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1996 EDITION

LRFD
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

MANUAL FOR ENGINEERED WOOD CONSTRUCTION

Copyright 1996 American Forest & Paper Association

FOREWORD
This manual represents the beginning of a new era in the design of wood structures. It is the first wood design manual in the U.S. presented in the modern Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) format. It is also the first design manual to provide guidance for selection of most wood-based structural products used in the construction of wood buildings. The complete wood LRFD package includes this manual and its design supplements and guidelines. The manual contains the consensus-based AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95 standard, its commentary and examples of its use. Design supplements and guidelines are organized along product lines and contain design information for specific products and details of design specific to those products. The modular format of the complete package is essential for a design package that covers such a broad range of products. This format provides the ability to quickly locate specific design information in one of the wellmarked design supplement or guideline documents.

PREFACE
The American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) has developed this manual for design professionals. AF&PA and its predecessor organizations have provided engineering design information to users of structural wood products for over 50 years, first in the form of the Wood Structural Design Data series and then in the National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. This manual represents the culmination of 10 years of development of LRFD procedures for wood products, which in turn is built on 20 years of research on this topic. The basis of this Manual can be directly traced to a prestandard activity of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), a wood-industry sponsored LRFD specification development project and the consensus adoption of the specification through a joint AF&PA/ASCE committee. Without the dedication of the many technical experts who contributed to these projects and the broad support of virtually the entire North American forest products industry, this Manual could not have become a reality. Every effort has been made to ensure that the data and information in the Manual are as accurate and complete as possible. AF&PA does not, however, assume any responsibility for errors or omissions in the Manual nor for engineering designs or plans prepared from it. This Manual was written by David S. Gromala, P.E., under contract to AF&PA, with the guidance and assistance of AF&PA staff and numerous industry technical experts who participated on the AF&PA LRFD committee.

AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 NOTATION AND GLOSSARY


AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Standard for Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Engineered Wood Construction, is contained in its entirety in the final section of this Manual. For the convenience of the design engineer, the notation and glossary sections of AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95 are duplicated in this section.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter/Title Page Chapter/Title Page
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Notation ......................................................................................................... i Glossary ...................................................................................................... v 1 Introduction .................................................................................. 1


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 General Information Design Responsibilities Other Design Considerations Products Covered in This Manual

7. Mechanical Connectors
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

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General Information Nails, Spikes and Wood Screws Bolts, Lag screws, Drift Pins, Dowels Shear Plates and Split Rings Typical Connection Details Checklist: Using Connection Selection Tables 7.7 Design Examples

Project Profiles: Case Studies ......................................................................... 11


2.1 General Information 2.2 Commercial/Industrial 2.3 Residential/Retail

8. Structural Panels
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

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3. Tension Members
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

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31

General Information Design for Moment Design for Shear Checklist: Using Structural Panel Selection Tables 8.5 Design Examples

General Design Special Considerations Checklist: Using Tension Member Selection Tables 3.5 Design Examples

9. Shear Walls and Diaphragms .............................................................................. 83


9.1 General Information 9.2 Design 9.3 Checklist: Using Shear Wall and Diaphragm Selection Tables 9.4 Design Examples

4. Compression Members ........................... 35


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 General Information Design Special Considerations Checklist: Using Compression Member Selection Tables 4.5 Design Examples

10. Reference Information

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10.1 General Information 10.2 Applications-Related Information 10.3 Other Design Information

5. Bending Members
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

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41

AF&PA/ASCE Standard 16-95

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General Information Design for Moment Design for Shear Special Considerations Checklist: Using Joist and Beam Selection Tables
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6. Bending Plus Axial Loads

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6.1 General Information 6.2 Design for Moment 6.3 Checklist: Using Combined Bending and Axial Member Selection Tables 6.4 Design Examples

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Notation
A An Amin, Bmin Aopt, Bopt Bbx, Bby Bsx, Bsy CE CF CG CH CI CL CM CP CT CV Cb Cb Cc Ccs Cd Cdi Ceg Cf Cfu Cg Cm, Cmx, Cmy Cpt Cr Crt Csp Cst Ct Ctn Cu Cw C D D D, D Du D1, D2 E E, E E05, E05 EA EI Gross area Net area, net bearing area Minimum spacing permitted for shear plates and split rings, parallel and perpendicular to grain, respectively Required spacing of shear plates and split rings to achieve reference connection resistance, parallel and perpendicular to grain, respectively Moment magnification factor for loads that result in no appreciable sidesway (strong and weak axes, respectively) Moment magnification factor for loads that result in sidesway (strong and weak axes, respectively) Composite action factor Size factor Grade/construction factor for structural panels Shear stress factor Stress interaction factor Beam stability factor Wet service factor Column stability factor Buckling stiffness factor for dimension lumber Volume effect factor for structural glued laminated timber Bearing area factor Bending coefficient dependent on moment gradient Curvature factor for structural glued laminated timber Critical section factor for round timber piles Penetration depth factor for connections Diaphragm factor End-grain factor for connections Form factor Flat-use factor Group action factor for connections Moment shape factor for biaxial bending (general, strong, and weak axes, respectively) Preservative treatment factor Load-sharing factor Fire-retardant treatment factor Single pile factor Metal side plate factor for 4 in. shear plate connections Temperature factor Toe-nail factor for nailed connections Untreated factor for round timber piles Width factor for structural panels Geometry factor for connections Diameter Dead load Reference and adjusted diaphragm shear resistance per unit length Diaphragm shear force per unit length due to factored loads Minimum and maximum diameters in round tapered members Earthquake load Reference and adjusted mean modulus of elasticity Reference and adjusted fifth percentile modulus of elasticity Axial stiffness Flexural stiffness
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Fb, Fb Fbx* Fc, Fc Fc* Fcz , Fcz Fe Fem, Fes Fe2, Fez, Fe Fg, Fg Fr, Frc, Frt F s , Fs Ft, Ft Ftv Fv, Fv Fv, Fv Fyb G G, G Gv, Gv I J KM KT Ke L L Lr M, M M1, M2 Mbx, Mby Me Mmx, Mmy M s Msx, Msy M t , Mt Mtu Mu, Mux, Muy Mx, My Mx* P, P P0 Pa Pe Pg, Pg Pz, Pz P, P Ps

Reference and adjusted bending strength Bending strength for strong (x-x) axis bending multiplied by all applicable adjustment factors except Cfu, CV, and CL Reference and adjusted compression strength parallel to grain Compression strength parallel to grain multiplied by all applicable adjustment factors except CP Reference and adjusted compression strength perpendicular to grain Dowel bearing strength Dowel bearing strength of main and side members, respectively Dowel bearing strength parallel, perpendicular, and at an angle to the grain, respectively Reference and adjusted bearing strength parallel to grain Adjusted radial strength (general, compression, and tension, respectively) Reference and adjusted rolling shear strength for structural panels Reference and adjusted tensile strength parallel to grain Adjusted torsional shear strength Reference and adjusted shear strength parallel to grain (horizontal shear) Reference and adjusted through-thickness shear strength for structural panels Bending yield strength of fastener Specific gravity Reference and adjusted shear modulus Reference and adjusted shear modulus for structural panels Moment of inertia Torsional constant for a section Moisture content coefficient for sawn lumber truss compression chords Truss compression chord coefficient for sawn lumber Effective length factor for compression members Design span of bending member or compression member Live load caused by storage, occupancy, or impact Roof live load Reference and adjusted moment resistance Smaller and larger end moment in a beam or segment Factored moment from loads that result in no appreciable sidesway (strong and weak axes, respectively) Elastic lateral buckling moment Factored moment, including magnification for second-order effects (strong and weak axes, respectively) Adjusted moment resistance computed with CL = 1.0 Factored moment from loads that result in sidesway (strong and weak axes, respectively) Reference and adjusted torsion resistance Torsion due to factored loads Moment due to factored loads (general, strong and weak axes, respectively) Adjusted moment resistance (strong and weak axes, respectively) Moment resistance for strong (x-x) axis bending multiplied by all applicable adjustment factors except Cfu, CV, and CL Reference and adjusted compression resistance parallel to grain Adjusted member axial parallel to grain resistance of a zero length column (i.e., the limit obtained as length approaches zero) Assumed axial load acting on a side bracket Euler buckling resistance Reference and adjusted bearing resistance Reference and adjusted compression resistance perpendicular to grain Reference and adjusted compression resistance in bearing at angle Assumed horizontal side load placed at center of height of column
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Pu Q R R, R RB REA Re Rt Rf, Rm Ru S S T, T Tu V, V Vu W Z, Z, Zu, Zw, Zw Z Z2, Zz, Z a ai amin aopt b b bmin bopt c cb d d1, d2 de dn e h R R R Rb Rbr Rc Re Rm RP Ru nf ni nr

Compressive or bearing force due to factored loads Statical moment of an area about the neutral axis Load caused by initial rain water and/or ice Reference and adjusted resistance Slenderness ratio of bending member Ratio of minimum to maximum member axial stiffness in a connection Ratio of main to side member embedment strength in a connection Ratio of main to side member thickness in a connection Radius of curvature at the inside face and at mid-depth, respectively Force due to factored loads Section modulus Snow load Reference and adjusted tension resistance parallel to grain Tensile force due to factored loads Reference and adjusted shear resistance Shear force due to factored loads Wind load Reference and adjusted connection lateral resistance Connection force due to factored loads Reference and adjusted connection withdrawal resistance Adjusted resistance of a fastener loaded at an angle to the surface of the wood member Adjusted resistance of a fastener loaded parallel, perpendicular, and at an angle to the grain,respectively End distance for a connection Effective number of fasteners for row i Minimum end distance permitted for connections Required end distance to achieve reference connection resistance Member width Edge distance for connection Minimum edge distance permitted for connections Required edge distance to achieve reference connection resistance Coefficient in column stability factor equation Coefficient in beam stability factor equation Member depth Minimum and maximum depth for a uniform width, linearly tapered member Effective depth of member at a connection Depth of member remaining at a notch Eccentricity Height Design span of bending member or compression member Distance between points of lateral support of a compression member Span length, clear span of arch between hinges Bearing length Distance from the bottom of the column or column segment to the top of the column bracket, in. Clear span Effective length Length of dowel-type fastener in main member Distance measured vertically from point of application of load on bracket to farther end of column Laterally unsupported span length of bending or compression member Total number of fasteners in a connection Number of equally spaced fasteners in row i Number of serial rows of fasteners in a connection
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p r s smin sopt t tm, ts w b c b c s t v z b

Depth of fastener penetration into wood member Radius of gyration Spacing of fasteners in a connection (also called pitch spacing) Minimum spacing for adjusted connection resistance Required spacing for reference connection resistance Thickness Thickness of main and side members, respectively, in a connection Uniform load Angle between applied force vector and the surface of the wood member Angle of connector axis with respect to member longitudinal axis Factor in design of flexural members Factor in design of columns Load/slip constant for a single fastener Deflection Time-effect factor Resistance factor Resistance factor for flexure Resistance factor for compression Resistance factor for stability Resistance factor for tension Resistance factor for shear/torsion Resistance factor for connections Angle of cut taper or cut notch from the grain direction Angle of force vector with respect to a direction parallel to grain Angle between bearing force and the direction of grain

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Glossary
Adjusted resistance. The reference resistance adjusted to include the effects of all applicable adjustment factors resulting from end use and other modifying factors. Timeeffect adjustments are not included because they are considered separately. American Softwood Lumber Standard. A voluntary product standard developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, in cooperation with wood producers, distributors, and users. The standard establishes the dimensions for various types of lumber products, the technical requirements and the methods of testing, grading and marking, and is designated PS 20-94 (Product Standard 20 issued in 1994). American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC). A standing committee composed of representatives of producers, distributors, specifiers, and consumers of lumber. The primary function of the committee is to review and consider revisions to the American Softwood Lumber Standard, PS 20-94. ALSC inspectors conduct field checks on certified grading agencies and the committees independent Board of Review has the power to discipline under the aegis of the Commerce Department, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Aspect ratio. In any rectangular configuration, the ratio of the long sides length to the short sides length. Assembly. A collection of parallel structural members and/or components connected in a manner such that load applied to any one component will affect the stress conditions of adjacent parallel components. Assembly effects. Component interactions that affect the way stress is distributed within an individual component and/or the way loads are distributed to other components in an assembly. Boundary elements. Shear wall and diaphragm members to which sheathing transfers forces. Boundary elements include chords and drag struts at shear wall and diaphragm perimeters, interior openings, discontinuities and reentrant comers. Built-up member. A member made of structural wood elements that are glued or mechanically connected. Clear span. Inside distance between the faces of supports. Composite action. Interaction between elements connected in such a way that the resulting member strength and stiffness is greater than the sum of the strength and stiffness of the individual elements. Composite member. A member composed of multiple elements connected so as to achieve composite action. Composite panel. A structural-use panel comprised of wood veneer and reconstituted woodbased material and bonded with waterproof adhesive. Connection. An attachment used to transmit forces between two or more members by means of a fastener, an assembly of fasteners, or adhesive, acting alone or in combination with member bearing. Connector. Synonym for fastener. Decay. Decomposition of wood substance caused by action of wood-destroying fungi; the word rot means the same as decay. Decking. Solid sawn lumber or glued laminated decking expressed in nominal terms as being 2 in. to 4 in. thick and 4 in. and wider. Decking is usually surfaced to single tongue and groove in 2 in. (51 mm) nominal thickness. In 3 in. (76 mm) and 4 in. (102 mm) nominal thickness, it may be double tongue and groove and worked with rounded or V edges, striated, or grooved. Design resistance. Resistance (force or moment as appropriate) provided by member or connection; the product of adjusted resistance, the resistance factor, and time-effect factor. Design span. For simple, continuous, and cantilever beams, the design span is the clear span plus one-half the required bearing length at each support. Design strength. Material strength (tensile, compressive, etc.) derived in accordance with ASTM 5457-93 procedures and adjusted to reflect end-use conditions. Diaphragm. A sheathed horizontal or nearly horizontal system (e.g., roof, floor) acting to transfer lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements.

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Diaphragm boundary. A location where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to another force resisting element. Also applied to shear walls. Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element perpendicular to the applied load which is assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of a beam. Also applied to shear walls. Dowel bearing strength. The maximum compression strength of wood or wood-based products when subjected to bearing by a steel dowel of specific diameter. Dowel-type fasteners. Includes bolts, lag screws, wood screws, nails, and spikes. Drag strut (collector, tie, diaphragm strut). A shear wall or diaphragm boundary element parallel to the applied load which collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical resisting elements or distributes forces within the diaphragm. Dry service. Structures wherein the maximum equilibrium moisture content does not exceed 19%. Edge distance. The distance from the edge of the member to the center of the nearest fastener, measured perpendicular to grain. When a member is loaded perpendicular to grain, the loaded edge shall be defined as the edge in the direction toward which the fastener is acting. Edgewise bending. Bending about the strong axis. Effective width. In sheathing, the reduced width that, with an assumed uniform stress distribution, produces the same effect on the behavior of a structural member as the actual plate width with its nonuniform stress distribution. End distance. In the case of square-cut ends, the distance measured parallel to grain from the end of the member to the center of the nearest fastener. Equilibrium moisture content. A moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture to the surrounding air. Exposure durability. A classification of panels based on raw material composition and adhesive bond durability.

Exposure 1 - Panels suitable for protected construction and industrial uses. Exposure 1 panels have adequate durability to resist moisture exposure due to long construction delays, or other conditions of similar severity. Exposure 2 or IMG (intermediate glue) - Panels suitable for protected applications that are not continuously exposed to high humidity conditions. Exterior - Panels suitable for permanent exposure to weather or moisture. Interior - Panels suitable for permanently protected interior applications. Factored load. The product of the nominal load and an applicable load factor. Fastener. Generic term for individual mechanical devices such as bolts, nails, metal plates, etc., used in a connection. Synonymous with connector. Fiber saturation point. The moisture content at which the cell walls are saturated with water (bound water) and no water is held in the cell cavities by capillary forces. It is species dependent and usually is taken as 25% to 30% moisture content, based on weight when ovendry. Fire-retardant treated wood. Any lumber or wood product impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process, or by other means, meeting prescribed requirements for resistance to flame spread and resistance to progressive combustion. Flatwise bending. Bending about the weak axis. Gage or row spacing. The center-to-center distance between fastener rows or gage lines. Glued laminated timber (glulam). See structural glued laminated timber. Grade. The classification of structural wood products with regard to strength and utility in accordance with the grading rules of an approved agency. Grading rules. Requirements and specifications for the manufacture, inspection, and grading of designated species of lumber. Green lumber. Lumber of less than nominal 5-in. (127 mm) thickness that has a moisture content in excess of 19%. For lumber of nominal 5-in. (127 mm) or greater

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thickness (timbers), green shall be defined in accordance with the provision of the applicable lumber grading rules certified by the ALSC Board of Review. Horizontal diaphragm. A sheathed horizontal or nearly horizontal element (roof, floor) acting to transfer lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. I-beams. Wood I-beams are custom designed and fabricated for specific applications. Lumber flanges and panel webs are bonded with adhesives to form I, multiweb, or box sections. The design of wood I-beams is in accordance with App. A6 of this standard. I-joists (prefabricated). Structural members manufactured using sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and structural panel webs, bonded together with waterproof adhesives, forming an I cross-sectional shape. The design of I-joists is in accordance with ASTM D5055-94. Joist (lumber). Pieces (nominal dimensions 2 to 4 in. (51 to 102 mm) in thickness by 5 in. (127mm) and wider with rectangular cross-section graded primarily with respect to strength in bending when loaded on the narrow face. Typically used as framing members for floor or ceilings. Kiln dried. Lumber that has been seasoned in a chamber to a predetermined moisture content by applying heat. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood veneer sheet elements with wood fibers primarily extended along the length of the member. Veneer thickness does not exceed 0.25 in. (6.4 mm). Limit state. A condition in which a structure or component is judged either to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). Load duration (time-effect). The period of continuous application of a given load, or the cumulative period of intermittent applications of the maximum load. Load factor. A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the actual load from the nominal value and for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect. Load sharing. The load redistribution mechanism among parallel components constrained to deflect together or joined by crossing members such as sheathing or decking.

Load/slip constant. The ratio of the applied load to a connection and the resulting lateral deformation of the connection in the direction of the applied load. LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design). A method of proportioning structural components (members, connectors, connecting elements, and assemblages) using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. Lumber. The product of the sawmill and planing mill usually not further manufactured other than by sawing, resawing, passing lengthwise through a standard planing machine, cross-cutting to length, and matching. Lumber Sizes. Lumber is typically referred to by size classifications. Two of the frequently used size classifications are dimension and timbers. Additionally, lumber is specified by manufacturing classification. Rough lumber and dressed lumber are two of the routinely used manufacturing classifications. Boards. Lumber of less than nominal 2 in. (51 mm) thickness and of nominal 2 in. (51 mm) or greater width. Dimension. Lumber from nominal 2 in. through 4 in. (51 mm through 102 mm) thick and nominal 2 or more in. (51 or more mm) wide. Dressed size. The dimensions of lumber after surfacing with a planing machine. Usually 1/2 to 3/4 in. (12.7 to 19.0 mm) less than nominal size. The American Softwood Lumber Standard lists standard dressed sizes. Rough lumber. Lumber that has not been dressed (surfaced) but that has been sawed, edged, and trimmed at least to the extent of showing saw or other primary manufacturing marks in the wood on the four longitudinal surfaces of each piece for its overall length. Lumber surfaced on one edge (S1E), two edges (S2E), one side (S1S), or two sides (S2S) is classified as rough lumber in the unsurfaced width or thickness. Timbers. Lumber of nominal 5 in. (127 mm) or greater in least dimension. Stress-graded lumber. Lumber graded for its mechanical properties.

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Machine evaluated lumber (MEL). Lumber that has been nondestructively evaluated by mechanical grading equipment. Each piece is evaluated and marked to indicate its strength classification. MEL lumber is also required to meet certain visual requirements. Machine stress-rated (MSR) lumber. Lumber that has been evaluated by mechanical stress-rating equipment. Each piece is nondestructively tested and grademarked to indicate the assigned bending strength and modulus of elasticity. MSR lumber is also required to meet certain visual requirements. Main member. In three-member connections, the center member. In two-member connections, the thicker member. Mat-formed panel. A structural-use panel designation representing panels manufactured in a matformed process, such as oriented strand board and wafer board. Moisture content. The weight of the water in wood expressed as a percentage of the weight of the wood from which all water has been removed (ovendry). Nominal loads. The loads specified by the applicable code. Nominal size. The approximate commercial size by which lumber products are known and sold in the market. The nominal size is generally greater than the actual dimensions, i.e., a dry 2 x 4 is surfaced to 1 in. by 3 in. (38 mm by 89 mm). Oriented strandboard. A mat-formed structural-use panel comprised of thin rectangular wood strands arranged in cross-aligned layers with surface layers normally arranged in the long panel direction and bonded with waterproof adhesive. Ovendry wood. Wood dried until it is free of any moisture. Panel. A sheet-type wood product. Panel rigidity. Shear rigidity of a panel, the product of panel thickness and modulus of rigidity. Panel shear. Shear developed in a structural-use panel due to in-plane loads, commonly called shear through the thickness and is developed in shear walls, diaphragms, and webs of I-joists.

Panel stiffness. Flexural or axial stiffness of a panel. The product of panel section property and modulus of elasticity. Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of woodstrand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member. The least dimension of the strands is not greater than 0.25 in. (6.4 mm) and the average length is not less than 150 times the least dimension. Performance rating. A classification designating enduse applications for which specific performance test procedures and criteria have been established. Performance standard. A standard for trademarked products based on performance. Performance is measured by tests that approximate end-use conditions. Pile. Round timber structural element of any size or length, that is driven or otherwise introduced into the soil for the purpose of providing vertical or lateral support. Pitch or spacing. The longitudinal center-to-center distance between any two consecutive holes or fasteners in a row. Planar shear. The shear developed in structural-use panels due to flatwise bending, commonly referred to as rolling shear in plywood. Plank. A piece of lumber, from 2 to 4 in. (51 to 102 mm) thick, used with the wide face placed horizontally (differs from joist only that latter is used on edge). Ply. A single sheet of veneer, or several strips laid with adjoining edges that form one veneer lamina in a glued plywood panel. Plywood. A structural-use panel comprised of plies of wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers. The plies are bonded with an adhesive that cures on application of heat and pressure. Pole. A round timber of any size or length, usually used with the larger end in the ground. Pole construction. A form of construction in which the principal vertical members are round poles or sawn timbers (post-frame construction) embedded in the ground and extending vertically above ground to provide both foundation and vertical framing for the structure.

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Prefabricated wood I-joists. Pre-engineered proprietary structural members that are mass produced to established specifications. An I cross-section is formed from sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and structural panel webs, bonded together with exterior exposure adhesives. These are used primarily as joists in floor and roof construction with their engineering properties determined in accordance with ASTM D5055-94. Preservative. A chemical that, when suitably applied to wood, makes the wood resistant to attack by fungi, insects, marine borers, or weather conditions. Pressure-preservative treated wood. Wood products pressure-treated by an approved process and preservative. Primary panel (strong) axis. The axis corresponding with the primary strength direction of structural use panels. Unless otherwise indicated (marked) on the panel, the primary strength axis is in the panel length direction. Punched metal plate. A light steel plate fastening having punched teeth of various shapes and configurations which are pressed into wood members to effect shear transfer. Used with structural lumber assemblies. Purlin. A roof framing member, perpendicular to the trusses or rafter members, which supports the roof sheathing or other common rafter members. Rated panel. A panel rated for conventional floor, roof, and wall applications. Reference end use conditions (reference conditions). Assume standard end-use conditions. Adjustments to resistances are required if design end-use conditions differ from the reference end-use conditions. Reference resistance. The resistance (force or moment as appropriate) of a member or connection computed at the reference end-use conditions prescribed by this standard. Reference strength. Material strength (tensile, compressive, etc.) derived in accordance with ASTM D5457-93 procedures. Repetitive member assembly. A system of closely spaced parallel framing members, which exhibits loadsharing behavior.

Required member resistance. Load effect (force, moment, or stress, as appropriate) acting on an element or connection, determined by structural analysis from the factored loads and the critical load combinations. Resistance. The capacity of a structure, component, or connection to resist the effects of loads. It is determined by computations using specified material strengths, dimensions, and formulas derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics, or by field or laboratory tests of scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and field conditions. Resistance factor. A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the actual strength from the nominal value and the manner and consequences of failure. Row of fasteners. Two or more fasteners aligned with the direction of load. Scarf joint. A slope overlapping joint bonded with an adhesive. Seasoned lumber. Lumber that has been dried. Seasoning takes place by open-air drying within the limits of moisture contents attainable by this method, or by controlled air drying (i.e., kiln drying). Secondary panel (weak) axis. The axis corresponding with the secondary strength direction of structural-use panels. Unless otherwise indicated (marked) on the panel, the secondary strength axis is in the panel width direction. Serviceability limit state. A limiting condition affecting the ability of a structure to preserve its appearance, maintainability, durability, or the comfort of its occupants or function of machinery under normal usage. Shear plate. A circular metal plate that, by being embedded in adjacent wood faces, or in one wood face, acts in shear to transmit loads from one timber to a bolt and, in turn, to a steel plate or another shear plate. Shear wall (vertical diaphragm). A sheathed wall element that transfers in-plane lateral forces to the base of the wall. Sheathing. Lumber or panel products that are attached to parallel framing members, typically forming wall, floor, ceiling, or roof surfaces.

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Shrinkage. The decrease in the dimensions of wood caused by a decrease of moisture content. Side member. The member or connection element adjacent to the main member. Slenderness ratio for beams. The ratio used in lateral stability calculations for bending members. Slenderness ratio for compression members. The ratio of the effective length of a compression member to its radius of gyration. Spaced column. A column with two or more individual members, usually rectangular and with their wide faces parallel, placed with their longitudinal axes parallel, spaced at their ends and in the midlength region by blocking, and joined at their ends by the end blocks with split rings or shear plates of sufficient shear stiffness to effectively restrain the column ends. Span rating. A panel index number identifying the recommended maximum center-to-center support spacing in inches for roof, floor, and wall applications under normal use conditions. Specific gravity. The ratio of the ovendry weight of a sample to the weight of a volume of water equal to the volume of the sample at some specified moisture content, as green, air-dry, or ovendry. Split ring. A metal ring that, by being embedded into adjacent faces of two wood members, acts in shear to transmit force between the members. Stiffener (web). A piece of wood that is glued or otherwise fastened to the webs between the inner surfaces of the top and bottom flanges of a built-up beam. Strength limit state. A limiting condition affecting the safety of a structure, a structural component, or a mechanical connection. Stress grades. Lumber grades having assigned design stress and modulus of elasticity values in accordance with accepted basic principles of strength grading. Stressed skin panel. A form of construction in which the outer skin, in addition to its normal function of providing a surface covering, acts integrally with the frame members contributing to the strength of the unit as a whole.

Structural composite lumber (SCL). In this standard, structural composite lumber is either laminated veneer lumber (LVL) or parallel strand lumber (PSL). These materials are intended for structural use and are bonded with an exterior adhesive. Structural glued laminated timber. An engineered, stress-rated product of a timber-laminating plant comprising assemblies of specially selected and prepared wood laminations securely bonded together with adhesives. The grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally. They comprise pieces end joined to form any length, pieces placed or glued edge-to-edge to make wider ones, or pieces bent to curved form during gluing. Structural-use panel. A wood-based panel product bonded with a waterproof adhesive. Included under this designation are plywood, oriented strand board, and composite panels. These panel products meet the requirements of PS 1-94 or PS 2-92 and are intended for structural use in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Stud. Used for vertical framing members in interior or exterior walls of a building, usually 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 sizes and precision end trimmed. Time-effect factor. A factor applied to adjusted resistance to account for effects of duration of load (refer to load duration). Tie down. An anchoring device for a shear wall boundary element that resists overturning of the wall. Unbraced length. The distance between braced points of a member, measured between the centers of gravity of the bracing members. Veneer. Thin wood sheet (ply) from which plywood or other wood products are manufactured, referred to as plies in the glued panel. Visually stress-graded lumber. Structural lumber that has been graded visually to limit strength-reducing and appearance characteristics. Assigned design values are based on the effect of the strength limiting visual characteristics. Wet service. Structures wherein the maximum equilibrium moisture content exceeds 19%.

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LRFD MANUAL FOR ENGINEERED WOOD CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General Information 1.1.1 Load and Resistance Factor Design 1.1.2 Load Combinations and Load Factors 1.1.3 Resistance Factors 1.1.4 Time Effect Factors 1.1.5 Reference Conditions

2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 9 9

1.2 1.3

Design Responsibilities 1.2.1 Bracing Other Design Considerations 1.3.1 Serviceability 1.3.2 Designing for Permanence 1.3.3 Designing for Fire Safety

1.4

Products Covered in This Manual 1.4.1 Products Included

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INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Information


This manual is organized as a multi-part package for maximum flexibility for the design engineer. All general design information, design equations, specification language, and commentary are organized by member type (tension, bending, etc.) and are included in this volume. Actual design values and design aids are packaged separately on a product-specific basis in a complete set of design supplements and guideline documents. Each chapter in this manual follows certain conventions. Each chapter starts with a section entitled General Information that prepares the reader for the type of information to be expected within that chapter. After the chapter-specific information, the chapter ends with a checklist section that is used to identify reference conditions for this case, followed by one or more design examples. The numbering of Chapters 3 through 9 correspond to chapters of the same numbers in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Standard for Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Engineered Wood Construction. Chapter 10, Reference Information, includes not only the typical reference information for a handbook of this type, but also includes flowcharts of the design processes and alternatives in Chapters 3 through 9. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 along with its Commentary is reproduced in its entirety following Chapter 10 of this Manual. This is provided for convenience to the user. The user will note that design values throughout this LRFD package are stated in ksi or kips per square inch rather than in the more familiar psi or pounds per square inch. The reason for this departure from current units is to minimize confusion of design values between Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and LRFD. The developers of the LRFD format debated other solutions, such as introducing completely different notation for LRFD-related data. However, the other solutions all proved to be much less user-friendly for designers than the simple restatement of units. The user will also note that this design package defines several widely-used LRFD terms as follows: Resistance refers to the capacity of the member. Examples include moment resistance (kip-ft), tension resistance (kips), etc. Tabulated resistances are found in the selection tables in the supplements, and are tabulated as factored resistances (specific time effect factors, 8, and resistance factors, N, are included). Strength refers to the material property value -- the strength values are the LRFD-equivalent of an allowable stress value. Example reference strengths (i.e., based on reference conditions) include bending strength (ksi), connection lateral strength (kips), etc. Reference strength values are also found in the supplements.

1.1.1 Load and Resistance Factor Design


Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) has evolved to become the preferred format for converting structural design standards to a so-called limit states approach. This section provides a brief discussion of LRFD and reassures engineers that this technique is simply an alternative way of quantifying the concepts of safety factors. Although the underlying mathematics are fairly complex, none of these complexities are required in the design procedures. In fact, many of the design equations are actually simpler to use than their Allowable Stress Design counterparts. Reliability-Based Design Theoretical reliability-based analysis has been used for many years in the electronics and aerospace industries. In both of these industries the relative ease of component reliability assessment and reasonably low cost of design redundancy made reliability-based design a highly successful product development strategy. The extension of theoretical reliability concepts to building applications has proven to be somewhat more difficult. The primary source of this difficulty lies in the relatively uncontrolled nature of so many facets of constructed facilities. The electronics engineer designs and builds a specific system out of precisely manufactured and assembled components that face well-defined bounds of loading over the products lifetime. Compare this with the building designer who designs a facility for only the initial occupancy type, using materials supplied by outside manufacturers and constructed by a broad range of subcontractors. The mathematics of reliability are the same for both designers. However, many engineers believe that unknown and unknowable factors dominate the actual in-place reliability of a building more than those factors that can be quantified. With these thoughts in mind, the writers of AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95 deliberately chose to develop a design procedure that mixes some elements of theoretical reliability with large quantities of engineering judgment. Specifically, AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 and its supporting ASTM standards completely adopt the reliability refinements embodied in the load factors of ASCE 7-93, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. The procedures in ASTM D5457-93, Standard

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Specification for Computing the Reference Resistance of Wood-Based Materials and Structural Connections for Load and Resistance Factor Design, are consistent with other standards in their use of reliability concepts only in the background calculations. The design equations include the end result of these calculations in the load factors and the resistance factors. Nearly all of todays (i.e., ASD) standard design formulae and adjustment factors are directly applicable for use in LRFD, leading to maximum consistency between the familiar design concepts of Allowable Stress Design and the new LRFD procedures. Basic LRFD Equations The basic design equation for LRFD, as with all engineering safety checking equations, requires that the specified product strength or resistance meet or exceed the stress or other effect imposed by the specified loads. In ASD, the permissible stress levels are set very low and the load magnitudes are set at once in a lifetime levels. This combination produces designs that maintain high safety levels yet remain economically feasible. In LRFD the basic design equation follows a similar format, in which the factored resistance must be greater than or equal to the factored load effects. From a users standpoint, the design process is similar to ASD. The most obvious difference between LRFD and ASD is that both the resistance and load effect values in LRFD will be numerically much higher than in ASD. The resistance values are higher because they are very near test magnitudes rather than being reduced by a significant internal safety factor. The load effects are higher because they are multiplied by load factors in the range of 1.2 to 1.6.

The load factors in these equations are intended to provide a consistent level of reliability across a range of ratios of the various load types.

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INTRODUCTION

1.1.3 Resistance Factors


To provide additional flexibility in achieving consistent reliability across a range of product applications, resistance factors are applied to the reference resistance values. Resistance factors (N) are always less than unity. The magnitude of a resistance factor represents the relative reduction required to achieve comparable reliability levels. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 provides the following resistance factors for wood-based products and connections:
Compression c = 0.90 Flexure b = 0.85 Stability s = 0.85 Tension t = 0.80 Shear/Torsion v = 0.75 Connections z = 0.65

These factors provide roughly equivalent reliability among different stress modes for a given product type.

1.1.4 Time Effect Factors


The time effect factor (8) is the LRFD-equivalent of the load duration factor in Allowable Stress Design. Time effect factors are tabulated in Table 1.4-2 for each load combination equation. The factors were derived based on reliability analysis that considered variability in strength properties, stochastic load process modeling and cumulative damage effects. Because reference strengths are based on short-term test values, time effect factors equal unity for load combinations in which no cumulative damage occurs. Time effect factors range in value from 1.25 for a load combination controlled by impact loading to 0.6 for a load combination controlled by permanent dead load. Examination of Table 1.4-2 from AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 reveals that common building applications will likely be designed for time effect factors of 0.80 for gravity load design (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 1.3-2 under occupancy floor load and 1.3-3) and 1.0 for lateral load design (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 1.3-4, 1.3-5 and 1.3-6).

1.1.2 Load Combinations and Load Factors


The load combination equations for use with LRFD are given in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Sec. 1.3.2:
1.4 D 1.2 D + 1.6 L + 0.5 (Lr or S or R) 1.2 D + 1.6 (Lr or S or R) + (0.5 L or 0.8 W) 1.2 D + 1.3 W + 0.5 L + 0.5 (Lr or S or R) 1.2 D + 1.0 E + 0.5 L + 0.2 S 0.9 D - (1.3 W or 1.0 E) (1.3-1) (1.3-2) (1.3-3) (1.3-4) (1.3-5) (1.3-6)

Refer to AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 and its commentary for additional details about application of these equations.

1.1.5 Reference Conditions


Reference conditions have been defined such that a majority of wood products used in interior or in protected

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environments will require no adjustment for moisture, temperature or treatment effects. Moisture reference conditions are identical to those in Allowable Stress Design. These include moisture contents 19% or less for sawn lumber products. The equivalent limit for glued products (glulam, structural composite lumber, I-joists, panel products) is defined as 16% MC or less. Temperature reference conditions are also identical to those in Allowable Stress Design. These include sus-

tained temperatures up to 100o F. Note that it has been traditionally assumed that these reference conditions also include common building applications in desert locations where daytime temperatures will often exceed 100o F. Examples of applications that may exceed the reference temperature range include food processing or other industrial buildings.

1.2 Design Responsibilities


Structural wood products are provided to serve a wide range of end uses. Some products are marketed through commodity channels where the products meet specific standards and the selection of the appropriate product is the responsibility of the user. Other products are custom manufactured to meet the specific needs of a given project. Products that often fall into this category are prefabricated trusses and custom glulam members. Design of the individual members is based on criteria specified by the architect or engineer of record on the project. Manufacture of these products is performed in accordance with the products manufacturing standards. Engineering of these products normally only extends to the design of the products themselves. Construction-related issues such as load path analysis and erection bracing remain the responsibility of the professional of record for the project.

1.2.1 Bracing
Design considerations related to both temporary and permanent bracing differ among product types. Specific discussion of bracing is included in the product supplement or guideline.

1.3 Other Design Considerations


Much of this manual focuses on building design from the perspective of structural engineering design. While design against structural collapse remains the primary purpose of structural design, engineers must also consider how their design will perform from the perspective of serviceability, durability and fire safety. While each of these topics could easily fill a book themselves, this section provides an introduction to each topic and some brief guidance for the designer. computed under live load or R/240 under total load are common for floors. While the traditional static deflection limits were originally intended to limit cracking of brittle finish materials, they have served equally well in short span applications to limit vibration problems. As engineered wood products have evolved to span longer distances with lighter weight members, it has become increasingly common for manufacturers to recommend more stringent deflection criteria. The user is directed to the product supplements and guidelines for additional information on specific products. For applications that might be particularly sensitive to vibration considerations, the user is directed to AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95 Chapter 10 Commentary.

1.3.1 Serviceability
In addition to designing buildings for strength limit states, designers must determine whether any special serviceability limit states must be considered for a given application. The most common serviceability limit used in the design of typical wood-framed buildings is a limitation on the deflection of roof or floor members. The building codes have traditionally defined these limits as a ratio of the member span. For example, limits of R/360

1.3.2 Designing for Permanence


Wood has a feature that is unique among construction materials. It retains its structural integrity indefinitely when maintained in a dry condition, and becomes com-

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pletely biodegradable (over time) when exposed to wet conditions. It is the goal of designers to detail their structure so that the wood remains serviceable for the life of that structure. Good construction details prevent deterioration of wood frame structures. When such details are ignored, decay or termite damage may occur. Naturally durable or pressure treated wood assures satisfactory performance under adverse conditions. Decay is caused by fungi which are low forms of plant life that feed on wood. For fungi to attack wood in service all the following conditions must be present: (1) temperature in the range of 35 to 100o F, (2) adequate supply of oxygen, and (3) wood moisture content in excess of 20%. The foregoing requirements for growth of fungi indicate a method to prevent decay in structures. Temperature, except in arctic climates, is impractical to control. Lack of sufficient oxygen to support decay occurs only when wood is completely below the ground water line or continuously submerged in fresh water. Control of moisture content of wood is a practical and effective method for prevention of decay. The subterranean termite is an insect which attacks in colonies and derives its nourishment from cellulosic materials such as wood, fabric, paper and fiber board. The termite may attack wood frame structures above the ground by means of shelter tubes attached to foundation walls, piers and other members in contact with the ground. However, only under conditions which permit the insect to establish and maintain contact with soil moisture, is a colony able to penetrate and consume wood in service. Thus, a barrier separating wood from earth, supplemented by inspection, is a practical and effective method for preventing damage by termites. Principles of Good Construction Protection of wood frame structures to provide maximum service-life involves three methods of control which can be handled by proper design and construction. One or more of the following methods may be employed: (1) control moisture content of wood, (2) provide effective termite barriers, (3) use naturally durable or preservatively treated wood. Wood construction maintained at a moisture content of 20% or less will not decay. Optimum conditions for decay occur when the moisture content is above 25%. It should be stressed that when wood is protected from water or from vapor condensation, and exposed to normal atmospheric conditions such as exist inside buildings and outdoors, its moisture content rarely exceeds 15%. Therefore, moisture content control by means of accepted design

and construction details is a simple and practical method of providing protection against decay. While moisture control also contributes to prevention of subterranean termite attack, the primary control method requires use of effective barriers supplemented by periodic inspection. Termite barriers are provided by the use of accepted construction practices which drive termites into the open where shelter tubes can be detected by inspection and destroyed. Wood frame structures provided with a recognized barrier supplemented by periodic inspection can be permanently ensured against subterranean termite attack. Architectural consideration or use exposures (swimming pools, marine structures, wet process industries, ground contact, unusual climatic conditions) may not permit moisture or termite control by design and construction techniques alone. Also, experience in certain geographical regions may indicate the need for greater protection. Under these circumstances naturally durable wood of certain species may be used, or wood may be pressure treated with preservatives to prevent decay and termite damage. General Recommendations for Good Construction Recommendations provided for good construction will assure basic resistance to decay. Due to climatic conditions or geographical location, additional control measures may be required in some buildings or structures. Control of decay or termite attack is accomplished primarily through application of four fundamental construction practices: 1. Positive site and building drainage. 2. Adequate separation of wood elements from known moisture sources to (a) prevent excessive absorption, (b) allow for periodic inspection, and (c) provide the necessary physical barrier for termite protection. 3. Use of naturally durable or pressure treated wood where indicated. See product-specific recommendations regarding proper procedures for preservative treatment of that product. 4. Ventilation and condensation control in enclosed spaces. These construction practices eliminate the danger of decay or subterranean termite damage. They also serve to control damage from other insects present in limited geographical areas.

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INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 Designing for Fire Safety


The model building codes in the U.S. cover virtually every safety-related topic related to the construction of buildings, and fire-related issues comprise a surprisingly

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large portion of the model codes. Designing for fire safety is a complex and multifaceted issue. The following information provides an overview of the subject: To provide fire safety in any structure, many approaches are considered. This involves a combination of (1) preventing fire occurrence, (2) controlling fire growth, and (3) providing protection to life and property. All need systematic attention to provide a high degree of economical fire safety. The building design professional can control fire growth within the structure by generating plans that include features such as protecting occupants, confining fire in compartment areas, and incorporating fire suppression and smoke or heat venting devices at critical locations. Controlling construction features to facilitate rapid egress, protection of occupants in given areas, and preventing fire growth or spread are regulated by codes as a function of building occupancy. If the design professional rationally blends protection solutions for these items with the potential use of a fire-suppression system (sprinklers, for example), economical fire protection can be achieved. Although attention could be given to all protection techniques available to the building design professional, the scope here is limited to the provisions that prevent fire growth and limit the fire to compartments of origin. Planning Generating the plans for a building of prescribed occupancy is a challenge because of the varying requirements of three major regional building codes: Building Officials Conference of America (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. (SBCCI). As a first step, the authority having jurisdiction where a proposed building is to be constructed must be consulted for the requirements of the specific design project. This normally concerns the type of construction desired as well as allowable building areas and heights for each construction type. Building construction is generally classified into types such as wood frame, noncombustible wall-wood joist, and heavy timber. Wood frame construction is defined as having exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floors and roofs of wood stud and joist framing of 2-in. nominal dimension. These are divided into two subclasses that are either protected or unprotected construction. Protected construction calls for having load-bearing assemblies of one-hour fire endurance. Noncombustible wall-wood joist types of construction have exterior walls of noncombustible materials and roofs, floors, and interior walls and partitions of wood frame. As in wood frame construction, these are divided into two subclasses that are either protected or unprotected.

Heavy timber construction includes exterior walls of noncombustible materials and columns, floors, roofs, and interior partitions of wood of a minimum size, as follows: Table 1.3-1. Minimum Sizes to Qualify as Heavy Timber Construction Material Roof decking: Lumber or wood structural panels Floor decking: Lumber or flooring or wood structural panels Roof framing: Floor framing: Columns: Minimum size (nominal size or thickness) 2 in. thickness l-l/8 in. thickness

3 in. thickness 1 in. thickness 1/2 in. thickness 4 by 6 in. 6 by 10 in. 8 by 8 in. (supporting floors) 6 by 8 in. (supporting roofs)

Noncombustible construction is generally required to be of noncombustible materials having fire-endurance ratings of up to 4 hours, depending on the size and location of the building. Some circumstances provide for the use of wood in the walls of noncombustible wall-wood joist and noncombustible types of construction. For example, the Uniform Building Code allows the use of fire-retardant treated wood framing for nonbearing walls if such walls are more than 5 feet from the property line. Exceptions to the use of noncombustible materials in the noncombustible-type buildings are sometimes made for heavy timber members. Heavy timber members can often be used for roof members more than 25 feet above the floor, balcony, or gallery in one-story noncombustible-type buildings. Besides having protected and unprotected subclasses for each building type, increases in floor area and height of the building are allowed when sprinkler protection systems are included. For example, protected wood frame educational occupancies can be increased from two to three stories in height because of the presence of sprinklers. Also, the floor area in the first two stories may be doubled or even tripled under some conditions.

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Fire-rated Assemblies The previous section explained that some occupancies require the use of fire-rated assemblies or members to prevent collapse or fire spread from one compartment of a building to another or from one building to another. Members and assemblies are rated for their ability either to continue to carry design loads during fire exposure or to prevent the passage of fire through them. Such ratings are arrived at either by calculation or experiment for both members and assemblies. The fire exposure is defined as that given in ASTM E119. A one-hour fire-resistance rating for wall, floor, and floor-ceiling assemblies incorporating nominal two-inch structural lumber can be accomplished through the use of noncombustible surfaces (such as gypsum wallboard). However, fastening of these surface materials is critical for ceiling

membranes and is carefully specified. For some wood assemblies, two-hour ratings have been achieved. Experimental ratings are also obtained independently on assemblies and members by materials and structural member producers. For a given assembly type incorporating proprietary components, the company supplying the component can be contacted to obtain the fire rating of the assembly. Typically rated floor-ceiling assemblies for various products are provided in the product supplements or guidelines. Analytically Rated In lieu of experimentally rating the fire endurance of members and assemblies, major building codes will accept engineering calculations of the expected fire endurance, based upon engineering principles and material properties. This applies to the rating of previously

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untested members or assemblies, or in cases where it is desired to substitute one material or component for another. Although calculation procedures may be conservative, they have the advantage of quickly rating an assembly or member and allowing interpolation or some extrapolation of expected performance. Additional details regarding the analytical approach are provided in AF&PAs DCA No. 4 - CAM for Calculating and Demonstrating Assembly Fire Endurance. Beams and Columns Heavy timber construction has traditionally been recognized to provide a fire-resistant building. This is primarily due to the large size of the members, the connection details, and the lack of concealed spaces. Such a construction type has often satisfied the fire-resistive requirement in all building codes by simple prescription. Although heavy timber construction has not been rated in the United States, Canada has assigned it a 45-minute fire-endurance rating. Using calculations, glulam timber columns and beams can be designed for desired fire-endurance ratings. Additional details regarding the analytical approach are provided in AF&PAs DCA No. 2 - Design of Fire-Resistive Exposed Wood Members. Fire and Draft Stopping In all construction types, no greater emphasis can be placed on the control of construction to reduce the fire growth hazard than the emplacement of fire and draft stops in concealed spaces. The spread of fire and smoke through these concealed openings within large rooms or between rooms is a continuous cause of major life and property loss. As a result, most building codes enforce detailing of fire blocking and draft stopping within building plans. Fire blocking considered acceptable are (1) two-inch nominal lumber, (2) two thicknesses of two-inch nominal lumber, and (3) one thickness of 3/4-inch plywood, with joints backed with 3/4-inch plywood. Draft stopping does not require fire resistance of fire blocking. Therefore, draft stopping material is not required to be as thick. Typical draft stop materials and their minimum thicknesses are (1) l/2-inch gypsum wallboard and (2) 3/8-inch plywood. Building codes consider an area between draft stops of 1,000 square feet as reasonable. Concealed spaces consisting of open-web floor truss components in protected floor-ceiling assemblies are an important location to draft-stop parallel to the component. Areas of 500 square feet in single-family dwellings and 1,000 square feet in other buildings are recommended, and areas between family compartments are absolutely necessary. Critical draft stop locations are in the concealed

spaces in floor-ceiling assemblies and in attics of multifamily dwellings when separation walls do not extend to the roof sheathing above. Other important locations to fire block in wood frame construction are in the following concealed spaces: 1. Stud walls and partitions at ceiling and floor levels. 2. Intersections between concealed horizontal and vertical spaces such as soffits. 3. Top and bottom of stairs between stair stringers. 4. Openings around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys (and fireplaces at ceiling and floor levels) with noncombustible fire stops. Flame Spread Regulation of materials used on interior building surfaces (and sometimes exterior surfaces) of other than oneand two-family structures is provided to minimize the danger of rapid flame spread. ASTM E84 gives the method used to obtain the flame-spread property for regulatory purposes of paneling materials. Materials are classified as having a flame spread of more or less than that of red oak, which has an assigned flame spread of 100. A noncombustible inorganic reinforced cement board has an assigned flame spread of zero. A list of accredited flame-spread ratings for various commercial woods and wood products is given in AF&PAs DCA No. 1 - Flame Spread Performance of Wood Products. Fire-Retardant Treatments It is possible to make wood highly resistant to the spread of fire by pressure impregnating it with an approved chemical formulation. Wood will char if exposed to fire or fire temperatures, even if it is treated with a fire-retardant solution, but the rate of its destruction and the transmission of heat can be retarded by chemicals. However, the most significant contribution of chemicals is reducing the spread of fire. Wood that has absorbed adequate amounts of a fire-retardant solution will not support combustion or contribute fuel, and will cease to burn as soon as the source of ignition is removed. Two general methods of improving resistance of wood to fire are (1) impregnation with an effective chemical, and (2) coating the surface with a layer of intumescent paint. The first method is more effective. For interiors or locations protected from weather, impregnation treatments can be considered permanent and have considerable value in preventing ignition. These surface applications offer the principal means of increasing fire-retardant properties of existing structures. However, these coatings may require periodic renewal if their effectiveness is to be maintained. In the past, the only effective chemicals were water

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soluble, making fire-retardant treatments unadaptable to weather exposure. Impregnated fire retardants that are resistant to both high humidity and exterior exposures are becoming increasingly available on the market for treated

lumber and plywood products. See product-specific recommendations regarding proper procedures for preservative treatment of that product.

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INTRODUCTION

1.4 Products Covered in This Manual


This manual was developed with the intent of covering all structural applications of wood-based products and their connections that meet the requirements of the referenced standards. Other primary referenced standards are: ASCE 7-93, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures: This standard is the basic reference for load factors and load combinations that should be checked in design of buildings and other structures. Use of the requirements in this standard for applications other than buildings (and the other special structures that it covers) is beyond the scope of ASCE 7-93. For example, ASCE 7-93 provides no guidance on the appropriate load factors to design a bridge, or on the proper load combinations to check. The same difficulty arises when designing a scaffold or a concrete form system neither of these applications have loading criteria that have been derived in a manner consistent with ASCE 7. ASTM D5457-93, Standard Specification for Computing the Reference Resistance of Wood-based Materials and Structural Connections for Load and Resistance Factor Design: This specification provides the link between material specifications or product manufacturing standards and LRFD reference resistance values. This ASTM specification defines two alternative routes for deriving design values: Format conversion: Code-accepted ASD values are permitted to form the basis for conversion into reference resistance values. Conversion factors have been chosen such that designs retain roughly the same level of safety as found in ASD. Format conversion factors are addressed in ASTM D5457 and are discussed further in the product supplement and guideline documents. Reliability-based conversion: ASTM D5457 provides procedures for deriving LRFD reference resistance values directly from test data.

1.4.1 Products Included


Design information for LRFD is available for products in the following list. The designation of Supplement indicates a document that contains a complete set of design values plus other information for use with this manual and AF&PA/ASCE 16-95. The designation of Guideline indicates a document that does not contain design values, but includes other information required to design the products using LRFD. Supplements Structural Lumber Supplement Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement Timber Pole and Pile Supplement Structural-Use Panel Supplement Structural Connections Supplement Guidelines Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Guideline Wood I-Joist Guideline Structural Composite Lumber Guideline Pre-engineered Metal Connectors Guideline

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2.1 2.2 2.3

General Information Commercial/Industrial Residential/Retail Projects: Fast Food Restaurants TYCO Warehouse Reservoir Cover Marriott Courtyard Hotels Delancey Street Foundation Triangle Pine Square/Pacific Court

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2.1 General Information


This chapter presents six project profiles. Each project represents a type of construction with needs that were uniquely filled by wood-based structural products. The project profiles present an overview of each project.

2.2 Commercial/Industrial
Three projects are presented. The fast food restaurants highlight the nationwide use of structural wood products in buildings that demand economy, fast installation and long-term dependability. The Tyco warehouse represents a construction system in which the economics regularly lead to the choice of a structural wood roof system. The LA reservoir cover illustrates the use of engineered wood products in a unique project in which woods proven seismic performance, coupled with its ability to withstand a corrosive environment, lead to its use. Projects: Fast food restaurants: McDonalds, Wendys, Hardees and Taco Bell are several of the restaurant chains that regularly use wood construction. Tyco Warehouse: 250,000 square feet warehouse used a panelized wood roof system. City of Los Angeles Reservoir Cover: 600,000 square foot (14 acre) roof used glulam beams and wood-flange, steel-web trusses for this unique application in a high seismic area.

2.3 Residential/Retail
Three projects are presented. Each represents the use of engineered wood products in a multifamily residential project. However, each also illustrates a feature of engineered wood construction that makes it the system of choice for the project. The Marriott Courtyards illustrate a use in which the owners want an economical, reliable system that can be duplicated throughout the country without concern about material availability or specialized labor requirements. The Delancy project showcases the architectural flexibility that is available when using wood products. Finally, the Pine Square project provides a glimpse of creative genius for high density housing erecting an entire wood-framed residential community on top of a reinforced concrete retail center. Projects: Marriott Courtyard Hotels: Marriott regularly uses engineered wood construction in these hotels across the country. Delancy Street Triangle: Architecturally interesting project combines residential and retail areas in this complex. Pine Square/Pacific Court: Urban revitalization project a residential community atop a retail center atop a parking garage.

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Commercial
Fast Food Restaurants

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Project Description Fast food restaurants in the United States are a multibillion dollar business. New restaurants are being built almost daily across the U.S. The design and construction of such facilities has been a major portion of Ozark Structures business for many years. McDonalds, Wendys, Hardees, and Taco Bell are several of the chains that utilize Ozarks design/build capability. Design Considerations With the exception of architectural details that distinguish one chain from the next, these structures are quite similar. In general this type of restaurant is a rectangular footprint approximately 24 feet high and 35-40 feet wide with the front or street side walls of the building being a window wall. Building length is determined by the site size and the desired dining room capacity. Code Conformance Subject to local jurisdiction modifications, the model code (ICBO, BOCA, or SBCCI) governs design. Typically the owner of the building (e.g., Wendys, etc.) develops architectural plans for a given site that are sent out for bid. The building is designed by the bidder to

meet the desired footprint and appearance requirements supplied by the owner. These restaurants are typically designed as Type II, one-hour buildings. Fire and wind considerations are most often the critical design criteria. This is particularly true for urban areas. Depending on the local zoning restrictions, fire safety considerations vary. The use of fire retardant treated lumber and gypsum wallboard are often a suitable, cost effective alternative to steel construction.

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Roof dead loads are usually 10 psf. Roof live loads can vary from 45 psf snow loads in the northern states to 20 psf sun loads in the southwestern U.S. Due to the amount of glass desired in many of the store fronts, it is often difficult to achieve the proper horizontal shear resistance. The use of deep plywood box-beams has been found effective in developing the necessary shear strength. Materials Specifications The primary structural system is most often comprised of either steel or wood columns supporting glulam beams. The beams spans can be as large as 40-feet requiring 24F grade glulam. Wall framing is typically 2x6 stud grade lumber (fire retardant treated when necessary). In the building shown in the photos the roof structure uses parallel chord, metalplate connected trusses. Where the mansard roof appearance is specified, parallel chord trusses are manufactured with mansard ends (see lower right figure.) Some pitched, metal-plate connected roof trusses are also used in this building. Exterior sheathing is typically 7/16 in. OSB or 1/2 in. to 5/8 in. plywood, Rated Sheathing grade. Where fire codes dictate, fire retardant treated plywood is used. Exteriors are commonly stucco or brick with painted wood trim.

After the foundation and slab are poured, the materials, crane, and crew arrive on the site. No metal workers are required to erect these buildings. Within 16 hours the structural frame is to a point where roofing can begin. The roof structure allows for great interior wall flexibility. Few, if any, internal columns are needed. Kitchen location, service counters and seating arrangements are fully at the discretion of the interior designer.

Construction Procedure Wood framed structures have been selected for these fast food restaurant chains primarily because of their overall economy, material and labor availability, and construction speed. Many of the components are pre-manufactured in a plant. They include; trusses, wall panels, and to some degree roof panels.

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Contact List Owner/Architect Major fast food chains across the United States such as McDonalds, Wendys, Hardees, and Taco Bell. Structural Engineer/Contractor Ozark Structures P.O. Box 4246 Springfield, MO 65808

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Industrial
TYCO Warehouse

Project Description During the spring of 1992 TYCO Corporation, a major producer of childrens toys, completed 250,000 square feet of warehouse space for product storage and distribution near Portland, Oregon. Two tilt-up concrete buildings with panelized wood roof systems, each measuring 250x500 feet, were erected parallel to one another creating nearly six acres of storage/distribution facility. The total cost of these buildings, including site work and lighting, was $11/square foot. Design Considerations Tilt-up concrete walls with panelized wood roof systems are quite common, particularly in the western United States. What makes this project unique is that instead of using 4'x8' structural panels in the roof, 8'x8' panels were used. This nearly doubled the roof installation speed. Site The site was level but wet. Even with wet soil the expected loading did not require any special foundation design. Of greater significance was the fact that these

buildings were located directly in line with a major runway of Portland International Airport resulting in enhanced fire protection system requirements. Code Conformance As a storage facility in the Portland area the UBC specifies a Type VN, B-2 Occupancy class. Due to its location and type of storage, fire considerations were extremely important. These buildings were considered Class 4 high pile commodity storage facilities. In addition, the flammability of the materials stored and their location in the flight path of a major airport required sprinklers to be spaced at nearly twice the typical density along with special smoke removal equipment. Actual fire tests were conducted in the buildings to convince the Fire Marshall that a fire and its resultant smoke would not conflict with air traffic control. The buildings were designed as a box system (250x500-feet) in a Zone 3 seismic area. Factory Mutual I-90 psf wind uplift forces were specified. In addition, the engineer designed for a condition between Exposure Class B and C, 95 mph wind speeds. These wind speeds

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were higher than required by the UBC. Roof live load was 25 psf, governed by snow loading. Roof dead load was 10 psf.

Construction Process The engineering firm for this project has been involved in the design of over 40 million square feet of panelized wood roof systems. The reason for the proliferation of this system has simply been its erection speed, efficiency, and availability of materials. Reinforced concrete walls, twenty-eight feet long, were poured on the ground and tilted into position. The concrete formwork utilized a double 2x4 lumber frame which became the top plate of the wall. Steel columns, placed in a 25x50-foot grid, were connected with glulam beams to form the primary structural network. Split-lam connections were used wherever glulam beam size changed.

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Materials Specifications The materials list for this panelized wood roof system is rather simple. 24F glulam girders and purlins were used. Sub-purlins were No. 1&Btr. Douglas Fir - Larch 2x4s and the panels were 1/2 in. Rated Sheathing OSB. Simpson metal hangers were used to connect purlins to girders and sub-purlins to purlins. For OSB connections to the perimeter walls 16d nails were used. For other panel nailing, 8d nails were used. R-11 ceiling insulation was installed. All materials were readily available at local building supply dealers with the exception of the 8x8-foot OSB which was special ordered from the factory through a local building materials supplier. The roofing was a hot mop asphalt and the exterior walls of the buildings were painted.

The 8x25-foot panels were fabricated on the ground by a two man crew. The unique feature of this panel system was the use of 8' x 8' OSB (Oriented Strand Board) structural panels. The OSB was nailed with its strong axis aligned parallel to the 2x4 sub-purlins spaced two feet on center. Because of the panel orientation with the sub-purlins, a 1/2 in. thick, Rated Sheathing grade of OSB was required. With the OSB nailed to the 25-foot glulam purlin and sub-purlins, the assembly was ready to be lifted into position.

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Contact List Owner Tyco Corporation 15745 N. Lombard Portland, OR Structural Engineer VanDomelen/Looijenga/ McGarrigle/Knauf 3933 Kelly Avenue Portland, OR 97201 This type of system requires only one person to be on the roof at any given time to fasten the panels in place. A pneumatic nailer is used for the connection of the panelized assembly to both the interior purlins, as well as to the outside walls. Within ten days an entire 125,000 square feet of roof can be installed. Typically steel roof systems require periodic expansion joints to account for temperature effect. With a wood roof system no expansion joints were needed. Contractor Grady, Harper, Carlson, Inc. 2945 N.E. Argyle Street Portland, OR 97211

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Commercial
Reservoir Cover

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Project Description During 1992 the City of Los Angeles, Department of Water and Power erected a reservoir cover over the Van Norman Bypass Reservoir in San Fernando, California, part of the Los Angeles drinking water supply system. A covered reservoir offers several advantages. The most obvious reasons include the minimization of both water evaporation and contaminants (e.g., airborne pollutants, bird feces, etc.). The secondary benefits of a reservoir cover include: reduced chemical usage (i.e., primarily chlorine) and improved safety and security. An enclosed reservoir assists in keeping people and animals from entering the area. The reservoir cover is a dome-like structure. The center of the roof is approximately eight feet higher than the perimeter. Total roof area exceeds 600,000 square feet, or approximately 14 acres. The roof stands 44 feet above the reservoir floor, and is supported by glulam beams and metal web wood trusses on a 60 x 60-foot concrete column grid. On top of the wood structural system are 3 x 20-foot aluminum roof panels, installed to minimize total dead load and provide a continuous, water-tight barrier.

Design Considerations Primary engineering design considerations for the cover included both seismic activity and wind uplift where the Uniform Building Code was used. However, with the exception of seismic and wind consideration, the primary design issues were not governed by the UBC, but rather by the end-use specification and defined by the Department of Water and Power. Because this water was actual drinking water, the primary issues were: strict maintenance of water quality and roof structure longevity/durability. Materials Specifications It was essential that the roof protect the water from contamination for the specified design lifetime. But it was equally important that the building materials themselves did not contribute any contamination. To this end, Alaskan yellow cedar was selected as the wood species to be used in both the primary and secondary structural members. This species was used because of its balance between natural durability and strength characteristics. Alaskan yellow cedar is not commonly used in glulam beams, therefore, a series of tests were conducted by the APA-EWS to verify their performance capability.

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For the 60-foot TJH trusses, a proprietary 1.65E MSR grade of yellow cedar lumber was specified by Trus Joist MacMillan. The TJH trusses were 51-inches deep with double 2x6 top and bottom chords. The primary structural system was composed of glulam beams connecting the columns in the 60 by 60foot matrix. Two sizes of 20F glulam were used. The girders oriented parallel with the TJH trusses were 6 3/4inches wide by 39-inches deep. The other beams were 10 3/4-inches wide by 39-inches deep, 60-feet long.

Reports from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power describe no adverse effect on the structure. Even through the roof structure is in close proximity to water, the consistently low relative humidity conditions reduce moisture as a design consideration. However, as a precautionary measure, wet use design values were used in the engineering calculations for the glulam and trusses. Again, because of the proximity of the roof to water, all connections and hold-downs were designed with hot dipped galvanized bolts, hangers, nails, etc. Construction Procedure The construction procedure was straightforward. The regularly spaced columns and simple structural matrix lead to rapid installation of the roof. Although the roof elevation was minimal, the beams and trusses needed to be lifted more than 40 feet laterally into position. For this purpose a small (14 ton) hydraulic crane was used. Corrugated aluminum roof panels, 3 x 20-feet, were caulked and screwed to the wood members. More than 60,000 square feet of roofing was installed per week. Even at this rate the process took ten weeks.

Around the entire perimeter of the cover, a stem wall 2 to 4 feet high was used to connect the roof system to the ground which served as a barrier to keep people from entering the reservoir. This lumber was locally available two-inch framing lumber. Engineering Design The roof cover was designed for a 20 psf live load. The dead load was negligible. The aluminum roof panels contributed just slightly over 1 psf. Earthquake resistance and wind uplift were more important design considerations. For seismic design both lateral and vertical accelerations were considered. On January 17, 1994 the Northridge earthquake, measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale, struck close to the reservoir.
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Contact List Owner Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power City of Los Angeles 111 N. Hope St., Room 1334 Los Angeles, CA 90051 Project Manager S. J. Amoroso Construction Co. 1516-B Brookhollow Drive Santa Ana, CA 92705-5426 Roof Installation Anning Johnson Co. 13250 Temple City of Industry, CA 91749

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Residential/Commercial
Marriott Courtyard Hotels

Project Description Beginning in 1987, Marriott Corporation began building a series of Courtyard Hotels across the country utilizing engineered wood systems. To date 22 hotels have been completed with numerous others in various stages of planning. The Marriott Courtyard pictured above is 78,600 square feet with 150 rooms situated on 1.6 acres. A majority of the hotels will be smaller, approximately 45,000 square feet with 48 rooms. These structures are typically three stories of wood frame construction built on a concrete slab. Each facility contains a small restaurant and lounge with meeting room facilities for group sizes up to 30. The selection of engineered wood construction was driven primarily by cost. Wood frame construction averaged $1200 to $1500 per room less than the other construction systems. Total project costs for the 150-room facility was $5 million. Engineering Considerations Because the Marriott Corporation franchises these hotels nationwide, all model building codes have been considered (e.g., ICBO, BOCA, & SBCCI) in the designs.

These buildings are fully sprinklered, one-hour fire resistive construction carrying a R-1 Occupancy Class. From a code standpoint, these structures are viewed simply as a large house. Materials Specifications Locally available, conventional dimension lumber was used for most wall framing. A sound transmission class of 52 was achieved with either a staggered 2x4 stud wall or a 2x6 with resilient metal clips. 5/8 in. gypsum wallboard was used throughout.

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and freezing weather. The only time a crane was needed on the jobsite was to deposit bundles of engineered wood roof trusses on the third floor. Some panelization took place on site.

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Wall and roof sheathing materials were either plywood or OSB depending upon availability. Wood trusses, glulam and I-joists were used where longer spans were required. Laminated veneer lumber has replaced some of the glulam in subsequent structures. A stucco exterior finish is used most often on these buildings.

Contact List Owner Marriott Corporation 1500 Research Blvd. Suite 200 Rockville, MD 20850 Engineer L. S. Mason & Associates 935 Moraga Rd. Suite 202 Lafayette, CA 94549 Architect Bucher, Meyers, Polniaszek, and Silkey 8777 First Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20910 Contractor Bell Construction Company Box 363 Brentwood, TN 37027

Construction Procedure Because the engineered wood system for the hotel is no more complicated than that of any platform framed house, the number of trades required on the job was minimized. Construction materials were readily available locally, and the job was able to continue through rainy
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Residential/Retail
Delancey Street Foundation Triangle

Project Description The Delancey Street Foundation Triangle is a three-story wood-frame residential structure over one story of posttensioned concrete commercial and retail space. It is located in the South Beach area of San Francisco, California, one quarter of a mile from the San Francisco Bay bridge. The site is a relatively flat 2.95 acre triangular parcel zoned for mixed residential/retail use. The property is being leased by the Delancey Street Foundation from the Port of San Francisco. Several other condominium, apartment, and retail complexes share the surrounding area. The Delancey Street Foundation is a unique organization that provides a highly successful rehabilitation program for drug abusers and alcoholics. The Foundation teaches trade skills to program participants. Its success can be measured by the fact that the primary method of support for the Foundation results from enterprises operated by program participants.

Design Considerations The Delancey Street project, completed in 1989, is a total of seven buildings representing 325,000 square feet of floor area. To provide workspace and housing for several hundred people, the architects creatively maximized the use of the triangular parcel and designed a multi-use complex that includes 177 apartments (approximately 900 square feet each), group dining facilities, classrooms, a central courtyard, health club, pool, 500-seat assembly hall,

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and a recreational building with a 150-seat screening room. In addition, 138 covered parking spaces were provided along with the commercial and retail space. The commercial functions included a dry cleaner, auto repair shop with an antique car museum, wood shops, and a 400-seat restaurant.

Larch at a maximum moisture content of 12% was used. Lumber at 12% or less moisture content is in equilibrium with the local environment so there was no need to perform shrinkage calculations. For higher stress locations, glulam beams rated at Fb = 2 ksi, E = 1500 ksi were used, and in some cases wide flange steel beams were needed to maintain a nominal 10 in. floor depth. No. 1&Btr Douglas Fir - Larch Beams and Stringers (nominal 6 in. and larger) were used in several beam and column applications. Wall and roof sheathing included 15/32 in. C-C Exterior and C-D Structural II plywood. Interior corridor sheathing walls used 3/8 in. plywood. The buildings exterior used a cement-based plaster to harmonize with the terra cotta roof tile used on the pyramid-shaped roof caps. Control joints were placed at each level to minimize shrinkage problems with the exterior finish and to delineate window openings.

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Materials Specifications Wood framing was selected over other systems because of its economy, availability, and speed of construction. This decision was also influenced by wood framings ease of construction with relatively unskilled labor. The Foundation was able to utilize this project as valuable job skills training for some of its program participants. Because much of the labor was supplied by the Foundation members and the fact that much of the material was donated by various agencies, the actual cost savings cannot be documented. For the exterior walls, the engineers specified 2x6 in. studs to accommodate thermal insulation. The framing material was No. 2&Btr Douglas Fir - Larch. For the interior walls of the bottom story, 3x4 in. lumber was used to provide additional nailing area, while the two upper stories used 2x4s 16-inches on center. The framing lumber was specified to be dry, that is, moisture content not to exceed 19%. Some 1350f-1.3E Machine Stress Rated 2x4 framing lumber was substituted when availability of the No. 2&Btr. became difficult. Floor joists included a variety of materials. Joist spans ranged from 13 to 18 feet. Spans over 15 feet required double joists where solid sawn lumber was used. For longer spans fingerjointed No. 2&Btr 2x10 Douglas Fir -

A 6x6 in. wood bracket outrigger eave detail, constructed by Delancey Street members, is carried throughout the buildings. Similar brackets support planter boxes on the lower floors. Sound Transmission As with any residential project, sound transmission is critical. Group R occupancies are required to have a sound transmission class (STC) of 50. STC ratings of 45 to 55 are commonly cited as good sound barriers. To reduce sound transmission between units, the architect staggered the 2x4 studs to the front and back of the wall cavity on a 2x6 plate, while maintaining a 16 in. on center spacing on each side. One face of the wall is covered with 5/8 in. gypsum wallboard; the other side has 3/8 in. plywood with a 5/8 in. gypsum overlay. The plywood also provides shear load resistance. Within the wall cavity, 3-1/2 in. acoustic batting was woven between the staggered studs. The entire assembly provides an STC rating of approximately

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53. For more information on sound control, the Western Wood Products Association in Portland, Oregon provides a design manual published by the Gypsum Association. Code Conformance The ICBO Uniform Building Code (UBC), as accepted and modified by the City of San Francisco, was used. The housing portion of the complex, which includes four wood frame buildings, is classified as a Group R-1 Occupancy, which covers hotels, apartments, and condominiums. In addition, the housing portion is a Type V, one-hour protected assembly. Under the UBC, the buildings structural framework, interior stairways, and exterior walls may be constructed of wood as long as the assembly meets the one-hour fire resistive requirement. Furthermore, the complex is located in San Franciscos fire zone, and, therefore, must be sprinklered throughout (San Francisco Building Code, 1603(a) Exception 1). The restaurant portion was designed as a Group A 2.1, Type II one-hour building.

In addition, the maximum height (in stories) for R-1 Occupancy, Type V unprotected buildings is three stories. The maximum allowable height (in feet) for Type V onehour construction is 50 feet. The Delancey Street residential buildings were a maximum overall height of 40 feet. Design Loads Common code specified design loads were used. Floor live loads included: 100 psf for public areas such as stairs, exits, and corridors required, 40 psf for living units, and 60 psf for balconies. Roof dead load was 10 psf to allow for the terra cotta tile. Seismic and Lateral Forces The Delancey Street complex is located in Seismic Zone 4. Zone 4 includes areas that are in close proximity to a major fault system where extensive damage may occur in the event of an earthquake (UBC Chapter 23, Figure 2 Seismic Zone Map). Table 23-I of the UBC permits a K value of 1.0 for Buildings not more than three stories in height with stud wall framing and using plywood horizontal diaphragms and plywood vertical shear panels for the lateral force system. The upper floor of the residences were designed to use a combination of gypsum wallboard and 3/8 in. plywood for shear restraint. Half of the party wall separations used gypsum, while the other half used 3/8 in. plywood. Corridors and unit walls relied on 3/8 in. plywood. Exterior walls on the top floor were sheathed with either 1/2 in. gypsum or 1/2 in. C-D exterior plywood. The lower two floors used either 1/2 in. C-D exterior or Structural II plywood. Shear wall nailing schedules were 8d nails on two-inch centers. Although the exterior sheath-

Height and Area Allowances The site complexity offered some design challenges. To accommodate 177 units, allowable height and area increases were utilized. The UBC (Chapter 5, Table 5-C) specifies the basic allowable area at 10,500 square feet for a one-story, Group R-1 Occupancy, Type V one-hour building. For multi-story buildings, however, this area may be doubled, provided that the floor area of any single story does not exceed the limits of Table 5-C, Section 505(b). This increases the size to 21,000 square feet for each building. Because the buildings are fully sprinklered, the floor area may again be doubled (UBC Section 506(b)). Thus the resulting 42,000 square feet is the maximum for two of the buildings. For two other buildings an additional area increase was allowed due to open spaces greater than 20 feet on two and three sides of the buildings.

Figure 2.1 Hold-down detail.

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ing provides significant shear strength, most of the exterior walls were not relied upon in the shear wall calculations. Metal straps were used to tie the top floor to the second floor. Standard hold-downs were used in the lower two stories (Figure 1). It is interesting to note that well into the construction process, the Loma Prieta earthquake struck San Francisco on October 17, 1989. This quake measured 7.1 on the Richter scale and caused no damage to the structure. Even plastered exterior walls sustained no damage. Foundation The geotechnical report showed that the site was located on an artificial fill over bay mud. The bay mud covers sands and clays, which overlay sloping bedrock. To compensate for the poor bearing strength of bay mud, pre-stressed, 117 ton 14 in. square concrete piles were driven 60 to 90 feet to bedrock. The three-story wood-frame apartments were supported by one-story post-tensioned concrete first level that was 12.5 feet high.

Contact List Owner Delancey Street Foundation, Inc. 2563 Divisadero Street San Francisco, CA 94115 Architect Backen, Arrigoni & Ross, Inc. 1660 Bush Street San Francisco, CA 94133 Structural Engineer R.M.J. & Associates 103 Linden Avenue S. San Francisco, CA 94980 Geotechnical Consultant Harding Lawson Associates 666 Howard Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Project Coordinator Jack Scott & Associates 75 Lansing Street San Francisco, CA 94105

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Urban Residential/Retail
Pine Square/Pacific Court

Project Description The Pine Square/Pacific Court project is a residential, retail/entertainment facility situated on one full city block in the heart of downtown Long Beach, California. It was designed as an inner-city revitalization project, and is comprised of four stories (with a loft) of wood frame residential construction, forty feet above street level atop several levels of reinforced concrete and steel construction containing retail and entertainment components. Pacific Court, the housing component of the project, was added to reinforce an active living/work environment within an urban setting. One hundred forty-two apartments, situated forty feet above the street, allow uninterrupted views of the surrounding city. Quiet landscaped courtyards provide a suburban tranquillity within Long Beachs urban core. Overall, the project contains 35,000 square feet of restaurant/retail space, a 16-plex cinema, 142 apartment units, and parking for 400 cars. The residents of Pacific Court have two levels of dedicated underground parking with a separate entrance and security gate. There is also a separate street entrance for foot traffic located on the opposite side of the block from the retail entrance. Two high-speed traction elevators are

provided for residents, servicing both parking and living areas. Retail parking is located on the first level, close to the shopping and entertainment areas. The Pine Square/Pacific Court project is a total of 385,000 square feet. The retail portion represents 120,000 square feet and the residential portion 125,000 square feet. The parking structure comprises the remainder. Design Considerations The Pine Square/Pacific Court project is essentially three structures stacked vertically; a residential community on top of a retail center, supported by a three-level parking structure. Other than the uniqueness of the design concept, the engineering complexity was minimal. The following discussion will focus on the residential structure Pacific Court. Code Conformance With the exception of an innovative hold-down system, and a three-hour separation floor, the Pine Square/ Pacific Court project was typical Type I steel and concrete construction on the lower levels (Pine Square) capped with four levels and a loft (Pacific Court) of Type3,

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wall of the apartments, steel beams were placed. This beam network acted as a foundation system supporting the 3-hour floor and apartments above. The 3-hour floor system is composed of a 7-1/4 in. concrete deck, covered by a 7/8 in. sound insulating board. The sound board was then covered with three more inches of concrete. Special attention was given to waterproofing between slabs to assure proper drainage. On the bottom of the 7-1/4 in. concrete deck, two layers of 5/8 in. gypsum wallboard were hung from metal hanger clips.

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one-hour protected residential construction, Group R-1 Occupancy all in a seismic Zone 4. To meet the fire code requirements all levels of the project were fully sprinklered and fire retardant treated lumber and sheathing was required for all exterior wall framing. The footprint of the retail portion of the project was much larger than the residential portion allowing balconies and courtyards to be easily included in the design.

Figure 2.2 Three-hour floor separation system. Hold-Down System Threaded rod hold-downs were spaced every ten feet around the perimeter of the apartment complex and welded to the steel beams below. These threaded rods ran the full height of the apartment complex, securing all residential levels to the retail space below. For all interior walls, sole plate hold-down bolts were welded to the steel beam foundation network as well. Design Loads Common code specified design loads were used. Floor live loads included: 100 psf for public areas such as stairs, exits, and corridors, 40 psf for living units, and 60 psf for balconies. Roof dead load was 10 psf to allow for cement tile, and roof live load was 20 psf. UBC specified wind loads were used for the height and location of the building. Materials Specifications The original design was a Type I steel frame high-rise with concrete floor slabs. The preliminary cost estimates

Three-Hour Floor Separation Many of the apartments were located above the theaters. For both safety and privacy reasons, a three-hour floor separation was provided between the two occupancy zones. Figure 2.2 shows the separation detail. Under each

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drove a search for a more cost-effective solution. RTKL Architects of Los Angeles, California redesigned the structure to a height just inches below the Type I high-rise limit which allowed wood frame construction to be used. Common grades and sizes of dimension lumber were used throughout. For exterior walls, fire retardant treated

stud grade lumber 16 inches on center was specified to meet the Type III construction requirements. On lower floors 2x6 in. studs were used, and on upper floors and loft 2x4 lumber was used. Interior walls used staggered 2x4s with sound insulation woven between studs for apartment separation walls. The remainder of the framing material (floor joists and rafters) was No. 2&Btr Douglas Fir - Larch. All joists and rafters were specified to be MC15 lumber. This is lumber that is dried to an average of 12% moisture content with no piece to exceed 15% moisture content. This is common practice in multi-story buildings to avoid vertical shrinkage considerations. Wall studs were specified to be SDRY meaning moisture content is not to exceed 19%. Exterior wall and roof sheathing was fire retardant treated plywood. Interior shear walls were sheathed with 3/8 in. Oriented Stand Board (OSB). The exterior surface of the building was covered with a cement-based stucco and painted to complement the color of the lower retail levels. Cement roof tile was used on all residences. Contact List Owner Janss Corporation 1453 Third Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 Architect RTKL Architects 818 W. 7th Street, Suite 300 Los Angeles, CA 90017 Structural Engineer Robert Englekirk Consulting Structural Engineers, Inc. 2116 Arlington Ave. Los Angeles, CA 90018-1398 Contractor Benchmark Contractors, Inc. 2901 28th Street, Suite 150 Santa Monica, CA 90405

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TENSION MEMBERS

3.1 3.2 3.3

General Design 3.2.1 Adjustment Factors Special Considerations 3.3.1 Net Section Calculation 3.3.2 Radial Tension in Curved Members

32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 34

3.4 3.5

Checklist: Using Tension Member Selection Tables Design Examples Example 3-1: Truss Bottom Chord Example 3-2: Bolted Truss Bottom Chord

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TENSION MEMBERS

3.1 General Information


This chapter covers design of members stressed primarily in tension parallel to grain. Examples of such members include truss members and diaphragm chords. See specific product supplements for factored tension resistance values (tension member selection tables) and reference tension strengths. The designer is advised that use of wood members in applications that induce tension perpendicular to grain stresses should be avoided.

3.2 Design
The basic equation for design of tension members (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 3.1-1) is:
tT $ Tu

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, use the value of CM given in the product supplement or guideline. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For higher temperature conditions, use the value of Ct given in the product supplement or guideline. is the size factor for visually graded sawn lumber or round timber members. Tabulated resistances already include the size factor. For calculations starting from reference tension strengths, use the value of CF given in the Structural Lumber Supplement or Timber Pole and Pile Supplement. is the preservative treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with preservative chemicals, use the value of Cpt given in the product supplement or guideline. is the fire-retardant treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with fire-retardant chemicals, use the value of Crt given in the product supplement or guideline.

where
= time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) t = 0.80 T = adjusted tension resistance parallel to grain Tu = factored tensile force

Ct

CF

The factored tension resistance is tabulated in the tension member selection tables of individual product supplements. The tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions of the checklist in Section 3.4.

3.2.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting the tabulated tension resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference tension strength for the product. The complete equation for calculation of factored tension resistance is:
tT = tFt A

Cpt

Crt

where
A = area (in2) Ft = Ft CM Ct CF Cpt Crt Ft = reference tension strength (ksi)

For untreated members used in a normal building environment (meeting the reference conditions of Sec. 1.1.5) the general equation for Ft reduces to:
Ft = Ft CF

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3.3 Special Considerations


3.3.1 Net Section Calculation
Design of tension members is often controlled by the ability to provide connections to develop tensile forces within the member. In the area of connections, one must design not only the connection itself (described in detail in Chapter 7) but also the transfer of force across the net section of the member.

3.3.2 Radial Tension in Curved Members


Stresses induced in curved members under load include a component of stress in the direction of the radius of curvature. This stress is traditionally called radial tension. Radial tension is a specialized design consideration that is covered in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 App. A2 and is explained in detail in the American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) Timber Construction Manual.

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3.4 Checklist: Using Tension Member Selection Tables


Tension member selection tables provide values for factored tension resistances ( tT) for common grades and sizes of tension members. Tabulated values apply to tension members that satisfy the following conditions:

dry service condition (CM = 1.0) normal temperature range (Ct = 1.0) untreated material (Cpt = 1.0 ; Crt = 1.0) time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) load combination ( = 0.80)
For members that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review the design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary. To compute the factored resistance for a specific condition, apply the design equations directly (productspecific design adjustment factors and reference resistance values are provided in each supplement).

3.5 Design Examples


Example 3-1: Truss Bottom Chord
Design the bottom chord of a sawn lumber commercial/industrial truss to support a factored tensile force (Tu) of 36.0 kips. Assume a dry moisture service condition, untreated material and a time effect factor of 0.80. Practical Considerations Efficient choice of a trial section requires practical, as well as engineering, considerations. For example, choice of lumber species, grade and even commonly available sizes may differ among geographic regions of the country. Consult your local supplier for assistance. In addition, other considerations include dimensional compatibility with the other members of the truss or minimum sizes required to adequately connect the truss members (while meeting fastener edge distance requirements). Engineering Calculations Using Selection Tables: Select a member from the tension member selection tables in the Structural Lumber Supplement that is adequate to resist 36.0 kips factored tensile force (Tu).

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TENSION MEMBERS

A double chord of nominal 2x12s meets practical considerations. Try No. 1 Douglas Fir-Larch:
8NtT = (19.7 kips) (2 plies) = 39.4 kips

Example 3-2: Bolted Truss Bottom Chord


Same as Example 3-1, but the chord includes connections with one row of 3/4 inch bolts (in a 1/16 inch oversized hole). Check the net section to verify the selection of a 4x12 No. 1 Hem-Fir. Engineering Calculations Calculations follow those of Example 3-1, but the net area of (3.5) (11.25-0.8125) = 36.53 replaces the gross area (39.38) in the calculation:
8NtT = 41.7 kips

Using Reference Strength Tables: Calculate factored tension resistance using reference resistance values and adjustment factors. Try a nominal 4x12 No. 1 Hem-Fir. From the Structural Lumber Supplement, obtain Ft from the reference strength tables from Chapter 3 and applicable adjustment factors from Chapter 4.
8NtT = 8Nt Ft A = 8Nt (Ft CF) A

The design is still acceptable.

From the supplement, Ft is 1.62 ksi and CF equals 1.10. The area of a 4x12 is 39.38 square inches. Thus the factored tension resistance is:
8NtT = (0.80)(0.80)(1.62)(1.10)(39.38) = 44.9 kips

This member satisfies the strength limit state for a tension member.

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COMPRESSION MEMBERS
4

4.1 4.2 4.3

General Information 4.1.1 Types of Columns Design 4.2.1 Adjustment Factors Special Considerations

36 36 36 36 37

4.3.1 Slenderness Considerations and Stability 37 4.3.2 Net Section Calculation 4.3.3 Bearing Capacity Checks 4.3.4 Radial Compression in Curved Members 4.4 4.5 37 37 37

Checklist: Using Compression Member Selection Tables 38 Design Examples Example 4-1: Glulam Column 38 38

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4.1 General Information


This chapter covers design of members stressed primarily in compression parallel to grain. Examples of such members include columns, truss members, and diaphragm chords. Information in this chapter is limited to the case in which loads are applied concentrically to the column. Provisions of Chapter 6 should be used if loads are eccentric or if the compressive forces are applied in addition to bending forces. See specific product supplements for factored compression resistance values (column selection tables) and reference compression strengths. built-up columns are assembled from multiple pieces of similar members connected in accordance with the National Design Specification for Wood Construction. A composite column may have some elements with a sufficiently different stiffness such that transformed section concepts are required to accurately apportion the stress among elements of the column. A spaced column must comply with provisions of AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Appendix A1. Note that this definition includes main column elements, spacer blocks with their connectors and end blocks with shear plate or split ring connectors.

4.1.1 Types of Columns


AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 differentiates between solid, built-up, composite and spaced columns. In this context

4.2 Design
The basic equation for design of compression members (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 4.1-1) is:
8NcP $ Pu 8NcP = 8Nc Fc A

where
A = area (in2) Fc = Fc CM Ct CF CP Cpt Crt Fc = reference compression strength (ksi)

where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nc = 0.90 P = adjusted compression resistance parallel to grain Pu = factored compressive force

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, use the value of CM given in the product supplement or guideline. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For higher temperature conditions, use the value of Ct given in the product supplement or guideline. is the size factor for visually graded sawn lumber or round timber members. Tabulated resistances already include the size factor. For calculations starting from reference compression strengths, use the value of CF given in the Structural Lumber Supplement or Timber Pole and Pile Supplement.

The factored compression resistance is tabulated in the column selection tables of individual product supplements. The tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions in the checklist in Section 4.4.

Ct

4.2.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated compression resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference compression strength for the product. The complete equation for calculation of factored compression resistance is:

CF

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CP

is the column stability factor. Tabulated reference strength is based on crushing strength. Structural columns of any appreciable length must be adjusted by CP (Eq. 4.3-1 of AF&PA/ASCE 16-95) to account for slenderness effects. is the preservative treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with preservative chemicals, use the value of Cpt given in the product supplement or guideline.

Crt

is the fire-retardant treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with fire-retardant chemicals, use the value of Crt given in the product supplement or guideline.

Cpt

For untreated columns used in a normal building environment (meeting the reference conditions of Sec. 1.1.5) the general equation for Fc reduces to:
Fc = Fc CF CP

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COMPRESSION MEMBERS

4.3 Special Considerations


4.3.1 Slenderness Considerations and Stability
As stated above, the factor CP is used to compute the reduction in column capacity due to slenderness effects. The user is cautioned that stability calculations are highly dependent upon boundary conditions assumed in the analysis. For example, the common assumption of a pinned-pinned column is only accurate or conservative if the member is restrained against sidesway. If sidesway is possible and a pinned-free condition exists, the value of Ke in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Sec. 4.3-4 doubles and the computed critical buckling resistance decreases by a factor of 4.

4.3.3 Bearing Capacity Checks


Columns often transfer large forces within a structural system. While satisfaction of the column strength limit state is usually the primary concern, the designer should also check the force transfer at the column bearing. For cases in which the column is bearing on another wood member, especially if bearing is perpendicular to grain, this calculation will often control the design.

4.3.4 Radial Compression in Curved Members


Stresses induced in curved members under load include a component of stress in the direction of the radius of curvature. Radial compression is a specialized design consideration that is addressed AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Sec. 4.6.

4.3.2 Net Section Calculation


As in design of tension members, compression members should be checked both on a gross section and a net section basis (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Sec. 4.3.3).

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4.4 Checklist: Using Compression Member Selection Tables


Column selection tables provide values for factored compression resistance (8NcP) for common grades and sizes of columns. Tabulated values apply to members that satisfy the following conditions:

dry service condition (CM = 1.0) normal temperature range (Ct = 1.0) untreated material (Cpt = 1.0 ; Crt = 1.0) time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) load combination (8 = 0.80) end conditions pin-pin
For members that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary. To compute the factored resistance for a specific condition, apply the design equations directly (productspecific design adjustment factors and reference resistance values are provided in each supplement).

4.5 Design Examples


Example 4-1: Glulam Column
Design a glulam column, 16 feet long, to support a factored compressive force (Pu) of 57 kips. Assume a dry moisture service condition, untreated material and a time effect factor of 0.80. The column may be assumed to be pinned at the top and bottom and is not laterally supported along its length. Practical considerations Relatively square shapes are generally chosen for exposed columns being equally strong along both axes of buckling and also providing an aesthetically pleasing appearance. As with other types of members, choice of member size will be based on size availability and compatibility with the rest of the structural system. Engineering calculations Using Reference Strength Tables: Calculate factored compression resistance. Try a 6-3/4 x 9 inch section from the Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement with Fc = 3.72 ksi and E05 = 1300 ksi (first entry on page 14, Table 3.2).
A 8NcP = 8NcCP Fc
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Compute CP from Eq. 4.3-2 through 4.3-4 of AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95. First, compute Pe:
Pe =
2 E 05 I y

(K e )

(9.87) (1300) (230.7)

[(1.0 )(16 )(12 )]

= 80.28 kips

Next, compute c:
c = s Pe (0.85) (80.28) = (0.80) (0.90) (226.0) c Po
= 0.419

where
P0 = Fc A = (3.72) (60.75) = 226.0

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Next, compute CP:


CP = 1 + c 2c 1 + c c 2c c
2

= 0.393

So, the factored compression resistance, 8NcP equals (0.80) (0.90) (Fc* C P) A
8NcP = 63.95 kips

Using Selection Tables: As an alternate to the glulam column, select a member from Table 5.3 of the Structural Lumber Supplement that meets the compression requirements (Pu) shown above for an effective length of 16 feet. A 10x10 inch No. 2 Douglas Fir-Larch timber has a factored compression resistance, cP, of 61.5 kips. This value already incorporates the column stability factor, CP, so no additional calculations are necessary. With its R/d ratio of 20.2, this column is well below the maximum slenderness ratio permitted by AF&PA/ASCE 16-95.

4
COMPRESSION MEMBERS

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COMPRESSION MEMBERS

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BENDING MEMBERS
5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 General Information Design for Moment 5.2.1 Adjustment factors Design for Shear 5.3.1 Adjustment factors Special Considerations 5.4.1 Stability 5.4.2 Torsion 5.4.3 Curved members 5.4.4 Ponding Checklist: Using Joist and Beam Selection Tables Design Examples Example 5-1: Simple Span I-joist Example 5-2: Glulam Beam Example 5-3: Notched Beam Example 5-4: Beam with Partial Lateral Support 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46

5.5 5.6

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BENDING MEMBERS

5.1 General Information


This chapter covers design of members stressed primarily in flexure (bending). Examples of such members include primary framing members (beams) and secondary framing members (purlins, joists). Products commonly used in these applications include glulam, solid sawn lumber, structural composite lumber, and prefabricated I-joists. Bending members are designed so that no applicable limit state is exceeded under factored loads. Strength limit states for bending members include bending moment, shear, local buckling, lateral torsional buckling, and bearing. See specific product supplements for factored moment and shear resistance values (joist and beam selection tables) and reference bending and shear strengths. Users should note that design of bending members is often controlled by serviceability limitations rather than strength. These considerations are discussed in detail in Chapter 1 of this Manual and in the Commentary to AF&PA/ASCE 16-95. Serviceability limit states such as deflection and vibration are often designated by the authority having jurisdiction. Users are cautioned that serviceability limit states are generally checked under unfactored, rather than factored, loads.

5.2 Design for Moment


The basic equation for moment design of bending members (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 5.1-1) is:
8NbM $ Mu

where
S = section modulus (in3) Fb = Fb CM Ct CL CF CV Cfu Cr Cc Cf Cpt Crt Fb = reference bending strength (ksi)

where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nb = 0.85 M = adjusted moment resistance Mu = factored moment

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, use the value of CM given in the product supplement or guideline. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For higher temperature conditions, use the value of Ct given in the product supplement or guideline. is the beam stability factor. Tabulated resistances assume full lateral support and torsional restraint at points of support. For bending members that are not fully laterally supported, use the value of CL given in Sec. 5.2.3 of AF&PA/ASCE 16-95. The beam stability factor shall not be applied cumulatively with the volume factor for glulam members. See the Wood I-Joists Guideline for special considerations related to stability analysis of these products. is the size factor. Tabulated resistances already include the size factor. For calculations starting from

Ct

Factored moment resistance (8NbM) is tabulated in beam selection tables and joist selection tables for many common products. Tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions in the checklist in Section 5.5.

CL

5.2.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting the tabulated moment resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference bending strength for the product. The complete equation for calculation of factored moment resistance is: CF
8NbM = 8Nb Fb S

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reference bending strengths, use the value of CF given in the product supplement or guideline. CV is the volume factor for glulam bending members with the load applied perpendicular to the wide face. Tabulated resistances do not include the volume factor. Use the value of CV given in the Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement. is the flat use factor for sawn lumber and glulam. None of the selection tables include bending members used flatwise. Thus, calculations must start from reference bending strengths. Use the value of Cfu given in the Structural Lumber or Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement. For glulam applications with the load applied parallel to the wide face, use the flat use factor defined in the Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement. is the load sharing factor for members in systems that qualify as load sharing assemblies, as defined in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Sec. 5.3.2.2. is the curvature factor for glulam beams. None of the selection tables include curved bending members. Thus, calculations must start from reference bending strengths. Use the value of Cc given in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Sec. 5.6.1.

Cf

is the form factor. For circular members other than poles and piles or for square members bent about the diagonal, use the value of Cf given in AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95, Sec. 5.1.7. is the preservative treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with preservative chemicals, use the value of Cpt given in the product supplement or guideline. is the fire-retardant treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with fire-retardant chemicals, use the value of Crt given in the product supplement or guideline.

Cpt

Cfu

Crt

5
BENDING MEMBERS

Cr

For untreated straight, rectangular, laterally supported beams stressed in edgewise bending in single member use and used in a normal building environment (meeting the reference conditions of Sec. 1.1.5), the general equation for Fb reduces to:
Fb = Fb (CF or CV)

Cc

5.3 Design for Shear


The basic equation for shear design of bending members (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 5.1-2) is:
8NvV $ Vu

5.3.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated shear resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference shear strength for the product. The complete equation for calculation of factored shear resistance is:
8NvV = 8NvFvIb/Q

where
8 = time effect factor (seeAF&PA/ ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nv = 0.75 V = adjusted shear resistance parallel to grain Vu = factored shear

which, for rectangular unnotched bending members, reduces to:


8NvV = 2/3 (8NvFv) A

Factored shear resistance (8NvV) is tabulated in beam selection tables and joist selection tables for many common products. Tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions in the checklist in Section 5.5.

where
I = moment of inertia (in4)

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BENDING MEMBERS

Fv = Fv CM Ct CH Cpt Crt Fv = reference shear strength (ksi)

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, multiply by the value of C M given in the product supplement or guideline. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For high temperature conditions, multiply by the value of Ct given in the product supplement or guideline. is the shear stress factor for sawn lumber. Tabulated resistances have been reduced to allow for the occurrence of splits, checks and shakes. For bend-

ing members in which the length of split or size of check or shake is known and no increase in them is anticipated, multiply by the value of CH given in the Structural Lumber Supplement. Cpt is the preservative treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with preservative chemicals, use the value of Cpt given in the product supplement or guideline. is the fire-retardant treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with fire-retardant chemicals, use the value of Crt given in the product supplement or guideline.

Ct

Crt

CH

5.4 Special Considerations


5.4.1 Stability Considerations
Beams are often tied into the structural system either by sheathing or connection to a series of closely spaced secondary framing members. For flexural members not fully laterally supported, the beam stability factor, CL, is used to compute the reduction in flexural capacity (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Sec. 5.2.3). As with columns, designers should note that the beam stability factor is highly dependent upon assumed boundary conditions.

5.4.4 Ponding
Flat or near-flat roof systems have the potential for accumulation of load due to ponding. Appendix A3 of AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 provides guidance for checking the minimum slope for which ponding must be considered. It also provides a design procedure for calculation of ponding loads. As with stability considerations, ponding has the potential to cause sudden collapse of portions of the structure. While adequate slope is the first preference, experienced engineers designing near-flat roofs take extensive precautions to guard against ponding. These precautions include primary and secondary drain systems and design of structural systems with adequate buffers of strength and stiffness.

5.4.2 Torsion
Flexural members subjected to torsion should be checked using AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 5.5-1. As noted in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, the material property to be used when checking torsional resistance is two-thirds of the adjusted horizontal shear strength for sawn lumber and the adjusted radial tension strength for glulam. To determined the appropriate property for use with other products, contact the manufacturer.

5.4.3 Radial Tension


Stresses induced in curved members under load include a component of stress in the direction of the radius of curvature. Radial tension is a specialized design consideration that is addressed in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Sec. 5.6.2.
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5.5 Checklist: Using Joist and Beam Selection Tables


Joist and beam selection tables provide values for factored moment and shear resistance (8NbM, 8NvV) for common grades and sizes of straight bending members. Tabulated values apply to beams that satisfy the following conditions:

dry service condition (CM = 1.0) normal temperature range (Ct = 1.0) untreated material (Cpt = 1.0 ; Crt = 1.0) time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) load combination (8 = 0.80) fully laterally supported (CL = 1.0) rectangular member bent about its principal axis (Cf = 1.0)
For beams that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review the design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary. To compute the factored resistance for a specific condition, apply the design equations directly (productspecific design adjustment factors and reference resistance values are provided in each supplement).

5
BENDING MEMBERS

5.6 Design Examples


Example 5-1: Simple Span I-joist
Design a simple span I-joist to resist a factored moment (Mu) of 16.6 kip-feet and a factored shear (Vu) of 2.5 kips over a span of 26 feet. Assume dry moisture service condition, untreated material, full lateral support, adequate bearing and a time effect factor of 0.80. Practical Considerations Efficient choice of a trial section requires practical, as well as engineering, considerations. For example, choice of joist depth is often controlled by architectural, rather than structural, considerations. Consult your local supplier for assistance. Engineering Calculations Using Selection Tables: Select a member from the I-joist selection tables provided by the joist manufacturer that meets the requirements of moment (Mu) and shear (Vu) shown above. An I-joist, 16-inches deep has a tabulated moment resistance (8NbM) of 17.0 kip-feet and tabulated shear resistance (8NvV) of 4.6 kips. This joist is acceptable on a strength basis. In addition to the strength calculation, one must check deflection relative to code-prescribed limits or manufacturers recommendations. Assume that the manufacturer recommends a maximum deflection of L/480 (where L is the design span) under live load for this joist. If the tabulated stiffness (EI) of this joist is 5600 kip-ft2, the computed deflection of the joist is computed under the unfactored live load of 0.1 klf on the design span of 26 feet would be 1.28 inches or approximately L/240. To meet the L/480 deflection limit would require a stiffness, EI of 11,200 kip-ft2, 100% stiffer than provided by this joist. Thus, the deflection criteria can only be satisfied by decreasing the spacing of the joists or by choosing a stiffer joist. Note that shear deflection must also be computed for this design. Refer to the manufacturers design literature for guidance on including the effects of shear deflection into the calculations.

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BENDING MEMBERS

Example 5-2: Glulam Beam


Assuming conditions from Example 5-1, try a 3-1/8 x 10-1/2 inch glulam beam (24F-V4, Douglas-Fir). From the Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement, obtain Fb and Fv from the reference resistance tables and applicable adjustment factors.
8NbM = 8Nb Fb S = 8Nb (Fb @ CV) S = (0.80) (0.85) (6.1) (1.00) (57.42) = 238 kip-in = 19.8 kip-ft

Engineering Calculations
2 d v Vn = Fv b dn n d 3

( )

9 .5 = 0 .60 0 .67 0 .545 3.125 9 .5 10 .5

)(

)(

)(

)(

= 5 .9 kips

This beam still satisfies the shear strength limit state.

Example 5-4: Beam with Partial Lateral Support


Check the glulam beam from Example 5.2, assuming that it is laterally supported only by a crossing beam at its mid-span. From AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Sec. 5.2.1.3, the effective laterally unsupported length, Re, of this 26-foot long member is the distance between points of compression edge bracing, or 13 feet. Using the tabulated E05y of 1400 ksi and a computed weak axis moment of inertia, Iy, of 26.7 in4, the elastic lateral buckling moment, Me, is computed from AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 5.2-7:
Me = 2.40 Ey05 (Iy/Re) = 47.9 kip-ft

8NvV = 8Nv Fv Ib/Q =

2 Fv A (for a rectangular member) v 3


= (0.80) (0.75) (2/3) (0.545) (32.8) = 7.2 kips

This beam also satisfies the strength limit states for a bending member. Once again, the member stiffness must be greater than or equal to EIreqd to meet serviceability criteria for the member design.

Example 5-3: Notched Beam


Assuming the same conditions and material from Example 5-2, check to see if shear resistance is still adequate if both ends are notched to a depth of 1 inch. Practical Considerations Notches should be avoided in design whenever possible. In this case, AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Section 5.1.4 limits notch depth to 10% of beam depth. Even the smallest notch designed into a member can lead to problems in the field (overcutting of the notch requiring reinforcement, red tags from building inspectors requiring special calculations, etc.). Unfortunately, notches sometimes occur in application, and engineers must calculate the structural adequacy of the installed condition. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 provisions in Section 5.4.3 are useful for these instances.

This value is used to compute b, which in turn is used to compute the beam stability factor CL:
b = s M e b S x Fbx

(0.85)(47.9)(12) (0.80)(0.85)(57.42)(6.1) = 2.05

CL =

1 + b b 1 + b - 2 cb 2 cb cb
2

1 + 2.05 2.05 1 + 2.05 - (2)(0.95) 0.95 (2)(0.95) = 0.958

Thus, when full lateral support is not provided, the factored moment resistance of this member decreases from 19.8 kip-ft (above) to (19.8) (0.958) = 18.97 kip-ft. Thus, the beam still satisfies the strength limit state.

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BENDING PLUS AXIAL LOADS

6.1 6.2

General Information Design 6.2.1 Adjustment Factors 6.2.2 Design Techniques

48 48 48 48 49 49 49

6.3 6.4

Checklist: Using Combined Bending and Axial Member Selection Tables Design Examples Example 6-1: Stud Wall Example 6-2: Truss Chord Under Combined Bending and Tension Example 6-3: Glulam Truss Chord Under Biaxial Bending

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BENDING PLUS AXIAL LOADS

6.1 General Information


This chapter covers design of members stressed under combined bending and axial loads. Examples of such members include truss chords and wall studs. The discussion focuses on axial loads in compression. For designs in which the axial load is in tension rather than compression, the designer should use AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eqs. 6.2-1 and 6.2-2. The applicable strength limit state for these members is explicit in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 equations limiting the sum of various stress ratios to less than or equal to unity. See the Structural Lumber Supplement for factored member resistance values (wall stud, combined loading selection tables) under combined bending and axial loads.

6.2 Design
The equation for design of members under bending plus compression loads (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 6.3-1) is:
Pu c P
2

6.2.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the Section 6.3 checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference strength for the product. See Chapters 4 and 5 for discussion of applicable adjustment factors for bending or compression.

M my M mx + 1.0 b M x b M y

where
8 = time effect factor (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Table 1.4-2) Nc = 0.90 P = adjusted compression resistance Pu = factored compression force Nb = 0.85 Mx = adjusted moment resistance (strong axis) Mmx = factored moment (strong axis) My = adjusted moment resistance (weak axis) Mmy = factored moment (weak axis)

6.2.2 Design Techniques


A key to understanding design of members under combined bending and axial loads is the insight that components of the design equation are simple ratios of factored compressive force (or moment) to factored compression resistance (or moment resistance). One difference between this equation and others familiar to engineers is the fact that the compression term is squared. This is the result of empirical fitting to test data. As a result, moderate compressive stresses do not have as large an impact on strength (under combined loads) as previously thought. It is thought that this is the result of compressive reinforcing of what would otherwise be a tensile failure mode in bending.

Adjusted moments and compression resistances are tabulated in appropriate selection tables in product supplements. Tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions of the checklist in Section 6.3.

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6.3 Checklist: Using Combined Bending and Axial Member Selection Tables
Combined bending/axial selection tables in the Structural Lumber Supplement provide values for maximum factored moment (Mu) for common grades and sizes of wall studs. Separate tables are provided for wall studs under compression load ratios (defined as Pu / 8NcP) of 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80. Tabulated values apply to members that satisfy the following conditions:

dry service condition (CM = 1.0) normal temperature range (Ct = 1.0) untreated material (Cpt = 1.0 ; Crt = 1.0) time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) load combination (8 = 0.80)
For members that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review the design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary. To compute the factored resistance for a specific condition, apply the design equations directly (productspecific design adjustment factors and reference resistance values are provided in each supplement).

6
BENDING PLUS AXIAL LOADS

6.4 Design Examples


Example 6-1: Stud wall
Design a stud wall, 10 feet high, in which the factored compressive force (Pu) equals 4.5 kips per stud and the factored moment (Mu) equals 8.3 kip-inch per stud. Assume standard conditions of load duration, dry moisture service condition, untreated material. The studs are assumed to be pinned at each end and are laterally supported in the plane of the wall by sheathing. Practical Considerations As this is a reasonably high wall, one would likely choose a larger stud cross section to provide substantial stiffness. Code requirements are not always clear in this area. Engineering judgment should be used to consider the absolute deflections that might be tolerated by, for example, windows in this wall. For a deflection sensitive application, experienced engineers will often design the studs to a stringent deflection limit such as that used for floors. The remainder of this example will compute only the strength limit states for this stud wall. Engineering Calculations Using Selection Tables: Select a member from the stud wall selection tables (Structural Lumber Supplement Table 5.6) that meets the compression (Pu) and moment (Mu) requirements shown above for an effective length of 10 feet. Try nominal 2X4, Select Structural Southern Pine lumber. The factored column resistance, cP, is 3.3 kips from Table 5.2 of the Structural Lumber Supplement. Since this is less than the 4.5 kips compressive force, this member is not adequate from a compression strength standpoint alone. Increase the size to 2X6 and use No. 2 grade. The capacity would be computed from the table with a compression load ratio of 0.40 (4.5/10.1) and would have a maximum factored moment, Mu, of 10.7 kip-in. This exceeds the design requirement. Note that the choice of a ratio from the table that is less than the actual ratio (in this case, 0.45) is not conservative, however, by inspection it is clear that the tabulated Mu of 10.7 kip-in exceeds the actual factored moment of 8.3 kip-in considerably. While interpolation within these tables is permissible, the user should note that underlying equations are nonlinear thus, interpolated values would only be approximate.

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Using Reference Strength and Selection Tables: Calculate compression and bending resistance. The design equation for member resistance under combined bending and compression is Eq. 6.3-1 in AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95:
Pu P c
2

M mx 1.0 b M x

Engineering Calculations Using Selection Tables: No selection tables are provided for members under combined bending and tension. Using Reference Strength Tables: Calculate combined tension and bending resistance. Try a 3-1/8X6 inch Western Species 24F-V10 DF/HF glulam member. From the Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement: Ft = 3.11 ksi and Fb = 6.10 ksi
8NtT = 37.32 kips 8NbM = 6.48 kip-ft

Try a nominal 2X6 No. 2 Southern Pine member. From the Structural Lumber Supplement, the factored compression resistance (8NcP) is 10.1 kips. Likewise, the factored moment resistance (8NbCrM) is 18.8 kip-in. E05 = 970 ksi. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Section 6.3 shows that calculation of Mmx will require computation of the critical buckling resistance (Pex) and moment magnification factor (Bbx). To determine Pex, use AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Equation 4.3-4:
Pe = I E 05 (K e ) 2
2

Substituting these values into AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Equation 6.2-1:


Tu M ux + M 1.0 T t x b

yields (0.72 + 0.25) = 0.97 and satisfies the strength limit state.

Example 6-3: Glulam Truss Chord Under Biaxial Bending


Design a glulam truss chord with a 40 foot effective length, subjected to factored moments (Mbx , Mby) of 4.5 kip-ft and 2.6 kip-ft, respectively, and a factored compression force (Pu) of 3.8 kips. Assume standard conditions of load duration, dry moisture service condition, and untreated material. The chord segment has lateral support at its ends. Engineering Calculations Using Selection Tables: No selection tables are provided for specialized cases such as members under biaxial bending and compression. Using Reference Strength Tables: Calculate the member resistance relative to the limit state imposed by AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 6.3-1. Try a 5-1/8x13-3/4 inch 24F-V4 Southern Pine glulam member. From the Structural Glued Laminated Timber Supplement: Fc = 2.52 ksi, Fbx = 6.10 ksi, Fby = 3.18 ksi, E05x = 1500 ksi, and E05y = 1200 ksi
8Nb Mx = (0.80)(0.85)(6.10)(161.5) = 669.9 kip-in 8Nb My = (0.80)(0.85)(3.18)(60.19) = 130.2 kip-in (E05I)x = 1665 x 103 kip-in2 (E05I)y = 185 x 103 kip-in2

Solving this equation for the selected member results in Pex equal to 13.8 kips. The magnified moment can now be computed using AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 6.3-2: Mmx = Bbx Mbx + Bsx Msx Since this stud will not exhibit appreciable sidesway, the second term (Bsx) is equal to zero. Compute Bbx using AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 6.3-4:
B bx = C mx 1.0 Pu 1 c Pex

For this case, Cmx equals 1.00. The parameter Bbx equals 1.566, therefore, Mmx equals 8.3(1.566) = 13 kipin. Substituting back into Eq. 6.3-1 we compute the combined strength equation to be equal to 0.20 + 0.69 = 0.89. Thus, the design satisfies the strength limit state.

Example 6-2: Truss Chord under Combined Bending and Tension


Design a truss bottom chord subjected to a factored tensile force (Tu) of 26.9 kips and a factored moment (Mu) of 1.6 kip-ft. Assume standard conditions of load duration, dry moisture service condition, untreated material and full lateral support.

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The design equation for member resistance under biaxial bending and compression is Eq. 6.3-1 in AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95:
Pu P c
2

Magnified moments can now be computed using AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 6.3-2 and 6.3-3:
Mmx = Bbx Mbx +Bsx Msx

M my M mx + + 1.0 b M x b M y

Mmy = Bby Mby +Bsy Msy

AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Section 6.3 shows that the calculation will require computation of the critical buckling resistances (Me, Pex , Pey) and moment magnification factors (Bbx, Bby). To determine P, use AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 section 4.3.2. From Eq. 4.3-4:
I E 05 (K e ) 2
2

Since this beam will not exhibit appreciable sidesway, the second terms (Bsx, Bsy) are equal to zero. Compute Bbx and Bby using AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 6.3-4 and 6.3-5:
B bx = C mx 1.0 Pu 1 c Pex C my
2 M ux 1 - Pu - c Pey b M e

Pe =

B by =

1.0

Solving this equation for the selected member results in Pex equal to 71.3 kips and Pey equal to 7.9 kips. Since Pey < Pex, the weak axis will control in compression buckling. Therefore, calculate Cp from Equation 4.3-2 using Pey. This yields:
P = Cp Fc* A = (0.05)(2.52)(70.47) = 8.88 kips 8Nc P = (0.8)(0.9)(8.88) = 6.4 kips

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BENDING PLUS AXIAL LOADS

For this case, Cmx and Cmy are equal to 0.85 and Bbx equals 1.0 (computed as 0.9, but set by equation to a minimum of 1.0.) Similarly, Bby equals 1.84, Mmx equals 4.5 kip-ft and Mmy equals 4.8 kip-ft. Substituting back into Eq. 6.3-1:
Pu P c o
2

From AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 5.2-7:


Me = 2.40 Ey 05 I Re

M uy M ux + 1.0 b M x b M y

yields (0.35 + 0.08 + 0.44) = 0.88 # 1.0. This member satisfies the strength limit state.

This yields Me = 925 kip-in.

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7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

General Information Nails, Spikes and Wood Screws Bolts, Lag screws, Drift Pins, Dowels Shear Plates and Split Rings Typical Connection Details Checklist: Using Connection Selection Tables Design Examples 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 4.1 Nails - Top Plate Splice Nails - Shear Wall Chords Ties Lag Screws - Drag Strut to Shear Wall Lag Screw - Suspended Loads (withdrawal) Bolts - Bowstring Roof Truss Splice Bolts - Eccentric Bolted Connection Split-Ring Connection

54 54 56 57 58 66 66 66 67 68 70 70 72 75

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7.1 General Information


This chapter covers design of connections between wood members using metal fasteners. Several common connection types are outlined below. connections are proprietary connectors. See the manufacturers literature or the Guideline for Pre-Engineered Metal Connectors for more information regarding design of structural framing connections using LRFD.

7.1.1 Dowel-type (nails, bolts, screws, pins)


These connectors rely on metal-to-wood bearing for transfer of lateral loads and on friction or mechanical interfaces for transfer of axial (withdrawal) loads. They are commonly available in a wide range of diameters and lengths.

7.1.5 Other Connectors


Just as the number of possible building geometries is potentially limitless, so too is the number of possible connection geometries. In addition to providing custom fabrication of connectors to meet virtually any geometry that can be designed, metal connector manufacturers have several categories of connectors that do not fit the categories above, including:

7.1.2 Shear Plates and Split Rings


These connectors rely on their geometry to provide larger metal-to-wood bearing areas per connector. Both are installed into precut grooves or daps in the members.

framing anchors hold-down devices straps and ties

7.1.3 Metal Connector Plates


Metal connector plates provide dual functions in which protruding teeth are the connecting elements and the unpunched portions of the plates act as splice members. Metal connector plates are proprietary connectors. See the manufacturers literature for more information regarding design of metal connector plates using LRFD.

7.1.4 Structural Framing Connections


Structural framing connections provide a single-piece connection between two framing members. They generally consist of bent or welded steel, carrying load from the supported member (through direct bearing) into the supporting member (by hanger flange bearing, fastener shear, or a combination of the two). Structural framing

These connectors are also generally proprietary connectors. See the manufacturers literature or the Guideline for Pre-Engineered Metal Connectors for more information regarding design using LRFD. Connections are designed so that no applicable limit state is exceeded under factored loads. Strength limit states for connections include lateral or withdrawal of the fastener, and tension or shear in the metal. Some types of connections also include compression perpendicular to grain as a limit state. See the Structural Connections Supplement for factored lateral (8NzZ) and factored withdrawal (8NzZw) resistance values. Users should note that design of connections may also be controlled by serviceability limitations. These limitations are product specific and are discussed in specific product supplement or guideline documents. Users are cautioned that serviceability limit states are generally checked under unfactored, rather than factored, loads.

7.2 Nails, Spikes and Wood Screws


7.2.1 Design for Lateral Load
The basic equation for design of these fasteners under lateral load (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 7.1-1) is:
8NzZ $ Zu 8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nz = 0.65 Z = adjusted lateral resistance Zu = factored lateral force

where
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Factored lateral resistance is tabulated in the nail/spike and wood screw selection tables in the Structural Connections Supplement. Tabulated values are suitable for connections that conform to all conditions of the checklist in section 7.6.

For most nails, spikes or wood screws with adequate penetration and used in a normal building environment the general equation for Z reduces to Z = Z.

7.2.2 Design f or Withdra wal Load for Withdraw


The basic design equation for these fasteners under withdrawal loads is similar to that used for lateral loads, substituting Zw for Z:
8NzZw $ Zu

7.2.1.1 Adjustment Factors


Connections that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated lateral resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference lateral strength for the connection. The complete equation for calculation of factored lateral resistance is:
8NzZ = 8NzZ (CM Ct Cd Ceg Cdi Ctn)

where
Zw = adjusted withdrawal resistance Zu = factored axial (withdrawal) force

where
Z = reference lateral strength tabulated in the Structural Connections Supplement

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry fabrication and dry use. For other moisture conditions, use the value of CM given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For higher temperature conditions, use the value of Ct given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the penetration depth factor. Tabulated resistances assume penetration into the main member of at least 12D (nails/spikes) or 7D (wood screws). For connections that do not meet this requirement, use the value of Cd given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the end grain factor. For connectors driven into the end grain of the member, use the value of Ceg given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the diaphragm factor. For nails used in diaphragms, use the value of Cdi given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the toe nail factor. For nails driven into the joint at an angle to the members (toe nailed), use the value of Ctn given in the Structural Connections Supplement.

As for lateral resistance, factored withdrawal resistances are tabulated in selection tables and are suitable for connections that conform to all conditions of the checklist in section 7.6.

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS

7.2.2.1 Adjustment Factors


The list of adjustment factors for withdrawal resistance is similar to that for lateral resistance. The differences are as follows: Cd Ceg does not apply. does not apply. These connectors may not be loaded in withdrawal if driven into the end grain of the member. does not apply. does not apply.

Ct

Cd

Cdi Ctn

7.2.3 Installation Requirements


To achieve stated design values, connectors must comply with installation requirements such as spacing of connectors, minimum edge and end distances, proper drilling of lead holes and minimum fastener penetration. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 requirements for these items are summarized in the Structural Connections Supplement.

Ceg

Cdi

Ctn

7.2.4 Load at an Angle to Grain


Another consideration of interest to the designer is load at an angle to grain (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 section 7.2.3).

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7.3 Bolts, Lag Screws, Pins, Dowels


7.3.1 Design for Lateral Load
The basic equation for design of these connectors under lateral load (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 7.1-1) is: C)
8NzZ $ Zu

Cg

is the group action factor. For connections using more than one fastener, multiply by the value of Cg given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the geometry factor. For connections that do not meet the minimum requirements of spacing or edge/ end distance, multiply by the value of C) given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the penetration depth factor. Tabulated resistances assume penetration into the main member of at least 8D for lag screws. For connections that do not meet this requirement, multiply by the value of Cd given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the end grain factor. For connectors driven into the end grain of the member, multiply by the value of Ceg given in the Structural Connections Supplement.

where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nz = 0.65 Z = adjusted lateral resistance Zu = factored lateral force

Cd

Factored lateral resistance is tabulated in bolt and lag screw selection tables in the Structural Connections Supplement. Tabulated values are suitable for connections that conform to all conditions of the checklist in section 7.6.

Ceg

7.3.1.1 Adjustment Factors


Connections that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated lateral resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference lateral strength for the connection. The complete equation for calculation of factored lateral resistance is:
8NzZ = 8NzZ (CM Ct Cg C)Cd Ceg )

For most bolts and lag screws with adequate penetration and spacing, and used in a normal building environment the general equation for Z reduces to Z = Z Cg.

7.3.2 Design for Withdrawal Load


The basic design equation for these fasteners under withdrawal loads is similar to that used for lateral loads, substituting Zw for Z:
8NzZw $ Zu

where:
Z = minimum of equations in AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 7.5-2(a) through 7.5-2(c) (kips)

where:
Zw = adjusted withdrawal resistance Zu = factored axial (withdrawal) force

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, multiply by the value of CM given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100EF on a sustained basis. For high temperature conditions, multiply by the value of Ct given in the Structural Connections Supplement.

Ct

As for lateral resistance, factored withdrawal resistances are tabulated in the selection tables and are suitable for connections that conform to all conditions of the checklist in section 7.6.

7.3.2.1 Adjustment Factors


The list of adjustment factors for withdrawal resistance is similar to that for lateral resistance. The differences are as follows:

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Cg C) Cd Ceg

does not apply. does not apply. does not apply. is different for withdrawal load than for lateral load. Multiply by the proper value from the Structural Connections Supplement.

7.3.3 Installation Requirements


To achieve the stated design values, connectors must comply with installation requirements such as spacing of connectors, minimum edge and end distances, proper drilling of lead holes and minimum fastener penetration. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 requirements for these items are summarized in the Structural Connections Supplement.

7.4 Shear Plates and Split Rings


7.4.1 Design for Lateral Load
The basic equation for design of these connectors under lateral load (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 7.1-1) is:
8NzZ $ Zu

CM

is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, multiply by the value of CM given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100EF on a sustained basis. For high temperature conditions, multiply by the value of Ct given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the group action factor. For connections using more than one fastener, multiply by the value of Cg given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the geometry factor. For connections that do not meet the minimum requirements of spacing or edge/ end distance, multiply by the value of C) given in the Structural Connections Supplement. is the penetration depth factor. When lag screws are used rather than bolts, the tabulated resistances assume penetration into the main member of at least 8D. For connections that do not meet this requirement, multiply by the value of Cd given in the Structural Connections Supplement. metal side plate factor. For 4-inch shear plates using metal side plates, multiply by the value of Cst given in the Structural Connections Supplement.

Ct

where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nz = 0.65 Z = adjusted lateral resistance Zu = factored lateral force

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS

Cg

Factored lateral resistance is tabulated in the split ring and shear plate selection tables in the Structural Connections Supplement . Tabulated values are suitable for connections that conform to all conditions of the checklist in section 7.6.

C)

Cd

7.4.1.2 Adjustment Factors


Connections that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated lateral resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference lateral strength for the connection. The complete equation for calculation of factored lateral resistance is:
8NzZ = 8NzZ (CM Ct Cg C) Cd Cst)

Cst

where
Z = reference lateral strength tabulated in the Structural Connections Supplement

For most shear plate and split ring connections with adequate spacing, and used in a normal building environment the general equation for Z reduces to Z = Z Cg.

7.4.2 Installation Requirements


To achieve stated design values, connectors must comply with installation requirements such as spacing of

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connectors, minimum edge and end distances, proper dapping and grooving, drilling of lead holes and minimum fastener penetration. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 requirements

for these items are summarized in the Structural Connections Supplement.

7.5 Typical Connection Details


7.5.1 General Concepts of WellDesigned Connections
Connections must obviously provide the structural strength necessary to transfer loads. Well-designed connections hold the wood members in such a manner that shrinkage/swelling cycles do not induce splitting across the grain. Well-designed connections also minimize regions which might collect moisture providing adequate clearance for air movement to keep the wood dry. Finally, well-designed connections minimize the potential for tension perpendicular to grain stresses either under design conditions or under unusual loading conditions. The following connection details are organized into nine groups: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Beam to concrete or masonry wall connections Beam to column connections Column to base connections Beam to beam connections Cantilever beam connections Arch peak connections Arch base support Moment splice Problem connections

2. Similar to detail 1 with steel bearing plate only under the beam.

Many of the detail groups begin with a brief discussion of the design challenges pertinent to this specific type of connection. Focusing on the key design concepts of a broad class of connections often leads to insights regarding a specific detail of interest.

3. Similar to detail 1 with slotted holes to accommodate slight lateral movement of the beam under load. This detail is more commonly used when the beam is sloped, rather than flat.

Group 1. Beam to Concrete or Masonry Wall Connections


Design concepts. Concrete is porous and wicks moisture. Good detailing permits wood to be in direct contact with concrete. 1. Beam on shelf in wall. The bearing plate distributes load and keeps the beam from direct contact with the concrete. Steel angles provide uplift resistance and can also provide some lateral resistance. The end of the beam should not be in direct contact with the concrete.

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Group 2. Beam to Column Connections


Design concepts. All connections in the group must hold the beam in place on top of the column. This shear transfer is reasonably easy to achieve. Some connections must also resist some beam uplift. Finally, for cases in which the beam is spliced, rather than continuous over the column, transfer of forces across the splice may be required. 4. Simple steel dowel for shear transfer.

6. Custom welded column caps can be designed to transfer shear, uplift, and splice forces. Note design variations to provide sufficient bearing area for each of the beams and differing plate widths to accommodate differences between the column and the beam widths.

7. Combinations of steel angles and straps, bolted and screwed, to transfer forces.

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5. Concealed connection in which a steel plate is inserted into a kerf in both beam and column. Transverse pins or bolts complete the connection.

8. A very common connection beam seat welded to the top of a steel column.

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9. When both beams and columns are continuous and the connection must remain in-plane, either the beam or the column must be spliced at the connection. In this detail the column continuity is maintained. Optional shear plates may be used to transfer higher loads. Note that, unless the bolt heads are completely recessed into the back of the bracket, the beam end will likely require slotting. In a building with many bays, it may be difficult to maintain dimensions in the beam direction when using this connection.

11. Similar to details 1 and 2.

11B. Alternate to detail 11.

Group 3. Column to Base Connections


Design Concepts. Since this is the bottom of the structure, it is conceivable that moisture from some source might run down the column. Experience has shown that base plate details in which a steel shoe is present can collect moisture that leads to decay in the column. 10. Similar to detail 4, with a bearing plate added. 12. Similar to detail 3.

Group 4. Beam to Beam Connections


Design concepts. Many variations of this type of connection are possible. When all members are flat and their tops are flush, the connection is fairly straightforward. Slopes and skews require special attention to fabrication dimensions well-designed connections provide adequate clearance to insert bolts or other connectors and also provide room to grip and tighten with a wrench. Especially for sloped members, special attention is required to visualize the stresses induced as the members deflect under load some connections will induce large perpendicular to grain stresses in this mode.
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13. Bucket-style welded bracket at a cross junction. The top of the support beam is sometimes dapped to accommodate the thickness of the steel.

the pin is installed. Note that the kerf in the suspended beam must accommodate not only the width of the steel plate, but also the increased width at the fillet welds.

14. Face-mounted hangers are commonly used in beam to beam connections. In a cross junction special attention is required to fastener penetration length into the carrying beam (to avoid interference from other side).

17. Similar to detail 13, with somewhat lower load capacity.

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS

18. Clip angle to connect crossing beam. 15. Deep members may be supported by fairly shallow hangers in this case, through-bolted with shear plates. Clip angles are used to prevent rotation of the top of the suspended beam. Note that the clip angles are not connected to the suspended beam doing so would restrain a deep beam from its natural across-the-grain shrinking and swelling cycles and would lead to splits.

19. Special detail to connect the ridge purlin to sloped members or to the beak of arch members.

16. Concealed connections similar to detail 5. The suspended beam may be dapped on the bottom for a flush connection. The pin may be slightly narrower than the suspended beam, permitting plugging of the holes after
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20. Similar to detail 19, but with the segments of the ridge purlin set flush with the other framing.

23. Similar to detail 22, with added shear plate.

20B. Alternate to detail 20. 24. Similar to detail 22 for low slope arches. Side plates replace the threaded rod.

Group 5. Cantilever Beam Connections


21. Hinge connector transfers load without need to slope cut member ends. Beams are often dapped top and bottom for a flush fit.

Group 7. Arch Base to Support


Design concepts. Arches transmit thrust into the supporting structure. The foundation may be designed to resist this thrust or tie rods may be used. The base detail should be designed to accommodate the amount of rotation anticipated in the arch base under various loading conditions. Elastomeric bearing pads can assist somewhat in distributing stresses. As noted earlier, the connection should be designed to minimize any perpendicular to grain stresses during the deformation of the structure under load. 25. Welded shoe transmits thrust from arch to support. Note that inside edge of shoe is left open to prevent collection of moisture.

Group 6. Arch Peak Connections


22. Steep arches connected with a rod and shear plates.

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26. Arch base fastened directly to a steel tie beam in a shoe-type connection.

Group 8. Moment Splice


Design concepts. Moment splices must transmit axial tension, axial compression, and shear. They must serve these functions in an area of the structure where structural movement may be significant thus, they must not introduce cross-grain forces if they are to function properly. 29. Separate pieces of steel each provide a specific function. Top and bottom plate transfer axial force, pressure plates transfer direct thrust, and shear plates transmit shear.

27. Similar to detail 25. This more rigid connection is suitable for spans where arch rotation at the base is small enough to not require the rotational movement permitted in detail 25. Note that, although the shoe is boxed a weep slot is provided at the inside face. 30. Similar to detail 29. Connectors on side faces may be easier to install, but forces are higher because moment arm between steel straps is less than in detail 29.

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28. For very long spans or other cases where large rotations must be accommodated, a true hinge connection may be required.

Group 9. Problem Connections


Hidden column base. It is sometimes preferable architecturally to conceal the connection at the base of the column. In any case it is crucial to detail this connection to minimize decay potential.

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31. Similar to detail 11, but with floor slab poured over the top of the connection. THIS WILL CAUSE DECAY AND IS NOT A RECOMMENDED DETAIL!

32B. As an alternative to detail 32, smaller plates will transmit forces, but they do not restrain the wood from its natural movements.

31B. Alternate to detail 31. Notched beam bearing. Depth limitations sometimes cause detailing difficulties at the beam supports. A simple solution is to notch the beam at the bearing. This induces large tension perpendicular to grain stresses and leads to splitting of the beam at the root of the notch. 33. Notching a beam at its bearing may cause splits. THIS DETAIL IS NOT RECOMMENDED! Full-depth side plates. It is sometimes easier to fabricate connections for deep beams from large steel plates rather than having to keep track of more pieces. Lack of attention to woods dimensional changes as it breathes may lead to splits.
S pl i t

32. Full-depth side plates may appear to be a good connection option. Unfortunately, the side plates will remain fastened while the wood shrinks over the first heating season. Since it is restrained by the side plates, the beam may split. THIS IS NOT A RECOMMENDED DETAIL! 33B. Alternate to detail 33.

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34. This sloped bearing with a beam that is not fully supported may also split under load. THIS DETAIL IS NOT RECOMMENDED!

35B. As an alternative to detail 35, the plates may be extended and the connection made to the upper half of the beam.

S Split p lit

Hanger to side of beam. See full-depth side plates discussion. 34B. Alternate to detail 34. 36. Deep beam hangers that have fasteners installed in the side plates toward the top of the supported beam may promote splits at the fastener group should the wood member shrink and lift from the bottom of the beam hanger because of the support provided by the fastener group. THIS DETAIL IS NOT RECOMMENDED!

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S p li t
Split

Hanging to underside of beam. Sometimes it is advantageous to hang a load from the underside of a beam. This is acceptable as long as the hanger is fastened to the upper half of the beam. Fastening to the lower half of the beam may induce splits. 35. Connecting a hanger to the lower half of a beam that pulls downward may cause splits. THIS DETAIL IS NOT RECOMMENDED!

Gap under beam

G ap under beam

36B. Alternate to detail 36.

S pl i t

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7.6 Checklist: Using Connection Selection Tables


Connection selection tables provide values for factored lateral strength (8NbZ) for common configurations of connectors. Tabulated values apply to connections that satisfy the following conditions:

dry service condition (CM = 1.0) normal temperature range (Ct = 1.0) untreated material (Cpt = 1.0 ; Crt = 1.0) time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) load combination (8 = 0.80) compliance with spacing and penetration requirements as stated in the Structural Connections Supplement
For connections that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review the design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary. To compute factored resistance for a specific condition, apply the design equations directly (product-specific design adjustment factors and reference resistance values are provided in each supplement.)

7.7 Design Examples


Example 7.7-1.1: Nails - Top Plate Splice
Design a splice connection in the top plate of a stud wall of a light commercial building. The top plate resists a factored horizontal diaphragm chord force of 1.575 kips. The top plate is a double 2x6, No.1 Douglas Fir-Larch. for this case (p/12D). Thus, the number of nails required is:
n = 1.575/0.243/(1.5/12/0.162) = 8.4 = 9 nails

Option 2. Calculate factored nail strength


ts = 1.5" D = 0.162" Fyb = 90 ksi Fem = Fes = 4.65 ksi Re = Fem/Fes = 4.65/4.65 = 1.0

Practical Considerations
The first practical decision faced by the designer in this case is to choose a fastener type. In this case the project is primarily stick framed, with virtually all connections consisting of nails. Quickly dividing the factored load by a typical nail strength indicates that the required number of nails will not be excessive. Thus, nails are a good first choice.

Engineering Calculations
Option 1. Try 16d common nails. Factored reference strength = 0.243 kips per nail, (Table 12.3B of the Structural Connections Supplement). If spacing criteria is maintained, only the penetration depth factor is required

Design equations of chapter 7 require calculation of all four yield mode equations to determine the controlling mode. However, tabulated design values are provided in Table 12.3B.

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The simplification guidelines cannot be used in this design, since the nail penetration is less than 12D. Calculations using the yield mode equations reveal that mode IV controls. Only mode IV calculations are shown for convenience. Calculating the factored lateral strength, 8NZZ for mode IV (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 equation 7.1-1 and 7.44):
8NZZ = 8NZ(Z@Cd)

Z=

3.3 (0 .162 ) 2 .2

2 (4.65 )(90 ) 3( 2 )

Z = 0.465 kips Cd = p/12D = 1.5/12/(0.162) = 0.77 8NZZ = 0.465(0.80)(0.65)(0.77) = 0.186 kips n = 1.575/0.186 = 8.47

3.3 D 2 Z= KD

2Fem F yb 3(1+ Re )

= 9 nails

5 @ 1-3/4" o.c.

2-1/2" 2-1/2" 5 @ 1-3/4" o.c.

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS
1-3/4". 2" 1-3/4".

Figure 7- 1.1

Example 7.7-1.2: Nails - Shear Wall Chords Ties


Design connection ties between first and second floor shear wall chords. Floor framing consists of 9.5" deep pre-fabricated wood I-joists. Walls are 2x6, dry Douglas Fir-Larch studs spaced at 16" o.c. The unfactored wind overturning force is 2.4 kips.

Actual Rp = 3.0 in. > 12D, Cd = 1.0 ts = 0.06" D = 0.148" lp = 3.0" Fyb = 90 ksi Fem = 4.65 ksi Fes = 45 ksi Re = Fem/Fes = 4.65/45 = 0.103

Practical Considerations
The first practical decision faced by the designer in this case is to choose a fastener type. Many proprietary pre-fabricated metal connectors are available to make this connection, (see Guideline for Pre-Engineered Metal Connectors). However, a connection can be designed that will use commonly available, non-proprietary components.

Engineering Calculations
Try an ASTM A446 Grade A metal strap, 16 gage x 2.5", assuming 2 rows of staggered 10d common nails. Adjustment factor for penetration, Rp: (nailed into 22x6 chords)

Design equations of chapter 7 require calculation of all four yield mode equations to determine the controlling mode. The simplification guidelines cannot be used in this design, since both members are not the same species. Calculations using the yield mode equations reveal that

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mode IIIs controls. Only mode IIIs calculations are shown for convenience. Calculating the factored lateral strength, 8NZZ for mode IIIs (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 equation 7.1-1 and 7.43):
2(1 + Re ) 2Fyb (2 + Re )D2 Re
+

2-1/4"

k2 = 1 +

3Femts2

16 gage x 2-1/2" ASTM A446 Grade A Metal Strap

8-10d Common Nails @ 3/4" o.c.

k2 = 1 +

2 1.103

) + 2(90)(2.103)(0.148 ) 0.103 3(4.65 )(0.06 )


2

2-1/4"

k2 = 12.66 8NZZ = 8NZ(Z@Cd)

9-1/2"

Z=

3.3k2DtsFem KD (2 + Re ) 3.3(12.66 )(0.148 )(0.06 )(4.65 ) 2.2 (2.103)

Double Stud

Z=

Z = 0.373 kips Cd = 1.0 8NZZ = 1.0(0.65)(0.373) = 0.242 kips


3"

Figure 7-1.2

Factored load:
Zu = 2.4(1.5) = 3.6 kips n = 3.6 / 0.242 = 14.9 = 15 nails

Example 7.7-2.1: Lag Screws- Drag Strut


Design a connection to transfer a factored seismic force of 3.430 kips into the adjoining shear wall, assuming a 2x6 No. 1 Douglas Fir-Larch double top plate. The drag strut is a 6x10, No.1 Douglas Fir-Larch member.

Number of nails required: Use 15-10d nails per side or 2 rows of 8 each.

Practical Considerations
Because forces are higher in this example than in 7.71.1, lag screws are likely a better choice. Due to the physical dimensions of this connection, bolts are not a practical alternative.

Engineering Calculations
Try 1/2 inch diameter lag screws. Since the double top plate is acting together as a unit, assume a single shear

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connection with side member thickness equal to 3". Factored reference strength tables do not include values for 3" side members. Factored lag screw strength must be calculated using yield mode equations.
ts = 3" D = 0.5" Fyb = 45 ksi Fem = Fes = 5.60 ksi Re = Fem/Fes = 4.65/4.65 = 1.0

8NZZ = 8NZ(Z@Cg)

Z=

0.6 2 D FeFyb K

0.6 Z= 0 .5 1

5 .6 45

( )

Z = 2.38 kips 8NZZ = (1.0)(0.65)(2.38) = 1.5 kips

Ignoring group action factor initially: Design equations of chapter 7 require calculation of three yield mode equations to determine the controlling mode. However, the Appendix of the Structural Connections Supplement provides simplification guidelines to eliminate some calculations, if the use of yield mode equations is required. Given parameters for this design allow the use of the simplification guidelines. Calculations using the three simplified equations reveal that mode IV controls. Only mode IV calculations are shown for convenience. Calculating the factored lateral strength, 8NZZ for mode IV (Appendix of the Structural Connections Supplement):
3-1/2" Min. to End of Beam Horizontal Plywood Diaphragm
n = 3.43/1.5 = 2.29 = 3 lag screws

Accounting for group action factor, Cg:


Cg = 0.92 (Table 3.6A of the Structural Connections

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS

Supplement) n = 3.43/1.5/0.92 = 2.49 = 3 lag screws

Pu = 3.43 kips

2-2x6 No. 1 Douglas Fir-Larch Top Plates 3 @ 2" o.c. 3-1/2" Min.

6x10 No. 1 Douglas Fir-Larch Beam

Figure 7-2.1

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Example 7.7-2.2: Lag Screw Suspended Load (withdrawal)


Small air handling units will be suspended from 3-1/8"x7-1/2" 22F-V4 Douglas Fir-Larch glued laminated beams spaced 8' on-center. Each unit weighs 1.5 kips and is supported by two crossing members attached to two of the glulam beams. Design a lag screw connection for the proposed support frame. The lumber is dry and will remain so.

Zu = 0.525 kips

Reference withdrawal resistance of one screw in units of k/in. Penetration length required for one screw:
Z w = 5 .98 0 .375

) (0 .5 )
0 .75

1 .5

pnf

Practical Considerations
While structural framing hangers could be used to connect the crossing members to the glulam members, assume that conditions dictate withdrawal type connectors. Vibration might also need to be considered depending on the type of isolation devices used with air handling units. See AITC Technical Note 9 for recommendations.

Zw = 1.013 k/in. 8NZZ = 0.6(0.65)(1.013) = 0.395 k/in. P = Zu/8NZZ = 0.525/0.395 = 1.33 in.

Engineering Calculations
Try 3/8 inch diameter lag screws loaded in withdrawal. Factored Load, Zu:
Zu = 1.5 1.4

Length:
R = 1.5" (side plate thickness) + 1.5" (penetration) + 7/32" (tip length) = 3.22 in.

( ) 2 (2 )
8'-0"

Use 3/8" x 4" lag screws

2x Douglas-Fir Side Plate

22F-V4 3-1/8" x 7-1/2" Glued Laminated Beams

1-3/8" Dia. x 4" Lag Screw with Washer

1.5 kips

Figure 7-2.2

Example 7.7-3.1: Bolts - Bowstring Roof Truss Splice


Design the splice for the bottom tension chord of a typical bowstring roof truss intended for use over a swimming pool. Tension splice occurs at centerline of the 80 ft. long truss. Center to center depth at peak of truss is 9'0". Trusses are spaced at 8'-0" o.c. and nominal loads are: 19 psf dead load, 16 psf roof live load, and 40 psf snow load. Use Douglas Fir-Larch Select Structural material. Trusses will be fabricated from wet material, but it is anticipated that in-service moisture content will exceed 19%.

Practical Considerations
Wet service conditions must be considered. The potential for corrosion due to chlorine mist may necessitate coatings to protect steel.

Engineering Calculations
Assume an 8x8 Douglas Fir-Larch Select Structural member with 1/4 in. thick ASTM A36 steel side plates. Use 1 in. diameter bolts with punched holes oversized by 1/16 in., and 1.25 in. required edge distance. Use 1/4 in. x 4 in. ASTM A36 steel side plates for 1 row of bolts or

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2-1/4 in. x 2.5 in. for 2 rows of bolts. Required tensile and connection resistance (Factored load) = 61.7 kips.
tm = 7.5" tS = 0.25" D = 1.0" Fyb = 45 ksi Fem = 5.60 ksi Fes = 58 ksi Re = Fem/Fes = 5.6/58 = 0.0966

8NZZ = 8NZ(Z@Cg)

Z=

2.08k3DtsFem (2 + ReK )

Z=

2 .08 13 .23 1 0 .25 5 .6 2 .0966

)( )(

)(

Z = 18.4 kips 8NZZ = 18.4(0.8)(0.65)(0.7)(0.9) = 6.03 kips n = 61.7 / 6.03 = 10.2 = 11 bolts - Use 2 rows of 6 bolts

Design equations of chapter 7 require calculation of all four yield mode equations to determine the controlling mode. The simplification guidelines cannot be used in this design, since all members are not the same thickness. Calculations using the yield mode equations reveal that mode IIIs controls. Only mode IIIs calculations are shown for convenience. Calculating the factored lateral strength, 8NZZ for mode IIIs (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 equation 7.1-1 and 7.59):
k3 = 1 + 2(1 + Re ) 2Fyb (2 + Re )D2 Re
+

Account for group action factor, Cg: Refine: use 2 rows of 5 - 1 in. diameter bolts
Cg = 0.94 (Table 3.6A of the Sturctural Connections Supplement) 8NZZ = 18.4(0.8)(0.65)(0.7)(0.94)

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS

= 6.79 n = 61.7/6.79 = 9.09 = 10 bolts - Use 2 rows of 5 bolts

3Fem ts2

Connection Dimensioning:
2

k 3 = 1 +

2 1.0966

) + 2 (45 )(2 .0966 )(1) 0 .0966 3 (5 .6 )(0 .25 )


2

Wood
Pitch spacing, s = 4D: Minimum gage, g = 1.5D Edge distance: R/D = 7.7/1 s = 4 in. g = 1.5 in. R/D = 7.7 in. bc = max (1.5 or g/2) act = 7 in.

k3 = 13.23

Edge distance: End distance:

Estimate number of bolts required: CM = 0.7, estimate Cg = 0.9 To avoid large reductions in capacity due to small Cg try 2 rows of 6 - 1 in. diameter bolts

Steel
Pitch required = 3 in. End distance = 1.5 in. Edge distance = 1.25 in.

3/4" 2-1/2" 1" 2-1/2" 3/4" 2" 5 @ 4" 7" 7" 5 @ 4" 2"

Figure 7-3.1

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Example 7.7-3.2: Bolts - Eccentric Bolted Connection


Design a moment splice using steel side plates for horizontal loads and a shear plate for vertical loads. Splice a 5-1/8" x 12" 22F-V4 glued laminated beam onto existing beam of same size and grade. Requires: (1) design a shear plate connection to resist vertical reaction, Ru = 1.056 kips; (2) provide a steel plate between beams to transfer axial compressive forces, and; (3) design ties to resist tension force due to Mu = 1.940 ft-kips. Consider possibility of load reversal.

Practical Considerations
Design of eccentric connections requires engineering judgement. Principles of engineering mechanics are used to determine axial forces due to the moment being transfered.

Engineering Calculations
Option 1. Existing overhang - 5-1/8" x 12" 22F-V4 glued laminated beam. Factored load (dead plus roof live) w = 0.224 klf. Factored fascia dead load = 0.496 kips. Select side members given vertical reaction of 1.056 kips and moment of 1.94 ft-kips.

2'-6"

Existing 5-1/8"x12" 22F-V4 Glued Laminated Beam

2x Extension

Factored Fascia Dead Load = 0.496 kips Factored Load; Dead plus Roof Live: w = 0.224 klf

Figure 7-3.2A Preliminary sizing:


Estimate gage and spacing as 5" for 2 rows. Estimated couple force = 1.94(12)/5 = 4.656 kips Total force parallel to grain = 4.656 kips Total force perpendicular to grain = 4.656 + 1.056 = 5.712 kips Estimated Z2 = 7.37 kips, 2 = 50.8E Z** = 8.0 kips

Therefore: mode IIIs controls.

Perpendicular to grain
ts/D < 2.14 tm/ts > 2.0

Resistance: Using simplification guidelines of the Structural Connection Supplement Appendix Parallel to grain:
1.45 < ts/D < 3.95 tm/D > 2.92

Therefore: mode Is controls, c= 1.25


Zz = 3.88 kips

Estimated resistance at 2 = 51E Try 2 rows of 3 - 3/4" diameter bolts Dimensioning requirements:
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Parallel to grain:
Pitch spacing, s = 4D: Minimum gage, g = 1.5D: Edge distance: Edge distance: End distance, ac = 7D: s = 3 in. g = 1.125 in. R/D = 6.83 in. bc = 3.75 in. ac = 5.25 in.

Check capacity using traditional vector analysis: (based on simple strength of materials concepts)
Polar moment of inertia: Horizontal force due to moment: Vertical force due to moment: Vertical force due to Pu: J =160 in2 =0.582 kips =0.582 kips Zpy =1.056/6 = 0.176 kips

Perpendicular to grain:
Minimum gage, g = 5D: End distance, ac = 4D: Edge distance, bc = 4D: g = 3.75 in. ac = 3 in. bc = 3 in. Group action factor, Cg = 0.993 Adjusted resistance = 5.09 kips

Angle to grain 2 = 52.5

Spacing between rows of bolts and bolts in a row is 4".


Pu = 1.056 kips acting through centroid of connection. Mu = 1.940 ft-kips at centroid of connection.
5-1/4' 4" 4"

Check Figure 7-3.2B connection capacity


1.85 kips > 0.956 kips

5-1/4'

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS
3-3/4"

5-1/8"x12"

4"

3-3/4" 2x12 Each Side 3/4" Dia. ASTM A307 Bolt, typ.

Figure 7-3.2B Option 2. Try shear plate connection with dowels in end grain: (Table 10.2B of the Structural Connections Supplement) to transfer shear, plus steel side plates to transfer tension loads.
Factored Fascia Dead Load = 0.496 kips Factored Load; Dead plus Roof Live: w = 0.224 klf

5-1/8"x12" 22F-V4 Glued Laminated Beam spliced onto existing 5-1/8"x12" 22F-V4 Beam

Figure 7-3.2C

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Shear Plate
Zu = 1.056 kips

(Note: metal side plate adjustment is not applicable, Cst and Cg taken as 1.0)
Zz = 6.181(0.7)(0.6) = 2.6 > 2.03 ok

Sizing and number: Try one 2 - 5/8" shear plate with 3/4" dowel. Reference resistance: Since member is square cut, Eq. A6.3-1 (AF&PA/ ASCE 16-95) applies.
Zn90 = 0.6Znq

Therefore use one 2-5/8" shear plate on each side of connection with one 3/4" diameter by 10-1/2" steel dowel. Note: used lag screw length of penetration requirements to determine length of dowel. (Rp = 5" for full design value). Shear plate to be installed at the center of connection.

For one 2-5/8" shear plate:


Zu = 1.056 Znreqd = 1.056/(0.8)(0.65) = 2.03

5-1/8"

6"

6" 1/4"x5-1/8"x12" ASTM A36 Steel Plate

Figure 7-3.2D
Tension Ties Bolts:

Estimated gage between rows:


bc = 1.5" G = 12 - 2(1.5) = 9"

Try 1/2" diameter bolts in double shear, parallel to grain loading. Reference resistance:
Zu = 2.59 kips

Metal side plates per AISC-LRFD Using 1/4" ASTM A36 plates, net depth required = 0.24 in. Therefore, width of side plate controlled by edge dimensioning per AISC LRFD, minimum edge distance < 1-1/4"

With 1/2" diameter bolts, steel edge distance < 7/8" Use 2 - 1/4" x 2" plates per tie:
Ztab = 5.01 kips

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Accounting for group action factor, Cg:


Cg = 1.992/2 = 0.996 8NZZ = 0.8(0.65)(0.7)(0.996)(5.01) = 1.82(2) = 3.6 kips > Zu

Dimensioning:
s = 4D = 2" ac = 7D = 3-1/2" bc = Rm/D = 10.25 bc = 1.5D = 3/4"

1/4"x2" ASTM A36 Plate, typ. 1-1/2"

1/4"x5-1/8"x12" ASTM A36 Steel Plate 2"

9" 1/2" Bolts, typ. 1-1/2" 4-1/2" 4" 4-1/2" 4-1/2" 4" 4-1/2" 2"

Figure 7-3.2E

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MECHANICAL CONNECTORS
Pu

Example 7.7-4.1: Split-Ring Connection


Determine the capacity in terms of a factored load for the given knee-brace design. The knee-brace supports lateral loads due to wind in a wood frame system. Using 2x6 MSR 1650f-1.5E Douglas Fir-Larch, 6x8 No. 1 Douglas Fir-Larch, 2 - 2-1/2" split rings with 1/2" bolts.
30

2x6 1650f-1.5E MSR Knee Brace, 5'-0" Long

Practical Considerations
Post frame building design typically provides guidance for design of the moment resisting frame. Some adjustment to required capacity may be permitted due to diaphragm action of the roof system. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers has more information on this subject.
4.7"

2-1/2" Split Rings with 1/2" Dia. Bolts

Engineering Calculations
Check Brace: Load is parallel to grain, assume Group B species. Geometry adjustment factor, C) is the minimum of C) determined from spacing, end distance, and edge distance. See Table 7.6-3 of AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 for spacing and edge distance requirements.
2-1/16" 3-3/8" 2-1/16" 6x8 Douglas Fir-Larch Post, No.1

Figure 7-4.1A

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Spacing:
For full design value: Aopt = 5-1/8" Bopt = 3-7/8"

C L

End distance, ac:


aopt** = 4"

bc ac

Edge distance, bc:


bmin** = bopt** C) = 1.0 Eam = 66 x 103 Eas = 14.85 x 103 = 1-3/4"

30

4-1/8" D/2

Accounting for group action factor (2 split rings), Cg:


Cg = 0.94 (Table 3.6B of the Structural Connections Supplement)

Figure 7-4.1B

Determine Zu for connection in brace:


8NZZ = 8NZ(Z@Cg) = 1.0(0.65)(0.94)(9.07) = 11.08 kips
30

Check Post: Load is at a 30 degree angle to grain, Group B species


Z** = 9.07 kips Zz = 6.45 kips
Zu

Geometry adjustment factor Edge distance, bc:


bc = 2-1/2"
2-1/2"

Consider both edges as being loaded due to changing load direction (Table 7.6-1)
boptz = 2-3/4" bminz = 1-3/4" C) = 0.96
2-5/8"

Figure 7-4.1C

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End distance: not applicable Edge distance: not applicable


Multiple fastener adjustment (as previously calculated): Cg = 0.94

Determine Zu for connection in brace:


8NZZ = 8NZ(Z@Cg) = 1.0(0.65)(0.94)(14.84) = 9.07 kips

Reference resistance, Z2:


Z2 = 14.84 kips

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8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

General Information 8.1.1 Selecting Structural Panels Design for Moment 8.2.1 Adjustment Factors Design for Shear 8.3.1 Adjustment Factors Checklist: Using Structural Panel Selection Tables Design Examples Example 8-1 Sheathing in a Specialty Application

80 80 80 80 81 81 82 82 82

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8.1 General Information


This chapter covers selection of structural panels that meet a given design requirement. Note that the specialized topics of panels used in shear walls and diaphragms are covered in chapter 9. Wood-based structural panels are produced, graded and marketed in a fundamentally different manner than the structural framing products referenced in chapters 3 through 6. The manufacturing process permits a wide range of raw materials, layup configurations and pressing variables. This wide range of variables led to adoption of performance based product standards and to a type of stress-class panel rating system. The current system of grade marking, based primarily on span ratings, provides broad distribution of panel grades that meet most common building requirements. ments. In addition, consumers may have performance expectations that may not be satisfied by minimum code requirements. Sheathing products, being the structural layer that directly supports the loads, are more affected by these concerns than other products. For this reason, structural panels used as sheathing must be designed to account for loads and consumer acceptance criteria. Sheathing panels are span rated to meet these requirements. Across a range of span ratings, some individual products may have spans controlled by deflection limits. Others may be controlled by impact load considerations or other limit states. Selecting structural panels by span rating has proven to be a safe and efficient design option in allowable stress design. This option is equally applicable to LRFD.

8.1.1 Selecting Structural Panels


Engineers will select panels by two distinctly different methods, depending on the structural application. For the majority of building applications, panels are used as sheathing, primarily to transfer loads to the framing members. For these cases, panels are selected according to their span rating. In a small number of cases, engineers will find it necessary to select panels according to their factored flexure or axial resistances.

8.1.1.2 Using factored resistance values


For special applications, designers may opt to select a panel by engineering calculations. Selection tables are provided for this purpose. For the majority of building applications, panels are used as sheathing, primarily to transfer loads to the framing members. For these cases, panels are selected according to their span rating. In a small number of cases, engineers will find it necessary to select panels according to their factored flexure or axial resistances.

8.1.1.1 Span ratings


Structures may be subjected to many types of loads, some of which are not covered in minimum code require-

8.2 Design for Moment


The basic equation for moment design of structural panels is similar to that for other bending members (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 5.1-1):
8NbM $ Mu

Factored moment resistance is tabulated in the structural panel selection tables. Tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions in the checklist in Section 8.4.

8.2.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated moment resistance values or by applying all applicable adjustment factors to the reference bending strength for the product. The complete equation for calculation of factored moment resistance is:
8NbM = 8NbM (CM Ct CG Csw Cpt Crt)

where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nb = 0.85 M = adjusted moment resistance Mu = factored moment

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where M is the reference bending resistance of the panel (kip-in) and: CM is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, use the value of CM given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For higher temperature conditions, multiply by the value of Ct given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. is the grade construction factor. Tabulated reference resistances are for a baseline panel configuration. For panel constructions that are different from the baseline configuration, use the value of CG given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement.

CW Cpt

is the width effect factor. Use this factor, as specified in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement, for panel widths less than 24 inches. is the preservative treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with preservative chemicals, use the value of Cpt given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. is the fire-retardant treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with fire-retardant chemicals, use the value of Crt given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement.

Ct

Crt

CG

For untreated structural panels 24 inches or wider, used in a normal building environment (meeting the reference conditions of Sec. 1.1.5), the general equation for M reduces to:
M = M (CG)

8.3 Design for Shear


The basic equation for shear design of structural panels (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 5.1-2) is:
8NvV $ Vu

8
CM is the wet service factor. Tabulated resistances are based on dry use. For wet service conditions, use the value of CM given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. is the temperature factor. Tabulated resistances are based on temperature conditions that do not exceed 100F on a sustained basis. For higher temperature conditions, use the value of Ct given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. is the preservative treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with preservative chemicals, use the value of C pt given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. is the fire-retardant treatment factor. Tabulated resistances are for untreated members. For members that are treated with fire-retardant chemicals, use the value of Crt given in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement.
STRUCTURAL PANELS

where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) Nv = 0.75 V = adjusted shear resistance Vu = factored shear

Ct

Cpt

Factored shear resistance is tabulated in the panel selection tables. Tabulated values are suitable for members that conform to all conditions in the checklist in Section 8.4.

8.3.1 Adjustment Factors


Members that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated shear resistance values. The complete equation for calculation of factored shear resistance is:
8NvV = 8NvV (CM Ct Cpt Crt)

Crt

where V is the reference shear resistance (kips) and:

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8.4 Checklist: Using Structural Panel Selection Tables


Two types of structural panel selection tables are provided. Flexure selection tables provide values for factored moment and shear resistance (8NbM, 8NvV) for various span ratings and panel constructions. Axial force selection tables provide factored tensile and compressive resistance (8NtT, 8NcP) for the baseline case only. Tabulated values apply to panels that satisfy the following conditions: dry service condition (CM=1.0) normal temperature range (Ct=1.0) untreated material (Cpt = 1.0 ; Crt = 1.0) time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) load combination (8=0.80)

For panels that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary.

8.5 Design Examples


Example 8-1: Sheathing in a Specialty Application
Design a structural panel to resist a factored moment (Mu) of 2.5 kip-in per foot of panel width. Assume a 4x8 ft. sheet, standard conditions of load duration, dry moisture service condition, untreated material. resistance of 2.8 kip-in/ft. Thus, this configuration is acceptable. Using Reference Strength Tables: Calculate the factored moment resistance for a specific panel construction by using the baseline configuration values and multiplying by the grade construction factors. Try a 5-ply plywood or an oriented strand board construction of a 32 oc structural-use panel.
8NbM = 8NbM CG = (0.80) (0.85) (2.2) (1.2) = 1.8 kip-in/ft < 2.5 kip-in/ft

Practical Considerations
For normal building construction, consideration of simple span moments and shears under code-specified uniform loads would ignore several significant limit states for structural sheathing. Among these are the strength limit state of impact resistance under realistic falling objects in a building and the serviceability limit states related to deflection and vibration. While these limits are not explicitly addressed in this design example, the designer is reminded that span ratings for panels DO account for these types of considerations.

Try a 48 oc:
= (0.80) (0.85) (4.1) (1.2) = 3.3 kip-in/ft

Engineering Calculations
Using Selection Tables: Select a member from the structural panel selection tables that meets the moment requirement (Mu) shown above. A baseline construction rated structural-use panel with a span rating of 48 oc has a tabulated factored moment

This panel satisfies the strength limit state of moment. Full design must also check other applicable limit states. Note that panel selection tables also include values for panel stiffness (EI). This value must be greater than or equal to EIreqd to meet serviceability criteria for the panel design.

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9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

General Information Design 9.2.1 Adjustment Factors Checklist: Using Shear Wall and Diaphragm Selection Tables Design Examples Example 9-1 Horizontal Roof Diaphragm in Industrial Warehouse Example 9-2 Shear wall in Single-Story Residence

84 84 84 84 85

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9.1 General Information


This chapter pertains to design of shear walls and diaphragms. These assemblies, which transfer lateral forces (wind and seismic) within the structure, are commonly designed using panel products fastened to framing members. The use of bracing systems to transfer these forces is not within the scope of this Chapter.

9.2 Design
Shear walls and diaphragms transfer in-plane forces. Textbooks provide in depth coverage of this topic. For purposes of this chapter, note the following:
where
8 = time effect factor (see AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Table 1.4-2) NZ = 0.65 (fastener-limited shear resistance) D = adjusted shear wall / diaphragm shear resistance Du = factored shear wall / diaphragm shear force

These assemblies act as deep beams In-plane shear resistance is provided by the structural
sheathing (web action) Axial tension and compression resistance is provided by the chord members (flange action) Nailed assemblies as shown in selection tables exhibit ductile, energy absorbing behavior While shear resistance of these assemblies can be computed by principles of engineering mechanics, it is recommended that designers use selection tables for this purpose. In addition to eliminating laborious calculations, these tables limit configurations to those that will exhibit the aforementioned ductile behavior. The basic equation for shear design of shear walls and diaphragms (similar to AF&PA/ASCE 16-95, Eq. 9.21) is:
Du # 8NZD

Factored shear wall / diaphragm shear resistance is tabulated in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. Tabulated values are suitable for assemblies that conform to all conditions of the checklist in section 9.3.

9.2.1 Adjustment Factors


Shear walls and diaphragms that do not meet all conditions in the checklist must be designed by adjusting tabulated shear resistance values. A listing of applicable adjustment factors is provided in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement.

9.3 Checklist: Using Shear Wall and Diaphragm Selection Tables


Shear wall / diaphragm selection tables provide values for factored shear resistances (8NzD) for most applications. Tabulated values apply to assemblies that satisfy the following conditions

dry service condition (CM=1.0) normal temperature range (Ct=1.0) untreated material time effect factor based on live (L or Lr) or snow (S) combination (8=0.80)
For assemblies that do not satisfy all of these conditions, review the design equations in this chapter and modify tabulated values as necessary.

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9.4 Design Examples


Transverse Force W = 0.385 kips/ft (Factored Load)

4' x 8' Structural Panel

110'

Purlins Spaced 8' o.c.

240'

2 x Framing, 24" o.c.

Figure 9.1A

Figure 9.1B Appropriate panel layouts, thickness, and fastener schedules can be determined, based on maximum unit shear, using Table 5.5 in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. A review of the table shows that the Case 2 panel layout is appropriate with recommended construction meeting the following requirements:

Example 9-1: Horizontal Roof Diaphragm in Industrial Warehouse


Select a structural panel layout, nailing and blocking plan, and determine the maximum chord force for a 110 x 240 foot warehouse roof diaphragm based on loading shown in Figure 9.1A. Shear walls of equal strength and stiffness are located around the perimeter of the diaphragm. It is important to note that this example only considers a factored uniform lateral load on the 240' dimension of the roof diaphragm. Design for dead load as well as lateral load on the 110' dimension of the roof diaphragm may also control design. For this example it is assumed that diaphragm framing members and sheathing have already been designed to resist gravity loads.

Blocked construction (blocking is not required when 15/32" structural panel sheathing. 8d 4" o.c. - nailing for all diphragm boundaries (re 8d 6" o.c. - perimeter nailing of all interior panel edges. 8d 12" o.c. - nailing at panel intermediate supports. Nominal 2 inch thick Douglas-Fir, Larch, or Southern
Pine framing members. Figure 9.1B shows a possible framing plan and panel layout. Note that the direction of framing versus the direction of blocking does not affect identification as Case 2. duce nailing when shear reduces to 0.35 klf). shear reduces to 0.23 klf).

9
SHEAR WALLS AND DIAPHRAGMS

Maximum unit shear in diaphragm


The diaphragm acts as a deep beam spanning between shear walls. This beam is assumed to span L feet between shear walls and have a depth b. The maximum shear force, V, occurs at the reactions and is equal to wL/2 where w is the load in units of force per unit length. The maximum unit shear in the diaphragm, Du is computed as the maximum shear force divided by the beam depth:
Du = 0 .385 240 V wL = = = 0 .42 kip / ft b 2b 2 110

Diaphragm nailing and blocking plan


The framing system provides blocked construction for the entire diaphragm since the panels edges coincide with supports. In some cases, however, blocking is not required or provided towards the center of the diaphragm (region away from shear wall reactions) due to reduced unit shears. The unit shear diagram in Figure 9.1C shows the region of the diaphragm where blocking is not required. Similarly, a unit shear diagram can be used to determine regions where increased nail spacing is permitted based on reduced unit shears. For this example, nail spac-

( )(

)(

Panel layout and fastener schedule


Choice of diaphragm materials and construction is simplified by the use of the diaphragm selection tables.

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0.42 klf 0.35 klf 0.23 klf

Nailing reduced Blocking not required

20' 55' 120' (Blocking) 8d 4" o.c. Panel edges (Blocking) 8d 6" o.c. Panel edges (No Blocking Required) 8d 6" o.c. Panel edges 0.23 klf 0.35 klf 0.42 klf

110'

240'

8d 6" o.c. perimeter nailing on all interior panel edges

4' x 8' structural panel

8d 12" o.c. at panel intermediate supports

Figure 9.1C

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ing can be increased based on reduced unit shears towards the center of the diaphragm. See Figure 9.1C for regions where increased nail spacing is permitted. Additionally, specified changes in nail spacing should occur over a framing member.

12' 4.0 kips = Factored lateral force

Practical considerations
As this example shows, some diaphragms require dense nailing patterns in high shear locations. Efficient design requires a reduction in the number of nails in areas where the shear is lower. Practical design requires that the designer limit the number of nailing regions to minimize confusion on the jobsite.

8'

v = Shear at base of shearwall

Chord force
The chords of a diaphragm resist axial tension and compression. The chord axial force is obtained by resolving the diaphragm moment into a force couple. For this example, chords are located at the perimeter of the diaphragm and are accordingly assumed to be a distance, b, away from each other. Therefore, maximum axial forces which occur at mid-span are equal to:
C =T = 0 .385 240 M WL2 = = 8b b 8 110

Figure 9.2A

Example 9-2: Shear Wall in SingleStory Residence


Determine the appropriate panel thickness, nailing schedule, and anchorage requirements for the 8 x 12 foot shearwall shown in Figure 9.2A. Assume that dead load is negligible, overturning restraint is provided by mechanical anchors, shear is resisted by 5/8" anchor bolts, and all framing members are 2 inch nominal thickness Douglasfir.

( )(

)(

= 25.2 kips

Axial chord forces are commonly resisted by the use of two or more layers of lumber spliced together to form the chord. The chord member and its splice must resist the tensile and compressive forces resulting from resolving the diaphragm moment into a force couple. Tension compression member design involves considering the reduced net section of the chord due to fastener holes necessary in the splice region. Splices must be designed to transfer a proportionate share of the chord force to continuous members. Continuity of chords must be maintained.

9
SHEAR WALLS AND DIAPHRAGMS

Design for shear


It is assumed that the shear wall behaves as a deep cantilever beam with end members acting as flanges or chords to resist axial forces and the panels acting as a web to resist shear. When designing for shear, the controlling design equation (AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 Eq. 9.2-1) is:
D u z D n

Other considerations
Recall that this example only considers transverse force on the 240' dimension of the roof diaphragm. Loading in the longitudinal direction (110' dimension of the diaphragm) may alter nailing and blocking requirements. Transverse as well as longitudinal loads must be considered for attaching the diaphragm and the shearwall. In the overall design of the roof, resistance to gravity load is also a design consideration. Gravity load often controls panel layout.

From Figure 1, the factored lateral force is 4 kips. The factored unit shear force, Du, equals:

Du =

(4.0 ) = 0 .33 kip / ft ( ) 12

Panel thickness and fastener schedule


Choice of shear wall materials and construction is simplified by the use of the shear wall selection tables. Panel thickness and fastener schedule can be determined, based

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on factored unit shear force, using Table 5.4 in the Structural-Use Panel Supplement. A review of the table shows that the recommended wall construction meets the following requirements:

8d 6" o.c. nailing at panel edges 8d 12" o.c. at panel Intermediate supports 4' x 8' structural panel

Blocked construction. 15/32" structural panel sheathing. 8d 6" o.c. nailing at panel edges with common or galvanized box nails with a minimum penetration into framing of 1-1/2". 8d 12" o.c. nailing on intermediate supports. Note that panels may be oriented horizontally or vertically for this case. A possible layout with panels oriented vertically is shown in Figure 9.2B.

Chord force
The end members act as chords to resist axial forces. This force can be obtained by resolving the wall overturning moment into a force couple:
C =T = 4 8 M = = 2 .7 kips b 12

Anchor bolt Hold down connector

Figure 9.2B for a 5/8 inch diameter anchor bolt connection between nominal 2" thick Douglas-Fir and concrete. Three anchor bolts are required.

( )( )

The chord member must resist resulting axial forces. Chord design for tension and compression must consider the reduced net section due to fastener holes when necessary for the attachment of hold down devices.

Other considerations
This example does not consider dead load in calculation of overturning forces. It is recommended that the designer refer to applicable building code provisions to determine proper treatment of overturning forces. These provisions vary based on the type of lateral force under consideration and by building code. In addition, building code provisions concerning minimum spacing and placement of anchor bolts should be consulted.

Hold down requirement


Hold downs are required to prevent overturning of the wall. The required hold down force can be obtained by resolving the wall overturning moment into a force couple. In this case, the required hold down must provide factored uplift resistance of 2.7 kips.

Anchor bolts
The factored lateral load of 4 kips must be resisted by anchor bolts in shear. The Structural Connections Supplement can be used to determine a bolt capacity of 1.9 kips

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10.1 General Information 10.2 Applications-Related Information

90 90

10.2.1 Dry vs. Wet Service Conditions 90 10.2.2 Dimensional Changes in Wood 90 10.2.3 Chemical Treatments 10.3 Other Design Information 10.3.1 Beam Formula Figures 10.3.2 Weights of Materials 10.3.3 Metric Conversions 91 91 91 91 91

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10.1 General Information


This chapter provides typical reference information (general applications information, beam formulas, weights of materials, metric conversions) found in engineering design handbooks. Product specific information (product dimensions and section calculations, product weights) are provided in the supplements and guidelines. This chapter also includes flowcharts of the design process for chapters 3 through 7. This provides not only a picture of the design process for a given member type, but also serves as a guide to development of software applications for LRFD.

10.2 Applications-Related Information


10.2.1 Dry vs. Wet Use Conditions
Wood used in most structural building applications is protected from direct exposure to water. These applications generally have relatively low humidity conditions. These cases are called dry use conditions. AF&PA/ASCE 16-95 defines dry use conditions in terms of the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the wood. The upper limit of a dry use condition is a 15 percent average or a 19 percent maximum EMC for sawn lumber. Table 10A relates EMC to relative humidity for the range of temperature from 30o to 110o F. If EMCs for higher temperatures or more precise information is required, the user is directed to any wood products textbook. Key to the designers judgment regarding the appropriate EMC for use in design is the fact that wood fibers gain or lose moisture gradually, rather than immediately. For example, a bunk of 2x4s will take several weeks to change moisture content by roughly plus or minus 5 percent in a controlled conditioning room. Thus, from a Table 10A. Equilibrium Moisture Content of Wood 1
Relative Humidity (RH) Range < 30% 30 - 40% 40 - 60% 60 - 75% 75 - 85% > 85% Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) Range < 6% 6 - 8% 8 - 11% 11 - 15% 15 - 19% > 19%

practical standpoint, structural products that are generally dry can be designed for dry use even if they would occasionally come in contact with water. Conversely, as the table indicates, extremely high humidity conditions over extended periods will push the EMC above the threshold for dry use. While these conditions will not generally prevail within the building envelope, the designer must be aware that high humidity areas are potentially troublesome, both from the perspective of strength reduction (wet use) and from the perspective of decay hazards.

10.2.2 Dimensional Changes in Wood


Wood shrinks as it loses moisture and swells as it gains moisture. While dimensional changes along the grain are negligible, changes across the grain are significant enough to be important from a building detailing standpoint. From a design perspective changes in moisture content are more significant due to dimensional changes than due to changes in strength properties. Experienced designers review all building details asking How would shrinking or swelling affect this detail? As a rule of thumb, wood members will shrink roughly 4 to 8 percent across the grain as they dry from a saturated condition (about 24 percent MC) to an oven dry condition (0 percent MC). Designers are advised to either detail the structure to minimize effects of shrinkage or to specify wood products that will be installed at a moisture content that is close to the long-term EMC of the structure. For example, modern kiln drying removes about half of the moisture content (and half of the shrinkage). Kiln dried wood at about 12 to 15 percent MC is only slightly higher than the 8 to 12 percent EMC one might expect in buildings. Discussion of dimensional changes in wood would not be complete without a brief word about checking. Surface checking in wood is caused by differential shrink-

Note that glued products (such as glulam, SCL and panel products) tend to equilibrate to moisture contents slightly lower than sawn lumber.

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age the drier surface of a wood member shrinks more quickly than the center of the member. Checking is minimized by slow or controlled drying of the member. Surface checks have little, if any, impact on structural strength in typical applications. Larger checks under unusual stress conditions should be investigated for their possible impact on strength.

common classes of chemicals used to impregnate wood products are preservatives and fire retardants. The effects of treatment on the structural properties of wood depend upon the chemicals used and the process variables employed. Because many treatments are applied in proprietary processes their impacts cannot be assessed in a comprehensive manner in this Manual. Contact your wood product supplier or the treater for more information.

10.2.3 Chemical Treatments


Wood products are sometimes treated with chemicals to modify certain properties of the wood. The two most

10.3 Other Design Information


10.3.1 Beam Formula Figures
Figures 10.1 through 10.32 provide a series of shear and moment diagrams with accompanying formulas for beams under various static loading conditions. Shear and moment diagrams and formulas are excerpted from the Western Woods Use Book, 4th edition, and are provided herein as a courtesy of Western Wood Products Association. Notations Relative to Shear and Moment Diagrams

10.3.2 Weights of Materials


Table10.33 contains minimum design dead loads for many common construction materials excerpted from American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 7-95, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Many of the tabulated values appear to overestimate the dead loads of wood products. For more accurate estimation of dead loads consult other recognized industry standards.

10.3.3 Metric Conversions


E I L R M P R V W w x = = = = = = = = = = = = modulus of elasticity, psi moment of inertia, inches4 span length of the bending member, feet span length of the bending member, inches maximum bending moment, inch-pounds total concentrated load, pounds reaction load at bearing point, pounds shear force, pounds total uniform load, pounds load per lineal inch, pounds deflection or deformation, inches horizontal distance from reaction to point on beam, inches Table10.34 contains metric conversion factors for various engineering units excerpted from AF&PAs Wood Products Metric Planning Package. For additional units not shown, see ASTM E 380-92, Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (SI) (the Modernized Metric System). More information on metric conversion for wood products is available in AF&PAs Wood Products Metric Planning Package.

10
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Figure 10.1

Simple Beam Uniformly Distributed Load

x w

R 2 V Shear 2

Mmax Moment

7-36 A

Figure 10.2
a b wb

Simple Beam Uniform Load Partially Distributed

R1 x V1 Shear

R2

V2 R1 a+ w

Mmax Moment

7-36 B
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Figure 10.3
a wa

Simple Beam Uniform Load Partially Distributed at One End

R1 x V1 Shear

R2

V2 R1 w

Mmax Moment

7-37 A Figure 10.4 Simple Beam Uniform Load Partially Distributed at Each End

a w1a b c w2c

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION
R2

R1 x V1 Shear R1 w1

V2

Mmax Moment

7-37 B

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Figure 10.5

Simple Beam Load Increasing Uniformly to One End

W R2 .57741

R1

V1 Shear V2

Mmax Moment

Figure 10.6

7-38 A

Simple Beam Load Increasing Uniformly to Center

x W

R 2 V Shear 2

Mmax Moment

7-38 B
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Figure 10.7
x

Simple Beam Concentrated Load at Center

R 2 2

V Shear V

Mmax Moment

Figure 10.8
7-39 A

Simple Beam Concentrated Load at Any Point

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION
R2

R1 a b

V1 V2 Shear

Mmax Moment

7-39-b

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Figure 10.9
x P

Simple Beam Two Equal Concentrated Loads Symmetrically Placed

R a a

V Shear V

Mmax Moment

Figure 10.10 7-40 A Simple Beam Two Equal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically Placed
x P P

R1 a b

R2

V1 Shear V2

M1 Moment

M2

7-40 B

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Figure 10.11 Simple Beam Two Unequal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically Placed
P1 x P2

R1 a b

R2

V1 Shear V2

M1 Moment

M2

Figure 10.12 Cantilever Beam Uniformly Distributed Load


w
7-41-a

10
R

REFERENCE INFORMATION

Shear

Mmax Moment

7-41- B
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Figure 10.13 Cantilever Beam Concentrated Load at Free End


P R

V Shear

Mmax Moment

Figure 10.14 Cantilever Beam Concentrated Load at Any Point 7-42 A


x P R

Shear

Mmax Moment

7-42-b
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Figure 10.15 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other Uniformly Distributed Load
w R2 R1 x

V1 Shear V2

3 8 M1

Mmax

Figure 10.16 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other Concentrated Load at Center 7-43 A
P R2 R1 2 2

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION

V1 Shear V2

M1 M2 3 11

7-43 B

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Figure 10.17 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other Concentrated Load at Any Point

P R2

R1 a b

V1 Shear V2

M1 Moment Pa R2 M2

Figure 10.18 Beam Overhanging One Support Uniformly Distributed load


x
7-44 A

a x1

w(+ a)

R1 (1 a ) 2 2
2

R2

V1 Shear

V2 V3

M1 Moment
2 (1 a ) 2

M2

7-44 B
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Figure 10.19 Beam Overhanging One Support Uniformly Distributed load on Overhang
x a x1 wa

R1

R2

V2 V1 Shear

Mmax Moment

7-45 A

Figure 10.20 Beam Overhanging One Support Concentrated Load at End of Overhang
x x1 a P

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION

R1

R2

V2 V1 Shear

Mmax Moment

7-45 B
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Figure 10.21 Beam Overhanging One Support Concentrated Load at Any Point Between Supports
x x1

R1 a b

R2

V1 V2 Shear

Mmax Moment

7-46Beam A Figure 10.22 Overhanging Both Supports Unequal Overhangs Uniformly Distributed Load

R1 a b

R2 c

V2 V1 X X1 Mx1 M1

V4 V3

M3 M2

7-46 B

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Figure 10.23 Beam Fixed at Both Ends Uniformly Distributed load


x w R R

2 V Shear

.2113

M1 Moment Mmax

A Figure 10.247-47 Beam Fixed at Both Ends Concentrated Load at Center

x P R 2 V Shear V 2 R

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION

4 Mmax Moment Mmax

7-47 B
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Figure 10.25 Beam Fixed at Both Ends Concentrated Load at Any Point
x R1 P R2

V1 Shear V2

Ma M1 Moment M2

Figure 10.26 Continuous Beam Two Equal Spans Uniform Load on One span
x w

7-48 A

R1 V1

R2 Shear

R3

V2 7 16 Mmax M1

V3

Moment

7-48 B

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Figure 10.27 Continuous Beam Two Equal Spans Concentrated Load at Center of One Span
2 P 2

R1 V1 V2

R2

R3

V3 Shear

Mmax M1 Moment

7-49 A

Figure 10.28 Continuous Beam Two Equal Spans Concentrated Load at Any Point
a P b

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION

R1 V1 V2

R2

R3

Shear

V3

Mmax M1

Moment

7-49 B

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Figure 10.29 Continuous Beam Two Equal Spans Uniformly Distributed Load
w w

R1

R2

R3 V2 V2

x x1 M2 Mx1 2 .46

x M2 2 max .46

V3

M1

7-50 A

Figure 10.30 Continuous Beam Two Equal Spans Two Equal Concentrated Loads Symmetrically Placed
P P

R1 a V1 a

R2 a a

R3

V2 V3 V2

M2 Mx

M2 M1

7-50 B

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Figure 10.31 Continuous Beam Two Unequal Spans Uniformly Distributed Load
w1 w2

R1 1 V1

R2 2

R3

V3 V4 x1 x2 V2

Mx1

Mx2 M1

7-51 A

Figure 10.32 Continuous Beam Two Unequal Spans Concentrated Load on Each Span Symmetrically Placed

P1

P2

10
REFERENCE INFORMATION
R3

R1 1 a V1 a

R2 2 b b

V3 V2 V4

Mm1

Mm2

M1

7-51 B

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Table 10.33 Minimum Design Dead Loads*,1

REFERENCE INFORMATION

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1 Source: This material is reproduced with permission from the American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 7-95, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, copyright 1996 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Copies of this standard may be purchased from the American Society of Civil Engineers at 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017-2398.

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Table 10.34 Metric Conversion Factors

Quantity Length M ass M ass density Force Force/unit length Force/unit area Pressure, stress, modulus of elasticity

From In ch-Pound Units ft in lb kip (1000 lb) pcf lb kip plf klf psf ksf psf ksf psi ksi ft-lb ft-kip in4 in3 EF Btu/lb-EF Btu-in/h-ft 2 -EF mm mm

To Metric Units

Multiply by 304.8 25.4 0.453 592 0.453 592 16.018 5 4.448 22 4.448 22 14.593 9 14.593 9 47.880 26 47.880 26 47.880 26 47.880 26 6.894 76 6.894 76 1.355 82 1.355 82 416 231 16 387.064 (tE F - 32)/1.8 4.1868 0.1442279

kg metric ton (1000 kg) kg/m3 N kN N/m kN /m N/m2 kN /m2 Pa (N /m2 ) kP a kP a M Pa (N/mm 2 ) N @m kN @m mm4 mm3 EC kJ/kg-K W/m-K

Bending moment, torque, moment of force M oment of Inertia Section M odulus Temperature Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Conductivity

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REFERENCE INFORMATION

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION



REFERENCE INFORMATION

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL