the largest literature search to date and they say that Third Quarter Phenomenon seems to be a general characteristic of finite-time stressful situations. They argue, however, that “The question remains whether additional data can be found that either contradict or support this phenomenon.” This study offers an analysis of a variety of situations that can confirm or call into question the existence of the phenomenon. It is important to get answers to these research questions as soon as possible. Deviant acts would jeopardize the safe, productive human presence in space for extended periods, exacerbate the detrimental effects of space flight on humans, and make unproductive the use of space laboratories. Comprehending the occurrences and frequencies of these acts is essential to optimizing crew training and safety; making inferences about long-term individual and group performance responses to extreme environments; identifying critical factors and underlying mechanisms affecting those responses; assessing the psychosocial contributions to the optimal human habitability of space; designing equipment and systems; and providing insight into conflict between human capabilities and system engineering methodologies which can inform spacecraft design, mission planning, and related ground operations, and lead to development of new processes and procedures. This study is consistent with Harrison’s, Clearwater’s, and McKay’s call to attend to theory in regard to isolated and confined environments (ICEs) (1989), and has value in the prevention of dysfunction in these environments (Blair 1991) and in orienting those who find themselves living beyond this planet (Harris 1991). It is interested in incidents that are exemplified by the following passages from a space and a polar account. November 1921, The Wrangel Island Expedition to the Arctic: “The seamstress refused to patch a pair of boots to-day, so I tied her to the flagpole until she promised to repair them. Kindness failing to accelerate, I am trying something more forceful (p. 386).” Errol Lorne Knight in The Adventure of Wrangel Island. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1925. September 1982, Salyut 7: “We are tired of each other cramped in here in this small station (p. 300).” Valentin Lebedev in Diary of a Cosmonaut: 211 Days in Space. Texas: Phytoresource Research, Inc. Information Service, 1988. As is well documented by now, NASA has had a history of neglect in regard to the human factors of space flight, especially the psychosocial human factors. The focus on short-duration flight had a hand in this. However, there is a slow turnabout in the making. The American space agency is not the monolithic organization the public perceives it to be. It is a decentralized organization composed of collegially competing field centers operating in a world of contractors (McCurdy 1993, pp. 129-138). Two different stances seem to be advancing from Johnson Space Center (JSC) (along with NASA-Ames) and the NASA Life Sciences Division at Headquarters in Washington, D.C. JSC and Ames lead the paradigm shift, noticeable in the literature beginning more than a decade ago. Researchers from both centers began to voice their concerns about the paucity of social and behavioral work in the space enterprise on the threshold of longduration flight. Beginning in 1978, Mary M. Connors (NASA-Ames), Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akins began
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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

updating the earliest discussions of human adaptation to life in space, identifying four important factors of future space flight: mission duration, crew size, heterogeneity, and mission objectives (1985, 1986). Yvonne Clearwater and Christopher P. McKay (both with NASA-Ames) and Albert A. Harrison encouraged behavioral research in space, polar, and similar settings (1989, 1991). Similarly, Robert L. Helmreich outlined the importance of applying psychology to missions that would steadily become longer, more heterogeneous, and host larger crews (1983). In spite of this movement, NASA psychiatrist Patricia Santy “discovered that all the work of [her] predecessors had disappeared into a black hole (1994, p. xvii).” She was only able to obtain the original Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo psychological data from a source outside of NASA. She also discovered that there was no documentation of psychiatric procedures for the Shuttle period (p. xvi). Bucking the old traditional system of neglect and disappearing documentation, brought her jibes of “being dangerous” and “trying to destroy NASA” (as late as 1988). Philip R. Harris reports that transcripts of crew communications going as far back as the Mercury flights likely have never been analyzed from a behavioral science perspective (p. 78). If NASA scientists are split on the question of social and behavioral research, neither has deviance been a welcome subject of study within the NASA ranks. Because there is a paucity of social and behavioral scholars in the space agency, the term “deviance” itself is not understood beyond the way the man in the street comprehends the term. In spite of many space missions and many analogous expeditions of varying crew sizes and duration, no psychosocial human factors database as proposed here has ever been compiled, although it was certainly possible to have done so before now. This undone project may, in fact, be a deviant result of crews and sponsoring agencies wanting to appear “normal,” which no doubt has fed into delaying the interest in extreme environmental psychosocial human factors by the space agency. In dealing with pilots and astronauts, the social and behavioral scientist soon realizes that in the eyes of the former and their administrators “no pilot or astronaut is deviant.” Image is important, for no one wants to suggest that crew members do anything other than perform optimally. Even when crew members want to see improvements in living and working conditions they are hesitant to mention anything for fear that they may be viewed as complaining and that this will minimize their chances of staying on flight status. This is a classic disadvantage of an unrealistic reliance on models of military management and crew professionalism. According to Peter Suedfeld, it even goes beyond that. The “immensity of the scientific and technical problems of space flight, coupled with the technical background of many NASA personnel and the ‘can do’ attitude of the astronauts themselves, militates against giving much scope to psychology outside the boundaries of human factors engineering (Suedfeld 1991).” People are capable of adapting to a variety of extreme isolated environments for long periods of time (Palinkas 1987). However, physical, psychological, social, and cultural research still must be conducted to further facilitate human adaptation to hostile, confined, and isolated conditions, because how people adjust and adapt to these conditions can affect not only their mental health and social cohesion but also their performance of assigned duties (Levesque 1991). Duties on a space station or on a Mars expedition will be much more complex than on short duration flights where many functions were or could be handled by ground controllers. The physical infrastructures of these ventures require builtin, on-board diagnostic capabilities wired into the spacecraft and equipment and not to the ground. This will require of the crew a level of maintenance, component replacement, redundancies, and techniques that have not been invented yet (McCurdy 1993, pp. 153-154). Missions to polar regions are highly task-oriented in much the same ways that long-duration space missions will be, which is one reason why they are good analogs. There is one important difference to keep in mind, though. In space, there are minute-to-minute tasks or concerns involving life support. Damage to life support systems in the Arctic and Antarctic are not instantly life threatening. Depending on weather conditions and extent of damage, there is usually some amount of time to remedy a situation. Damage to life support systems in space is an immediate concern, i.e., breachment of environmental containment. Some degree of human dysfunction is tolerated and even expected in the Polar Regions, but space may require of us behaviors closer to zero tolerance for deviance.

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

More About the Significance of the Problem and the Methodology Polar field expeditions make better space mission analogs than established polar base stayovers. A RAND report by Aroesty et al. have pointed out the costs of neglecting the whole range of human factors, including those areas having a bearing on deviant acts, and they also point out the difficulty with polar base stayovers as analogs (Aroesty 1991, pp. 88-89): Crew selection, composition, compatibility, dynamics, and control structures need extensive research. Not only is little known about these issues in stressful, confined, long-term, and isolated environments, but aerospace community interest in this area has been limited. While recent acceptance of the importance of team training and team dynamics (crew resource management) is heartening; it is only a beginning. Excessive reliance on “crew professionalism” has been the hallmark in this area and open discussion of actual operating problems has been detrimental to the space program. Recent astronaut corp. acknowledgment of problems and their support of further research are major breakthroughs. . . . Meaningful analog studies are required, both on Earth and in space. While the Antarctic analog could be quite productive, proposals that have the crews wintering over in prepared, established bases substantially miss the point. Similarly, Rivolier, Bachelard, and Cazes advocated putting crews bound for space research in the Antarctic, but away from the bases in order to enhance the resemblance to the work of being in space (1991, pp. 291-296). So difference is the space station from the well-prepared Antarctic base that Lebedev complained, “This is not the Antarctic, where everything is constantly changing (1988, p. 314).” Evidently, the cosmonaut thought that space station life was even more drudgery-filled or monotonous than Antarctic base duty. As Patrick Cornelius has pointed out, since 1981, mid-winter airdrops of mail, fresh fruit and vegetables, movies, and home care packages have been made to those wintering over in Antarctic bases. This “erodes the completeness of the isolation somewhat (1991, p. 10).” While such re-supply trips resemble the occasional re-supply flights to space stations, this will be a rarity for bases on Mars, where current space policy calls for “living off the land.” And, today’s comfortable, well-prepared polar base cannot compare to the pioneering aspect of all current and near-future extraterrestrial settings. While the modern small polar stations are excellent operational analogs for human factor space research, as Bluth pointed out (1985), a space station, even though it is a base in much the same sense that Antarctic’s McMurdo is a base, more resembles an Arctic field party with a semi-permanent encampment. One may expect to see behaviors resembling those of the latter in the newly pioneered extreme environments. And, in fact, Owens, while in Antarctica, was the first to see a disparity in the behaviors of permanent base crews and field base crews (1968). The permanent base offered relative safety, comfort, and low stimulation while the field parties were subjected to high hazards and high stimulus. Other factors may come into play to make the space mission highly comparable to the early polar expedition. With the cessation of “ground control” having so much to do with the functioning of the mission and with the decrease of constant communication with that control as space missions become more remote and/or more routine, crews will not have the opportunities to redirect aggression and resentment toward the “ground.” Investigators may expect to see more of the intragroup hostility among small parties which have been observed in mountain climbing and polar parties (Suedfeld 1991, p. 141). Moreover, Blair points out an important difference between ICE environments now being pioneered and the well-established extreme environmental base (1991, p. 63): “All new contained environments lack the core of custom and tradition that stabilizes the Antarctic community from the first moments of its formation and provides that community with an expectation for success and techniques for coping with dysfunctional members.” Because of the focus on the modern Antarctic bases, most researchers have concentrated on contemporary records recording human activity at these sites, and only a few deem it of importance to include older records of exploration (which include field expeditions). A notable exception is Jack Stuster, who has paid attention to both the earlier and the modern records: year-long tours of duty at Antarctic stations and multi-year expeditions analogous to one- to three-year durations “contemplated for lunar outposts and a mission to Mars (1995, p. 3).” In doing so, he has been able to make recommendations to NASA about the design of spacecraft and habitats and about the operation of long-duration space missions.

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Stuster examined the older polar exploration and seafaring records because of their comparability to longer space missions and their pioneering nature. This study examines them for the same reason. In addition, the older space missions have much to teach, providing data about mission duration, crew size, heterogeneity, and occurrences and frequencies of off-nominal, dysfunctional acts. An historic analysis of records from earliest times to present can show pervasive features that have stood the test of time so that mission planners and crews can avoid importing the deviant actions of the past into the future. Historical analysis also can capture changes in off-nominal aspects from earlier times till present. As Levesque has pointed out, much has changed even since the early social and behavioral research of the 60s and early 70s. Crew complement has gone from all military to military and civilian and from all male, to male and female. Polar communications has shifted from ham radio at best to satellite telephone calls. There have been many refinements in research theories and techniques (Levesque 1991). Moreover, in the Antarctic, there are increases in visitors and in the advent of families and increasing numbers of women. These changes will continue to require historical analyses of the data (Lugg 1991, p. 35). Overall, this study is consistent with Harrison’s, Clearwater’s, and McKay’s call to show methodological ingenuity (1989, 1991) and with Robert Helmreich’s appeal to NASA (1983) to sponsor research using a variety of methodologies and research populations. The Independent Variables: Crew Size, Mission Duration, and Heterogeneity Crew size could not be determined simply by counting the number of participants in actual expeditions and missions. Problems associated with this were: 1) Members who drop out of the expedition close to the outset; 2) Members who join the expedition or mission while it is in progress; or who join for some duration, then leave after it has passed; or who may come and go at irregular intervals; 3) Members who die along the way or are evacuated for medical reasons. Examples of these categories are demonstrated in this pilot study. During the Frozen Sea Expedition to the Antarctic, one of the men had to be flown out in the fourth quarter for behaviors that had become dangerous to the rest of the crew. During the International Geophysical Year traverse from Byrd Station to the Amundsen Sea, a Navy cook had to be brought out to the team so that it could concentrate on its scientific work better during the first quarter. During the Salyut 7 1982 orbital mission, two teams of three visiting cosmonauts each joined the two permanent crew members during the first and second quarters. During the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, for the second and third quarters, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins was left alone in lunar orbit while Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin proceeded on to the moon in the Lunar Excursion Module. During the Wrangel Island Expedition, three of the crew were apparently lost through the ice on a traverse between the island and the Siberian mainland in the third quarter. During the fourth quarter of the same expedition, the surviving male back on the island died from scurvy or a kidney ailment, leaving one female sole survivor to be rescued. During the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition to the Eastern Arctic, 28 men set out, three left the expedition and 3 others joined it in the first quarter. In its fourth quarter, 25 men were whittled down to seven from starvation before rescue. Of the ten cases discussed in this report, only Will Steger’s International Trans-Antarctic Expedition, the Western Party Field Trip of Scott’s British Antarctic Expedition, the Apollo 13 “lost moon” mission, and the Dominion Explorers’ Expedition to the Arctic kept their full complement for the duration of those missions. One way to handle the problem of crew size during any given quarter in a structurally meaningful way was to average the numbers of crew members from the minimum and maximum numbers of crew present during the quarter. This is what was done. Mission duration was straightforward and was calculated by subtracting the ending date from the beginning date. The beginning of the expedition or mission was:

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

1) When the main body of the polar expedition sets sail or flies into the Arctic and Antarctic regions. These are invariably recorded in the literature as an official date of the beginning of the expedition. 2) When the space mission lifts off. The end of the expedition is: 1) When the polar expedition is rescued; disbands to travel home; or returns as a unit home. 2) When the space mission returns to Earth. Heterogeneity is a multi-dimensional variable consisting of variation in sex, nationality, age, and skill or experience. The variable of age was dealt with by calculating the range between the youngest and oldest members of the crew members in each quarter. This value represents the span of ages in the crew and has the advantage of being a single value for each quarter. Heterogeneity was calculated for sex, nationality, and experience using a standard sociological heterogeneity measure. Sex and nationality are uncomplicated concepts, but skill / experience requires some explanation. Skill / experience is understood as having had prior experience with engaging an extreme environment. That extreme environment does not necessarily have to be the same kind of environment as the one in which the expedition or the mission occurs; however, the prior environment in which the person became skilled in must have offered to him/her similar risks as the environment in which the expedition or mission took place. This understanding is derived from the selection experiences of the expeditions and missions studied. Sometimes organizers of polar expeditions selected crew members based on “several years of prior experience” only to find later in the field under extreme and primitive conditions during winter-over, that the real meaning of “prior experience” meant the person was flown in to make intermittent repairs at a well-outfitted Antarctic base for several summers. This would prove to be the same as having “no extreme environments skill.” The person who had worked as a field scientist on Alaskan glaciers year round would have had more similar skills than someone who had been on a polar field winter-over. The Dependent Variable: The Deviant Act and The Pre-Test What is a deviant act in an environment as extreme as space? A qualitative understanding of such acts defines them as acts that could jeopardize a part of the mission and/or the personal safety of one or more of those directly involved in the mission. A nominal conceptualization has been available from the cumulative expedition literature. It runs the gamut from a crew member’s show of frustration in communication with ground control, to his/her misusing a piece of equipment in a way which could be life-threatening, to delaying to report a critical piece of information, to expressed hostilities among crew, to display of mental disorders, to homicide. To go beyond description, though, required quantifiable data. A series of pre-tests given to extreme environments personnel arrived at a standard definition of the psychosocial off-nominal act in the extreme environment. That process has been reported on in detail previously by Dudley-Rowley (1997). Among the respondents there was much overlap in labeling off-nominal those behaviors which involved neglect of tasks; survivability issues, including violation of safety rules; threats and coercion; mental disorder; threats to leader’s authority; assigning ownership to communal objects; poor base-crew communication; crew members mis-stating expertise and fitness; flaws in personnel selection; crew members pressuring each other for sexual gratification; poor hygiene; poor planning which resulted in neglect of critical tasks; base refusing to divulge important information for mission success; accidents with equipment owing to human error; physical and verbal abuse; and insensitivity of base personnel and expedition leaders. The behaviors identified by the respondents were used to determine a unifying principle underlying deviance among expeditioners in extreme environments. This was in the form of three overlapping general categories of deviant behavior seen in the expeditionary record. These are: 1) Unusual, bizarre, or puzzling behaviors (such as withdrawal and life-threatening behaviors); 2) Acts of aggression (verbal and physical); and
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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

3) Acts of deliberation (such as resources theft, hoarding or hogging resources, not doing one’s work, and violating safety rules.) These examples here are meant to be representative, not exhaustive. Coding Records Size, heterogeneity, duration, and off-nominal behavior and performance data from space missions and space-like expeditions are being collected systematically from diaries, logs, and other narrative sources that are at about the same relative scale of reportage. For each mission or expedition, off-nominal acts are recorded as they occurred in chronological order. For the purpose of a pilot study in advance of analyzing the set of 75-110 records, 10 missions and expeditions were examined. Missions and expeditions have not been selected based on their likelihood of containing deviant acts. All records have been selected randomly. A decision not to select many records prior to the 1880s was based on the widespread practice before the convention of the International Polar Commission of misrepresenting expeditionary goals, discoveries, and conditions for nationalistic reasons. The assumption, the hope really, is that such practices are less widespread after that general time period. From a practical standpoint, though, most records come from Arctic and Antarctic narratives, even though the investigator has access to space explorers. The reason is that not many astronaut and cosmonaut accounts are in the form of polar field expeditionary narratives, logbooks, and diaries, which are generally recorded on a daily basis. This poses a problem of scale in the analyses. However, there are exceptions, such as Lebedev’s and Ryumin’s diaries and the writings of Buzz Aldrin and Jim Lovell. For the expanded study, access to unpublished narrative records of astronauts and cosmonauts themselves are expected to expand this list. An alternate route dealing with this problem of scale would be access to space records that are not in narrative form, like Mission Control transcripts of missions, which are recorded on a second-by-second, minute-by-minute basis. The data could be coded separately according to the methodology prescribed here for the narrative records. Results from the two analyses could be loosely compared. The investigator has attempted to keep numbers of Arctic records equal to numbers of Antarctic records. The space mission narratives included in this pilot study very nearly represent the entire population of that genre. Results There is a slight increase of mean rate of deviance per person per day in the third quarter over the ten cases, but it was not significant (Figure 1). However, it might be significant over 75 cases. Did certain features of the data set contribute to high and low rates of deviance per person per day (Table 1)? The most striking finding to emerge is the difference between space missions and polar expeditions. The rates of deviance per person per day for all the space missions in this set occurred about the grand mean rate of deviance per person per day (.045). All of the polar expeditions’ rates of deviance per person per day fell below .045. The mean mission length in days was 293.8 days. The Lady Franklin Bay expedition (1080 days), the Wrangel Island expedition (720 days), and the Frozen Sea expedition (480 days) occurred above this mean. None of the missions’ rates of deviance per person per day occurred above the grand mean rate of deviance per person per day. Only the Salyut space mission came close to having a correlation with a high rate of deviance per person per day at 212 days in length. The Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 space missions, the shortest of all the expeditions in this set, had the highest rates of deviance per person per day. To explore the related issues of oddness and evenness of crew, a determination of which contained an odd number and which contained an even number was calculated from rounding up to the nearest whole number over the average crew complements. All even-numbered expeditions fell below the grand mean rate of deviance per person per day. Three of the five odd-numbered expeditions occurred above the grand mean rate of deviance per person per day. All three of the latter were the space missions.
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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Only two polar expeditions (Dominion Explorers and the Lady Franklin Bay expeditions to the Arctic) fell below the national heterogeneity mean of .433. All the other polar expeditions and the Salyut space mission were above that mean. Only the space mission had a high rate of deviance per person per day. The Frozen Sea, Dominion Explorers’, and the Wrangel Island expeditions all had a sex heterogeneity above the mean of .12275. None of these expeditions had a high rate of deviance per person per day. Five of the polar expeditions occurred above the skill / experience heterogeneity mean of .154. None were above the mean rate of deviance per person per day. All of the space missions fell above the mean rate of deviance per person per day and were highly homogenous for experience. This flies in the face of conventional wisdom that advocates experience homogeneity. Four of the polar expeditions occurred above the age heterogeneity mean of 17.75. None scored high for deviance per person per day. The most highly deviant missions per person per day, the space missions, were the most homogenous for age: the Salyut mission with an age range of 2 years, Apollo 13 with an age range of 2 years, and Apollo 11 completely homogenous for age. An examination of the zero-order relationships between crew size, mission duration, and the various kinds of heterogeneity and rates of deviance demonstrated the following: 1.Expeditions of crew sizes over 3 persons fall below the grand mean rate of deviance per person per day (.045) (Figure 2). 2.Missions of 48 days and longer show a pattern of falling below the grand mean rate of deviance (.045) (Figure 3). 3.Expeditions where there is nationality heterogeneity of any amount show a pattern of falling below the grand mean rate of deviance (.045) (Figure 4). 4.Expeditions where there is age heterogeneity of 10 years and more show a pattern of falling below the grand mean rate of deviance (.045) (Figure 5). 5.Expeditions where sex heterogeneity was high showed a pattern of falling below the grand mean rate of deviance (.045); however, low rates of deviance could be observed in most of the sex homogenous crews, too. Two of the homogenous crews had rates of deviance above the grand mean (Figure 6). 6.Expeditions where experience heterogeneity was high showed a pattern of falling below the grand mean rate of deviance (.045); however, low rates of deviance could be observed in some of the experience homogenous crews. Two of the homogenous crews had rates of deviance above the grand mean (Figure 7). The two crews ranked high for rate of deviance in relation to sex homogeneity and experience homogeneity were the Apollo 13 and Apollo 11 crews. Latest tentative results also dramatically show that any category of homogeneity (sex, nationality, experience, and age) increases deviance over mission elapsed time. This is relatively consistent with the earlier information about Third Quarter Phenomenon which came from data sets of very homogenous crews; and with the latest studies over modern heterogeneous crews which tentatively do not seem to indicate the phenomenon. References
1. Aroesty, J., R. Zimmerman, and J. Logan. 1991. Human Support Issues and Systems for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results From Project Outreach (N-3287-AF/NASA). A RAND Note. 2. Bechtel, Robert B. and Amy Berning. 1991. “The Third-Quarter Phenomenon: Do People Experience Discomfort After Stress Has Passed?” Pp. 261-266 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 3. Blair, Sidney M. 1991. “The Antarctic Experience.” Pp. 57-64 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 4. Bluth, B.J. 1985. Space Station/Antarctic Analogs (Contractor Reports NAG 2-255 and NAGW-659). Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1985. 5. Connors, Mary M., Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akins. 1985. Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight. Washington, D.C.: NASA.
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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions 6. Connors, Mary M., Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akins. 1986. “Psychology and the Resurgent Space Program.” American Psychologist 41: 906-913. 7. Cornelius, Patrick E. “Life in Antarctica.” Pp. 9-14 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 8. Dudley-Rowley, Marilyn. 1997. “Deviance Among Expeditioners: Defining the Off-nominal Act Among Space and Polar Field Analogs.” Human Performance in Extreme Environments 2(1): 119-127. 9. Earls, J.H. 1969. “Human Adjustment to an Exotic Environment,” Archives of General Psychiatry 20: 117-123. 10. Harris, Philip R. 1991. “Personnel Deployment Systems: Managing People in Polar and Outer Space Settings.” Pp. 65-80 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 11. Harrison, Albert A., Yvonne A. Clearwater, and Christopher P. McKay. 1989. “The Human Experience in Antarctica: Applications to Life in Space.” Behavioral Science 34: 400. 12. Harrison, Albert A., Yvonne A. Clearwater, and Christopher P. McKay. 1991. “Conclusion: Recommendations for Future Research.” Pp. 395403 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 13. Helmreich, Robert L. 1983. “Applying Psychology to Outer Space: Unfulfilled Promises Revisited.” American Psychologist 38: 445-450. 14. Lebedev, Valentin. 1988. Diary of a Cosmonaut: 211 Days in Space. Texas: Phytoresource Research, Inc. 15. Levesque, Marc. 1991. “An Experiential Perspective on Conducting Social and Behavioral Research at Antarctic Research Stations.” Pp. 1619 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 16. Lugg, Desmond J. 1991. “Current International Human Factors Research in Antarctica.” P. 35 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 17. McCurdy, Howard. 1993. Inside NASA: High Technology and Organizational Change in the U.S. Space Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 18. Owens, A.G. 1968. Some Biographical Correlates of Assessed Performance in Small Antarctic Groups (Research Report). Melbourne: Psychological Research Unit of the Australian Military Forces. 19. Palinkas, Lawrence A. 1987. “Health and Performance of Antarctic Winter-Over Personnel: A Follow-up Study.” Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 58: 1062-1065. 20. Rivolier, Jean, Claude Bachelard, and Genevieve Cazes. 1991. “Crew Selection for an Antarctic-Based Space Simulator.” Pp. 291-296 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A.A. Harrison, Y.A. Clearwater, and C.P. McKay. New York: SpringerVerlag. 21. Rohrer, J.H. 1961. “Interpersonal Relationships in Isolated Small Groups,” Pp. 263-271 in Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight, edited by B.E. Flaherty. New York: Columbia University Press. 22. Santy, Patricia. 1994. Choosing the Right Stuff: the Psychological Selection of Astronauts and Cosmonauts. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. 23. Sheddan, Marylin K. 1995. “Role Changes During Long-Term Missions: An Anecdotal Assessment.” AIAA. 24. Suedfeld, Peter. 1991. “Groups in Isolation and Confinement: Environments and Experiences.” Pp. 135-146 in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement, edited by A. A. Harrison, Y. A. Clearwater, and C. P. McKay. New York: Springer-Verlag. 25. Stuster, Jack. 1995. The Modern Explorer’s Guide to Long Duration Isolation and Confinement: Lessons Learned From Space Analogue Experiences (for NASA-JSC). Santa Barbara, CA: Anacapa Sciences.

Table 1. Means for 10 Missions

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Table 2. Data for 10 Polar Expeditions and Space Missions

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Figure 1. Rate of Deviance by Mission Quarter

Figure 2. Rate of Deviance by Average Crew Size

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Figure 3. Rate of Deviance by Mission Duration

Figure 4. Rate of Deviance by Nationality Heterogeneity

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Figure 5. Rate of Deviance by Age Range

Figure 6. Rate of Deviance by Sex Heterogeneity

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Dysfunctional Behavior and Performance of Team Personnel in Space and Analog Polar Environments: Implications for Mars Missions

Figure 7. Rate of Deviance by Experience Heterogeneity

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Development of a Long-Term Earth-Mars Cycling Vessel
Jonathan A Greenspon; Austin Albert Mardon, PhD [2000] Abstract Spacecraft developed for extended-duration cycling between the Earth and Mars can represent a direction toward development of a “clipper ship” for colonization, exploration and transportation of personnel and cargoes using the same components for structure, shielding, coolant, and fuel as other ships and space platforms. This type of long-term, interplanetary spacecraft represents an extension not only of current technology, but also a means to create systems destined for service in terms of years, which is a critical parameter for optimizing the performance of interplanetary and potential interstellar spacecraft. A quantitative analysis is presented of the kinematics of a single stage interplanetary cycling ship. In the limiting case of a spacecraft on a continual mission with no deceleration at the either aphelion or perihelion, a dead-weight fraction of 10-3, with the brennschluss velocity of 3.2m/s (providing a consistent 0.6-0.8 g of artificial gravity to its occupants) would enable “contact” between Earth and Mars on an average of every 275 days. Introduction For advanced space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of innovative technologies. Spacecraft constructed to enable centrifugal rotation while simultaneously entering interplanetary transfer orbits can use the same material for structure, shielding, coolant, and fuel as conventional designs. This type of adaptable configuration spacecraft achieves an extremely low dead-weight fraction (fraction of non-payload mass remaining after all fuel is expended), which is a critical parameter for optimizing the performance of any interplanetary spacecraft. At the same time, volume and mass must be idealized in having a minimum weight of material while maximizing habitable flexibility. This dead-weight consideration is even more important for a single-staged space going vessel. Assume that we have a conventional bi-propellant (fuel / oxidizer) engine with a specific impulse in the region of 400 (technically 367 - 425); the details are left to the engineers. Assume that the spacecraft structural material is lightweight honeycombed aluminum and alloyed metallic composites. Assume a cycling trajectory with no deceleration at either planet, although with a propellant reserve that would permit orbital braking and entry. Then, as we shall see in the section on kinematics, appreciable burnout velocities can be achieved if we can keep the dead-weight fraction as low as 10-3, i.e., only one-third of non-payload mass remains after all fuel (reserve fuel notwithstanding) is expended. For example: in the limiting case of a cycling spacecraft, if the payload fraction is 10-3, then the final burnout velocity is 3.2 m/s, would get the spacecraft in a roughly 500 day solar orbit. A quantitative analysis is presented of the kinematics of interplanetary cycling spacecraft. A particular rotating ring interplanetary cycling ship is calculated. Future research considerations are outlined. Summary and conclusions are presented. Design of a Preliminary Cycling Spacecraft First proposed in the early 1950’s,1 cycling spacecraft permits the fundamental recurrent transfer between our home world and Mars, without cessation of transit, of personnel and cargoes in a continuous pattern. By adding ancillary benefits, as detailed below, including using the platform as an on-going space research laboratory in solar orbit to study the sun, as well as extra-solar objects of interest and “University” for long-range space sensors. Both NASA and the National Commission of Space2 expanded this idea in the mid 1980s. StarGate Research Laboratory is currently preparing to

Jonathan A Greenspon; StarGate Research Laboratory, PI, Inc., Apple Valley, CA USA Austin Albert Mardon, PhD; StarGate Research Laboratory, PI, Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
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Development of a Long-Term Earth-Mars Cycling Vessel

investigate the concept of spacecraft constructed to rotate and simultaneously provide a stable, core element using the same components and materials for structure, shielding, coolant, and fuel as more conventional orbital space structures. The ideal spacecraft can be lightweight, inexpensive, and efficient by using current developments in both structure and fuel. A critical form to consider is that this structural system will be called to serve in a “deep-space” medium for a period much longer than either Mir or the International Space Station because of the role designed for the cycling spacecraft. The platform can be readily adapted, though, to provide for expansion and/or reconfiguration during its lifetime with the admixture of open space pallet mount locations, or various interior partitions. Tankage areas for hydrogen / oxygen (or any other fuel / oxidizer) first serve as fueling regions, then are capable of venting / purging, and conversion to habitable spaces. In this way, almost all essential parts of the spacecraft are used during the operational lifetime of the craft. This type of redevelopmental spacecraft achieves an extremely low deadweight fraction, which is a critical parameter for optimizing the performance of interplanetary cycling spacecraft. The radiation shield and outer hull must be constructed / formed in such fashion as to enable a majority of normal operations to be conducted during periods of solar maximum activity. This includes the potential of meteoritic activity in the spacecraft’s orbital path. A critical concern to space activity extending beyond the Earth’s Van Allen belts is that once outside the protection of the belt zones, solar activity can rapidly radiate human tissue structures. Under these conditions, the crew must either be provided with a stable, radiation-resistant environment – either through overdevelopment of the complete spacecraft or through the inclusion of a solar “shelter.” The anticipated crew / passenger complement tends to obviate the shelter philosophy. The system as a whole as conceived by includes: (1) A despun or despinnable docking location for auxiliary spacecraft, (2) A thermally insulated habitat region, (3) A rotational structure not exceeding vestibule limitations of the human inner ear, (4) An adaptable and augmentable communications / data / electronic power system, (5) Long-term independent operational and maintenance functionality, and (6) A guidance / navigation / attitude control capability that is operable while rotating or in a non-rotational mode. The attractive attributes of the system include: Unitised design – current modules and technologies can functionally serve as, propellant, shielding, structure, power source, and support during launch or operational modes; long lifetime in Earth-Mars-Solar orbit; low cost material (nothing more exotic then current aerospace applications materials is necessary); low cost fabrication (development has already been performed into the basic structural concepts); low launch cost (high, long-duration acceleration forces aren’t needed). Other possible avenues to usefulness emphasize the orbital properties of the spacecraft, distance and direction from Earth’s abundant microwave and electromagnetic signature, controllable gravity alteration capabilities, and a wide range of capabilities for embedded avionics, including: multi-phase radio, and long-term power generator / storage, and guidance and control. As the authors extend the concept, individual modules can be orbited by boosters, and later assembled into a large spacecraft. This technology is readily demonstrated through the MIR and ISSA development. Once assembled, the low accelerations from any typical propulsion would not endanger the structural or tensile strength of the structural framework. Suggested space exploration missions including: (1) solar research station, (2) extraterrestrial signal monitor, (3) interferometry observatory, (4) operational radar mapping of Earth orbit crossing bodies, (5) manned Mars mission support, (6) commodities transfer and storage for interplanetary actions.

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Development of a Long-Term Earth-Mars Cycling Vessel

Kinematics Cycling spacecraft constructed from common usage components use the same material as current designs (ISSA, MIR, Spacelab, etc.) for structure, shielding, coolant, and fuel, but more importantly, from the kinematic viewpoint, that means that very little of the spacecraft’s mass is designed to be wasted as non-productive non-payload. This type of adaptable configuration spacecraft achieves an extremely low dead-weight fraction (fraction of non-payload mass remaining after all fuel is expended), which is a critical parameter for optimizing the performance of any interplanetary spacecraft. At the same time, volume and mass must be idealized in having a minimum weight of material while maximizing habitable flexibility. This dead-weight consideration is even more important for a single-staged space going vessel. The equations of the Hohmann ellipse have been used for the kinematic calculations in this paper. These include the correct relationship first given by Hohmann between initial point velocity at perihelion (Vp) and Delta V relative to Earth distance R2), and between time necessary for the transfer (T), namely:

For an interplanetary vehicle, the burnout fraction (c) is the ratio of the rest mass of the vehicle at burnout to the rest mass of fuel consumed:

And the rest mass of fuel consumed is the sum of the rest mass of fuel exhausted (Mex) and the rest mass of fuel converted to kinetic energy:

Fundamentals of Rotation According to NASA studies3 in the 1970’s, man can adapt to rotation rates of approximately 3 revolutions per minute, although recommendations by this study point to maintaining a rotation of 1 rpm (or less) if the personnel will be regularly transitioning between a 1 gravity, rotating environment, and a zero-gravity axial core command area. However, to maintain NASA’s ideal of 1 revolution/minute, the habitat ring would need to be approximately 1600 meters in diameter. That developmentally limits the feasibility of developing and fielding a convenient Earth-Mars cycling spacecraft. For operational potentials to be exploited, a more compact 110 or 200 meter in diameter habitat unit is envisioned. In this size, rotated at a sedate 2 revolutions per minute, the vehicle in question would provide its occupants with an acceleration of 4.9 - 6.57 meters/second (.5 - .67 G). With low accelerations, little structural strength is required, hence the plausibility of a rotational structure on a despun core. “Will the ring’s structure stand up to even 1/20g? If not, the final velocity will be lower.” Questions that arise however are fundamental needs of research for this system to be deployed. (1) How are liquids and consumable items to be transferred between a rotating ring and a non-spinning axial core? If the core module is designed with a central access way, then all connection points for such transfer will need to be made across non-centralized plumbing. (2) What difficulties will be encountered with the movement of commodities and crew from point to point within the spacecraft? Over eleven years, MIR has maintained studies of this center-of-gravity interaction; however, this is a stationary facility – not a rotational habitat. (3) What problems will be inherent to attitude control and reaction thrust across the structure? Mounting RCS systems outboard, on the ring, would be beneficial, as this extends the “arm-length” of the RCS activity. However, a system must be incorporated to permit operation of the RCS equipment – WITHOUT the requirement of despinning the ring.

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Development of a Long-Term Earth-Mars Cycling Vessel

(4) What precautionary measures or equipment will be necessary for the use of a cycling spacecraft? When a situation arises aboard a space station or the shuttle, helps is nominally within 24 hours. Not so with a Mars or interplanetary facility. Obviously, certain scenarios, such as the development of independent life-support, food supplies, etc. would be most beneficial, although not necessary for implementation of this concept. Future Research This paper is a conceptual study, backed by quantitative analysis. Future research is needed to develop the concept into the systems design phase. The following are some of the important considerations yet to be performed: • Geometry: Should the spacecraft be an axial core configuration with an independent rotating ring, a axial configuration with a series of modules extended outward on “spokes,” or a more conventional axial / ring configuration, using the axis of the core as a rotation point? • System Interrelation: How are the modules be configured in relation to each other, and how are they detached for upgrading or replacement? What forms of connectivity are applicable to rotational or stationary-rotational module interconnects? • Fuel: What are the short and long-term fuel / oxidizer requirements; how should the fuel be stored for ready usage? Will cryogenic fuels be more effective over the long-term than hypergolic or monopropellants? If detachable tankage is used, should it be in unitized packages (each tank holding fuel and oxidizer) or separated via independent tanks? How will it be pumped or introduced into the reaction chamber? • Centroid: As modules are used and personnel are moved, the center-of-mass of the spacecraft shifts. How is attitude corrected to maintain the proper thrust vector? What is the net effect of the structure rotation to center-of-mass options? • Radiation: How much can the spacecraft payload be hardened against nuclear and cosmic radiation by redundancy and self-repair methods? • Parameters: What are specific parameters of mass and thrust for selected configurations of cycling spacecraft and rotation or crew / cargo manifests? What forms and determinations are necessary for auxiliary craft operations and deployment? • Braking: Can the cycling spacecraft be decelerated at the either end for orbital entry? What deflection is necessary to return to cycling operations after orbital activities? • Cost: What does such a spacecraft cost? • Schedule: When is such a spacecraft likely to be feasible; what precursor missions are likely (i.e., Mars Direct, Lunar Return, First Lunar / Mars Outposts, etc.)? How does cycling spacecraft development fit in with other aspects of space transportation infrastructure? Many basic questions remain. The authors hope that the Earth-Mars cycling spacecraft concept itself stimulates interesting answers. Summary and Conclusions Spacecraft constructed for generated gravitation cycling between planets within the solar system can use the same materials for structure, shielding, coolant, and fuel as conventional space structure designs. To reduce the non-essential weight / mass factors, a particular self-reliant structure must be developed for Earth-Mars orbital operations, extending to interplanetary applications. Ordinary fuels and/or oxidizers can efficiently serve an ideal fuel for power and propulsion. Advances being made for the International Space Station, as well as those previously developed for the Space Transportation and MIR projects have many cases of suitability for cycling ship applications. Other developments are considered relevant to cycling potentials, including advanced propulsion techniques, closed loop life support systems, space environment medical advances, and radiation defense within the space environment. Specific situations related to the development of rotational habitats are discussed in terms of spin / despin, centripetal / centrifugal forces, simulated gravity levels, and structural stability.
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Development of a Long-Term Earth-Mars Cycling Vessel

This paper is a conceptual study, backed by quantitative analysis. Future research is needed to develop the concept into the systems design phase. There are some important considerations yet to be performed, involving Geometry, System Interrelation, Fuel, Centroid, Radiation, Parameters, Braking, Cost, and Schedule. References
1. Von Braun, Wernher, Das Mars Projekt. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1953. 2. National Commission on Space. Pioneering the Space Frontier. The Report of the National Commission on Space, Bantam Books, New York, 1986. 3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Space Settlements, A Design Study. NASA Publication SP-413.

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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition
Nicolas Vandapel; Pascal Lee; Dimitrios Apostolopoulos; Geoffrey Briggs; Bill Clancey; Brian Glass; Steve Hoffman; Kimberly Shillcutt; Maarten Sierhuis; Mike Sims; H. Thomas; W. “Red” Whittaker [1999] Abstract Humans and robots will both be needed to explore and settle Mars, since the two present specific capabilities and performances that may in many instances be regarded as complementary rather than redundant. But what role should and can humans and robots play given the current status of robotic technology and optimistic time frames for human exploration (human missions to Mars beginning within the next 2 decades)? In response to the growing interest in understanding how humans and robots might work together on Mars, we plan to carry out baseline observations and field simulations in human-robot integration on the 1999 Haughton-Mars Project expedition to Devon Island, Arctic Canada. A variety of tasks will be performed, including an inventory of all activities that support field work to assess the range of possible robotic needs in field exploration, a systematic recording of the metrics of extravehicular (i.e., outdoor) activity (EVA) in those areas likely to require field robotic support, and a definition of the information technology architectures likely to be needed to achieve a well-integrated human-robot exploration system. Among the planned simulations, we will have a roboticist on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accompany field scientists on traverses across the Mars-like terrains of Devon Island acting as if he/she were a robotic assistant. Tasks to be performed by this EVA Robotic Assistant may range from navigation and supplies caching to sample curation and geologic interpretation. The exercise should help identify specific robotic needs of astronaut explorers on Mars and help guide future robotic research in this area. An integrated, synergistic human-robot exploration system is envisioned as a possible outcome of this research. Preliminary results from the 1999 field season will be presented. This work is supported by the Haughton-Mars Project and its sponsors, including The Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and the Mars Society. 1 Introduction 1.1 Robotics to Support EVA Robotic probes proved their usefulness in planetary exploration in the past decades and more recently mobile robot as remote science platform too (Mishkin-98). The next step will consist in the design of robots for surface operations in the context of the human exploration of Mars. The roles planned (Duke-98) include: site reconnaissance, power system deployment, base maintenance, construction material production and science activities in geology, geophysics, meteorology and exobiology. Some of them will have to be done by autonomous precursor robots, other could be done by teleopered or autonomous rovers landed with the crew. But one of the most challenging aspects is in supporting directly astronauts in their extra vehicular activities (EVA). The robot can be designed to reduce astronaut payload in carrying part of the life support system as the semi-autonomous cart, voice activated, described in (Hodgson-98). The robot can have also an extended autonomy and can be used along different scenarios – scout, video coverage assistant, science field assistant, technical field assistant – as in the ASRO experiment conducted last February by a NASA team lead by Ames roboticists with the Marsokhod rover (Cabrol-99). A design study from the University of Maryland (Weisman-99) describes a rover to support EVA as life support, tools carrier, etc. . . . 1.2 Expedition Motivation Our approach differs from the work presented above because we will justify and evaluate the use of a robot with metrics, and we will work, not at the scale of a full robot, but at the level of robotic functionality. To lead our work we first tried to reply to basic questions like “why, for which purpose, for which kind of environment and for how long designing a

Nicolas Vandapel, Dimitrios Apostolopoulos, Kimberly Shillcutt & W. “Red” Whittaker; Carnegie Mellon University / Pascal Lee, Geoffrey Briggs, Bill Clancey, Brian Glass, Maarten Sierhuis, Mike Sims & H. Thomas; NASA Ames Research Center / Steve Hoffman; NASA Johnson Space Center; Contact information: vandapel@cs.cmu.edu, pclee@mail.arc.nasa.gov, da1v@cs.cmu.edu

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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

robotic support?” The answers to those questions will have a direct influence on the level of autonomy, on the level of mobility and science capability required. For example, as we will see later, you may have just to instrument the scientist with a display and to put a sensor on his vehicle to solve his problem. So during the Haughton-Mars 99 expedition a series of experiments were conducted to understand field science and to evaluate, with metrics, robotic needs and/or requirements to support activities of biologists and geologists. Field activities studied included: impact crater geological mapping, site characterization (determining the formation process of a depression), site reconnaissance to settle a base camp and repeaters for communication, lake biology and oases survey. This paper deals mainly with the first one – impact crater geological mapping – and it is organized as followed: the next part presents the methodology used during the expedition to collect data, the third part gives an overview of the field work and the kind of data gathered, the fourth one contains results based on the data processed and the final one presents our conclusion and recommendations. 2 Methodology 2.1 Approach Field study of geologists has been conducted previously by (McGreevy-92) in order to design virtual reality tools to help geologist during virtual exploration, in that case with an ethnographic centered approach, work pursued in (McGreevy94). In our case we choose to base our approach on action characterization where metrics play the major role in order to have quantitative results to analyze fieldwork and to justify the technical solutions proposed. Each mission performed by the geologist is segmented into different levels. From the broader to the more specific we have sub-missions, tasks, functionalities and tools. For example by using a level (tool) you can measure the structure orientation of some feature (functionality) in order to document a site (task) during a study of a local (sub-mission) as part of a geological exploration process (mission). For a more detailed example see the paragraph 4.1. Each task is then characterized by quantitative and qualitative metrics described in Table 1.
Table 1. Metrics used

2.2 Observation / Simulation Field study was conducted in two ways: by observing the geologist at work and by making “robotic simulation.” By observing the geologist you can understand, describe and characterize his tasks. By making “robotic simulation” you can discovery unplanned or hidden needs and see the major challenge to design robotic solutions to support EVA. By following this method we tried to avoid bias and a priori ideas from both sides (roboticist and geologist). The robotic simulation experiment was centered on four main scenarios – or missions – inspired by[1]: • Pathfinder: the robot will be a remote controlled or autonomous scout • Caretaker: the robot will monitor geologist activity during EVA • Co-worker: the robot will work in a closely way with the scientist. It can be a “scientist” as a mean to deploy a specific sensor, it can be a “secretary” taking notes and registering data, or an “explorer” by covering an area and looking for something specific and finally in the cleverest case an “assistant” by helping directly. • Tools / Energy carrier In both cases (observation / simulation) we used the approach described in section 2.1.
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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

3 Field Work 3.1 Mission Studied The results presented in this paper are based on the study of one specific mission performed by one geologist: impact crater geological mapping. It consisted in gathering rock samples, making sketches of geological formation, taking pictures and drawing frontiers between different kinds of geological terrain on a topographic map. Modified tools or powered tools were not used nor was any scientific instrument like a spectrometer. Rock samples were identified on the field; best samples will be analyzed more extensively after the trip in a laboratory. 3.2 Environment Description The terrain explored were outcrop, breccia and a canyon. Outcrops are apparent bedrock usually on steep slope of hills surrounding by gravel and small rocks. They are only accessible by feet sometimes with difficulty, see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Outcrop

Breccia explored were small hills with a plateau on the top and with small slopes. They were accessible by ATV with no obstacle on the plateau, see Figure 2.

Figure 2. Breccia

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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

One canyon was explored (“the lost valley”). A river – the Malvina River – runs inside and steep slopes surround it. One end was not accessible by ATV and a foot exploration was performed, see Figure 3.

Figure 3. Canyon

3.3 Experiments Experiments were conducted during 8 field trips, see Table 2, on all terrain vehicles (ATV) with time and distance constraints, respectively less than 8 hours and less than 10 km far from the camp.
Table 2. Field activities

Different kinds of traverses were performed: long range and short range, in unknown or partially known environment. A priori information available included a topographic map of the crater (1/50,000) and aerial pictures. During one day, the 7th, the geologist wearied a fire suit to reduce his mobility, visibility and dexterity. That day one of us assisted him and followed his orders as a “robot” could do it. During the other days a partial and time limited support was provided in some cases in carrying tools and rocks for examples. 3.4 Data Recorded For each field trip a set of common data, related to the ATV and the geologist, were logged as describe in Table 3. Each time one of the entries changed a new line was generated, so a minute per minute description of field activities is available.
Table 3. Database

The column “Data” deals with additional data collected in order to document work practice or the site explored. This includes video, pictures and sketches. Sketches represent the area explored with drawn on it geologic features (boulder, outcrop), location where the geologist collected some material (pictures, sketches, samples) and the path he followed to reach that location. GPS coordinates of the geologist’s ATV are available for some traverses.

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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

Data recorded by the geologist were also available after the field trip. For each location studied by him we have the coordinates of it, the number of pictures taken, the number of sketches made, as well as the number of samples collected. 4 Results 4.1 Action Decomposition Here we present an overview of the action decomposition scheme applied to the “impact crater geological mapping” mission based on the data gathered. This mission was divided into 7 sub-missions, 21 tasks and 25 different functionalities. The following table contains a partial view of this decomposition. You have in it all the sub-mission (in bold face), for one sub-mission (Studying local area) all the tasks (underline) and for one task (Site documentation) all the functionalities (in italic) and tools. Each of the tasks identified was then quantified with the metrics described in Table 1.
Table 4. Partial action decomposition for the “Impact crater geological mapping” mission

4.2 Robotic Simulation Table 5 provides an overview of the tasks performed or not during the simulations and what was the key point or justification in case or success or failure respectively was.
Table 5. Simulation overview

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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

The first key point, common to all the scenarios tested, was understanding orders. That aspect involved the size of the vocabulary required, the number of orders, the context of the situation and the a priori knowledge needed to understand them, see (Imai-99) for the influence of external information and physical constraints in human robot interaction. The second recurrent issue is related to geological knowledge required to perform some tasks. How can you explore an area if you are not able to recognize what you are looking for? Or if you are not able to make the difference between the common and the interesting feature (see (Ruzon-97) for geologic feature detection, linear layer in that case)? 4.3 Data gathered Figure 4 presents* for each day the number of rock samples gathered, of pictures taken and of sketches made by the geologist.
* For each graph the following code has been used: O for Outcrop, S/O for simulation and outcrop, C for canyon and B for breccia

Figure 4. Data gathered per day

The main factors to explain the differences are: • The influence of the environment: data gathered on breccia or outcrop are not the same • The influence of preliminary exploration: less data were gathered if the current exploration was done to complete another one (see day 14 and 15) • The influence of the ATV availability: when the ATV was far fewer samples were gathered (15). • The length of the exploration: when the geologist was tired or bored he tended to be less investigative and tended to reduce his energy expenses. • The space suit influence: the geologsit’s mobility, visibility and dexterity radically changed with the space suit as well as his way of working (see day 7) Based on this graph and field observations we proposed to implement method in order to allow geologic feature localization and to extend the amount of information gathered at each location. 4.4 ATV Status The ATV status was “off,” “on” and moving” during traverse and “on stopped” during localization or foot exploration of the surrounding area. Figure 5 presents the % of time the ATV was in each state. Differences can be explained by the influence of the environment: • For outcrop usually the geologist parked the ATV at the bottom of the hill and climb toward the outcrop and explored it. The ATV was “off” in that case. • For breccia the geologist explored on the ATV and stopped when he had found something interesting. A short foot exploration around the ATV was then performed. The ATV was turn off only if a long stay was expected. • For the canyon the geologist explored outcrop but also the bedrock of the river so we have a mixed situation in that case.
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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

Figure 5. ATV status

This graph shows that most of the time the ATV is not used (“off” plus “on waiting”). We suggest using that time to support EVA. 4.5 Walk Pattern When the geologist was walking he exhibited three kinds of pattern: • “Close examination” he walked around a boulder or follow the edges of an outcrop, • “Transit” he walked from one point to another one between the ATV and an outcrop, • “Cover” he tried to cover exhaustively a specific area in order to find some interesting feature. As regard that graph we suggest to develop methods to: • Limit risky travel (close examination of outcrop) • Limit non-productive travel (transit).

Figure 6. Walk Pattern

4.6 Time Allocation Tasks were grouped into 6 classes: equipment management (GPS, ATV), site documentation (pictures, sketches), rock sampling (extracting it, identification, put in bag, pack and store it on the ATV), ATV travel during traverse, walking during exploration and positioning. Figure 7 represents for each day the percentage of time spent for each class. Based on that metric we suggest focusing on: • Monitoring field activities (time spent walking), • Site documentation, • Rock sampling 5 Conclusion This paper deals with the EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition. We presented the context of this work, the approach followed with the use of metrics, the kind of data gathered, and quantitative results. From all the experiments conducted we choose one example – impact crater geological mapping – to illustrate our work. We detailed the action decomposition for that mission, the robotic simulation conducted, analyzed several graphs – data
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The EVA Robotic Assistant Experiment on the Haughton-Mars 99 Expedition

gathered per day, ATV status, walk pattern, and time allocation. That quantitative analysis justified the areas, where robotics should be used to support EVA, proposed.

Figure 7. Time allocation per day

The first step, for HMP-2K, should be an instrumentation of the scientist and his ATV in order to monitor activity and to document the site. At the same time we should continue field study by working under EVA conditions with a space suit, using scientific instruments (drill, radar, and spectrometer), extending Mars analog science activities (geomorphology), involving two explorers (cooperation / communication). We should also use new methods to facilitate data collection (DGPS explorer / ATV). The second step should be centered on an autonomous vehicle to follow the geologist on breccia, on site mapping capability, on a teleoperated explorer and on a device to pack rocks. The major challenges to support EVA are the integration of geological knowledge, autonomous exploration and humanrobot interaction. Acknowledgment The work describe in this publication is supported by the Haughton-Mars project, the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and the Mars Society. We would like to thank the members of the HMP-99 expedition and specifically the scientists who made this study possible: Gordon “Oz” Ozinski, Charles Cockell, Dale Stokes and Loretta Hidalgo. In addition, we would like to thanks the RAMS team at Carnegie Mellon University but also Adrienne Warmack for their help in setting-up this study. Finally we thank Kurt Schwehr and Stewart Moorehead for their useful comments on the results and on this paper. References
Astronaut-Rover Interaction for Planetary Surface Exploration: 99’ Silver Lake First ASRO Experiment. Nathalie A. Cabrol, Joseph J. Kosmo, Robert C. Trevino, Carol Stoker, MARSOKHOD Rover team and the Advanced EVA Technology Team. Lunar and Planetary Society Conference, 1999 Duke-98: Mars Surface Mission Workshop. Duke M.B. LPI Contribution No 934, Lunar Planetary Institute, Houston, 1998 Hodgson-98: An Advanced EVA System for Planetary Exploration. Edward W. Hodgson Jr. and Tracy L. Guyer. SAE Technical Series, 981630, 1998 Imai-99: Physical Constraints on Human Robot Interaction. Imai M, Hiraki K., Miyasato T., IJCAI’99. McGreevy-92: The Presence of Field Geologist in Mars-Like Terrain. Michael W. McGreevy. Presence, Volume 1, Number 4, Fall 1992 McGreevy-94: An Ethnographic Object-Oriented Analysis of Explorer Presence in a Volcanic Terrain Environment. Michael W. McGreevy. Mishkin-98: Experiences with Operations and Autonomy of the Mars Pathfinder Microrover. A. Mishkin, J. Morrison, T. Nguyen, H. Stone, B. Cooper, B. Wilcox, Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Ruzon-97: Detection of Linear Layers. Ruzon, M. http://robotics.stanford.edu/~ruzon/NASA/layers.html Weisman-99: An Astronaut Assistant Rover for Martian Surface Exploration. Steve Weisman et al. HEDS-UP Cabrol-99:

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts
Presented by David J. File, Boeing [2001] Abstract The history of early Martian aircraft developments is reviewed and recent studies are evaluated resulting in several proposed Delta II launched concepts. Mars’ atmospheric and global surface investigations can benefit greatly from the aerial mobility of flying platforms. Advances in autonomous guidance and navigation create new missions by enabling these concepts to accurately target specific terrain features. Three concepts were developed and are evaluated in this report: a mid-weight concept relative to the large-spanned flyer, circa 1978, a “minimum mission” winged concept and a parasail-equipped lander delivery system. In addition to concept design and feature descriptions a systems engineering, risk reduction approach is developed which delineates the necessary technology program to achieve performance goals and mission success.

Presentation Table of Contents Introduction & “How To Fly On Mars” . . . . . 2 Mars Flyer Concept Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Concept Basis • Launcher Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 • Orbiting vs. Flyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 • UAV Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 • Performance Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Concept Descriptions • Flyer Innovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 • Mission Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 • Winged Flyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

• AZTEC Inboard Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 • Mass Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 • Aerodynamic Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 • Minimum Flyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 • Parasail Flyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Risk Reduction Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 • Key Risks / Development Planning • Reliability / Schedule / Cost • Mono Propellant Motor Development References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Contributor Biographies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

David J. File / Boeing; davefile@usa.net
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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

First Flyers for Mars Exploration Introduction Goals – Mars flyer overview, top level design considerations, evaluate new flying wing-like concepts Status – Many past efforts and papers – good resources, overall concept is good – more to do, basis for next paper in-work Concept Basis – A lot has happened in the past 20 years, original JPL Flyer was ahead of its time (AIAA 79-0067)! Mission Definition – A good mission that promotes success Assumptions – Comm architecture developed separately Technology Gains • Composites • Avionics • Aero design tools Development Challenges • Mono-propellant engine • Wing and Parasail deployment New Operational Vistas • Remote control • Autonomous control Concept Definition and Aerodynamics • System form and function • Design allowables and margins And in all degrees to anywhere I please . . . I want to get away, I want to fly away . . . Let’s go and see the stars, the Milky Way or even Mars . . . (Fly Away – Lenny Kravitz) How to fly on Mars . . .

Mars Flyer Concept Timeline

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Concept Basis – Launcher Options Booster Considerations Early flyers developed for Mars utilized a Titan class booster (the same used for the Viking missions) and would have filled a gap in remote sensing by providing broad coverage and resolution of Martian planetary details. However, at this time orbiting probes like MGS clearly address many of the original, flyer mission requirements and, therefore, the increased cost of large flyers that necessitate using large and costly boosters is no longer justified. Also, technology has advanced such that probes deliver greater capability at a reduced mass. In the past two years several concepts exploiting the Ariane 5 auxiliary payload carrier have been proposed by several NASA centers. The original intent of these flyers was to commemorate in 2003 the 100th anniversary of the Wright Brothers’ first powered flight. This proposed mission resulted in small aircraft with endurance between 15 and 30 minutes and achieved a range of less than 200 km. The author feels that these small missions lack the valuable scientific return on the scale necessitated by recent MGS surveys and are inadequate to substantially aid the exploration of the Martian surface. Lastly a small flyer (< 30 kg) cannot guarantee reaching a target site for exploration, because the entry dispersion could exceed its range. The author designed a flying wing concept for this mission that led to continued interest in a larger aircraft. Flyers designed as Delta II class payloads result in robust and exploration capable systems. Concept Basis – Orbiting vs. Flyer Orbiting space platforms with long duration missions provide: • Targeted terrain imagery at 1.5-12 m/pixel • Atmospheric phenomena – MGS – Cyclones – Dust devils • Repeated coverage Flying airborne platforms can provide additional key understandings: • High risk, targeted terrain imagery at 0.1-0.2 m/pixel – Valles Marineris (Scout proposal) • Additional gravity and magnetic soundings • Turbulence measurements • Deployment of multiple sondes dropped to Martian surface • Targeted landing

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Concept Basis – UAV Comparisons

Concept Basis – Performance Comparisons
Table 1. Flyer Concept Comparisons

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Performance Assumptions and Status • Current – basic, empirical methods for estimates and comparisons • In Work – lift and drag models for performance • Future – flight planning and 3 DOF simulation

Flyer Innovations Key Options Swept wing • Capsule packaging of swept wing design • Range verses loiter design considerations • Winglets synergistically provide yaw stability and increased L/D • Inverted v-tail adds additional degrees of control by building capability into the hardware Parasail with high L/D proposed • Deployment mechanisms – Vertigo air-beams Recommend motor development • Hydrazine or H2O2 “Minimum flyer” concept proposed • 500 km and/or 1 hour flyer Top Level Trades • Wing thickness and weight verses performance – No more that ~10% t/c • Blended wing body shaping to reduce drag • Wing loading and fuel quantity • Alternate Power Provisions • Battery – short mission – small flyer • Solar – advanced mission – higher costs, higher risks

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Mission Definition Goal – Minimize Complexity • Reduce development risk and cost • Achieve adequate flight range and time • Determine mission performance criteria Winged Flyer – Terrain Coverage • Initial 360° view / terrain coverage w/ 180° for 360° view / final course for target coverage Parasail – Delivery of Payload • Initial 360° view / target correction / loiter / land • The parasail flyer achieves accurate, terminal targeting for its payload reducing the risks associated with landing site selection for roving explorers. Design Allowables and Margins Mission Performance • “Everything that can go wrong…” • Atmospheric variations from Mars “standard day” • Communications issues Concept Design and Development Tolerances L/D estimates ± 5% of design Propulsion goals + 15% HP/Weight Mass reserve 15%

Aztec – Winged Flyer for Delta II

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Inboard Profile – Winged Flyer

Mass Allocations – Subsystems

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Aerodynamic Evaluation Flying wing design considerations • Range design goal mitigates need for high C L • Short tail moment / control volume • Airfoil reflex investigations and trim Performance issues • Performance characteristics still “in work” • Drag polar determined empirically • Airfoil selection • Thickness ratio, t/c • Drag characteristics • Future work • t/c and packaging • Propeller design Analysis – Three Step Process 1) Airfoil Analysis using XFoil • 2D Linearized-potential panel code • Coupled ISES boundary layer • Reynolds numbers are on low end for XFoil 2) Stability & Control Analysis using A502 (PANAIR) • 3D Linearized potential panel code • Assumes attached flow, no viscous drag • Gives full set of longitudinal and lateraldirectional stability derivatives including damping derivatives 3) Performance Aero (Drag) Analysis using TRANAIR CFD and Empirical Data at low angles of attack • 3D Full Potential CFD Solver • ISES Coupled boundary layer yields viscous drag • More Accurate CL and CM values than A502 • Run times of 8 to 12 hours for 1 AOA / Mach combination AOA for Max Lift Determined Semi-Empirically • Root Hepperle-MH46 t/c 11%, Tip Selig-SD7032 t/c 10% • Combined with A502 span loads and DATCOM correlation Propeller Design – TBD

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

“Minimum Flyer” Definition

Parasail for Delta II

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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts

Risk Reduction Program Key efforts define program strategy • Propulsion development • System flight testing Key elements define system requirements • Mars orbital communication assets • GN&C capabilities Program opportunities • 2005 and 2007 Propulsion approach – mono propellant, reciprocating motor • Utilize materials advances • Optional Hydrazine and/or Peroxide (H2O2 ) fuel • Additional expenditures to develop fullest performance System flight testing – “parallel efforts” • Airframe and software integrated using simulated motor • Most flyer concepts can benefit from development efforts

Summary – Fly Mars Minimum and maximum flyer sizes defined • Recommend lower wing loadings at large weights • Challenged by low propellant fraction at small end of scale Development programs should support a wide range of flyers • Call it a “Mars flight initiative” • Technology exists to do more than stunts • Develop multiple propulsion concepts Aztec future work • Develop avionics suite and mission details • Detail and finalize the design • Monopropellant motor development planning • MarsHawk R/C flight and deployment tests

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Clarke, V.C., Kerem, A., “A Mars Airplane…Oh Really?” AIAA 79-0067 JPL Briefing, Feasibility & Concept Design Studies for Mars MicroSpacecraft Bus, Industry Briefing, JPL, January 1999 File, D.J., “First Flyers for Mars Exploration,” AIAA 2000-5280 Malin, M.C., Edgett, K.S., “Evidence for Recent Groundwater Seepage and Surface Runoff on Mars” Science, June 30, 2000, Vol. 288 Greer, D., Hamory, P., Krake, K., Drela, M., “Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment,” NASA TM-1999-206579
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Martian Aircraft and Exploration Concepts
6. “A Concept Study of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle for Mars Exploration: Final Report,” DSI, August 1978, NASA-CR-157942 7. Akkerman, J., “Hydrazine Monopropellant Reciprocating Engine Development,” Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 101, November 1979, page 456-462 8. Murphy, R., “AMBER for Long Endurance,” Aerospace America, Feb. 1989, pg. 32 9. Smith, S.C., et al, “The Design Of The Canyon Flyer, An Airplane For Mars Exploration” AIAA 2000-0514 10. Adam, P., etal., “Preliminary Design of Ultralight Parafoil Aerobots for Outer Planet Atmosphere Exploration.” 1st International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots, 1997 11. Nyugen, “C.,” Personal Notes: Review of Aerovironment AIAA presentation, October 1999 12. Smith, Jared, Personal Notes: Review of Auxiliary Payload, Parafoil Lander Mission Concepts, October 1999 13. Chapman, D., “Some Possibilities of Using Gas Mixtures Other than Air In Aerodynamic Research,” NACA TN 1259 14. Augenstein, B., “The Mars Airplane Revived – Global Mars Surface Surveys,” 1987, AAS 87-270 15. Sarsfield, L., “The Cosmos on a Shoestring,” RAND, 1998 16. Dornheim, M., “Aerospace Corp. Study shows Limits of Faster-Better-Cheaper,” Aviation Week, June 12, 2000, pg. 47

Contributor Biographies
David J. File Configuration Design B.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS Twelve Years Experience with The Boeing Company: 6 Years NAA Division, X-30, SDIO-SSTO 4 Years Space Division, X-33, X-34, LFBB 2 Years Phantom Works, SSP, SLI, OE Four Years Aeronautical Systems, General Atomics: 3 Years Amber UAV (Leading Systems) 1 Year Predator UAV Currently working as systems integrator, Orbital Express On-orbit servicing platform Fresh out of school in 1985 began prototyping work on Amber UAV at Leading Systems. Skilled in aircraft and launch vehicle design with broad experience including project and proposal development. Mars Society Member, 2001 SSI member, since 1995 “If science is a way of not fooling ourselves” (Fynman), then engineering is a way of not killing ourselves. . . Joseph A. Huwaldt Aerodynamics M.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS Seven Years Experience with The Boeing Company: 2 Years with Commercial Airplane Division 2 Years with Military Aircraft Division 3 Years with Space And Communications Currently working as an aerodynamicist with Boeing’s X-37 program Thousands of hours of wind tunnel testing experience at subsonic through hypersonic speeds. Specializes in Preliminary Design level aero analysis Expert computer programmer in C and Java Mars Society Member, since 1999 Planetary Society Member, since 1991 National Space Society Member, since 1987 Ad Astra Per Aspra!

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis
Dr. Robert L. Forward; Gerald D. Nordley [1999] Abstract Routine travel to and from Mars demands an efficient, rapid, low cost means of two-way transportation. To answer this need, we have invented a system of two rotating tethers in highly elliptical orbits about each planet. At Earth, a payload is picked up near periapsis and tossed a half-rotation later, still near periapsis, at a velocity sufficient to send the payload on a high-speed trajectory to Mars. At Mars, it is caught near periapsis and is released a short time later on a suborbital reentry trajectory. The system works in both directions and is reusable. Kinetic energy lost by the throwing tethers can be restored either by catching incoming payloads or by propellantless tether propulsion methods. Tethers with tip velocities of 2.5 km per second can send payloads to Mars in as little as 90 days if aerobraking is used at Mars. Tetherto-tether transfers without aerobraking may be accomplished in about 130 to 160 days. Tether systems using commercially available tether materials at reasonable safety factors can be as little as 15 times the mass of the payload being handled. This is a relatively new concept and tasks needing further study are listed in the final section of the paper. Background The idea of using rotating tethers to pick up and toss payloads has been in the tether literature for decades.1-7 In 1991, Forward8 combined a number of rotating tether concepts published by others2,6,7 to show that three rotating tethers would suffice to move payloads from a suborbital trajectory just above the Earth’s atmosphere to the surface of the Moon and back again, without any use of rockets except to get out of the Earth’s atmosphere. The three tethers consisted of a “LEO” rotating tether in a nearly circular Low Earth Orbit, an “EEO” rotating tether in a highly Elliptical Earth Orbit, and a “Lunavator” rotating tether cartwheeling around the Moon in a circular orbit whose altitude is equal to the tether length, resulting in the tip of the tether touching down on the lunar surface. This concept has since been examined in detail by Hoyt and Forward,9-12 and is presently the subject of a Tethers Unlimited, Inc. Phase I Contract from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Dr. Robert A. Cassanova, Director. In the process of thinking about ways to improve the performance of the system, Forward realized that much of the gain in the three tether system came from the EEO tether, since its center-of-mass velocity at perigee was quite high, and when the tether tip rotational velocity was added, the toss velocity was not only very high, but was taking place deep in the gravity well of Earth. It is well known in rocketry that it always pays to make your ∆v burns deep in the gravity well of a planet, and this rule of thumb applies equally well to tether tosses. In fact, in the LEO-Lunar papers,9-12 the EEO tether throws the payload so hard toward the Moon that if the Lunavator does not catch it, the payload leaves the Earth-Moon system in a hyperbolic orbit. Forward then wondered how far a single EEO tether could throw a payload if the tether were in a Highly Elliptical Orbit and rotating near the maximum tether tip velocity possible with presently available commercial tether materials. After a few back-of-the-envelope calculations, the answer was found to be: “All the way to Mars . . . and beyond.” Not believing the answer, Forward enlisted the aid of his co-author, an experienced orbital “mechanic,” who confirmed the back of the envelope calculations with more detailed calculations. The MarsEarth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (MERITT) System is the result. MERITT System Description The MERITT system consists of two rapidly rotating tethers in highly elliptical orbits: EarthWhip around Earth and MarsWhip around Mars. A payload capsule is launched from Earth into a low orbit or suborbital trajectory. The payload is picked up by a grapple system on the EarthWhip tether as the tether nears perigee and the tether arm nears the lowest part of its swing. It is tossed later when the tether is still near perigee and the arm is near the highest point of its swing. The payload thus gains both velocity and potential energy at the expense of the tether system, and its resulting velocity is sufficient to send it on a high-speed trajectory to Mars with no onboard propulsion needed except for midcourse guidance.
Dr. Robert L. Forward; Tethers Unlimited, Inc. 8114 Pebble Court, Clinton WA 98236; Phone / Fax: 1-360-579-1340; Email: TU@tethers.com; Web: www.tethers.com Gerald D. Nordley; Consultant, 1238 Prescott Avenue, Sunnyvale CA 94089-2334; Phone: 1-408-739-4032; Email: gdnordley@aol.com –1–

Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

At Mars, the incoming payload is caught in the vicinity of periapsis by the grapple end of the MarsWhip tether near the highest part of its rotation and greatest velocity with respect to Mars. The payload is released later when the tether is near periapsis and the grapple end is near the lowest part of its swing at a velocity and altitude that will cause the released payload to enter the Martian atmosphere. The system works in both directions. The MERITT system can give shorter trip times with aerobraking at Mars because the incoming payload velocity is not limited by the maximum tether tip velocity and thus payloads can use faster interplanetary trajectories. In the following subsections we illustrate the general outlines of the system and define the terms used. This initial “feasibility” analysis has not dealt with the many problems of interplanetary phasing and trades. These issues will be addressed in future papers as time and funding allow. Interplanetary Transfer Orbits As shown in Figure 1, in the frame of reference of the Sun, acting as the central mass of the whole system, a payload leaves the origin planet, on a conic trajectory with a velocity vo and flight path angle fo and crosses the orbit of the destination planet with a velocity vd and flight path angle fd. Departure from the origin planet is timed so that the payload arrives at the orbit of the destination body when the destination body is at that point in its orbit. Many possible trajectories satisfy these conditions, creating a trade between trip time and initial velocity. The classic Hohmann transfer ellipse (H) is a bounding condition with the least initial velocity and longest trip time. The Hohmann transfer is tangential to both the departure and destination orbits and the transfer orbits. The direction of the velocity vector is the same in both orbits at these “transfer” points and only differs in magnitude. A ∆v change in payload velocity (usually supplied by onboard propulsion) is required at these points for the payload to switch from one trajectory to another.

Figure 1. General Orbit Transfer Trajectories.

Faster non-Hohmann transfers may be tangential at origin, destination, or neither. They may be elliptical or hyperbolic. For a given injection velocity above the Hohmann minimum constraint, the minimum-time transfer orbit is generally non-tangential at both ends. An extensive discussion of the general orbit transfer problem may be found in Bate, Mueller and White.13 For reasons discussed below, using tethers in an elliptical orbit with a fixed tip velocity to propel payloads results in an injection velocity constrained to the vector sum of a hyperbolic excess velocity of the released payload and the orbital velocity of the origin planet. When a tether only is used to receive the payload, a similar constraint exists on the destination end; the incoming trajectory is a hyperbola and the periapsis velocity of the hyperbolic orbit must not exceed
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

what the tether can handle. This periapsis velocity is determined by the vector sum of the orbital velocity of the destination planet, that of the intersecting payload orbit at the intersection, and the fall through the gravitational field of the destination planet.

Figure 2. General geometry of tether pickup and throw orbital injection.

When passage through the atmosphere of the destination planet (aerobraking) is used to remove some of the incoming velocity, the constraint becomes an engineering issue of how much velocity can be lost in the atmospheric passage. Experience with the Apollo mission returns (circa 12 km/s) and the Mars Pathfinder landing indicates that with proper design, more velocity can be dissipated than is required to assist tether capture. Real passages through space take place in three dimensions. To the first order, however, transfer orbits are constrained to a plane incorporating the Sun, the origin planet at launch and the destination planet at arrival. The injection vector must occur in this plane, or close enough to it that on-board payload propulsion can compensate for any differences. This analysis considers only coplanar trajectories, but, as discussed later, this is not a great handicap. As the payload moves out from the influence of the mass of the origin planet, its trajectory becomes more and more influenced by the mass of the Sun, until the origin planet mass can be essentially neglected. Likewise, inbound payloads become more and more influenced by the destination planet mass until the mass of the Sun may be neglected. For first order Keplerian analysis it is customary to treat the change of influence as if it occurred at a single point, called the patch point. At this point, a coordinate transformation is made. Payload Pickup and Injection Figure 2 shows the general geometry of a tether picking up a payload from a suborbital trajectory at a point just outside the atmosphere of the origin planet and injecting it into an interplanetary transit trajectory. The payload is picked up, swung around the tether’s center of mass along the circle as it moves along its orbit, and is released from the tip of the tether near the top of the circle. In the process, the tether center of mass loses both altitude and velocity, representing the loss of energy by the tether to the payload. This energy loss may be made up later by propulsion at the tether center and/or in the reverse process of catching incoming payloads. Around the time of pick-up, the trajectory of the payload must be of equal velocity and should be very nearly tangential (no radial motion) to the circle of motion of the tether tip in the tether frame of reference. This tangential condition increases the time for a docking maneuver to be consummated. It is easy to see how this condition may be satisfied by rendezvous at the mutual apsides of the tether orbit and the payload pickup orbit, but other, more complex trajectories work as well. It is not a requirement, however, that the tether plane of rotation, the tether orbit, and the payload pickup
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

orbit be coplanar. The mutual velocity vector at pick-up is essentially a straight line, and an infinite number of curves may be tangent to that line. The tether rendezvous acts as a kind of patch point, as the plane of the tether’s rotation becomes dominant. The practical effect of this is to allow considerable leeway in rendezvous conditions. It also means that the kind of two-dimensional analysis presented here has a wide range of validity. Capturing of an incoming payload is essentially the time reversal of the outgoing scenario; the best place to add hyperbolic excess velocity is also the best place to subtract it. If the tether orbital period is an integral multiple of the rotation period following release of a payload, the tip will be pointed at the zenith at periapsis and the capture will be the mirror image of the release. Capturing a payload after a pass through the destination body’s atmosphere is more complex than a periapsis capture, but involves the same principle: matching the flight path angle of the payload exiting trajectory to the tether flight path angle at the moment of capture and the velocity to the vector sum of the tether velocity and tip velocity. Aerodynamic lift and energy management during the passage through the atmosphere provide propellant-free opportunities to accomplish this. There is a trade in aerobraking capture between momentum gain by the capturing tether and mission redundancy. To make up for momentum loss from outgoing payloads, the tether would like to capture incoming payloads at similar velocities. That, however, involves hyperbolic trajectories in which, if the payload is not captured, it is lost in space. Also, in the early operations before extensive ballast mass is accumulated, care must be taken that the tether itself is not accelerated to hyperbolic velocities as a result of the momentum exchange. Payload Release The release orbit is tangential to the tether circle in the tether frame of reference by definition, but it is not necessarily tangential to the trajectory in the frame of reference of the origin planet. The injection velocity vector is simply the vector sum of the motion of the tether tip and the tether center, displaced to the location of the tether tip. Note in the third part of Figure 2 that this does not generally lie along the radius to the tether center of mass. For maximum velocity, if one picks up the payload at tether periapsis, one must wait for the tether to swing the payload around to a point where its tip velocity vector is near parallel to the tether center of mass orbital velocity vector. By this time, the tether has moved significantly beyond periapsis, and there will be a significant flight path angle, which both orbits will share at the instant of release. Large variations from this scenario will result in significant velocity losses, but velocity management in this manner could prove useful. If, on the other hand, maximum velocity transfer and minimum tether orbit periapsis rotation is desired, the payload can be retained and the tether arm length or period adjusted to release the payload in a purely azimuthal direction at the next periapsis. Rendezvous of Grapple with Payload The seemingly difficult problem of achieving rendezvous of the tether tip and payload is nearly identical to a similar problem solved daily by human beings at circuses around the world. The grapple mechanism on the end of a rotating tether is typically subjected to a centrifugal acceleration of one gee by the rotation of the tether. Although the grapple velocity vector direction is changing rapidly, its speed is constant and chosen to be the same speed as the payload, which is moving at nearly constant velocity in its separate free fall suborbital trajectory. The timing of the positions of the tether tip and the payload needs to be such that they are close to the same place (within a few meters) at close to the same time (within a few seconds), so their relative spacing and velocities are such that the grapple can compensate for any differences. This situation is nearly identical to the problem of two trapeze artists timing the swings of their separate trapeze bars so that that the “catcher,” being supported in the 1 gee gravity field of the Earth by his bar, meets up with and grasps the “payload” after she has let go of her bar and is in a “free fall” trajectory accelerating with respect to the “catcher” at one gee. They time their swings, of course, so that they meet near the instant when both are at near zero relative velocity. The tether grapple system will have the advantages over the human grapple system of GPS guidance, radar Doppler and proximity sensors, onboard divert thrusters, electronic synapses and metallic grapples, which should insure that its catching performance is comparable to or better than the demonstrated human performance.
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

An essential first step in the development of the MERITT system would be the construction and flight test of a rotating tether-grapple system in LEO, having it demonstrate that it can accurately toss a dummy payload into a carefully selected orbit such that n orbits later the two meet again under conditions that will allow the grapple to catch the payload once again. The Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) Project Office at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) has been briefed on the AR&C requirements for the capture of a payload by a grapple vehicle at the end of a tether with a onegee acceleration tip environment. MSFC has been working AR&C for over six years and has a great deal of experience in this area. It is their opinion14 that their present Shuttle-tested (STS-87 & STS-95) Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) hardware, and Guidance, Global Positioning System (GPS) Relative Navigation, and Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) software, should, with sufficient funding, be able to be modified for this tether application. Tether Considerations For a tether transport system to be economically advantageous, it must be capable of handling frequent traffic for many years despite degradation due to impacts by meteorites and space debris. Fortunately, a survivable tether design exists, called the Hoytether™, which can balance the requirements of low weight and long life.14,15 As shown in Figure 3, the Hoytether™ is an open net structure where the primary load bearing lines are interlinked by redundant secondary lines. The secondary lines are designed to be slack initially, so that the structure will not collapse under load. If a primary line breaks, however, the secondary lines become engaged and take up the load. Note that four secondary line segments replace each cut primary line segment, so that their cross-sectional area need only be 0.25 of the primary line area to carry the same load. Typically, however, the secondary lines are chosen to have a cross-sectional area of 0.4 to 0.5 of the primary line area, so as to better cope with multiple primary and secondary line cuts in the same region of the tether.

Figure 3. The Hoytether™ design and its response to a cut line.

This redundant linkage enables the structure to redistribute loads around primary segments that fail due to meteorite strikes or material failure. Consequently, the Hoytether™ structure can be loaded at high stress levels, yet retain a high margin of safety.9 Tether Mass Ratio The mass of a rapidly spinning tether is determined primarily by the tip speed of the tether, not the tether length or the tether tip acceleration. In a rotating tether system, where the tether mass itself is part of the mass being rotated, adding mass to a tether to increase its strength also increases the load, thus limiting the tip motion to a given velocity level, not acceleration level. A short, fat tether will have the same tip velocity VT as a long, skinny tether of the same mass. The acceleration level G felt by the payload at the tip of the tether will vary as the tether length L with G = VT2/L.

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

The basic equation for the ratio of the mass MT of one arm of a spinning tether to the mass MP of the payload plus grapple on the end of the tether arm is:2,9

MT/MP = π1/2(VT/VC) exp [(VT/VC)2] erf (VT/VC)

(1)

Where the error function erf (VT/VC) ~ 1 for VT/VC>1, VT is the tether tip speed, and VC = (2U/Fd)1/2 is the maximum tip speed of an untapered tether, where U is the ultimate tensile strength of the tether material, d is its density, and F >1 is an engineering safety factor derating the “ultimate” tensile strength to a safer “practical” value. The engineering safety factor F to be used in different applications is discussed in detail by Hoyt9 and is typically between 1.75 and 3.0. The material presently used for space tethers is a polyethylene polymer called Spectra™, which is commercially available in tonnage quantities as fishing net line. Although slightly stronger materials exist, and should be used when they become commercially available, we do not need them to make the MERITT system feasible. Spectra™ 2000 has an ultimate tensile strength of U = 4.0 GPa, a density of 970 kg/m3, and an ultimate (F = 1) characteristic velocity of VU = (2U/d)1/2 = 2.9 m/s. Assuming that the grapple on the end of the tether masses 20% of the payload mass, we can use Equation (1) to calculate the mass ratio of a one arm Spectra™ tether to the payload it is handling, assuming various different safety factors and various different tether tip velocities, to be:
Table 1. Ratio of Spectra™ Tether Mass to Payload Mass (Grapple 20% of Payload)

From this table we can see that by using Spectra™ 2000, we can achieve tether tip velocities of 2.0 km/s with reasonable tether mass ratios (<10) and good safety factors. Higher tip velocities than 2.0 km/s are achievable using higher mass ratios, lower safety factors, and stronger materials. Tether Survivability There are many objects in Earth space, ranging from micrometeorites to operational spacecraft with 10 meter wide solar electric arrays. We can design interconnected multiple strand open net Hoytether™ structures that can reliably (>99.9%) survive in space for decades despite impacts by objects up to 30 cm (1 foot) or so in size. Objects larger than 30 cm will impact all the strands at one time, cutting the tether. These large objects could include operational spacecraft, which would also be damaged by the impact. Objects larger than 30 cm are all known and tracked by the U.S. Space Command. There are about 6000 such objects in low and medium Earth orbit, of which an estimated 600 will be operational spacecraft in the 2005 time frame. Depending upon the choice of the EarthWhip orbit, calculations show that there is a small (<1%) but finite chance of the EarthWhip tether striking one of the 600 operational spacecraft. It will therefore be incumbent on the tether system fabricators and operators to produce EarthWhip tether systems that maintain an accurate inventory of the known large objects and control the tether system center of mass orbital altitude and phase, the tether rotation rate and phase, and the tether libration and vibration amplitudes and phases, to insure that the tether system components do not penetrate a volume of “protected space” around these orbiting objects. MERITT Modeling Calculations of the MERITT system performance were performed using the mathematical modeling software package “TK Solver” which allows the user to type in the relevant equations and get results without having to solve the model algebraically or structure it as a procedure, as long as the number of independent relationships equals the number of variables. This is very useful in a complex system when one may wish to constrain various variables for which it would be difficult, if not impossible, to solve and to perform numerical experiments to investigate the behavior of the system.
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

Two versions of a tether based interplanetary transfer system are being worked on, one for tether-only transfers and the other incorporating an aerobraking pass at the destination body to aid in capture and rotation of the line of apsides. It should be emphasized that the results presented here are very preliminary and much remains to be done with the software. Because of the ongoing work and the growing number of variables and lines of code, we will not try to go through this line by line here. Questions concerning the code should be referred to Gerald Nordley at the above address. The general architecture of the models is sequential. A payload is picked up from a trajectory at the origin planet, and added to a rotating tether in a highly elliptical orbit around the origin planet. The pickup is accomplished by matching the position and velocity of the grapple end of the unloaded rotating tether to payload position and velocity. This addition of the payload mass to one end of the tether shifts the center of mass of the tether toward the payload. The tether used in these examples is modeled as a rigid line with two arms, a grapple, a counterweight and a central mass. The tether is assumed to be designed for a payload with a given mass and a “safety factor” of two, as described in Hoyt and Forward9 and to be dynamically symmetrical with a payload of that mass attached. The mass distribution in the arms of the tether was determined by dividing the tether into ten segments, each massive enough to support the mass outward from its center; this was not needed for the loaded symmetric tether cases presented here, but will be useful in dealing with asymmetric counterweighted tethers. The total mass of each tether arm was determined from equation (1). The continuously tapered mass defined by equation (1) was found to differ by only a few percent from the summed segment mass of the 10 segment tether model used in the analysis, and the segment masses were adjusted accordingly until the summed mass fit the equation. The small size of this adjustment, incidentally, can be taken as independent confirmation of equation (1). We ended up designing many candidates for the EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers, from some with very large central station masses that were almost unaffected by the pickup or toss of a payload, to those that were so light that the toss of an outgoing payload caused their orbits to shift enough that the tether tip hit the planetary atmospheres, or the catch of an incoming payload sent the tether (and payload) into an escape trajectory from the planet. After many trials, we found some examples of tethers that were massive enough that they could toss and catch payloads without shifting into undesirable orbits, but didn’t mass too much more than the payloads they could handle. The tethers are assumed to be made of Spectra™ 2000 material braided into a Hoytube™ structure with a safety factor of 2. The tether design consists of a large central station with a solar array power supply, winches, and control systems, plus any ballast mass needed to bring the mass of the total system up to the desired final mass value. From the tether central station is extended two similar tethers, with a taper and mass determined by equation (1) according to the loaded tip velocity desired. At the end of the tethers are grapples that each mass 20% of the payloads to be handled. To simplify this initial analysis, we assumed that one grapple is holding a dummy payload with a mass equal to the active payload, so that after the grapple on the active arm captures a payload, the tether system is symmetrically balanced. Later, more complex analyses will probably determine that a one-arm tether system will do the job equally well and cost less. Shift in Tether Center of Mass The shift of the center of mass of the tether system when a payload was attached or released was determined by adding the moments of the unloaded tether about the loaded center of symmetry and dividing by the unloaded mass. Figure 4 illustrates the four general circumstances of tether operations: origin pickup, origin release, destination capture and destination release. The shift of the center of mass of the tether system when a payload was attached or released was determined by adding the moments of the unloaded tether about the loaded center of symmetry and dividing by the unloaded mass. Figure 4 illustrates the four general circumstances of tether operations; origin pickup, origin release, destination capture and destination release. It turns out that the dynamics of an ideal rigid tether system with a given payload can be fairly well modeled by simply accounting for the change in the position and motion of the tether’s center of mass as the payload is caught and released.

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

When the payload is caught, the center of mass shifts toward the payload and the tether assumes a symmetrical state. The velocity of the tip around the loaded center of mass is simply its velocity around the unloaded center of mass minus the velocity of the point that became the new center of mass about the old center of mass. The change in the tether orbital vector is fully described by the sum of the vector of the old center of mass and the vector at the time of capture or release of the point that becomes the new center of mass relative to the old center of mass. Since the tether loses altitude with both the catch and the throw, its initial altitude must be high enough so that it does not enter the atmosphere after it throws the payload. Once the payload is released, its velocity and position are converted to Keplerian orbital elements that are propagated to the outgoing patch point. At this point, they are converted back to position and velocity, and transformed to the Sun frame of reference. The velocity of insertion into the orbit in the Sun’s frame of reference is essentially the vector sum of the hyperbolic excess velocity with respect to the origin planet and the origin planet’s orbital velocity about the Sun. This vector is done in polar coordinates, and the angle portion of this vector in the origin planet frame is, at this point, a free choice. For now, an estimate or “guess” of this quantity is made. The resulting vector is then converted into Sun frame orbital elements and propagated to the patch point near the orbit of the destination planet. There, it is transformed into the destination planet coordinates. Tether-Only Incoming Payload Capture For the tether-only capture scenario, the velocity and radius of the tip of the tether orbiting the destination mass are calculated and iteratively matched to the velocity of the payload on an orbit approaching the destination planet, as shown in Figure 5. The distance of the patch point and the relative velocity there provide the energy of the orbit. The radius and velocity of the tether tip provide another pair of numbers and this is sufficient to define an approach orbit when they match. There are a large number of free parameters in this situation with respect to the tether orbit that can be varied to produce a capture. There is a good news / bad news aspect to this. The difficulty is that the problem is not self-defined and to make the model work,
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Figure 4. Tether Capture / Release Operations

Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

some arbitrary choices must be made. The good news is that this means there is a fair amount of operational flexibility in the problem and various criteria can be favored and trades made. In this work, we have generally tried to select near-resonant tether orbits that might be “tied” to geopotential features so that they precess at the local solar rate and thus maintain their apsidal orientation with respect to the planet-Sun line. The Russian Molniya communications satellites about Earth and the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft use such orbits The Sun-referenced arguments of periapsis, ω, in figures 5, 6, and 7 are technically not constants, but can be treated as such for short spans of time when apsidal precession nearly cancels the angular rate of the planet’s orbit about the Sun. The fastest transfer times are generally associated with the fastest usable periapsis velocities. These are found when the tether is at periapsis and its tip at the zenith of its swing. In one approach to this model, these tether conditions are used to set the periapsis velocity and radius of the incoming orbit. This, in turn, defines the relative velocity at the patch point, and the origin planet injection angle can be iterated to produce a Sun frame orbit that produces that relative velocity at the destination planet patch point.

Figure 5. Tether-Only Capture Scenario

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

Aerobraking Payload Capture In the case of using aerobraking in the planetary atmosphere, the injection angle can be optimized for minimum transfer time. As shown in Figure 6, the radius at which the atmosphere of the destination planet is dense enough to sustain an aerodynamic trajectory is used to define the periapsis of the approach orbit; there is no velocity limit. In a similar manner, the tether tip at an estimated capture position and velocity, together with the radius at which the outgoing payload resumes a ballistic trajectory define an exit orbit which results in tether capture. The difference in the periapsis velocity of this orbit and the periapsis velocity of the inbound trajectory is the velocity that must be dissipated during the aerodynamic maneuver. For Mars bound trajectories, this aerobraking ∆v is on the order of 5 km/s, as compared to direct descent ∆V’s of 9 km to 15 km/s. Also, payloads meant to be released into suborbital trajectories already carry heat shields, though designed for lower initial velocities. After the tether tip and the incoming payload are iteratively matched in time, position and velocity, the center of mass orbit of the loaded tether is propagated to the release point. This is another free choice, and the position of the tether arm at release determines both the resulting payload and tether orbit. In this preliminary study, care was taken to ensure that the released payload did enter the planet’s atmosphere, the tether tip did not, and that the tether was not boosted into an escape orbit.

Figure 6. Aerobraking Tether Capture

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

Initial Planet Whip Analysis We first carried out analyses of a number of MERITT missions using a wide range of assumptions for the tether tip speed and whether or not aerobraking was used. The trip times for the various scenarios are shown in Table 3. As can be seen from Table 3, the system has significant growth potential. If more massive tethers are used, or stronger materials become available, the tether tip speeds can be increased, cutting the transit time even further. The transit times in Table 3 give the number of days from payload pickup at one planet until payload reentry at the other planet, and include tether “hang time” and coast of the payload between the patch points and the planets. Faster transit times can be made with higher energy initial orbits for the payload and the tether. With a 2.5 km/s tip speed on the PlanetWhip tethers and using aerobraking at Mars (see Figure 6), the Earth orbit-Mars orbit transit time can be made about 94 days. PlanetWhip Analysis The initial mathematical model program made many simplifying assumptions, which are gradually being removed. One issue that was not addressed was the apsidal orientation of a tether expected to both catch and throw payloads. Figure 7 is a diagram showing how a single tether toss and catch system would work on either the Earth or Mars end of the MERITT system, for a finite mass PlanetWhip tether. The incoming payload brushes the upper atmosphere of the planet, slows a little using aerobraking, and is caught by a rotating tether in a low energy elliptical orbit. After the payload is caught, the center of mass of the tether shifts and the effective length of the tether from center of mass to the payload catching tip is shortened, which is the reason for the two different radii circles for the rotating tether in the diagram. The orbit of the tether center of mass changes from a low energy elliptical orbit to a higher energy elliptical orbit with its periapsis shifted with respect to the initial orbit. The tether orbit would thus oscillate between two states: 1) a low energy state wherein it would be prepared to absorb the energy from an incoming payload without becoming hyperbolic and 2) a high energy state for tossing an outgoing payload.
Table 3. Potential MERITT Interplanetary Transfer Times

The periapsis of the tether orbit is pushed counterclockwise for where a tether-only capture would occur by the angular distance needed for aerobraking and the periapsis rotations caused by capturing and releasing the payload at non-zero true anomalies. If the periapsis is shifted enough, the tether may be able to inject a payload on a return trajectory without waiting for many months, or using substantial amounts of propellant to produce the needed alignment. Detailed MERITT Example There are a large number of variables in the MERITT system concept, and many of those variables can be freely chosen at the start of the system design. We have carried out dozens of complete round-trip scenarios under various different assumptions, such as: aerobraking before tether catch versus direct tether-to-tether catch; sub-, circular, and elliptical initial and final payload orbits; 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and higher tether tip velocities; large, small and minimum tether central facility masses; etc. We will present here just one of the many possible MERITT scenarios using finite mass EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers, but do it in extensive detail so the reader can understand where the broad assumptions are, while at the same time appreciating the accuracy of the simulations between the broad assumptions. In most cases, the matches between the payload trajectories and the tether tip trajectories are accurate to 3 and 4 decimal places.
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

The scenario we will describe uses EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers of near minimum mass made of Spectra™ 2000 with a tip speed of 2.0 km/s. Because they have small total masses, the toss and catch operations significantly affect the tether rotation speed, center of mass, and orbital parameters, all of which are taken into account in the simulation. The payload is assumed to be initially launched from Earth into a suborbital trajectory to demonstrate to the reader that the MERITT system has the capability to supply all of the energy and momentum needed to move the payload from the upper atmosphere of the Earth to the upper atmosphere of Mars and back again. We don’t have to ask the payload to climb to nearly Earth escape before the MERITT system takes over.

Figure 7. “PlanetWhip” showing catch and toss states using aerobraking.

In practice, it would probably be wise to have the payload start off in an initial low circular orbit. The energy needed to put the payload into a low circular orbit is not that much greater than the energy needed to put the payload into a suborbital trajectory with an apogee just outside the Earth’s atmosphere. The circular orbit option also has the advantage that there would be plenty of time to adjust the payload orbit to remove launch errors before the arrival of the EarthWhip tether.

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

In the example scenario, the payload, in its suborbital trajectory, is picked up by the EarthWhip tether and tossed from Earth to Mars. At Mars it is caught by the MarsWhip tether without the use of aerobraking, and put into a trajectory that enters the Martian atmosphere at low velocity. Since this scenario does not use aerobraking, the return scenario is just the reverse of the outgoing scenario. Payload Mass We have chosen a canonical mass for the payload of 1000 kg. If a larger payload mass is desired, the masses of the tethers scale proportionately. The scenario assumes that the payload is passive during the catch and throw operations. In practice, it might make sense for the payload to have some divert rocket propulsion capability to assist the grapple during the catch operations. In any case, the payload will need divert rocket propulsion capability to be used at the midpoint of the transfer trajectory to correct for injection errors. Tether Mass Both the EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers were assumed to consist of a robotic central station, two similar tethers, two grapples at the ends of the two tethers, and, to make the analysis simpler, one grapple would be holding a dummy payload so that when the active payload is caught, the tether would be symmetrically balanced. The tether central station would consist of a solar electric power supply, tether winches, and command and control electronics. There may be no need to use center of mass rocket propulsion for ordinary tether operations. Both tethers can be adequately controlled in both their rotational parameters and center-of-mass orbital parameters by “gravitygradient” propulsion forces and torques generated by changing the tether length at appropriate times in the tether orbit.7,16,17 The EarthWhip tether would also have a small conductive portion of the tether that would use electrodynamic tether propulsion,9 where electrical current pumped through the tether pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth to add or subtract both energy and angular momentum from the EarthWhip orbital dynamics, thus ultimately maintaining the total energy and angular momentum of the entire MERITT system against losses without the use of propellant. The grapple mechanisms are assumed in this scenario to mass 20% of the mass of the payload, or 200 kg for a 1000 kg payload. It is expected, however, that the grapple mass will not grow proportionately as the payload mass increases to the many tens of tons needed for crewed Mars missions. In the scenario presented here, it is assumed that the grapples remain at the ends of the tethers during the rendezvous procedure. In practice, the grapples will contain their own tether winches powered by storage batteries, plus some form of propulsion. As the time for capture approaches, the grapple, under centrifugal repulsion from the rotation of the tether, will release its tether winches, activate its propulsion system, and fly ahead to the rendezvous point. It will then reel in tether as needed to counteract planetary gravity forces in order to “hover” along the rendezvous trajectory, while the divert thrusters match velocities with the approaching payload. In this manner, the rendezvous interval can be stretched to many tens of seconds. If needed, the rendezvous interval can be extended past the time when the tip of the tether passes through the rendezvous point by having the grapple let out tether again, while using the divert thrusters to complete the payload capture. The grapple batteries can be recharged between missions by the grapple winch motor / dynamos, by allowing the grapple winches to reel out while the central winches are being reeled in using the central station power supply. The grapple rocket propellant will have to be resupplied either by bringing up “refueling” payloads or extracting residual fuel from payloads about to be deorbited into a planetary atmosphere.

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

For this scenario, we assumed that, when loaded with a payload, the EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers were rotating with a tether tip speed of VT = 2,000 m/s. The length of each tether arm was chosen as L = 400 km in order to keep the acceleration on the payload, G = VT2/L, near one gee. We also assumed that the total mass of the Whips is 15,000 kg for a 1000 kg payload (16,000 kg total). This mass includes the central station, both tethers, the grapples at the ends of the tethers, and the dummy payload mass. This is about the minimum tether mass needed in order for the tether centerof-mass orbits to remain stable before and after a catch of a payload with a velocity difference of 2000 m/s. The tether material was assumed to be Spectra™ 2000 with an ultimate tensile strength of U = 4.0 GPa, a density d = 970 kg/m3, and an ultimate tip velocity for an untapered tether of VU = (2U/d)1/2 = 2872 m/s. The tether safety factor was initially chosen at F = 2.0, which results in an engineering characteristic velocity for the tether of VC = (2U/2d)1/2 = 2031 m/s. Using VC and VT in equation (1), we find that the mass ratio of one arm of a tapered Spectra™ 2000 tether is 3.841 times the mass at the tip of the tether. Since the mass at the end of the tether consists of the 1000 kg payload and the 200 kg grapple, the minimum total mass of one tether arm is 4609 kg, or about 4.6 times the mass of the 1000 kg payload. The amount of taper is significant, but not large. The total cross-sectional area of the tether at the tip, where it is holding onto the payload, is 6 mm2 or 2.8 mm in diameter, while the area at the base, near the station, is 17.3 mm2 or 4.7 mm in diameter. This total cross-sectional area will be divided up by the Hoytether™ design into a large number of finer cables. Equation (1), however, applies to a rotating tether far from a massive body. Since the EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers are under the most stress near periapsis, when they are closest to their respective planets, we need to take into account the small additional stress induced by the gravity gradient forces of the planets, which raises the mass to about 4750 kg for a 1000 kg payload. We will round this up to 4800 kg for the tether material alone, corresponding to a free-space safety factor of 2.04, so that the total mass of the tether plus grapple is an even 5000 kg. With each tether arm massing 5000 kg including grapple, one arm holding a dummy payload of 1000 kg, and a total mass of 15,000 kg, the mass of the central station is 4000 kg, which is a reasonable mass for its functions. There are a large number of tether parameter variations that would work equally well, including shorter tethers with higher gee loads on the payloads, and more massive tethers with higher safety factors. All of these parameters will improve as stronger materials become commercially available, but the important thing to keep in mind is that the numbers used for the tethers assume the use of Spectra™ 2000, a commercial material sold in tonnage quantities as fishing nets, fishing line (SpiderWire), and kite line (LaserPro). We don’t need to invoke magic materials to go to Mars using tethers. Tether Rotational Parameters When the EarthWhip or MarsWhip tethers are holding onto a payload, they are symmetrically balanced. The center-ofmass of the tether is at the center-of-mass of the tether central station. The effective arm length from the tether centerof-mass to the payload is 400 km, the tip speed is exactly 2 km/s and the rotation period is P = 20.94 min = 0.3491 hr. When the Whips are not holding onto a payload, then the center-of-mass of the Whip shifts 26,667 m toward the dummy mass tether arm, and the effective length of the active tether arm becomes 426,667 m, while the effective tip velocity at the end of this longer arm becomes 2,133 m/s. (Since there is no longer a payload on this arm, the higher tip velocity can easily be handled by the tether material.) The rotational period in this state is the same, 1256.64 s. Payload Trajectory Parameters The Earth-launched payload trajectory chosen for this example scenario is a suborbital trajectory with an apogee altitude of 203,333 m (6581.333 km radius) and an apogee velocity of 7,568 m/s. The circular orbit velocity for that radius is 7,782 m/s.

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

EarthWhip Before Payload Pickup The EarthWhip starts out in an unloaded state with an effective length for its active arm of 426,667 m from the centerof-rotation, a tip velocity of 2,133 m/s and a rotational period of 1256.64 s. The center-of-mass of the EarthWhip is in a highly elliptical orbit with an apogee of 33,588 km (almost out to geosynchronous orbit), an eccentricity of 0.655, an orbital period of exactly 8 hours, a perigee radius of 7008 km (630 km altitude), and a perigee velocity of 9,701 m/s. The tether rotational phase is adjusted so that the active tether arm is pointing straight down at perigee, with the tether tip velocity opposing the center-of-mass velocity. The tip of the tether is thus at an altitude of 630 km-426.7 km = 203.3 km and a velocity with respect to the Earth of 9,701 m/s - 2,133 m/s = 7,568 m/s, which matches the payload altitude and velocity. EarthWhip After Payload Pickup After picking up the payload, the loaded EarthWhip tether is now symmetrically balanced. Since the added payload had both energy and momentum appropriate to its position on the rotating tether, the EarthWhip rotation angular rate does not change and the period of rotation remains at 1257 s. The center of mass of the loaded EarthWhip, however, has shifted to the center of the tether central station, so the effective length of the loaded tether arm is now at its design length of 400,000 km and tip velocity of 2,000 m/s. With the addition of the payload, however, the orbit of the tether center-of-mass has dropped 26.7 km to a perigee of 6981.3 km, while the perigee velocity has slowed to 9,568 m/s. The apogee of the new orbit is 28,182 km and the eccentricity is 0.603, indicating that this new orbit is less eccentric than the initial orbit due to the payload mass being added near perigee. The period is 23,197 s or 6.44 hours. Payload Toss The catch and toss operation at the Earth could have been arranged as shown in Figure 6, so that the payload catch was on one side of the perigee and the payload toss was on the other side of the perigee, a half-rotation of the tether later (10.5 minutes). To simplify the mathematics for this initial analysis, however, we assumed that the catch occurred right at the perigee, and that the tether holds onto the payload for a full orbit. The ratio of the tether center-of-mass orbital period of 23,197 s is very close to 18.5 times the tether rotational period of 1256.64 s, and by adjusting the length of the tether during the orbit, the phase of the tether rotation can be adjusted so that the tether arm holding the payload is passing through the zenith just as the tether center-of-mass reaches its perigee. The payload is thus tossed at an altitude of 603 km + 400 km = 1003 km (7381 km radius), at a toss velocity equal to the tether center-of-mass perigee velocity plus the tether rotational velocity or 9,568 m/s + 2,000 m/s = 11,568 m/s. In the combined catch and toss maneuver, the payload has been given a total velocity increment of twice the tether tip velocity or ∆v = 4,000 m/s. EarthWhip After Payload Toss After tossing the payload, the EarthWhip tether is back to its original mass. It has given the payload a significant fraction of its energy and momentum. At this point in the analysis, it is important to insure that no portion of the tether will intersect the upper atmosphere and cause the EarthWhip to deorbit. We have selected the minimum total mass for the EarthWhip at 15,000 kg to insure that doesn’t happen. The new orbit for the EarthWhip tether has a perigee of its center of mass of 6955 km (577 km altitude), apogee of 24,170 km, eccentricity of 0.552, and a period of 5.37 hours. With the new perigee at 577 km altitude, even if the tether rotational phase is not controlled, the tip of the active arm of the tether, which is at 426.67 km from the center-of-mass of the tether, does not get below 150 km from the surface of the Earth where it might experience atmospheric drag. In practice, the phase of the tether rotation will be adjusted so that at each perigee passage, the tether arms are roughly tangent to the surface of the Earth so that all parts of the tether are well above 500 km altitude, where the air drag and traffic concerns are much reduced. With its new orbital parameters, the EarthWhip tether is in its “low energy” state. There are two options then possible. One option is to keep the EarthWhip in its low energy elliptical orbit to await the arrival of an incoming payload from Mars. The EarthWhip will then go through the reverse of the process that it used to send the payload from Earth on its way to Mars. In the process of capturing the incoming Mars payload, slowing it down, and depositing it gently into the Earth’s atmosphere, the EarthWhip will gain energy which will put it back into the “high energy” elliptical orbit it started out in. If, however, it is desired to send another payload out from Earth before there is an incoming payload from Mars,
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

then the solar electric power supply on the tether central station can be used to generate electrical power. This electrical power can then be used to restore the EarthWhip to its high-energy elliptical orbit using either electrodynamic tether propulsion9 or gravity-gradient propulsion.16,17 Payload Escape Trajectory The velocity gain of ∆v ~ 4,000 m/s given the payload deep in the gravity well of Earth results in a hyperbolic excess velocity of 5,081 m/s. The payload moves rapidly away from Earth and in 3.3 days reaches the “patch point” on the boundary of the Earth’s “sphere of influence,” where the gravity attraction of the Earth on the payload becomes equal to the gravity attraction of the Sun on the payload. An accurate calculation of the payload trajectory would involve including the gravity field of both the Sun and the Earth (and the Moon) all along the payload trajectory. For this simplified first-order analysis, however, we have made the assumption that we can adequately model the situation by just using the Earth gravity field when the payload is near the Earth and only the Solar gravity field when we are far from the Earth, and that we can switch coordinate frames from an Earth-centered frame to a Sun-centered frame at the “patch point” on the Earth’s “sphere of influence.” Payload Interplanetary Trajectory When this transition is made at the patch point, we find that the payload is on a Solar orbit with an eccentricity of 0.25, a periapsis of 144 Gm and an apoapsis of 240 Gm. It is injected into that orbit at a radius of 151.3 Gm and a velocity of 32,600 m/s. (The velocity of Earth around the Sun is 29,784 m/s.) It then coasts from the Earth sphere-of-influence patch point to the Mars sphere-of-influence patch point, arriving at the Mars patch point at a radius of 226.6 Gm from the Sun and a velocity with respect to the Sun of 22,100 m/s. (The velocity of Mars in its orbit is 24,129 m/s.) The elapsed time from the Earth patch point to the Mars patch point is 148.9 days. Payload Infall Toward Mars At the patch point, the analysis switches to a Mars frame of reference. The payload starts its infall toward Mars at a distance of 1.297 Gm from Mars and a velocity of 4,643 m/s. It is on a hyperbolic trajectory with a periapsis radius of 4451 km (altitude above Mars of 1053 km) and a periapsis velocity of 6,370 m/s. The radius of Mars is 3398 km and because of the lower gravity, the atmosphere extends out 200 km to 3598 km. The infall time is 3.02 days. MarsWhip Before Payload Catch The MarsWhip tether is waiting for the arrival of the incoming high velocity payload in its “low energy” orbital state. The active tether arm is 426,667 m long and the tip speed is 2,133 m/s. The center-of-mass of the unbalanced tether is in an orbit with a periapsis radius of 4025 km (627 km altitude), periapsis velocity of 4,236 m/s, apoapsis of 21,707 km, eccentricity of 0.687, and a period close to 0.5 sol. (A “sol” is a Martian day of 88,775 s, about 39.6 minutes longer than an Earth day of 86,400 s. The sidereal sol is 88,643 s.) The orbit and rotation rate of the MarsWhip tether is adjusted so that the active arm of the MarsWhip is passing through the zenith just as the center-of-mass is passing through the perigee point. The grapple at the end of the active arm is thus at 4024.67+426.67 = 4,451.3 km, moving at 4,236 m/s + 2,133 m/s = 6,370 m/s, the same radius and velocity as that of the payload, ready for the catch. MarsWhip After Payload Catch After catching the payload, the MarsWhip tether is now in a balanced configuration. The effective arm length is 400,000 m and the tether tip speed is 2,000 m/s. In the process of catching the incoming payload, the periapsis of the center-ofmass of the tether has shifted upward 26,667 m to 4,051 km and the periapsis velocity has increased to 4,370 m/s, while the apoapsis has risen to 37,920 km, and the eccentricity to 0.807. The period is 1.04 sol. Payload Release and Deorbit The payload is kept for one orbit, while the phase of the tether rotation is adjusted so that when the tether center-of-mass reaches periapsis, the active tether arm holding the payload is approaching the nadir orientation. If it were kept all the way to nadir, the payload would reach a minimum altitude of about 250 km (3648 km radius) at a velocity with respect to the Martian surface of 4370 m/s - 2000 m/s = 2370 m/s. At 359.5 degrees (almost straight down), this condition is
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

achieved to four significant figures. The payload is then moving at a flight path angle with respect to the local horizon of 0.048 radians and enters the atmosphere at a velocity of 2,442 km/s. MarsWhip after Deorbit of Payload After tossing the payload, the MarsWhip tether is back to its original mass. The process of catching the high-energy incoming payload, and slowing it down for a gentle reentry into the Martian atmosphere, has given the MarsWhip a significant increase in its energy and momentum. At this point in the analysis, it is important to check that the MarsWhip started out with enough total mass so that it will not be driven into an escape orbit from Mars. The final orbit for the tether is found to have a periapsis radius of 4078 km (676 km altitude so that the tether tip never goes below 253 km altitude), a periapsis velocity of 4,503 m/s, an apoapsis radius of 115,036 km, an eccentricity of 0.931, and a period of 6.65 sol. The tether remains within the gravity influence of Mars and is in its high-energy state, ready to pick up a payload launched in a suborbital trajectory out of the Martian atmosphere, and toss it back to Earth. Elapsed Time The total elapsed transit time, from capture of the payload at Earth to release of the payload at Mars, is 157.9 days. This minimal mass PlanetWhip scenario is almost as fast as more massive PlanetWhip tethers since, although the smaller mass tethers cannot use extremely high or low eccentricity orbits without hitting the atmosphere or being thrown to escape, the time spent hanging on the tether during those longer orbit counts as well and the longer unbalanced grapple arm of the lightweight tether lets it grab a payload from a higher energy tether orbit. Future MERITT Studies As emphasized before, this paper is only the first of a series of papers that will continue to demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of the MERITT concept by finding optimum solutions to the various technical challenges, and illustrating ways to augment and expand the concept. The follow-on papers, numbered II to VII, will cover the following topics: II. Finite PlanetWhip Mass Analysis This paper will document the detailed effects of the finite mass of the EarthWhip and MarsWhip tethers on the operation of the MERITT system, especially the capture and toss phases. Special attention will be given to scenarios where the payload “helps” in the transfer by starting out in circular or elliptical orbits with significant energy and angular momentum in them, so the PlanetWhip does not shoulder the whole transport burden. Then, for various values of interplanetary travel time and transit velocity, this paper will determine the minimum mass needed by the PlanetWhip to prevent it from being deorbited during a toss or recoiling to escape during a catch. III. Full Trajectory Analysis This paper will remove the simplifying assumptions made during the initial feasibility analysis concerning the gravity fields of the planets, the orbits of the planets, the tilt of the planet axes, the interplanetary trajectory, and the actual positions of the planets in the coming two decades. It is not expected that including these corrections will affect the feasibility of the concept. It will, however, result in an accurate estimate of the width of the launch windows, optimum launch times for different toss velocities and resultant transit times, and, hopefully, some attractive case studies. IV. Tether Dynamics Analysis This paper has assumed ideal rigid tethers. Real tether materials have both elasticity and damping. The Hoytether™ structure then adds its own damping and a non-linear elasticity and strength response as the secondary strands come into play after sufficient elongation. Then, depending upon the placement of intermediate masses along the tether, the long tether structure has libration, pendulum, and skip-rope modes, plus longitudinal, transverse, and torsional vibrational modes. The analysis would study the effect of the catch and throw operations on the excitation of those modes, ways to minimize the excitation, and how the existence of high amplitude oscillations of those modes could affect the accuracy of the catch and throw operations.
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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

V. Energy / Momentum Management One of the major advantages of the MERITT system over rocket methods for getting to Mars is that once two-way traffic is established, the system can, in principle, be self-powered, with incoming payload capsules restoring energy and angular momentum lost by the tethers when throwing outgoing payloads. A payload thrown to Mars from a tether on Earth typically arrives with much more velocity than the tether can handle at feasible tip velocities, and trajectories have to use aerobraking or be deliberately deoptimized to allow capture. Energy will be needed to make up drag losses, for tether damping, for periapsis rotation, and for phasing maneuvers, so we need to study methods for restoring that energy and momentum. The EarthWhip tether can supply both of these by including a Hoyt Electrodynamic Force Tether (HEFT™) system9 in its structure. MarsWhip tether energy management can be accomplished by including a solar electric power supply on the central facility and using the electrical energy to power a tether winch to periodically change the tether length at the proper point in the MarsWhip elliptical trajectory,15,16 making the orbit more or less elliptical for the same angular momentum. VI. Incremental Construction The objective of this paper would be to show how the EarthWhip tether can be built up incrementally, first serving to send small science payloads to Mars, while at the same time accumulating central facility mass by keeping upper stages and other unwanted masses. The Hoytether™ design also lends itself to incremental construction, not only in length but in thickness and taper, so that a 10, 20 or even 100 ton tether can be built out of a large number of 1 to 5 ton deployonly canisters each containing a 10-20 km long section of tether. Preliminary analysis also shows that a minimal mass MarsWhip can be tossed to Mars by a similar mass EarthWhip tether, arriving at Mars 180 days after toss. The MarsWhip could halt itself by use of an aerobraking module. Alternatively, it could employ the Landis18 tether assisted planetary orbital capture procedure, where prior to close approach to Mars, the tether is deployed so that one end is ahead of and much closer to Mars than the other, pulling that end of the tether into a different trajectory than the other end. If properly done, the tether system gains rotational energy and angular momentum from the non-linear gravity-whip interaction, at the expense of its center-of-mass orbital energy and angular momentum, and thus ends up rotating around its center-of-mass, with the center-of-mass in a highly elliptical capture orbit around Mars. Once in the capture orbit, the MarsWhip tether can use tether pumping15,16 to change the rotation rate of the tether and the ellipticity of its orbit to the desired values. After the MarsWhip is ready to receive incoming payloads, its tether and central facility can then be built up by additional incremental payloads. VII. Spinning Tether Payload Once the MERITT system has proved its reliability in handling science probes, sample return missions, and cargo missions, to robotically build up a Mars orbital station and surface base camp, then it could be considered for delivery of crewed interplanetary transit capsules. For these missions, the short trip times available using the MERITT system will minimize the radiation exposure to the crew. In addition, the MERITT system could also provide a method of completely eliminating the biological effects of long periods in zero gee. The payload tossed by the EarthWhip and caught by the MarsWhip would consist of two capsules connected by a tether and put into slow rotation during the toss operation. After the toss, a solar electric powered winch on one of the payload capsules would change the length of the tether to attain any desired artificial gravity level during the transit time interval. Since the payload can be caught by the tether grapple at either capsule end, and the capsule velocity can add or subtract from the MarsWhip tether tip velocity, the existence of a spinning payload opens up a whole new series of system optimizations to be explored. VIII. Transport to Other Planets Although Mars is the obvious first target for a Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (RITT) system, there is no reason why the RITT concept couldn’t be used for rapid transport among other planets and moons in the Solar System, as well as between planets and moons. The objective of this study would be to define “Planet”Whip tether systems for each planet that could provide two-way transport not only between that planet and Earth, but between that planet and other planets, ultimately resulting in a solar-system-wide tether transportation network.

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Mars-Earth Rapid Interplanetary Tether Transport (Meritt) System: I. Initial Feasibility Analysis

Conclusions We have shown that two rapidly spinning tethers in highly elliptical orbits about Earth and Mars, can be combined into a system that provides rapid interplanetary transport from a suborbital trajectory above the Earth’s atmosphere to a suborbital trajectory above the Martian atmosphere and back. Acknowledgments This research has been supported in part by Contract 07600-011 from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Dr. Robert A. Cassanova, Director, and in part by the Tethers Unlimited, Inc. IR&D program. References
1. M.L. Cosmo and E.C. Lorenzini, Tethers In Space Handbook - Third Edition, prepared for NASA/MSFC by Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, Dec 1997. 2. Hans Moravec, “A Non-Synchronous Orbital Skyhook,” J. Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 307-322, Oct-Dec 1977. 3. Hans Moravec, “Free Space Skyhooks,” November 1978. Unpublished notes obtained from the author. 4. Paul A. Penzo, “Tethers for Mars Space Operations,” The Case For Mars II, Ed. C.P. McKay, AAS Vol. 62, Science and Technology Series, pp. 445-465, July 1984. 5. Paul A. Penzo, “Prospective Lunar, Planetary, and Deep Space Applications of Tethers,” Paper AAS 86-367, AAS 33rd Annual Meeting, Boulder, CO, Oct 1986. 6. Martin O. Stern, Advanced Propulsion for LEO-Moon Transport, NASA CR-17084. Technical Report, California Space Institute, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093, June 1988. Progress Report on NASA Grant NAG 9-186, NASA/JSC, Houston, TX. 7. Joseph Carroll, “Preliminary Design for a 1 km/s Tether Transport Facility,” NASA OAST Third Annual Advanced Propulsion Workshop JPL, Pasadena, CA, 30-31 Jan 1992. 8. Robert L. Forward. “Tether Transport from LEO to the Lunar Surface,” AIAA Paper 91-2322, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, CA, June 1991. 9. R.P. Hoyt and R.L. Forward, LEO-Lunar Tether Transport System Study, Tethers Unlimited Final Report on Subcontract S06-34444 on NASA Grant P3776-5-96 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, April 1997. 10. R.P. Hoyt and R.L. Forward, “Tether Transport from Sub-Earth-Orbit to the Moon... And Back!,” 1997 International Space Development Conference, Orlando FL, May 1997. 11. R.P. Hoyt, “LEO-Lunar Tether Transport System,” AIAA Paper 97-2794, 33rd Joint Propulsion Conference, 1997. 12. R.P. Hoyt, “Tether System for Exchanging Payloads Between the International Space Station and the Lunar Surface,” 1997 Tether Technical Interchange Meeting, Huntsville AL, Sept 10-11, 1997. 13. Bate, R.R., D.D. Mueller and J.E. White, Fundamentals of Astrodynamics, Dover, 1971 14. Robert L. Forward, “Failsafe Multistrand Tether Structures for Space Propulsion,” In AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 28th Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, TN, July 1992. AIAA Paper 92-3214. 15. R.L. Forward and R.P. Hoyt, “Failsafe Multiline Hoytether Lifetimes,” AIAA paper 95-28903 1st AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, San Diego, CA, July 1995. 16. M. Martinez-Sanchez and S. Gavit, “Orbital Modifications Using Forced Tether Length Variations.” Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 10, pp. 233-241, May-June 1987. 17. G. Landis, “Reactionless Orbital Propulsion Using Tether Deployment,” Acta Astronautica, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 307-312, 1992; paper IAF-90254. 18. G. Landis, “Reactionless Orbital Capture Using Tethers,” paper AIAA-98-3406, 24th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, July 13-15, 1998, Cleveland OH. In slightly earlier form: 8th Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop, JPL 13-15 May, 1997.

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
William J. Clancey [2000] Introduction In July 2000 the Mars Society constructed a habitat on Devon Island near Haughton Crater,1 with the objective of promoting research on how people will live and work on Mars. The design of this habitat, called the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS; informally, “the hab”) has been influenced by NASA’s Reference Mission studies (Hoffman, 1997) and related plans for a Mars habitat (Zubrin, 1996; Micheels, 2000). The two-story 8 m-diameter structure of FMARS will house scientists and engineers who will investigate the geology and biology of the nearby terrain while experimenting with alternative habitat layouts, prototype instruments, communication tools, space suits and gloves, rovers, communications and support from remote teams, operational procedures, and so on, that might be used on Mars. Using FMARS as a research facility requires a framework for systematically defining and evaluating prototype designs and experimental protocols. This paper describes the current configuration of the hab (as built July 2000), dimensions of research that might be undertaken and expected contributions, ways of characterizing fidelity of analog studies, experimental scenarios, and management recommendations. Many analog studies have been conducted with an eye towards future, long-duration space travel. The focus has been primarily on the effects of isolation and confinement. Winter-over stays in Antarctica have been considered (e.g., Harrison, Clearwater, and McKay, 1991), as well as crews on submarines and Skylab (Connors, Harrison, and Akins, 1985). Stuster (1996) provides a commanding survey of data and recommendations from these settings and historical naval expeditions. In these studies we learn from corresponding settings and activities how people might behave during long-duration missions in confined habitats, and how to organize crews, activities, and facilities to foster good health and social well-being. However, by virtue of focusing on people confined to small spaces, with limited communication with the rest of humanity, few of these studies have considered the nature of extensive surface exploration, nor how an isolated crew will work with a remote support team. This is the benefit offered by FMARS in its open setting with authentic work on Devon Island, yet with only a restricted interior space in an isolated, harsh environment having limited natural resources. Thus building on prior work, we can take analog studies to a new dimension, in which more aspects of a realistic Mars exploration scenario are incorporated, such as weather prediction, surface navigation, rover assistants, deployed scientific instruments, geological sample analysis, remote collaboration, etc. The notion of analog then broadens from the idea of long-duration isolation and confinement to embrace the larger system of environment, exploration, and communications that will constitute a Mars surface operation. Rather than focusing so much on the psychology of stress, we can consider learning and improvisation, research collaboration at a distance, and how machines can be designed to complement human capabilities. Doing this well in the FMARS analog setting involves carefully analyzing the relation between Devon and Mars, so interactions between factors can be understood and confounding affects of non-corresponding features taken into account. The central part of this paper provides a preliminary approach for characterizing similarities and differences between Devon and Mars and a strategy for defining experimental protocols. A distinction is drawn between high-fidelity characteristics that are inherent or can be easily imposed (e.g., authentic geology investigation) and characteristics that require more planning and may be imposed in more limited experimental phases (e.g., wearing realistic gloves). For example, how is a geologist s observation, interpretation, and memory changed if drawing on site is not possible, but restricted to annotating photographs after returning to base camp? Ethnographic studies and modeling of practices
William J. Clancey; Chief Scientist, Human-Centered Computing Computational Sciences Division, MS 269-3; NASA / Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035; Bclancey@mail.arc.nasa.gov; (On leave from the Institute for Human-Machine Cognition University of West Florida, Pensacola.)
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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

establish a baseline of how people normally work. Behaviors that will be impossible or severely constrained on Mars can then be identified and their effect articulated, providing requirements for new tools and processes. The Hab as Constructed Figure 1 shows the upper deck layout of FMARS as it was initially configured for a trial occupation in July and early August 2000.2

Figure 1. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station, Upper deck as built July 2000 (to scale, accurate within 2 inches)

The blue chairs are personal camp chairs brought by two of the crew members; they were removed when the crew departed. The Comms (communication network) station was assembled on a Rubbermaid 50G container along with two power strips and battery rechargers for cameras and laptops. A WiLan Hopper Plus wireless internet hub (coming from satellite dish / repeater on a hill about 3/4 mile away) was connected to an eight-station ethernet mini-hub. Three or four laptops were often in use, including a G3 Apple Powerbook connected to an AirPort base station on the wardroom table. We used this table for eating, meeting, and working on computers. The galley included a stove, microwave, and water container. We stored utensils here, plus the drinks and condiments that were included in MREs (meals, ready-to-eat). Water was brought in from the base camp in 5 gallon containers. The bunks are staggered; for example, referring to Figure 1, BC s area has a top bunk and BN sleeps below inside the same rectangular area.

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

Electricity was produced by a 2.5 KW gas generator, connected to the hab downstairs via an extension cord, and distributed via three power strips and one Y-cord. About 12 plugs were in use at any time (chargers and camera transformers were not always plugged in).4 The rooms are not as evenly spaced as indicated in the figure; BC s was actually a few inches broader than the others. MB and BN had the most usable space. In general, being on the floor was judged superior because it allowed accessing the space to the side of the bed while in bed (more like a tent). The upper bunks are about five feet high. The lower deck (Figure 2) was only used for entry, personal hygiene, and Discovery Channel communications during the trial occupation. We also preferred to have internet connection in the living area, which was chosen to be the upper deck because it was much warmer and brighter. There were no lab activities planned for this time, which is a primary planned use for the lower deck.

Figure 2. Lower deck as of July 2000

All aspects of the layout in July 2000 are considered to be temporary. Appendix 1 lists the work required before formal experiments can be undertaken. A continuing debate concerns whether the interior design should appear finished (e.g., one crew member suggested following aerospace standards, such as the interior of a 747) or be inexpensive and easily changeable (e.g., painted plywood and 2x4s). This matter should be resolved by the FMARS science committee. Preliminary experience indicates that FMARS provides a significant opportunity for experimenting with different designs, so cost and ease of modification are important.

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

Analog Study Dimensions Use of FMARS will be managed by a science committee with representatives from NASA and the Mars Society. This committee will presumably solicit proposals for experimental work to be performed inside or around the hab. The work may involve 6 tools, facilities, or procedures that crew members will implement, possibly with direct participation by the proposing principal investigator or representative. For example, during the year 2000 field season, Hamilton SunStrand sent two representatives to Devon Island to perform experiments with a prototype space suit. How will such experiments be selected and managed? As a first step, we might consider how such proposals might be categorized. I refer to these as analog study dimensions, ways of characterizing a proposed study in which the hab and its environs are treated as an analog for living and working on Mars. Analog study dimensions include: • Discipline: Human factors, biology, sociology, geology, telecommunications, computer science, industrial engineering, architecture, etc. • Work / Life Activity: Data gathering / analysis, exploration, life support, recreation, planning, waste management, cooking & cleaning up, chores, retrieving / storing supplies, interaction with Earth, sleep / eating / hygiene, etc. • Mission Phases: Preflight, landing, set-up, exploration, reporting, pre-departure, crew handover • Engineering and Implementation: Requirements analysis, design, documentation, validation, training • Known Challenges: Atmosphere, gravity, radiation, dust, water, fuel • Technologies: Communications, life support, automation, etc. As an example of how different dimensions enter into analog research, consider a photograph (Figure 3) taken during the trial occupation, illustrating how people are using the facility and their tools (books, maps, laptops). Using such data, an architect might focus on how space is used (e.g., how people sit and read in front of their personal areas and use a chair for a foot rest). A telecommunications specialist might develop a wireless network for the hab to allow using a laptop in a stateroom. Focusing on work / life activities, one might observe how the crew has chosen to work quietly in the late afternoon, while remaining in visible contact with each other. Considering the work being done, a mission scheduler would observe that planning, reporting, and recreational reading are occurring at the same time, as different crew members have organized their day in different ways. Another study might consider how dust is managed (leaving outerwear on the lower deck). A life support study might indicate how the water supply (a primitive orange cooler here) is managed and recycled. Observing the duct tape so close to hand, we might inquire how the crew has been fixing or improving the facility. Indeed, the number of relevant observations from a single (well-chosen) photograph is incredible; an experienced multidisciplinary team would typically spend several hours analyzing a five-minute video of this same group setting (e.g., see Jordan, 1974). This example illustrates that different researchers will adopt different perspectives for experimenting with and studying the hab. The dimensions listed above could be used in a request for proposals to indicate relevant areas of interest; the science committee could prioritize these areas depending on activities planned for a given field season. In general, proposals should be sought that strive for synergy (relating simultaneous experiments), balance (covering the range of possible research dimensions), and system integration (understanding and designing for interactions between facilities, organization, procedures, and technologies).
Figure 3. Example observation relevant to analog studies in the hab. Four crew members are working independently on the upper deck in the late afternoon. View is towards the west, showing staterooms with open doors (cf. Figure 1).

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

Expected Contributions What research results might be expected from analog studies using FMARS? Although we cannot predict the serendipity of scientific work, it is useful to list obvious areas of contribution that might be expected: • • • • • • • • • • • • Mostly inside hab Hab design Daily life schedules and procedures Crew selection8 Mostly external to hab Space suit capability & durability Scientific instruments (types, deployment, monitoring) Communication protocols (mission support, PIs, public) Computer technologies Telecommunication / computer equipment (hab, rover, space suit, Earth) Automation requirements (life support, rovers, science, & exploration) Telescience, telemedicine, teletraining

This list could be helpful to organize experiments to cover the opportunities FMARS allows. For example, an effort might be made to include at least one experiment that takes into account crew selection. Similarly, given plans to have multiple habs in different locations (e.g., Arizona, Iceland), proposals for a given hab may focus on interacting factors, such as the relation of space suits and rover design. Presumably the FMARS science committee will develop this list early on to develop a shared set of objectives that can be communicated with researchers and the public. Understanding Fidelity in Analog Studies The environment and logistics of working on Devon Island and Mars differ in many important ways. What transfer of data and lessons can be claimed, given the confounding variables that are not part of a study? For example, must every extra-vehicular activity (EVA) occur in a space suit in order to replicate the safety problems of an unpressurized environment? Is there a principled way of analyzing away differences, to produce data that will be valid on Mars? We might begin by asking what characteristics make the Haughton site and scientific work in the crater unique or of special importance as a Mars analog. Two kinds of characteristics may be easily identified, those that are inherent in the site (Table 1) and those that are imposed (Table 2).
Table 1. Inherent high-fidelity characteristics at Devon Island relative to Mars surface operations

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
Table 2. Operational constraints that might be imposed at Devon Island to replicate Mars surface operations

Proposals for FMARS experiments should refer to the inherent constraints to indicate how the proposed work leverages the site and its existing support structure. Proposals also need to make explicit what fidelity characteristics are missing and how these will be handled by operational constraints, such as those listed in Table 2. It might be thought that the Devon Island environment is not extreme enough or our tools such as gas generators are too convenient and unrealistic for Mars. But life on Devon is closer to the edge than might be supposed. If a few more power strips were to break, as happened during the first night of the trial occupation, we would be unable to service all the computer and telecommunications gear on the upper deck. EVAs using an all terrain vehicle (ATV) may appear easy, but if a crew were sent out to the boulders of Lost Valley in the Haughton Crater, it might be difficult for them to navigate and return (in 1999 a group spent several hours clearing a path). Furthermore, during HMP-2000 there were several accidents involving ATVs, one of which was life threatening and required a helicopter transport to Resolute. Nevertheless, surviving on Devon, if not trivial, is arguably easy compared to living on Mars. So we must consider the fundamental differences between Devon Island and Mars (Table 3). Proposals for experimental work must indicate which of these differences could be confounding variables (invalidating lesson transfer to Mars surface operations) and how these might be ameliorated. In particular, the mix of operations might be similar to what will occur on Mars, even if specifics are different. For example, although the power on Devon Island will not be nuclear, the crew still needs to manage the available supply and monitor the proper operation of the facility. As indicated next, the differences10 between Devon and Mars might not only be argued away, but serve to generate study ideas.
Table 3. Characteristics of Devon Island site that distinguish it fundamentally from Mars

A Difference-Based Approach for Analog Studies Differences between Mars and Devon could be a primary driver for defining analog studies. One might assume that a major difference, such as the availability of ready medical care, would preclude using FMARS to understand that aspect of life on Mars. Or perhaps other issues under investigation would be contaminated by the lowered requirement for safety, crew training, local diagnostic instruments and medication, remote support, etc. However, rather than viewing
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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

major differences between Mars and Devon as reducing validity of what we learn there, we could use the difference as a way of highlighting what will be different on Mars, and then design tools and processes to address the difference. For example, taking the case of medical emergencies, one could enumerate problems that are currently handled in Resolute (or the more distant town of Yellowknife) and ask what knowledge and tools would be required to handle those problems at Devon Island itself. One result might be the conclusion that certain types of surgery, for example, will not be possible on the Mars surface until a permanent base camp, similar to Resolute, is established. Another approach would be to simulate medical emergencies, such as during an EVA, to understand and later validate communication tools and protocols for handling such problems.5 In short, a heuristic for generating FMARS experiments is to focus on key differences between Devon and Mars. With a given theme in mind, such as medical care, ethnographic studies would establish a baseline of how people normally work (e.g., observe the medical facilities at Resolute; how do they receive advice from distant physicians and what problems must be handled in Yellowknife?). Practices that would be impossible or severely constrained on Mars can be then identified and their effect articulated, providing requirements for new tools and processes. For example, the medical equipment at Resolute would be described and serve as a preliminary specification for what must installed in the hab. At some time during preparation for Mars missions, such equipment would be actually installed at one of the analog sites and crews that were not medical specialists trained in its use. This example illustrates how research related to FMARS does not necessarily entail being on Devon Island itself, but studying its support structure. Because the idea of difference-based research is so important, another example might be useful. Consider the implications of the Mars atmosphere. Astronauts will need to wear pressurized suits. Current designs preclude fine hand manipulation for long periods of time, as is required to draw or write. Observing geologists at Devon, we find that they frequently sketch rock formations in great detail during EVAs. How is a geologist s observation, interpretation, and memory is changed if drawing on site is not possible, but restricted to annotating photographs after a traverse is complete (or in a pressurized rover)? We could impose an experimental protocol to investigate this question. We might find that there is no difficulty, that work quality is greatly reduced, or that there are important individual differences. Given these findings, we would then know what importance to place on inventing a space suit glove that permits long periods of drawing. Notice that without such analysis, one might plunge head-first into glove design (certainly an awkward approach!). By understanding the implications of problems and considering first the breadth of alternatives available to ameliorating difficulties, we have a better chance of quickly developing cost-effective designs. Likely Scenarios and Study Methods The discussion to this point has been mostly bottom-up, considering components of research dimensions and fidelity characteristics, and how they might be used to define possible experiments. Another approach is to list study scenarios, based on the setting and past operations of the Haughton-Mars Project. These are in some sense obvious things to investigate, given the opportunity provided by FMARS.6 • Daily life in the hab: What will be the schedule in the long term? Should there be quiet times and places? What changes might be allowed for variety during the mission? • Crew organization: The commander notion fits the airplane model with “a pilot in command,” but is it the only model we should consider for Mars? • Traverse planning, navigating, and monitoring: If there are only four crew members and one is monitoring two outside, will the fourth person be overloaded in handling routine tasks, troubleshooting, and reconfiguring systems for the next crew activities? (This problem is anticipated to occur on the International Space Station.) • Setting up and managing a remote field camp: Look at off-nominal cases; set up problems as in standard mission sims, e.g., a bad ATV is seeded during the night, a simulated injury occurs. • Tending field instruments: Should there always be wireless transmission of telemetry to a central database? • Communication with mission support, co-PIs, and the public: How will the crew find time to record and format official reports? Given the impossibility of second-by-second tracking, to what extent will mission support know
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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

what is happening on Mars? • Maintaining and troubleshooting equipment, especially the power system: What’s needed for a repair / machine shop? How much time is required during a mission? Is just in time learning practical, with training materials supplied by mission support? • Mixed-initiative teleoperated exploration. Could robots retrieve sensor-loggers? • Analyzing data in the hab and researching related work over the internet. Will members of the science backrooms co-author papers with the crew, while they are on Mars? As an example scenario, Figure 4 shows a biologist and assistant visiting a remote site during the HMP-2000 field season. The biologist had placed temperature and UV instruments under and around plexiglass containers one year before. In addition, some of these had been treated with fertilizer. The site is near the Haughton River within the impact crater, about 10 km from the hab. In order to establish a baseline of normal practice, the biologist was observed and his actions documented, when the treatment and apparatus was placed and when it was revisited a year later. For instance, we observe in this photograph that the biologist is instructing an assistant what information he wants to record during this visit and how it should be organized on the page. Here he is recording the observed growth of plants (Arctic willow) in different areas, which he designates by codes, such as lower F. Thus, he speaks out loud as he observes each area and takes photographs, while the assistant logs the observation and photograph number. Later the biologist will transcribe this information into a computer file and use it to create a figure in a publication.

Figure 4. Tending sensors that periodically log data at a remote site, about 10 km from FMARS.

With this understanding we can then begin to inquire about the implications for Mars surface operations. How often must the biologist revisit this site? Could a rover with a speech-understanding program provide the same assistance in logging data? Could the camera be connected to the communications channel, so the biologist s statements would be directly associated with given photographs? How would the photographs be integrated into a site record over several years and these integrated into the expedition s overall study of the crater? Should the observations and photograph be directly transmitted by wireless link to base camp? Is this data to be considered non-public until publication or is it available for immediate release on the expedition’s web site? Would it be possible to eliminate the return visits to some sites by continuously transmitting the sensor data to base camp and then having a robot retrieve the sensors when the experiment is complete? These are the issues and design possibilities that arise from the simple process of following a scientist in the field, observing how work normally occurs, and considering the implications for Mars.

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

FMARS Principles of Operation The key point of this paper is that exploiting FMARS requires a systematic approach for managing the facility. This section makes explicit recommendations that could become a mission statement and formal procedure for evaluating and implementing FMARS research proposals. Foremost, everyone involved in this enterprise should remember that the essential opportunity provided by an analog facility is to carry out experiments that test and exploit contextual interactions: Facilities, crew roles, clothing / suits, instrumentation, operations, medical care, documentation, training, life support and exploration automation, external support, communications, etc. This is commonly called a total system approach (e.g., see Greenbaum and Kyng, 1992). This will distinguish the FMARS facility from previous work in isolated and confined environments. Proposals that use FMARS as if it were just another small habitat or proposals that refer to only a single technology would be missing the point. Living and working in FMARS will allow aspects of Mars surface operations (e.g., glove design) to be considered together. Problems and solutions shouldn’t be narrowly conceived, but understood and approached from multiple disciplinary perspectives. For example, a perceptual-motor problem with space suits might be resolved by a change in collaboration between astronauts on an EVA and remote support. Interactions between people, procedures, and the environment might be non-obvious until they are tried on Devon Island. For example, astronauts during Apollo lunar traverses requested information from Capcom in Houston, rather than troubling their nearby companion, who was busy doing something else. This practice developed on the Moon; it was not part of the operations checklist and preflight training. With these observations in mind, the following are recommended principles for managing the FMARS facility: • Clarify the unique human abilities to explore Mars and how automated systems may complement them. Use the authentic work setting to emphasize what today’s robots cannot do, while looking for opportunities to automate routine operations and detect and diagnose emergency situations. • Exploit the opportunity for total system design and evaluation. Specify how a given proposal leverages other activities and the hab’s setting. For example, how does space suit design integrate with the hab’s life support design? Experiments should be well conceived and pointed at specific problem interactions. • Minimize the role of aspects better treated elsewhere. For example, study of long-duration occupation is confounded by the 24 hour sunlight during the summer and darkness during the winter. • Treat the Devon setting as the mission, preceded by simulations that certify equipment and train the operators and crew. Don’t take untested equipment to Devon Island.7 Operating FMARS is too expensive to wing it. • Employ critical engineering analysis in scenario design and analysis. Let imagination evoke, not convince. Continuously ask “what if,” and work through the implications of an actual Mars setting. • Exploit the environment to increase realism. For example, subzero weather in spring would likely convince the crew that safety protocols are important, so EVA plans must be followed. • Design for increasing authenticity. At first the context will be supportive (i.e., base camp services), then more capabilities will be moved inside the hab to increase isolation and self-sufficiency. Services include especially power, food, fuel, communications, and waste management. • Distinguish the media show from engineering experiments. Don’t overdo simulated being on Mars for the sake of the media. In particular, requirements for film angles, lighting, and reshooting scenes must never infringe on experimental protocols. • Manage by science committee with written policies and peer review, with overall long-term objectives in mind. A successful collaboration between NASA, vendors, universities, and the public members of the Mars Society requires that FMARS is operated first and foremost as a scientific research station, with the standard procedures for participation and publication of results. This implies a formal request for proposals and written evaluations. • Complete the habit before starting any further experiments. All workers, noises, construction materials and tools, etc. are intrusive. Minimal requirements are listed in Appendix 1.

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

Broadening Participation The nature of the hab is that only six people will be participating in formal experiments at one time inside or working around FMARS. However, a much broader participation is possible by adopting the methods used in Apollo, Skylab, and Shuttle operations: • PIs could propose experimental payloads that would be taken to Devon Island; crew members would be trained in procedures for deploying and carrying out experiments. Data would be shared with the PI (with time delay), and experiments modified accordingly. NASA has extensive experience in managing work in this way. However, handling unexpected problems and maintaining communication with the crew has not been satisfactorily resolved. See, for example, the problems with the US Microgravity Lab during STS-50 (USML-1, 1992) • Vendors will want to bring their representatives to Devon Island to observe first-hand how their technologies perform. For example, Hamilton SunStrand sent two representatives to HMP-2000 to test a space suit. For certain experiments isolating the crew is useful, so direct observation will not be possible. It may be useful to perform two kinds of tests, those in which representatives may participate directly and those that the crew undertakes independently (but documents as for payload studies). • A small team performs the role of mission support from a remote site, communicating with the FMARS crew via emailed documents, including photographs, video, and audio recordings. Preliminary trials were performed during HMP-2000 by the Human Exploration Team at Johnson Space Center, as well as by a Mars Society team in Denver. • One or more science backrooms monitor the communications between the crew and mission support, providing technical advice and warning of potential problems. A key task is to analyze data for trends (e.g., excessive use of key resources). Close colleagues of crew members are presumably participating in a backroom. • Additional members of the scientific community, who specialize in areas under investigation, would communicate informally with the science backrooms. These people may observe information that is publicly available on an internet web site and use email to contact formal support operations with advice and warnings. • Members of the public will receive a great deal of information from public web sites. Over a long duration mission, it would be advantageous to involve students around the world in some experiments. Funding will be a limiting factor that determines how people can participate. Because of the scientific nature of the work, participation will be strongly influenced by membership in an appropriate organization, such as a university department, that undertakes such research, as well as by the individual s ability to secure funding, such as from NSF. Belonging to the Mars Society may be necessary for participating in FMARS scientific research, but because of the research focus it is obviously not sufficient. Conclusion: Remember Our Goal It is worth considering that just as we will not go to Mars solely for science, the purpose of FMARS is broader, too. The designers, funders, and construction workers built the facility in part to inspire the public about a grand vision. We may be reminded of the advice of Daniel Burnham, the architect of Chicago: Make no little plans, they have no magic to stir men’s blood. Make big plans, aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing asserting itself with ever-growing insistency (Moore, 1921). FMARS is part of a big plan, realized on Devon Island as a living thing, asserting with ever-growing insistency our intention of going to Mars. The management of FMARS should aim high in hope and work not become lost in political squabbling or technical details, but remain true to the magical vision of human exploration of space. Through the credibility of FMARS research and the beauty of the setting, let us inspire the public that living and working on Mars will not only be possible, but is noble and worthy of our best efforts.

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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

Appendix 1: Changes Required to Prepare FMARS for Formal Experimentation The following changes are minimal recommendations for improvements for future habitation: • Environment and safety: waterproof roof; ventilation fan at NW portal upper deck; at least 5 KW electric generator capacity; smoke and CO detectors; escape ladder from upper deck; heating downstairs. • Staterooms: Ladder to access upper bunks, shelving and six or more hooks for clothing; electric lights mounted; electric outlets in each room. • Galley: Sink with a drain and hot and cold running water; storage for personal and common utensils, plates, etc. A wall cabinet for storing drink mixes and snack food. Food and/or water storage above staterooms with ladder to access. Large thermos for hot water; tea kettle. • Work area upper deck: An additional table (with optional built-in full-perimeter desk), shade on SE (middle) portal, desk lights if staying beyond first week of August, wireless network (IEEE 802.11 compliant), one walkie-talkie for each person • Stairs to replace ladder (with optional railing at upper deck and optional pulley to bring items up and down) • Toilet / Bath rooms on lower deck: Shower stall, urine collection, built-in toilet seat, interior light, towel hooks and places to store personal items • Work area on lower deck: Internet hub, desks / chairs downstairs, resolve florescent flickering Acknowledgments This work originated within and has been strongly influenced by the activities of the Haughton-Mars Project of NASA / Ames Research Center (Pascal Lee, principal investigator; Kelly Snook, project manager). During the year 2000 field season, I engaged a number of people in conversations about these topics, including especially Marc Boucher, Carol Stoker, Larry Lemke, Darlene Lim, Bob Nessen, Barry Blumberg, John Grunsfeld, and Scott Horowitz. Many of the design suggestions and management recommendations stem from several hours of discussion inside the hab on August 1, 2000. Special thanks to Charlie Cockell and the members of the HMP for enabling my observation and opportunity to understand their work. I am also indebted to my colleagues in the Computational Sciences Division at NASA / Ames, who have participated in this work in various ways over the past three years: Rick Alena, Brian Glass, Maarten Sierhuis, Roxana Wales, John O Neill and Mike Shafto. Notes
1. Haughton is a relatively uneroded 23.4 million year old impact structure, located near the western end of Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; it is the highest-latitude terrestrial impact crater known (75° 22’ N, 89° 41’ W) (Osinski, et al., 2000). The crater is approximately 500 miles north of the Arctic Circle and over 100 miles from the northernmost commercial airport on Earth, in Resolute. 2. The occupants during the first controlled occupation for three days were Bob Nessen (Discovery Channel representative), Darlene Lim, Larry Lemke, Carol Stoker, Marc Boucher (Mars Society representative), and the author. Trial occupation continued under less formal constraints for another four nights with other crew members. 3. This external network and other support was provided by NASA’s Haughton-Mars Project, managed by Pascal Lee and Kelly Snook. 4. One of the power strips went to the corner of BN’s room, which was used for lights in BN’s and DL’s rooms (each room has a light, but they cannot be easily mounted using the spring clip attached). An extension ran from the Comms area to the time lapse camera. Another extension cord came up near the ladder and connected to the DiscoveryCam (security camera). 5. James Oberg conducted a simulated exercise in July 2000 at “Pushing the Envelope II: Medicine on Mars,” sponsored by the Center for Aerospace Medicine and Physiology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas. See www.jamesoberg.com articles: “Mars Medical Emergency.” 6. Example questions were raised during a discussion with the initial crew on August 1, 2000. 7. For example, the weather station deployed during HMP-2000 should have been tested under cold and windy conditions with low sunlight to understand the effect on batteries and antifreeze.

References
1. Clancey, W. J. 1999. Human Exploration Ethnography. Mars Society Annual Meeting. Boulder (see http://WJClancey.home.att.net) 2. Clancey, W. J. 2000. Visualizing practical knowledge: The Haughton-Mars Project. (Das Haughton-Mars-Projekt der NASA Ein Beispiel fur die Visualiserung Praktischen Wissens). In Christa Maar, Ernst P ppel and Hans Ulrich Obrist (Eds.), Weltwissen - Wissenswelt. Das globale Netz von Text und Bild, pp. 325-341. Cologne: Dumont Verlag. 3. Clancey, W. J. (in review). Field Science Ethnography: Methods for being systematic and productive on an expedition.
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A Framework for Analog Studies of Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
4. Connors, M.M., Harrison, A. A., and Akins, F. R. 1985. Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight. NASA SP-483. Available online at http://www.jamesoberg.com/links/links.html. 5. Greenbaum, J., and Kyng, M. (eds.) 1991. Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 6. Harrison, A., Clearwater, Y., and McKay, C. 1991. From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement. New York: Springer-Verlag. 7. Hoffman, S. J., and Kaplan, D. I. (eds.) 1997. Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. NASA Special Publication 6107. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. (Addendum, Reference Mission Version 3.0, June 1998, EX13-98-036.) 8. Jordan, B. (1974) Ethnographic workplace studies and computer supported cooperative work. Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Workshop on Informatics and Psychology, Schärding, Austria, June 1-3, 1993. Amsterdam: North Holland. 9. Micheels, K.A. 2000. Mars Surface Habitat Design Issues Derived from Design of a Terrestrial Polar Analog. In S. W. Johnson, K. M. Chua, R. Galloway and P. Richter (eds.), The Proceedings of Space 2000: The Seventh International Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, Operations and Business in Space. American Society of Civil Engineers. p. 31. 10. Moore. 1921, Daniel H. Burnham, Architect, Planner of Cities. Boston. 11. Osinski, G. R., Spray, J. G., Bunch, T. E., Grieve R. A. F., Schutt, J. W., and Lee, P. (2000) Post-impact hydrothermal activity at the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada. Abstract presented at the Annual Meeting of the Lunar Planetary Institute. 12. Stuster, J. 1996. Bold endeavors: Lessons from polar and space exploration. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. USML-1. 1992. 13. http://spacelink.nasa.gov/NASA.Projects/Human.Exploration.and.Development.of Space/Human.Space.Flight/Shuttle/Shuttle.Missions/Flight.048.STS50/USML.Status.Reports 14. Zubrin, R. (with Richard Wagner). 1996. The Case for Mars: The Plan to settle the red planet and why we must. NY: The Free Press.

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A Game for the Simulation of a Martian Base
Marc Salotti [2000] Abstract We would like to create a realistic game based on the ability to survive and to develop the activities of a Martian base. During the simulation, the astronauts have to explore the surface and find the resources they need to grow plants, to build new objects, to repair machines, to build new habitats and finally to improve the autonomy of the base. Meanwhile, they have to maintain the life support system, the energy system and the rover in good working order. We have tried to realize an educational game, taking into account the technological solutions that will be exploited on Mars. We are still in the early stages of the development and the characteristics of the simulator have not been precisely defined. We propose to generalize the concept of object and the concept of transformer, in order to facilitate the definition of the scenarios and the extension of the game. A web site is devoted to the development of the game: http://msn.ifrance.com/salotti/jeumars.htm. 1 Introduction We have recently investigated the creation of a game for the simulation of the development of a Martian base. Though a similar but more ambitious objective has been proposed by the authors of SimMars, we were not aware of their work and our approach is in no way comparable. At the moment, we are not intending to sell the final product. Our aim is rather to develop an educational game, that could be presented to people interested in the development of a Martian base. Our objective is to present the main difficulties that will be encountered by the astronauts and the possible technological solutions that will be available on the Red Planet. An important scientific data collection is actually being done in order to take into account the main processes that will define the development of the Martian base and the survival of the astronauts (chemical reactions, rover engine, life support system, . . .).2,3,6 We have been inspired by typical simulation games, like SimCity or Age of Empires, the book of Zubrin The Case for Mars, the Plan to Settle the Red Planet” and also Stanley Robinson’s famous trilogy.1,4,5,6. The evolution of the game is indeed determined by the activities of the astronauts. For instance, they start the maintenance of the life support system, go into the rover and explore the neighboring crater, or build a new object using the materials stocked at the base. The main objects of the game involve the life support system, the production of energy, the exploration of the Martian surface, the greenhouse, the chemical unit and some tools and machines. We have tried to facilitate the management of the different objects. This important point is detailed in Section 2. Particular attention has also been paid to the graphics and the movement of objects. In order to enforce the attractive aspect of the game, we propose to use real images of Mars, provided by NASA / JPL / Malin Space Science Systems for instance, and the synthetic images of the Mars Society for the base and the rover. The management of the map, the moves and the different windows are explained in Section 3. Since the development of the game is still in its early stages, it is not possible to give the details of the scenarios. The basic structure of a scenario file is nevertheless presented in Section 4. Some perspectives are discussed in conclusion and preliminary images of the game are presented to illustrate the project. 2 Management Of Objects 2.1 Data structures Many objects have to be managed. The problem is that there are many different properties and actions attached to each of them. For instance, a nuclear reactor supplies energy to the base, a rover is a moving object and the oxygen stock is consumed by the astronauts. Moreover, according to us, it is not the role of the programmer to define the list of possible objects of the game. The objects list and their corresponding properties are defined in specific “objects declaration files.” The scenario designer has the ability to modify the files and to create new objects with new properties without recompiling the sources.

Marc Salotti; Planète Mars, France; marc.salotti@wanadoo.fr
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A Game for the Simulation of a Martian Base

In the current version of the project, the same basic object structure is used to represent all objects of the game. It is defined as follows, using Pascal formalism.
robject = record name : string; id : integer; // Identifier of the object. category : integer; // constant : LSS, energy, exploration, chemistry, food, tools, human . . . state : integer; // constant : ok, damaged, in production, stopped, . . . lbmp : TClassListBmp; // List of images representing the different aspects of the object weight : real; // Its weight, in kilograms power : real; // Its power consumption or production, in Watts lifetime : real; // Without maintenance, an object breaks down after a while container : pobject; // Pointer to the container (another object) pdegrad : pdegradation; // Pointer to a structure with information on the maintenance procedure ptransform : ptransformation; // Pointer to a structure with information on the sources and the // products of the transformation, nil if it is not a transformer lastro : TclassListObjects; // List of astronauts working on this object lobjects : TclassListObjects; // List of included objects pmv : pmove; // Pointer to a structure with information on the possible move // nil if the object is not allowed to move levents : TclassListEvents; // List of events attached to the objects end;
Note: Characters to the right of the // are comments.

All objects share the same basic properties and functions. Then, if it is a transformer or if it participates in the production of energy (for instance), new properties and new functions are specifically added. 2.2 Transformers Transformers are particular objects that can produce or create other objects. A typical transformer is the reactor that will provide in-situ propellant for the rover and other machines. The sources are carbon dioxide (from the atmosphere) and hydrogen and the products are methane and oxygen. A rover engine is also a transformer: its sources are for example methane and oxygen and its products are carbon dioxide and water. The concept of transformation can be applied to other domains, for instance to the production of food or energy. In order to generalize this concept, a new data structure has been introduced. It is defined as follows:
rtransformation = record lsources : TClassListNeeds; lproducts : TclassListNeeds; timetransformation : real; powertransformation : real; typeoftransformation: integer; end;

// List of objects sources and their quantity needed for the transformation // List of objects products and their quantity // Required time for a single transformation // Energy required for the transformation // Constant : continue or unique

General functions are associated with this structure. One of them checks that all sources are locally available and another one proceeds to the transformation, updating the quantity of sources and products. A timer is used to take into account all events of the game. When a transformation is desired, a particular event is inserted in the list of events. The transformation is achieved when the required time is over. A transformation can occur only once or it can be continuous, depending on the way it works. The automation of all kinds of transformation is very important for the flexibility of the game and its extension. It makes it possible to change the efficiency of a transformer or even to change the input and the output of a machine. For instance, if a new technology enables the construction of a new engine for a rover, there is no problem taking it into account.
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A Game for the Simulation of a Martian Base

2.3 Examples of objects Since we are actually collecting scientific data on the development of a Martian base, the list of possible objects is not definitive. In the current version of the game, the main objects are the habitat, the greenhouse, the nuclear reactor, the chemical unit, the rover and four astronauts. In the habitat, the main elements are the different parts of the life support system. The greenhouse management is simplified: the seeds are transformed (using the transformation process explained earlier) into vegetables or fruits using a certain amount of fertilizer and water. The nuclear reactor supplies energy to the base. Of course, the consumption should never exceed the production, otherwise all machines are automatically switched off. Meanwhile, the stock of Uranium slowly decreases. The chemical transformations are also very important. The different stocks of oxygen, hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, silicon, ethylene, and so on, are defined as chemical objects. For some of them, the initial stock is not empty, but for the others, the player will have to explore the planet and bring them back to the base. According to Zubrin’s plan to settle the planet, there are many technologies that can be used to build new objects and to improve the autonomy of the base.6 In the domain of energy, solar dynamic systems, photovoltaic systems, windmills or geothermal power can be manufactured on Mars. They will provide additional power to the base and finally replace the nuclear reactor. Ceramics, glass, plastics, steel, and copper will also be manufactured on Mars in order to build new machines, new habitats, and new tools. These elements will be introduced into the game step by step as the player reaches new levels. 3 Graphics And Interface 3.1 Exploration Graphics, sounds, moves and interaction with the user are important parts of the game. We are still working on a preliminary version and many changes may be desired before the final product. Actually, the main window shows a picture of a small region of Mars (see Figure 1). In order to propose a realistic map, a real image has been chosen, thanks to the data base of NASA / JPL / Malin Space Science Systems. It should be mentioned that such images may only be copied for personal use.

Figure 1. Main window. The rover is selected.
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A Game for the Simulation of a Martian Base

The other graphics have also been copied from the Internet, most of them from the Mars Society web site. They will eventually be redrawn for the specific purpose of the game. The Delphi platform development has been chosen for the management of graphics and interactions with the user. The look of the game and the method of playing have been inspired from other games like SimCity, Red Alert or Age of Empires (without the battles).1,5 Most exploration actions are commanded with the mouse: • The entire map is much bigger than the window. The user can move the window up and down or left and right just holding the mouse near to the borders. • Each object can be selected by a click of the mouse. Some information about the object is displayed in a small window located on the right of the screen. • When a moving object is selected, another click elsewhere makes it go to the new position. • When an astronaut is selected and the mouse is over a base or a rover, the shape of the cursor changes. A click on this object makes the astronaut walk towards this new objective and go into it. • A double click on the base or the rover commands the exit of an astronaut. The management of graphics is relatively complex because of the required efficiency due to real-time constraints. For this purpose, a list of displayable objects is regularly updated. For instance, when an astronaut goes into the rover, it is deleted from this list and if he goes outside, it is reinserted. A timer is used to repaint the graphics ten times a second. Two bitmaps are stored in memory: a copy of the full background image and a copy of the screen. If the user wants to scroll the screen to see another region, a new rectangle of the first bitmap is copied into the second. All changes are realized in memory before being displayed on the screen. First of all, each displayed object is removed by superimposition of the corresponding region of the background. Secondly, the new position of moving objects is calculated according to their objective. Then, the image associated with each displayable object is superimposed to the background image. If it is desired to hide some parts of the terrain, shadows can be added at this time. Finally, the bitmap stored in memory is copied to the screen. This management may not be optimal, but the moves are fluent and the graphics are updated in time. 3.2 Other actions A click on the small images located on the right panel allows the user to see other windows (see for instance Figure 2). Since we are still working on this part, we will only give a quick overview of what will probably be proposed. The idea is to present the different objects according to their category: life support system, food production, power systems, exploration, chemical unit and tools and machines. Most objects have to be maintained in good working order. The user will have to check if an object requires maintenance, and if so, he could decide to select an astronaut for this task. The maintenance will be accepted if the selected astronaut is not already too busy. The time spent for each task is a major factor of the game. The objective is to explore the planet, to find new resources, to exploit them, to build new objects and finally to improve the autonomy of the base. The time spent in maintenance is not spent in exploration or in construction. A tradeoff has therefore to be chosen between security and expansion.

Figure 2. Chemical unit.
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A Game for the Simulation of a Martian Base

4 Scenario Construction We have tried to simplify the construction of the scenarios. Once again, since the task should not be assigned to the programmer, a specific declaration file has been introduced. The structure of the file is relatively simple. It is organized in sections and subsections. The list of the main objects has to be declared in section [built]. Two numbered subsections are attached to each object, one for the declaration of the object name and the other for the declaration of an optional identifier. The name should correspond to one of the registered objects, defined in the objects declaration files (see Section 2.1). The identifier is the header of another section in which some object properties may be redefined and a list of included objects is declared. All lists are structured the same way, thus allowing a hierarchical description of the list of objects. The first lines of a simplified scenario are reproduced below to illustrate the organization of the file.
[built] object1=Martian base identifier1=my first base object2=rover identifier2=rover1 [my first base] positionx=100 positiony=800 object1=air object2 =controller pressure object3=stock O2 identifier3=stock O2 base [rover1] positionx=150 positiony=818 speed=3 object1=stock O2 identifier1=stock O2 rover object2=combustion engine object3=stock propergol [stock O2 base] weight=2000 [stock O2 rover] weight=20 // Two main objects are declared

// Information on the Martian base

// Information on the rover

// Modification of the default speed value

// Information on the stock of oxygen of the base // Modification of the default weight value // Information on the stock of oxygen of the rover // Modification of the default weight value

The objective of the scenario can also be defined by a hierarchical description of a list of objects. For instance, if the goal is to collect two hundred kilograms of rocks and to bring them back to the base, the objective would be defined as follows:
[objective] object1=Martian base identifier1=final base [final base] object1=stock rocks identifier1=final stock rocks [final stock rocks] weight=200

Some information is not declared using this formalism. For instance, a rover can not cross deep craters or climb cliffs. In order to facilitate the indexing of these small regions, a utility has been created. A pointing operation allows the definition of small circles on the map. Then their coordinates are stored in a specific section of the scenario file. The choice of the different maps (the name of the image) and the text presenting the objective of the scenario are added as subsections of the [objective] section.
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A Game for the Simulation of a Martian Base

5 Conclusion Some work has already been done, but there are a lot of details that remain to be implemented and tested. The scenarios also are not precisely defined. In the first stages, the player has to learn the basic actions, such as the maintenance of the objects and the exploration of the surrounding regions using the rover and the astronauts. Then he will have to find water, ores to build new objects, and expand the base and to improve its autonomy. In the perspectives of this work, many options deserve to be explored. For instance, the competence of the astronauts may vary; every two years new objects may be sent from the Earth to help the astronauts on Mars; advanced robots can be used to extract the ores or to perform other tasks; the health of the astronauts can be taken into account, with physiological and psychological impacts, etc.. Another perspective to this game is the extension to the problem of terraforming Mars. Several bases may compete or collaborate in the transformation of the Red Planet in order to make it habitable. This new challenge might be addressed later, if the current project is successfully achieved. Acknowledgments Special thanks to Elie Cali and Delphine Joao for their valuable comments and suggestions. References
1. Age of Empires, The Rise of Rome. Microsoft Editor. 2. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, “Reference Mission Version 3.0, Addendum to the Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team”, NASA Report EX13-98-036, June 1998. 3. Marshall Space Flight Center, “Designing for Human Presence in Space: Environment Control and Life Support System”, NASA RP-1324, September 1994. 4. Robinson K. S., “Red Mars” 1993, “Green Mars” 1995 , “Blue Mars” 1997. 5. SimCity, Red Alert, Electronic Arts (htttp://www.simcity.org). 6. Zubrin R. with Wagner R., “The Case for Mars, The Plan to Settle the Planet and Why We Must”, Touchstone Ed., N.Y., 1997.

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