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7 mm Engineering Hall Annex Golden, CO 80401 Project Managers: Tamara Carey EPICS Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 Subject: Project Plan
Point Seven Millimeters is a team of engineering students from Colorado School of Mines with diverse backgrounds and specialties. We are a diligent and intelligent group of people who implement teamwork, diligence, and innovation to complete our projects and goals in a timely manner.
Lockheed Martin has designed many high-altitude vehicles that operate in the Stratosphere mainly using solar energy. These vehicles use a lot of energy and current solar collection methods have been deemed inefficient. The current methods for gathering solar energy only utilize the absorbed, direct solar radiation, yet there are two types of albedo, white-sky and black-sky, that are believed to be rich in energy. Our goal for this project is to design an experimental device that will be balloon-lifted to measure the energy levels of these albedos in the Stratosphere, 60,000 to 80,000 feet in elevation, and to determine what percentage of these energy sources can be collected and employed on high-altitude vehicles.
Our team plans to execute this project in the most efficient way possible while adhering to all constraints. The design apparatus will collect and measure the solar energy of the two albedos and also the direct radiation while being able to sort it from one another using several solar panels in different directions and also with the aid of a digital camera or video recorder. The various constraints the design are such that it must weigh less than 1.5 kilograms, and a Dacron cord of 4.0mm must pass through a hole in the center of the instrument with the hole’s diameter not exceeding 6.4mm. Also, on the balloon flight there will be many instruments being flown and the default spacing is that of 1 meter. Our project design will remain within all of the structural design requirements including the material, thermal, environmental, electrical, and
Project Designs Taylor’s Our diamond shaped design is very plausible and efficient. defining the problem given to us. With the reuse of this device . a letter of understanding of the project. and for the pressure we will be using and altimeter. gathering data. An addition to the basic cube is the tube on the left side of the satellite.structural systems that are specified in section 3 of the DemoSat User Guide. For temperature we will have a thermometer and we will have 3 digital cameras so we can get an overall view of what it really looks like around the balloon. It is designed to hold the motor that will change the angle of the solar panel. pressure. solar energy. The cameras are recessed into the cube so that the fisheye lenses don’t get damaged when the payload hits the ground. Project Progression Our team has already completed the creative phase of the design process. The data collector will also be simultaneously recording the temperature. taking pictures and a data recording device.5 kg limit. The structure that was chosen for this option was made out of aluminum. temperature. We have achieved these things through numerous meetings in class and also during extracurricular hours. The diamond design allows for view on all sides and protection for what impact may be ensued. For insulation we chose Aerogel because it is an extremely good insulator and it is also a really lightweight which helps us get under the 1. a clarification memorandum. One would be to collect the direct solar radiation. For the albedo and solar energy we will be using solar panels. which we decided would be the best material not only because it is extremely strong but also it is lightweight and a relatively inexpensive. (Figure 1) Mark’s This satellite will be constructed in line with the Demostat regulations. The camera will be set on a timer to take a picture every 10 seconds so we can pinpoint the type of energy bouncing off the earth. The solar panel doesn’t need to be large. the other. just big enough to collect the data of the albedo power. The fisheye lenses are designed to help get an overall view of the surroundings. etc. It shall also include a National Instruments (NI) Single board RIO PowerPC based system supplied by Lockheed Martin and undergo many rigorous structural and functional testing specified in section 5 of the User Guide before it is to be deemed ready for flight. The basic shape that was chosen for this design is a cube. which is positioned at end of the tube. The two two inch holes on the bottom of the device are for the cameras to be set in. And in addition we will coat the diamond in gold foil because of its great reflective properties. and preparing the project plan. and solar radiation so we can determine the optimal height for flight. The inside of our diamond will have multiple instruments that will help us not only measure the albedo but also the pressure. This phase included identifying the project’s needs. There will be three different angles for the solar panel to be set at.
we will include a camera that would take a picture of what we are measuring with the solar panels. and the motor. but without knowing the exact amount of power that the solar panels can generate. This is our second design option which measures the white and black sky albedo as well as the direct solar radiation. This will be to make sure that the components stay at their respective operating temperatures. This proposed design would also include a barometer connected to the NI device to measure the altitude of the apparatus. our measurement device would be efficient in finding out exactly how much solar radiation comes off from the albedo. The auto leveling system is designed to keep the device level with the ground at all times. we can’t depend on them as a source of energy. We need to bring just enough power up to the stratosphere as we need. This way we would be able to correlate height of device vs. Something that was included in the design of this satellite is a heater. Alternatively. Another item that will be included in the design is the data collection device. Of course. We will program our camera and our NI device to take one picture/record data every 10 seconds to save battery and memory. This system is the most complicated system of the satellite. The photovoltaic cells will be measuring the black sky. amount of solar radiation harvestable. These photos will be of use when the data is being observed after the flight. size. we will ideally have gyroscopes attached to our casing. This will be connected to the camera. we will attach a fish-eye lens onto our camera to get a 360° view of what we are measuring.in mind everything need to be able to withstand the requirements of the fall. In order for our payload not to swing about during the flight (so our data doesn’t have to take into account changing angles with the earth). (Figure 2) Ian’s In one of our proposed designs. both black sky and white sky. We do not have to worry too much about aerodynamics as our device will most likely be underneath other devices in the chain and will definitely be underneath the balloon which the device chain will draft behind. solar panels. These will act in the same way as a bike wheel keeps a bike up straight while . altimeter. and/or cost of each item. white sky. It would be optimal to use the power generated from the solar panels to power the computer and the motor. The batteries are also a crucial part of this device. In order to work around the fact that there will most likely be a payload underneath ours. It will help researchers identify spikes or troughs or other phenomena in the height vs. These will be connected to the National Instruments (NI) Single Board RIO measurement device that is configured to measure amps running through the photovoltaic cells in the panels. These two metal surfaces would be very low friction so that the payload could swivel easily. the NI device will be located in the center of the case in a foam (or other impact resistant material) envelope to keep the device from being damaged from impact with the sidewalls of the case and to raise the insulative R value. Our solar panels will be located on the lower and upper chamfered edges so we do not have to take in to account blockage from the other devices that are below and above ours on the device chain. solar radiation harvestable graph. The decisive factors in that issue will be weight. we could include a radio altimeter to correlate the two variables. The motor will need to be able to communicate the angle that the solar panel is pointed at so we can know whether we are collecting direct solar radiation or albedo. In consists of a metal ball that in encased with another metal surface. and direct solar radiation. On the bottom of the payload. The proposed shape of the entire device is a cube with chamfered edges between the sides so that there is at least some aerodynamic shape to the casing.
(Figure 3) Final Design In the end. and will be very effective. 26th). His gyroscope was a great idea but that also was one of the variables that could have been thrown off. Project Schedule We are now in the critical phase of our project. 3rd). Taylor’s design is fairly simple and the most feasible. 0. consists of putting together all the subsystems and making the model of the design (weeks of Dec 8th and 15th). 10). which is the next step. The next step is to develop a marketing stratagem. The only drawback to this design is the expense. The decision was based on feasibility. The type of information that will be gathered from this idea will exceed all expectations because of its ability to measure so many different factors and it can take photos on three sides. The final stage of . It will be the easiest to make. Analyzing feasibility is another step in the critical phase. 24th). 10th). The subsystem analysis is the next step and includes determining if the subsystems need to be changed to work better together (week of Nov.7mm chose Taylor’s design as the final project design based on a lot of reasons.spinning. (Table 1) Mark’s design had potential but lacked certain necessities. our casing walls will be lined on the inside with a similar foam (lighter and with a higher insulative R value) and the outside will be coated with light gold foil to reflect the heat back inside the device so it keeps its heat. It does not require many components to keep it from falling off balance and it gets the job done over and beyond. If we added another panel it could have thrown off the weight balance because the weight is distributed so that the single solar panel can be detached from the box and rotate according to certain measurements. Ian’s design is too complicated for what we are provided yet it is still a good and fascinating option. Preparing and executing the design plan. which would have made it very difficult to measure the albedo and the solar energy. As a final consideration about the temperature inside the casing. We will also be developing specifications in the critical phase. This phase includes the definition of subsystem in which each team member will pick a subsystem of the project and describe the system in great detail and work the logistics of that subsystem with the rest of the device (week of Nov. That includes determining if the project that has been designed is a possible and realistic solution to the problem (week of Nov. This will consist of deciding how to propose and present the project to the client (week of Nov. This will include developing how each subsystem will actually fit together. The dimensions of the satellite will also be determined during this stage(weeks of October 12th 19th. These two gyroscopes will spin in opposite directions so that the device as a whole does not rotate around the Dacron cord. because the motors could be spinning at different speeds or the motors might just stop working. It is expected to also provide the most detail. Ian’s design was the best overall design but had too much that could go wrong with it and it possibly would have been too much weight. It will be extremely costly to provide the Aerogel for the entire design but it is an expense we are willing to spare. For example. The reason why there would be two is to assist the gyroscopes and help eliminate any possibility of rotation around any axis. he proposed only one solar panel.
our project will be the report and exhibition. Thank you greatly for the opportunity to advance our knowledge in the pursuit of better and stronger solar power. Sincerely. This step includes presenting the project to the client (week of the 15th). We expect to complete our task by (week of the 15th). We feel very grateful to have this opportunity to work for you and would like to take this time to ask your approval to proceed with our plan to design and provide for you a representative model. Jake Reece. Team Liaison Team Point Seven Millimeters jreece@mines. (Table 2) Summary This team is ecstatic to work on this project to better our understanding of albedo absorption and to witness the applications of such knowledge in the near future. Thank you so much for your time. We cannot wait to begin working on this fascinating project.edu (719) 287-2704 .
howstuffworks. National Instruments Corporation. IET Intelligent Transport Systems. <https://unitednuclear. NASA.ie/documents/chughes_ietautomotivefisheye.html>. <http://science. 04 Jul 2008. HowStuffWorks.ni. 12 Oct 2009." Automotive Fish-Eye Lens . HowStuffWorks. "Wide-angle camera technology for automotive applications: a review.php?main_page=product_info&cPat =16_17_69&products_id=89>.car.htm>.com/barometer-info. 05 Jul 2001.r. "Barometer. Inc.nuigalway.madsci. M.com/index. Hughes. 15 Oct 2009..com/nips/cds/view/p/lang/en/nid/205865>." HowStuffWorks . Web. Web. Web. <http://stardust. "NI Single-Board RIO Embedded Systems. "Aerogel." Aerogel . E." madsci. and P. Denny. Marshall. Web. ..Citations Popa. 2009 United Nuclear Scientific LLC. 12 Oct 2009.html>. Adrian.nasa. "How Gyroscopes Work. 15 Oct 2009. <http://www.org .." HowStuffWorks .com/gyroscope." United Nuclear Scientific Equipment and Supplies. 2009. <http://sine. C." National Instrument. 2009. 12 Oct 2009. 15 Oct 2009. 12 Oct 2009.org/posts/archives/2001-07/994536402.pdf>. Web. Jones. Web. Glavin.Es. Web.gov/tech/aerogel.org.htm>. <http://science. "NASA JPL Stardust. madsci.. Brain.jpl. <http://www. 01 Mar 2005. "Re: Why was gold colored foil on lunar landing equipment?.howstuffworks. Inc.
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Table 1 Design Ian Taylor Mark Cost 4 1 3 Effectiveness Ease of Use Durability Feasability Overall 7 4 7 5 8 8 6 9 7 3 4 4 27 32 21 Scale 1-worst 10-best .
Table 2 Project Schedule Project: High Altitude Albedo Measurements Number: 3 Month: October November December Week of: 12th 19th 26th 3rd 10th 17th 24th 1st 8th 15th WEEK # 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Prepare project plan ~ ~ Critical Phase Define subsystems ~ ~ Develop specs/gather data ~ ~ ~ Analyze feasability ~ Subsystem analysis memo ~ Integrate subsystems ~ Develop marketing strategy ~ Prepare design plan ~ Final report ~ Final exhibition ~ .
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