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C.B. da Silva1, I. Malico2, P.J. Coelho1 and J.C.F. Pereira1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal 2 Physics Department, University of Évora, R. Romão Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
An analysis of the interaction between turbulence and radiation in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence has been carried out. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation was solved to provide statistical data of the radiation intensity and absorption coefficient, as well as correlations related to radiative emission and absorption. In addition, the time averaged radiative transfer equation was solved and the mean radiation intensity, mean absorption coefficient, and mean emission and absorption terms were computed and compared with those derived from the statistical data. An analysis of the number of samples required to achieve statistically meaningful results is presented. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature, and variance of the mean molar fraction of the absorbing species were studied. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck and incident mean absorption coefficient and emission and absorption correlations relevant to the turbulence – radiation interaction were calculated. It was found that in all cases the correlation between fluctuations of the absorption coefficient and fluctuations of the radiation intensity is small, which supports the optically thin flame approximation, and justifies the good predictions achieved using the time averaged radiative transfer equation.
The interaction between turbulence and radiation (TRI) is a relevant issue in turbulent reactive flows, yielding a significant increase of the radiative heat fluxes in comparison with laminar flows (Li and Modest, 2005, Coelho, 2007). However, our knowledge about such interaction is still limited. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) provides fundamental and reliable insight on turbulent flows, but it can only be applied to simple geometries and low Reynolds number flows, because of the high computational requirements. Recently, DNS has been used to investigate TRI in simple premixed and diffusion combustion systems (Wu et al., 2005, Deshmukh et al., 2005). Silva et al., 2006, have reported statistical data of the radiation intensity field in a homogeneous isotropic turbulent non-reactive flow using a pseudo-spectral code for the DNS. In the DNS calculations, a transport equation for a passive scalar was solved. The instantaneous scalar field computed from DNS was used as input data for the radiative transfer calculations, i.e., the instantaneous fields of temperature and molar fraction of an absorption species were determined from that scalar field, prescribing the mean value and the variance of the temperature and of the molar fraction of the species. Then, these instantaneous scalar fields were used to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in a narrow band, along a large number of lines of sight, in order to collect statistical data. A statistical narrow band model was used to calculate the radiative properties of the medium. However, some features of the radiative calculations reported in that work were not fully consistent with the requirements of the flow simulation, such as the definition of the boundary conditions, and the dependence of the statistical data on the number of samples was not investigated. These drawbacks are eliminated in the present work, which extends the analysis to the
full spectrum rather than just one band, and examines the influence of several parameters on the radiation statistics and correlations. In addition, predictions obtained from the solution of the time averaged form of the RTE are included.
The DNS calculations were carried out using a standard pseudo-spectral code in which the temporal advancement is made with an explicit 3rd order Runge-Kutta scheme (Canuto, 1988). The physical domain is a periodic cubic box of side 2π. A DNS simulation of statistically steady (forced) homogeneous isotropic turbulence was carried out using a uniform mesh with 1923 grid nodes. The instantaneous field of a passive scalar was computed and taken as input data for the radiative transfer simulations. The analysis was performed using up to 40 instantaneous fields after all the turbulence quantities are statistically stationary. Details of the simulation may be found in Silva and Pereira, 2007. The radiative transfer calculations were performed using also a cubic box. The size of the radiation domain is different from the size of the flow domain, and it was defined in a way different from that formerly used in Silva et al., 2006. Here, the length of the side was taken as the ratio of the optical thickness of the medium, which was prescribed, to the Planck mean absorption coefficient in the absence of turbulent fluctuations. The mean and the variance of temperature and of the molar fraction of an absorbing species, taken as CO2, were also prescribed. Data from the flow domain (DNS) were rescaled into the radiation domain as reported in Silva et al., 2006, providing the instantaneous fields of temperature and molar fraction of CO2. These two scalars were assumed to be fully correlated. This assumption is justified by the experimental data in many reactive flows, which reveals a strong correlation between temperature and molar fraction of the species, and by the Burke-Schumann theory for diffusion flames (Kuo, 1986). The radiative properties of the medium were evaluated using the correlated k-distribution (CK) method (Goody et al., 1989). Under the conditions of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, the statistical data computed from a time series of scalar data along a single optical path parallel to a coordinate axis is identical to the statistical data calculated from all optical paths parallel to the coordinate axes at a given time, as illustrated in figure 1. The statistical data reported below was obtained from the DNS data using all the available optical paths parallel to the coordinate axes, which are statistically indistinguishable. This means that 6×1922×Nt ≈ 2.2×105×Nt samples are used to obtain the results described below, Nt being the number of instantaneous fields considered. The integration of the RTE along a line of sight yields
s s s I i ,)* k (s ) = I i ,)* k (0 ) exp &' ( k i s * ds * # + ( k i s * I b,)* k s * exp &' ( k i s ** ds ** # ds * $ 0 ! $ s* ! 0 % " % "
where ki is the absorption coefficient associated with the ith quadrature point, and Δνk is the kth wavenumber interval length. In the DNS calculations, periodic boundary conditions have been enforced at the boundaries of the computational domain, in order to describe a homogeneous isotropic flow. Therefore, a similar boundary condition should be used in the radiative transfer calculations if the DNS data are taken as an input. This periodic boundary condition requires that the radiation intensity entering the calculation domain at s = 0 is equal to the leaving intensity, i.e., I i ,"! k (s ) = I i ,"! k (0 ). Accordingly, the radiation intensity entering the domain is calculated from this condition. Such a condition is actually found in real radiative transfer problems in the limit of a transparent medium or of a homogeneous and isothermal optically thick medium. The integrals in
equation (1) were numerically evaluated using Simpson’s rule, and the parameters of the CK method were interpolated from the tabulated data from Soufiani and Taine, 1997, using cubic splines in order to keep the order of accuracy of the radiative calculations consistent with the order of accuracy of the DNS solver (see Silva et al., 2006, for details). The statistical results obtained from the solution of the RTE along a sufficiently large number of optical paths, using the instantaneous scalar data from DNS, were compared with the solution of the time averaged form of the RTE. If the optically thin flame approximation (Coelho, 2007) and the CK model are used, the integration along a line of sight yields (Coelho, 2004)
) I = ## % i I i ,"$ (s ) = ## % i I i ,"$ (0 ) exp( k i s )+ k i I b,"$ k k i ( ! exp( k i s ) ! 1 !
where ωi is the quadrature weight and I i ,"! k is the time-averaged spectral radiation intensity integrated over the kth band for the ith quadrature point. The mean values of the absorption coefficient and emission term are evaluated from integration of the instantaneous values of these quantities weighted by a pdf. The blackbody radiation intensity is only a function of temperature, while the absorption coefficient depends on the temperature and on the molar fraction of CO2. Since the mean value and the variance of these scalars is prescribed and they are fully correlated, the probability density function (pdf) of ki and the joint pdf of ki and I b,"! k may be easily determined.
3 Results and Discussion
The standard radiative transfer calculations were carried out assuming that the mean temperature of the medium is 1500 K, and that the medium is a mixture of CO2 and N2, the mean molar fraction of CO2 being 0.10. The rms of temperature and of CO2 molar fraction were taken as 150 K and 0.01, respectively. The optical thickness of the medium is equal to one. In all other calculations where the influence of one variable was studied, only the variable under consideration was changed, while the remaining ones take the standard values mentioned above. Figure 2 shows the normalized values of the mean, root mean square (rms), skewness and flatness of the radiation intensity leaving the computational domain as a function of the number of instantaneous fields. The normalized values are defined as follows:
I Ib ( ) T
& I '2 # $ ! % "
Ib ( ) T
I '3 & I ' 2 # $ ! % "
I '4 & I '2 # $ ! % "
The results plotted in figure 2 show that Nt = 1 is sufficient to accurately determine the normalized mean and rms of the radiation intensity, but not enough to obtain statistically independent results for the skewness and flatness. However, when Nt exceeds 20 to 25 the influence of Nt on the results becomes marginal. The pdfs of the radiation intensity and of the Planck mean absorption coefficient, κP, which are given in figure 3 for Nt = 10, 20, 30 and 40, confirm good convergence of the results and show that the shape of the two pdfs is similar. The discussion below may be more clearly understood if equation (2) is rewritten for the time averaged RTE using total properties and total radiation intensity rather than the CK model. In that case, equation (2) reads as
) I = I (0 ) exp( k G s )+ kI b k G ( ! exp( k G s ) ! 1 !
Figure 1: Equivalence between temporal and spatial statistics under homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.
Figure 2: Radiation intensity as a function of the number of instantaneous fields.
Figure 3: Probability density functions of the radiation intensity and Planck mean absorption coefficient as a function of the number of instantaneous fields, Nt. The Planck mean and the incident mean absorption coefficients, κP and κG, respectively, are defined as follows:
$P = !
" 0 " 0
$# I b# d#
I b# d# I# d# = !
$G = !
$# I# d#
$# G# d#
The second equality in equation (5b) is only valid if the radiation intensity does not change with the direction, which is valid on a statistical basis in the case of a homogeneous and isotropic medium, i.e., different directions are statistically indistinguishable. The following definitions have also been used
$ Ib = $ P Ib = !
$ I = $G I = !
$# I b# d#
$# I# d#
Applying the periodic boundary condition, I = I (0 ) , to equation (4) yields I = kI b k G . This solution may be rewritten as
I I b ( )= " I b " P I b ! (" P " G )! ( b I b ( ) T I T )
Figure 4 shows statistical data for the radiation intensity, normalized according to equation 3, as a function of the optical thickness of the medium, mean temperature, rms of temperature, and rms of CO2 molar fraction. Figure 4 also shows the normalized mean radiation intensity predicted from the solution of the time averaged RTE using the CK model. The change of the optical thickness of the medium was accomplished by modifying the size of the domain, while keeping the Planck mean absorption coefficient of the medium, evaluated at the mean temperature and mean CO2 molar fraction, unchanged. This is the reason why the mean radiation intensity does not change with the optical thickness, as shown in figure 4(a). The statistical data exhibit a small change of I , which may be attributed to statistical errors, but the predictions based on the solution of equation 4 do not. The rms of the radiation intensity increases marginally with the increase of the optical thickness of the medium. The skewness is different from zero, i.e., the pdf is slightly asymmetric, and the flatness is just a little above 3, which means that the pdf is not exactly a Gaussian, but it is close to a Gaussian. These moments of the radiation intensity remain approximately constant when the optical thickness changes. Figure 5 shows the influence of the same variables on several correlations relevant in the emission and absorption terms of the RTE. Figure 5(a) shows that ! I b ! P I b is constant and equal to approximately 0.94 when the optical thickness of the medium varies keeping ! P ( ) constant. T Predictions based on the assumption of Gaussian scalars distribution, which are also shown in figure 5(a), closely match this value. The invariance with the optical thickness is expected, since neither the absorption coefficient nor the temperature have been changed. If the absorption coefficient and the blackbody radiation intensity are expanded as a sum of a mean value and a fluctuation, the following relation holds
" ! Ib ! P Ib = 1 + ! " Ib ! P Ib
! I !G I = 1+ ! " I " !G I
The absorption coefficient of the medium and the blackbody radiation intensity are local quantities, i.e., they depend only on the local temperature and absorption coefficient of the medium. Moreover, the absorption coefficient generally increases with the decrease of the blackbody radiation intensity, ! i.e., they are anti-correlated (Coelho, 2007). Therefore, " ! I b <0, yielding ! I b ! P I b < 1 , as found
! above. Moreover, ! I b is also independent of the optical thickness of the medium, as expected.
3.2 3.1 3.0 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.00 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.1 1 10 100 Optical thickness 3.5
3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.5
I I b (T )
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 600
I I b (T ) Predictions
Temperature [K] 3.120 3.110 3.100 3.090 3.080 3.070 1.04 1.03 1.02 0.310 0.308 0.306 0.304 0.196 0.194 0.192 0.190 0.000
3.0 2.5 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0 50 100 150 rms ( T ) [K] 200
0.010 0.015 rms ( xCO )
Figure 4: Statistics of radiation intensity. In contrast to the blackbody radiation intensity, the radiation intensity is not a local quantity, but depends on the temperature and species concentrations along the optical path. As a consequence of this, the correlation between the absorption coefficient and the radiation intensity is expected to be small, which justifies the so-called optically thin flame approximation (Coelho, 2007). Therefore ! I ! G I is close to unity, i.e., " ! I ! is indeed small. The influence of the temperature on the radiation statistics, correlations and absorption coefficients is illustrated in figures 4(b), 5(b) and 6(a), respectively. The rms of temperature was also changed to keep T !2 T 2 constant. Since the optical thickness of the medium is now maintained constant, and the absorption coefficient depends on the temperature, the absorption coefficient changes, as well as the size of the domain. Figure 6(a) shows that the mean absorption coefficients, ! P and ! G , decrease with the increase of the temperature, as pointed out above. Still, the rms of the Planck mean absorption coefficient does not change significantly. Therefore, the second term on the right
1.00 1.05 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0 0 1 10 100
Ib / Ib /
I I b (Predictions) P
_I _/ b
2 _ Ib2 _ P
2 _ I_
0 -0.20 -0.40 -0.60 -0.80
-1.00 -1.20 600
800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
0.90 0.8 0.4 0.0 -0.4 -0.8
0.90 0.20 0.00 -0.20 -0.40 -0.60 -0.80
-1.2 0 50 100 150 200
-1.00 -1.20 0
0.005 0.01 0.015
rms ( T ) [K]
rms ( x CO )
Figure 5: Correlations between the absorption coefficient and the radiation intensity.
rms ( rms (
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5
0.96 0.94 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.08
1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00
0.0 0.00 0 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Temperature [K]
0.04 50 100 rms ( T ) [K] 150
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 rms ( xC O 2)
Figure 6: Statistics of the Planck mean and incident mean absorption coefficients.
of equation (8a) increases in modulus with the increase of the temperature, but it is negative, and therefore ! I b ! P I b decreases, as shown in figure 5(b). A similar behaviour is found for ! I ! G I , which departs from 1 if the temperature increases, which implies an increase of the absolute value of " ! I ! , although its normalized value is rather small. Now, ! I b may be approximated by the following expression (see, e.g., Coelho, 2007, for details)
& (' T'# T '2 ( I b = ( P I b ( )$1 + 6 2 + 4 P ! T $ (P T ! T % "
in which correlations of order higher than 2 were neglected. Since T ! 2 T 2 does not change, only the last term on the right of equation (9) varies in the present case. From the previous analysis, we conclude that ! ' T ' ! T increases in modulus when the temperature increases, but it is negative. Therefore, ! I b ! I b ( ) decreases with the increase of the mean temperature. Consequently, it can T
T be concluded from equation (7) that I I b ( ) also decreases with the increase of the mean T temperature, because ! G " ! P and I b I b ( ) does not change. This is in agreement with the
findings from both the statistical analysis of the solution of the RTE based on DNS data, and from the predictions based on the solution of the time averaged RTE along with the assumption of Gaussian scalar distributions (see figure 4b). In addition, figure 4(b) shows that the skewness and the flatness are close to those found for standard conditions, except at T = 1650 K, where both the skewness and the flatness indicate that the pdf of the radiation intensity is not as close to a Gaussian as in the other cases. The influence of the rms of temperature is shown in figures 4(c), 5(c) and 6(b). In this case, the mean temperature is kept equal to 1500 K, and so the intensity of temperature fluctuations is changing. Figure 6(a) shows that the mean values of both the Planck mean and the incident mean absorption coefficients are approximately constant, while the rms increases with the increase of the rms of temperature. Hence, as in the previous case, the second term on the right of equation (8a) increases in modulus with the increase of the rms of temperature, but it is negative, and therefore ! I b ! P I b decreases, as shown in figure 5(c). This means that the increase of the second term on the right of equation (9) is overshadowed by the decrease of the third term. The absorption term, ! I ! G I , exhibits the same behaviour, ! " I " ! G I being again very small. The increase of the temperature fluctuations yields an increase of both the mean and rms of radiation intensity, as expected (Coelho, 2007). The increase is not large, because the turbulence intensity is relatively low. It is about 3% if the turbulence intensity is 10%. In this case, the second term on the right of equation (9) is equal to 0.06. However, the third term is negative, as explained above, and thus the term into parenthesis is only marginally greater than unity. The predictions based on the time averaged RTE reproduce the observed trend. The asymmetry of the radiation intensity increases with the increase of the rms of temperature, and the flatness does not exhibit a monotonous behaviour, but it is close to 3, as in the case of a Gaussian pdf. Finally, figures 4(d), 5(d) and 6(c) show the influence of the rms of the CO2 molar fraction. Its mean value was set to 0.1. Figure 6(c) shows that ! P decreases with the increase of the rms of CO2 concentration. This is due to the anti-correlation between the absorption coefficient and the
blackbody radiation intensity, on the one hand, and to the nonlinearity between the blackbody radiation intensity and the temperature, on the other hand. The calculations based on assumed Gaussian scalars distribution correctly predicted that evolution, but slightly overpredict the statistical data. The rms of the Planck mean absorption coefficient also decreases with the increase of the rms of CO2 concentration, as revealed by figure 6(c). Moreover, the ratio of the rms to the mean value of the Planck mean absorption coefficient also decreases with the increase of the rms of CO2 concentration. Accordingly, the analysis of equation (9) shows that ! I b ! P I b increases, as
T confirmed by the results plotted in figure 5(d). Moreover, I b I b ( ) remains constant while ! P ! G decreases. Therefore, the first and the second terms on the right of equation (7) have T T opposite contributions to I I b ( ). Figure 4(c) shows that I I b ( ) increases slightly with the increase of the rms of the CO2 molar fraction, which means that the contribution of the first term in equation (7) dominates. The normalized correlation ! I ! G I increases also slightly. However, in all studied cases, the correlation between fluctuations of the absorption coefficient and fluctuations of the radiation intensity is small, which supports the optically thin flame approximation, and justifies the good predictions achieved using the time averaged radiative transfer equation.
The interaction between turbulence and radiation in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence was studied. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature, and variance of the mean molar fraction of the absorbing species were investigated. It was found that about 2×105 samples, corresponding to a single instantaneous field, provide accurate results for the mean and variance of the radiation intensity leaving the domain, but more than 20 instantaneous fields are needed to obtain accurate values for the higher moments of the radiation intensity, as well as a converged probability density function of the radiation intensity. If the optical thickness of the medium is changed while the Planck mean absorption coefficient for the mean properties is fixed, the moments of the radiation intensity and the emission and absorption correlations remain approximately constant. The increase of the temperature of the medium, keeping the same intensity of temperature fluctuations, causes a decrease of the mean values of the normalized radiation intensity and Planck mean absorption coefficient, as well as the emission and absorption normalized correlations. If the temperature if left constant while its rms increases, then the mean normalized radiation intensity increases, the mean value of the Planck mean absorption coefficient remains approximately constant, and the normalized emission and absorption correlations decrease. The increase of the rms of the molar fraction of the absorbing species, while keeping its mean value constant, yields an increase of the normalized mean radiation intensity, a decrease of the mean value of the Planck mean absorption coefficient and an increase of the normalized emission and absorption correlations. In all cases, the correlation between fluctuations of the absorption coefficient and fluctuations of the radiation intensity is small, which supports the optically thin flame approximation, and justifies the good predictions achieved using the time averaged radiative transfer equation.
This work was developed within the framework of project POCI/EME/59879/2004, which is financially supported by FCT-Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, programme POCI 2010 (29.82% of the funds from FEDER and 70.18% from OE).
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