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BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH DAN SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA

PENTAKSIRAN DIAGNOSTIK AKADEMIK SBP 2013 PERCUBAAN SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

BIOLOGI Kertas 2

PERATURAN PEMARKAHAN

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Question 1 No 1(a)(i) Able to name system P. Answer : Nervous system Able to name cell Q and cell R Answer : Cell Q : efferent / motor neurone Cell R : Interneurone Able to draw afferent / sensory neuron Sample answer :  Cell body in the middle Mark scheme Sub total 1 Total

(ii)

1 2

1

(iii)

1 1 1

2

1 any diagram of afferent neuron. *Reject : symbol of afferent Able to name level of cell organization shown in level T. Answer: Organ Able to give one reason for the answer in 1(b)(i). Sample answer : Because it contains more than one of different type of tissue // build up by grey matter and white matter // more than one type of tissue // any suitable explanation.

1

(b) (i)

1

(ii)

1 1

1

1

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(c)(i)

Able to explain the role of cell Q, cell R and cell S in a reflex action. Sample answer : P1: the impulse are transmitted from an afferent neurone / Q to the spinal cord. P2: (in the spinal cord), the (nerve) impulses are transmitted from the afferent neurone to an interneurone P3: the impulses are transmitted to an efferent neurone. Any two

2

1 1 1 2 2

(ii)

Able to explain one importance of reflex action to human. Sample answer : F : To provide a rapid / automatic / spontaneous action P1 : to respond immediately / faster (to dangerous) stimuli / condition / situation P2 : to protect from (serious) injury Any two Able to suggest two ways to help the person to do their daily routine of life. Sample answer : P1: (The Alzheimer`s person becomes confused/ forgetful/ lost their sense of direction), help them to find the way // any explanation. P2: ( lose the ability to read / write/ eat / walk / talk) help them to read news paper // any explanation P3: Care of patients / lots of patience / understanding // any explanation // pay more attention // P4: Visits homes for aged / old folks/ old people of Alzheimer`s patients. Any two TOTAL

1 1 2 1 2

(d)

1

1

1

1 2 12

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Question 2 No Mark scheme Sub total 2 Total

2(a)(i) Able to name the structures labeled P and Q. Answer P : Chromosomes / Chromatid / sister chromatid Q : Centriole (ii) Able to state one function of Q. Sample answer To form spindle fibres during cell division/meiosis *Reject : mitosis (iii) Able to state the stage of division of cell X and Y. Sample answer X : Prophase 1 Y : Metaphase 1 Able to state one difference between the chromosomal behaviour in cell x and cell Y. Sample answer PROPHASE 1/ Cell X D1- Homologous chromosomes are arranged randomly D2- The centromeres of the chromosomes are not hold by/ attached to any spindle fibre. D3- Crossing over takes place between the non-sister chromatids / homologous chromosome

1 1 1

2

1

1

2

2 1

(b)(i)

METAPHASE 1/ Cell Y Homologous chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate/ equatorial plane / middle of the cell The centromeres of the chromosomes are hold by/ attached to the spindle fibres. Crossing over has already taken place between the nonsister chromatids / homologous chromosome Any one

1

1

1 1

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(ii)

Able to explain one important event that takes place during stage shown in cell X. Sample answer F1: Crossing over between homologous chromosomes. P1: An exchange of segments of DNA / genetic materials /information (between non-sister chromatids /homologous chromosomes / bivalent / tetrad) P2: which results in new combinations of genes / alleles on a Chromosome P3 : to produce variations (in gametes / offspring) Any three *Reject : cross over

3

1 1

1 1 3

(c)(i)

Able to explain how the chromosomal behaviour in cell Y involved in reducing the chromosomal number in the cell J. Sample answer P1: (After metaphase 1), anaphase 1 takes place P2 : 23 / n / half of sister chromatid move / pulled / separate away to the opposite pole. P3: after completed meiosis// meiosis 1 and meiosis 11 P4: gamete / sperm with 23 / n chromosome formed. Any three *Reject : attract TOTAL

3

1 1 1 3

12

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Question 3 No Mark scheme Sub total 1 Total

3(a)(i) Able to name structure P Answer Gall bladder Able to state the role of P to maintain the alkaline medium in R. Sample answer P1 : Channel / release bile into the R / duodenum. P2 : bile neutralize the acid (from the stomach). P3 : bile optimizes the pH ( for enzyme action) Any one (b) Able to explain how to overcome the difficulty. Sample answer P1: Bile acts as an emulsifier P2: Lowers the surface tension of the lipids P3: Coats tiny/ fat droplets to form a stable emulsion P4 : providing a greater/large surface area ( for digestion ) Any two Able to name the enzyme and product of protein digestion in R and S in Table 1. Sample answer Structure

(ii)

1 1

1

1 1 1 2

1

1 1 1 1 2

2

(c)(i)

Enzyme

Product 1 1 2

R Trypsin Peptide S Erepsin Amino acids **Enzyme and product must be correct = 1 mark *Reject : protease (ii) Able to explain how the enzyme hydrolysed quaternary structure of proteins in Q.

2

Sample answer P1: Loosen the of quarternary structure // change to three 1 dimensional shape / tertiary structure 1 P2 : breaking (specific) peptide bond 1 2 P3: In acidic medium / pH around 2 Any two (d) (i) Able to state differences between human and rabbit 1 4551/2©2013 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK [Lihat halaman sebelah
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Sample answer : Human Small caecum / appendix Rabbit Big / large caecum / appendix

1 3

1

(ii)

Able to explain how the rabbit get energy from the vegetables. Sample answer P1: bacteria in the caecum/appendix produce cellulase P2 : to digest / hydrolyse / break down cellulose ( in food) P3 : to glucose P4 : Glucose/ the breakdown product pass through the alimentary canal of rabbit twice // the first batch of faeces eaten again P5: Glucose /nutrient / digested food / product are absorbed (for the energy.) Any three *Reject : convert TOTAL

1 1 1 1 1 1 3

12

Question 4

No (a)(i)

Mark scheme Able to explain one function of hormone secreted by X Answer : F : Oestrogen P : to repair/ stimulate the thickening uterine lining / endometrium wall. Able to label to show a part which fertilization take place Answer : Any part of fallopian tube.

Sub total 2

Total

1 1 1

2

(a)(ii)

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(b)(i)

Able to explain how the brain regulate hormones in the

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menstrual cycle. Sample answer : F : Brain consists of pituitary gland// hypothalamus P1 : Secrete Follicle Stimulating Hormone/ FSH/ Luteinizing Hormone/ LH // Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone/GnRH P2 : Stimulate the development of follicle into Graffian follicle/ stimulate ovulation // Stimulate pituitary gland to secrete hormone Any two Able to name phase S and T in uterus lining during menstrual cycle.

1 1 1

2

(b)(ii)

2

Answer : Phase S : Menstruation Phase T : Vascularise (b)(iii) Able to explain how contraceptive pills prevent the process at N from occur. Sample answer : P1 : Contraceptive pills contains oestrogen and progesterone P2: Inhibit Secretion of LH P3: Prevent ovulation (from occur) (c)(i) Able explain why female have higher risk to acquired oesteoporosis compare to male Sample answer : P1 :(At 60) woman undergoes menopause P2 : ovary no longer secrete oestrogen hormone P3 : less absorption of calcium (in small intestine) (c)(ii) Any two Able to suggest one way to reduce the effects of menopause symptom Sample answer : P1 : Taking diet with high calcium P2 : Take oestrogen hormone supplement P3 : Seek psychiatrist for counseling P4 : Have healthy lifestyle // regular exercise // avoid smoking P5 : Avoid stress Any one TOTAL Question 5 4551/2©2013 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK

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1 1 1 2

2

1 1 1 1

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1 1 1 1 1

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No

Mark scheme

5(a)(i) Able to write the parent`s genotype in the spaces provided Sample answer Ali : IᴬIᴼ Aisyah : IᴼIᴼ Able to write the genotype of gametes in the circle provided Sample answer Ali : Iᴬ , Iᴼ Aisyah : , Iᴼ , Iᴼ **Both type of gametes for Ali and Aisyah correct 1 mark (iii) Able to write the offspring`s genotype in the spaces provided. Sample answer Iᴼ Iᴼ Able to explain how the offspring inherits blood group O. Sample answer P1 : during meiosis P2 : father / Ali produced gametes with allele Iᴬ while mother also produced gametes with allele Iᴬ P3 : The gametes fused / fertilized (to produced zygote) P4: Zygote / offspring has genotype Iᴬ Iᴬ , ( blood group O) Any Three (c) Able to explain why her husband /Ali is not a compatible donor. Sample answer P1 : Ali has antigen A , P2 : Aisyah has antibody a P3 : Antigen A and antibody a is compatible P4 : Agglutination will occur . Any three

Sub total 2

Total

(ii)

1 1 2

2

1 1

2

1

(b)

1 3

1

1 1 1 1

3

3

1 1 1 1 1

3

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(d)

Able to name the genetic disease . Sample answer Haemophilia TOTAL

1

1 12

SECTION B Question 6 No 6(a) (i) Mark Scheme Able to explain the cellular respiration process that occurs in individual X and Y correctly. Sample answer: Individual X F1 : Anaerobic respiration / not required oxygen P1 : Occur in cytoplasm P2 : The glucose is partially/ not completely oxidised / broken down P3 : releases less energy / 150 kJ of energy (per mole of glucose) P4 : produce lactic acid Individual Y F2 : Aerobic respiration / required oxygen P5 : occurs in mitochondria (and cytoplasm) P6 : The glucose is completely oxidised / broken down P7 : releases much energy / 2898 kJ of energy (per mole of glucose) P8 : produce carbon dioxide and water ** Reject ATP Any six Sub total Max 6 Total

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 6

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(ii)

Able to explain why the individual X carries out the action. Sample answer Wears a track suit : F : To prevent lose of heat P1 : Heat that traps by the track suit is used to maintain the body temperature P2 : Less oxygen is used to produce heat and the oxygen can be used to oxidise lactic acid Takes a few long deep breaths : F : to obtain more oxygen P3 : to pay the oxygen debt P4 : Oxygen is used to breakdown lactic acid Walks freely as a “cooling down” activity : F : To maintain the blood circulation rate (to transport the lactic acid to the liver) P5 : To ensure that oxygen is supplied continuously to the muscle cells Any six involve all actions Able to explain the similarities and differences of both system. Sample answer : Similarities : F1 : Both have (large) surface area for gaseous exchange P1 : Human has alveolus and fish has filaments/lamellae F2 : Both have surface that increase the diffusion rate of gases P2 : The wall of alveoli in human very thin / only 1 cell thick // The membrane of filaments/lamellae in fish very thin / only 1 cell thick F3 : Both respiratory organs have blood capillaries network P3 : To transport the respiratory gases rapidly / faster/ efficiently F4 : Both have moist surface for gaseous exchange P4 : to dissolve more respiratory gases

Max 6

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 6

(b)

Max 8

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

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F5 : Both use muscles to change the pressure in the thoracic cavity P5 : Human has diaphragm muscle and intercostals muscles Fish has muscles at mouth and operculum F6 : Both have circulatory system to transport oxygen to body tissues in blood vessels P6 : Human and fish have closed circulatory systems Differences Human (has) F7 Cartilage rings at trachea prevent the trachea from being collapse

1

1 1

Fish (has) But the water flow prevents the grills from being stick together (1 m) But Gaseous exchange surface is constantly moist by water

Explanation (P) P7 To ensure the continuous and sufficient oxygen supply

1,1

F8

Gaseous exchange surface in alveoli are always moist // Gaseous exchange surface in alveoli do not expose to the environment directly

(1 m) P8 Position of the organ to ensure that the gaseous exchange surfaces do not dry up // any explanation (1 m)

1,1

1,1 (1 m) 8

Any eight At least 1 point of similarity and 1 point of differences. TOTAL

20

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Question 7 No 7(a) Mark Scheme Able to explain the adaptation of xylem to its functions Sample answer : F1 : Xylem vessels are elongated cells arranged end to end P1 : to allows water to flow in continuous column. F2 : (end) walls (of the vessels) have (broken down in the) pits P2 : to allows water to pass/diffuse/move from cell to cell. F3 : The side walls of the xylem vessels are perforated by pits, P6 : to allows water to pass/move sideways/lateral movement F4 : The lignified walls P4 : prevent the xylem vessels from collapsing // for mechanical support F5 : The lumen of xylem vessels is narrow P5 : increases the capillarity forces / action (b) Any 2F with P Able to explain the movement of water through the roots Sample answer : F : involve Root pressure P1 : The root hairs provide a large surface area ( for absorption of water.) P2 : The root hair cells are hypertonic to the surrounding soil water. P3 : water diffuse into the root hair cell P4 : by osmosis. P5 : The root hair cells become hypotonic to the cells in the cortex. P6 : (In the cortex) water diffuses (into the parenchyma cells) P7 : into endodermis. P8 : By osmosis P9 : Casparian strips ( lining the side of the cell wall of Endodermal) is impermeable to water. P10 : Water movement through the cell wall is blocked. P11 : Water diffuses through the cytoplasm / vacuole of 4551/2©2013 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sub total Max 4 Total

1 1 Max 8

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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(c)

endodermal cells (to the xylem vessels) // any explanation Any six P4 and P8 give mark once Able to explain why the rate of transpiration differ from the time 0000 to time 2400. Sample answer : From 0000 to 0600 : F1 : Rate of transpiration is low. P1 : Stomata close due to low light intensity. P2 : Less water is lost From 0600 to 1800 F2 : Rate of transpiration increases. P3 : Light intensity is high, guard cells carry out photosynthesis, P4: The sugar content in the guard cells increase causing its osmotic pressure to increase // guard cells is hypertonic to epidermal cells // Potassium ion diffuse into guard cell P5 : Water diffuse into the guard cells P6 : by osmosis P7: and the guard cells become turgid P8 : The guard cells curve due to the inner cell wall being thicker than the outer cell wall // any explanation P9 : causing the stoma to open. P10 : More water lost to surrounding. From 1800 to 2400 F3 : Rate of transpiration decreases. P11 : Light intensity is low, photosynthesis is low / does not occur. P12 : Osmotic pressure in guard cells decrease // guard cells is hypotonic to epidermal cell P13 : Water diffuse out of cells P14 : by osmosis P15 : The guard cell lose water / become flaccid causing the stoma to close. Any 10 P6 and P14 : give mark once TOTAL

Max 10

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 10

20

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Question 8 No Mark Scheme Sub total Max 4 Total

8(a)(i) Able to explain two adaptive characteristic for efficient transport in human Sample answer F1 : Biconcave disc //thinner at the centre than at its edges P1 : to increase total surface area P2 : for efficient gaseous exchange F2 : No nucleus P3 : to contain more heamoglobin P4 : to bind with oxygen/carbon dioxide/respiratory gases/to form oxyhaemoglobin/carbaminohaemoglobin F3 Elastic membrane P5 : Can squeeze into (tiniest) capillaries Any four (a)(ii) Able to explain the possible consequences of this condition on the health and state the type of food he should take Sample answer F : Anaemia P1 : Less red blood cells/erythrocyte / haemoglobin to combine with oxygen P2 : to form oxyhaemoglobin P3 : less oxygen is transported to body tissues P4 : for cellular respiration P5 : less energy is produced P6 : resulting in tiredness / breathlessness / weakness / fatigue P7 : pale looking appearance Any 4 Type of food P8 : Food rich in iron / ferum P9 : cockles / liver / spinach / folic acid // any suitable example

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

4

Max 6 (4+2)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 6

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(b)

Able to discuss about the statement. Sample answer F : People should consume balanced diet, not smoking and practice healthy lifestyle Balance diet B1: Balance intake of fats / lipids / carbohydrate / sugar / cholesterol // follow the food guide pyramid B2: Avoid the accumulation / deposition of cholesterol in the lumen of blood vessel / avoid obesity B3: Maintain blood flow / circulation B4: Prevent artherosclerosis / stroke / thrombosis / embolism B5: Correct amount intake of salt in diet B6: Avoid raises the blood osmotic pressure / increase the blood pressure / hypertension B7 : Prevent heart attack/ cardiac arrest / myocardial infarction Smoking C1: No nicotine , blood vessel not constrict // not addicted C2: Normal / maintain blood pressure C3: Prevent accumulation of plaque C4: Prevent thrombosis / artherosclerosis / arteriosclerosis C5: No smokes which contain carbon monoxide C6: No competition to bind with heamoglobin between carbon monoxide and oxygen C7: Prevent inefficiency of transporting of oxygen // transporting of oxygen is efficient. C8: Prevent difficulty in breathing / fatigue / stroke / chest pain / angina C9 : Prevent heart attack / cardiac arrest / myocardial infarction. Practicing unhealthy lifestyle L1: Good of exercise / physical exercise // no sedentary lifestyle L2: Prevent obesity // excess fat can be burnt L3: Avoid stress / high blood pressure L4 : Avoid heart attack / cardiac arrest / myocardial infarction. Any 10 B7. C9, L4 : give mark once At least 1 B, 1 C , 1 L

Max 10 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

10

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Question 9 No (a) Mark Scheme Able to explain what measures can be taken to ensure a balanced and stable ecosystem is maintained Sample answer: Technological approach: F1: Using unleaded petrol / hybrid car E1: Reduce the emission of lead/ plumbum into the Atmosphere F2: Use of catalytic converter E2: Convert hazardous gases into harmless substances F3 : Use of renewal energy E3 : Reduce emission of carbon dioxide into atmosphere F4 : Treatment of sewage E4 : Prevent from domestic waste/ industrial waste from polluted the sea Non-Technological Approach F1: Implementation of law E1: Fine the offender F2: Education/ campaign E2: To instill awareness of importance of nature to public F3: Practice of biological control E3: Reduce the usage of herbicide and pesticide Any 10 (b) Able to discuss why the ecosystem has to be maintained according to following criteria: o F1 : Description of balanced ecosystem o F2 : Importance of maintaining the balanced ecosystem o F3 : Reason to maintain Sample answer F1 : It is a balanced ecosystem // interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. 4551/2©2013 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK Max 10 Sub total 10 Total

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

10

1

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P1 : ensure conservation of biodiversity // preservation of flora and fauna P2 : preventing extinction of flora and fauna F2 : maintaining major soures of human food / examples // sources of medicinal resource P3 : sustain food web / chain in the ecosystem P4 : preventing disruption of natural cycle of water / carbon / balance between photosynthesis and respiration. P5 : to provide natural water catchment area P6 : to preserve natural resoures for outdoor / recreational activities / tourism / ecotourism P7 : to reduce stress / promote healthy life style F3 : the loss of plants / animals // destruction of flora and fauna in the ecosystem // lost of habitat / ecological niche / certain organisms P8 : to prevent reduction in food resources / food chain / size of food web P9 : to prevent soil erosion / land slide/ muddy flood / flash flood / natural disaster P10 : to prevent extinction of a few animals / plant species which might be useful in the future. Any 10 TOTAL

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1

1

1 10 20

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