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first school for college-level study in HR.

Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to HR and related fields. The School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University was the world's first school for college-level study in HR.[18] It continues to offer education at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels; and it operates a joint degree program with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, which HR Patriot termed the "crown jewel for aspiring HR professionals".[19]

Other universities with entire colleges dedicated to the study of HR include Michigan State University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Renmin University of China. Dozens of other universities house departments and institutes related to the field, either within a business school or in another college. Professional associations Main article: List of human resource management associations

HR education also comes by way of professional associations, which offer training and certification. The Society for Human Resource Management, which is based in the United States, is the largest professional association dedicated to HR,[10] with over 250,000 members in 140 countries.[20] It offers a suite of Professional in Human Resources (PHR) certifications through its HR Certification Institute. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, based in England, is the oldest professional HR association,with its predecessor institution being founded in 1918.

Several associations also serve niches within HR. The Institute of Recruiters (IOR) is a recruitment professional association, offering members education, support and training.[21] WorldatWork focuses on "total rewards" (i.e., compensation, benefits, work life, performance, recognition, and career development), offering several certifications and training programs dealing with remuneration and work-life balance. Other niche associations include the American Society for Training & Development and Recognition Professionals International. Publications

Academic and practitioner publications dealing exclusively with HR:

Cornell HR Review HR Magazine (SHRM) Human Resource Management (John Wiley & Sons) Human Resource Management Review (Elsevier) International Journal of Human Resource Management (Taylor & Francis) Perspectives on Work (LERA)

Related publications:

Academy of Management Journal Academy of Management Review Administrative Science Quarterly (Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management) Organization Science (INFORMS)

See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Human resources management

Aspiration Management Organizational behavior Organizational theory

References Library resources About Human resource management

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

^ Merkle, Judith A. Management and Ideology. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03737-5. ^ Mayo, Elton (1945). "Hawthorne and the Western Electric Company". Harvard Business School. Retrieved 28 December 2011. ^ "About CIPD". Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved 22 December 2011. ^ "About Cornell ILR". Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Retrieved 2010-01-29. ^ a b "About SHRM". Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 22 December 2011. ^ O'Brien, Michael (October 8, 2009). "HR's Take on The Office". Human Resource Executive Online. Archived from the original on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011. ^ "Catbert shows tougher side to human resources". Personnel Today. August 30, 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2011. ^ Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 0- 87584-719-6. OCLC 34704904. ^ Towers, David. "Human Resource Management essays". Retrieved 2007-10-17. ^ a b Jonathan E. DeGraff (21 February 2010). "The Changing Environment of Professional HR Associations". Cornell HR Review. Retrieved 21 December 2011. ^ Wright, Patrick. "The 2011 CHRO Challenge: Building Organizational, Functional, and Personal Talent". Cornell Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS). Retrieved 3 September 2011. ^ Conaty, Bill, and Ram Charan (2011). The Talent Masters: Why Smart Leaders Put People Before Numbers. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-46026-4.


^ "Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.

^ "Human Resources Manager". CNN Money. 2006. Retrieved 23 December


^ "Human Resources Manager". CNN Money. 2009. Retrieved 23 December


^ "Towers Watson Executives See Growth Ahead For Merged Firms". Workforce Management. 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2010. ^ "HR consultant". CNN Money. Retrieved 23 December 2011. ^ "About Cornell ILR". Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Retrieved 23 August 2009. ^ "HR Graduate Program Rankings". HR Patriot. 2009-04-26. Retrieved 2010-


^ SHRM Website: About SHRM ^ "About IOR". Institute of Recruiters (IOR). Retrieved 22 December 2011.






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Human resource management

Southwest Airlines 2002: An Industry Under Siege

Harvard Business School: 9-803-133

Executive Summary

Southwest Airlines in 2002 faced a serious of important management decisions after the 9/11 tragedy in order to continue the record breaking company growth that Southwest had experienced since the 1970’s. Southwest Airlines revolutionized the airline industry with what is known as the Southwest Effect: low cost fares, point-to-point service, “10 minute turnaround” and an enjoyable friendly atmosphere. After the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, Southwest adopted a polity that irregardless of the profitability of expansion opportunities, the company wanted to commit to a manageable annual growth rate of about 10-15%. The following questions and discussion will address the historical challenges of Southwest airlines, the direction the company contemplated in 2002, and a brief look at the challenges of today.

1). What is the competitive business environment

The airline industry has always been competitive. In an analysis of the most profitably investments as per our class discussion, surprisingly, airlines come in at the lowest return on each dollar invested at around 2.5%.

Southwest Airlines experienced 30 consecutive years of profit a mere two years after it’s founding in 1971. Many airports began requesting Southwest service for their passengers, but throughout Southwest’s expansion, the company aimed to maintain a manageable growth rate and focus on their core competencies of low price fares that would compete with the cost of driving to the destination.

In the mid 1990’s, the major carriers entered into price wars to undercut competition. Although, these dealings did affect Southwest’s bottom line, Southwest still


manage to continue to turn a profit and expand due to their expansion into a reservation system and their commitment to a culture and experience that passengers were drawn to.

2). What is the competitive advantage that the company obtained as discussed in the case?

Southwest Airlines competitive advantages are their point-to-point services which are generally targeting the frequent business traveler. With several regular flights per day, if a passenger happens to miss their flight, they will be automatically booked onto another flight. Secondly, Southwest strategically secured routes through secondary airports which generally had lower fixed costs for the airlines and less congestions for passengers ease. Finally, Southwest focused on quick, reliable turnaround time using only one version of aircraft, allowing for familiarity among staff and greater efficiency in turnaround. Passengers were not assigned seats, simply boarding sections, which allowed for passenger loading to be conducted more efficiently. The traditional airline model is the Hub and Spoke model, which in essence takes most passengers from the origination, through the hub, and then transfers them to their destination. Southwest’s point to point system was more reliable because it did not depend on the on time arrival of an earlier flight for departure.

Southwest also implemented the first and most simplistic frequent-flier program:

purchase eight flights and get one free. Southwest’s initially connected with four computer reservation and ticketing systems and also the powerful SABRE system. This allowed travel agents to view flight information and even print tickets. In 1994, Southwest was only connected through the SABRE systems which pushed Southwest to develop the “ticketless” travel program as well as

3). What strategy and/or model was used or implemented in this case?

Bargaining Porter’s 5 Competitive Forces Model Threat of power of substitute buyers Threa ts Southwest vs.
Porter’s 5 Competitive Forces Model
Threat of
power of
Southwest vs. All
other Airlines
power of
Threat of new


Southwest airlines does struggle against the threat of substitutes much like any other airline and in this case the threat of substitutes is the decision to use an alternate form of travel, such as driving or taking a train. The airline industry is sensitive to “tragedy” such as when there is a plane crash or an event like 9/11; consumers tend to

switch to a substitute or chose not to travel in the first place.

Southwest’s best defense is

a strong PR campaign, which we saw after 9/11 when the company launched ads saying

that when America is ready to fly again, Southwest will be there.

Southwest airlines does struggle against the threat of substitutes much like any other airline and in